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An informed choice is a way of strengthening the customer loyalty. At the same time, the client will also feel privileged, as the marketing and advertising campaigns are usually centered on the client. Such an approach will make him feel privileged and central to the policies of the company.
This is why issues like a large marketing budget will likely 'make' and consolidate customer loyalty. Such a budget will allow the company to center its marketing policies around the client and thus have a positive impact on brand and customer loyalty.
Fashion also greatly influences customer loyalty, either from the make or break perspective. A customer's loyalty could be shifting if the product or brand he usually buys is out of trend. At the same time, the reverse statement is also true: creating fashion and introducing new edgy trends could increase customer loyalty for a product or brand.
1. Meakins, Clive. January 2003. Building Brand Loyalty by Improving the Customer Experience. On the Internet at http://www.oracle.com/industries/automotive/C14253_AutomotiveCustomerExperienceBrochure.pdf.Lastretrieved on February 25, 2009
2. Millison, Doug. 2000. Firebrands: Building Brand Loyalty in the Internet Age..McGraw-Hill Osborne Media
3. Building Brand Loyalty with Personal Care Products. On the Internet at http://www.powerhomebiz.com/guide/cases/shirley.htm.Lastretrieved on February 25, 2009
4. Kotler, P. 2003. Marketing Insights from A to Z: 80 Concepts Every Manager Needs to Know.Wiley, 1 edition.
Brand Loyalty in the United States and Kenya in the Youth Sportswear Market
Key components of brand loyalty include intangible factors such as perceptions of brand name (i.e. The social cache attached to the brand); style; price; and promotional techniques. Brand loyalty components also include tangible concepts such as product quality (both perceived and real); store environment (both virtual and brick-and-mortar); and service quality (Lau et al. 2006:3-5). The research will compare patterns of young person's product loyalty between the United States and Kenya in all seven critical factors in the sportswear market to answer the following preliminary research questions:
Are there different emphases placed upon brand loyalty factors in both the United States and Kenya in the sportswear market amongst young people?
Although there is little literature specific to Kenya, the literature indicates that teens to late 20s consumers tend to be 'brand switchers' in the sportswear market cross-culturally…
Lau, M, Chang, M., Moon, K. Liu, W. (2006). The brand loyalty of sportswear in Hong Kong.
JTATM, 5 (1): 1-13. Retrieved from:
Ying, T. (2013). China's great motor wall is built on SUVs. Businessweek. Retrieved from:
brand loyalty among the youth sportswear consumers in the United States and Kenya for the purpose of comparison. It is projected that there will be some culture-driven differences among the two groups, while other differential factors may also drive their preference, such as gender.
While there is very little literature that focuses on such a specific comparison, the investigation is informed by literature that provides some information about culture differences and brand loyalty as a phenomenon. One study, by Kinuthia, Mburugu, Muthomi, and Mwihaki (2012) consider brand loyalty in terms of swimwear in Kenya. This investigation focused on the youth in the country, which makes it applicable for information regarding the proposed work.
Other studies that have been identified focus on issues like social marketing, using celebrities in advertising, and demographic differences such as gender and age in consumer decision-making habits. Each of these studies contributes something fundamental to work…
brand loyalty and a comparison of this element between young people from developed and developing countries. It is possible, however, to surmise specific information about brand loyalty and how this manifests in different parts of the world. As such, the literature study serves to inform various aspects of the investigation to be conducted, while also confirming the necessity of more specific studies in this regard.
Liao et al. (2010), for example, focus their work on various aspects of customers' interactions with brands, including brand trust, customer satisfaction, loyalty, and the influence of these on word-of-mouth. Although the industry of focus is automotive, the work nonetheless offers valuable insight. The main finding, for example, is that customer satisfaction improves brand loyalty and the likelihood of positive word-of-mouth advertising. Hence, customer satisfaction should be at the heart of product promotion. In terms of the study to be conducted, customer satisfaction would therefore…
Ha, H-Y., John, J., Janda, S. And Muthaly, S. (2009). The effects of advertising spending on brand loyalty in services. European Journal of Marketing 45(4). Retrieved from: http:ebooks.yasse.ir
Kinuthia, L.N., Mburugu, K.G., Muthomi, H.N., and Mwihaki, M. (2012). Factors influencing brand loyalty in sportswear among Kenyan university students: The case of swimmers, Asian Journal of Social Science & Humanities 1(4). Retrieved from: http://www.ajssh.leena-luna.co.jp
Liao, S.H., Chung, Yung, Y.C., Hung, Y.R., and Widowati, R. (2010). The Impact of Brand Trust, Customer Satisfaction, and Brand Loyalty on Word-of-Mouth. Proceedings of the IEEE. Retrieved from: http://spirit.tku.edu.tw
Nam, J., Ekinci, J., and Whyatt, G. (2011). Brand Equity, Brand Loyalty, and Consumer Satisfaction. Annals of Tourism Research 38(3). Retrieved from: http:/ / parsproject.xzn.ir
Future of Marketing: rand Loyalty
1994 report on marketing described an ongoing paradigm shift from the old 4P model of marketing, to a newer model based on relationship marketing. The report describes how evolving trends in business such as "the globalization of business and the evolving recognition of the importance of customer retention and marketing economies and of customer relationship economics, among other trends, reinforce the change in mainstream marketing" (Gronroos 10). The other major factor that has driven the change is the rise of services marketing, which requires a different approach than traditional product marketing.
The shift to relationship marketing is described saying, "a shift is clearly taking place from marketing to anonymous masses of customer, to developing and managing relationships with more or less well-known or at least somehow identified customers" (Groonroos 22).
One method of creating this relationship between the customer and the company is by brand…
AARP. The Truth About Brand Loyalty. Washington DC: AARP. May 7, 2002. URL: http://www.aarp.org/press/statements/2002/st050702brdloyal.html
Chen, S, & Hitt, L.M. 'Switching Cost and Brand Loyalty in Electronic Markets: Evidence from Online Retail Brokers.' Proceedings of the 21st Annual International Conference on Information Systems. Brisbane, Australia, 2000.
Grisaffe, D. 'Loyalty - Attitude, Behavior, and Good Science A Third Take on the Neal-Brandt Debate.' Journal of Customer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior, 14, 2001.
Gronroos, C. 'From Marketing Mix to Relationship Marketing: Towards a Paradigm Shift in Marketing.' Asia-Australia Marketing Journal, 1994, 2(1), pp. 9-29.
Positioning and Brand Loyalty:
Sports events usually include activities like conferences, fundraising, exhibitions, promotions, product launches, social events, and others. During such events, event organizers have several responsibilities including developing event sponsorships, budget organization, collateral management, marketing, and venue management. The marketing of sports products requires employees to have a link with customers and other sports audiences. In order to increase a product's performance in the sports industry, there is need for employees to have significant management and marketing training. The marketing of sports products include actions that may be carried out in corporate events, product promotions using players, sponsorships, and several advertising strategies.
Sporting events usually consists of several products that have developed to be known as sport products. While there are several sports, the most common products that consumers demonstrate high degrees of brand loyalty are sports drinks. There are several kinds of sports drinks that are currently…
"Gatorade Brands." (n.d.). PepsiCo.com - Brands. Retrieved June 29, 2012, from http://www.pepsico.com/Brands/Gatorade-Brands.html
"The 'Coca-Cola' Brand & Sponsorship." (2000). The Irish Times Business 2000 Fifth Edition.
Retrieved June 29, 2012, from http://www.business2000.ie/pdf/pdf_5/coca-cola_5th_ed.pdf
Customer Satisfaction, Brand Loyalty and Services
Loyalty vs. Satisfaction
Services as a Means to Enhance and Lengthen Brand Experience
Techniques of Managing Customer elationships Through Services
Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty are two different constructs indeed. As indicated by William Bleuel, Ph.D., survey services expert, satisfaction and loyalty are different concepts. Consider the difference from a real life example of yourself purchasing a fridge. While you may have been satisfied with the use of the fridge for two years, but after the end of that period, suppose that you want to replace it with another fridge. While you are pondering over the question a friend highly recommends that the fridge that he has been using is worth buying. To top it off he says that the after sales service is extremely quick and efficient. This convinces you, and although you are a satisfied customer of brand x you end…
Bitner, M.J., & Brown, S.W., 2008. The Service Imperative. Forthcoming, Business Horizons. 1-14.
Bitner, M.J., Ostrom, A.L., & Morgan, F.N., 2007. Service Blueprinting: A Practical Technique for Service Innovation. Arizona: Center for Services Leadership, Arizona State University.
Bleuel, W., 2009. Satisfaction vs. Loyalty: Why They're Different (And Why They Both Matter). [Online] Available from: (21 October 2011)
Christensen, V., 2006. Customer Experience: Customer Satisfaction vs. Customer Loyalty.[Online] Available from: (21 October 2011)
Marlboro will want to maintain the culture of exclusive and fashionable cigarettes and these acts as motivators to belonging to a brand community.
Having seen how companies can motivate their brand community members to remain loyal, it imperative to look into the significance of brand communities to consumer and marketers. Brand community has proved to be an essential tool in keeping afloat in the ever competitive market. Brand communities will therefore be significant in the following:
Fostering brand loyalty.
The brand communities act as a precursor to loyalty to a particular brand. Muniz and O'Guinn (2001), write "members feel an important connection to the brand, but more importantly, they feel a stronger connection to one another." Hence the brand loyalty will be fostered by the shared consciousness. This fact helps marketers in ensuring their company sales remain on top of the market always.
ecruiting new members
Once consumers become members…
Antikainen, M. (2007). The Attraction of Company Online Communities. A multiple case study.
Dissertation. Department of Management Studies, University of Tampere, Finland.
Kalman, D.M. (2005), Brand Communities, Marketing and Media.
Muniz, a.M. Jr. And Thomas, C.O. (1995), Brand Community and the Sociology of Brands in Kim P. Corfman and John G. Lynch (eds), Advances in Consumer Research, 1996, Volume 23, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, pages 265-266.
Connecting with Core Customers
Disney is a world leader in understanding their target markets and uses advanced systems and innovative technologies to understand their consumer base on a level never before possible. Disney's overall value proposition target involves making experiences more memorable and accessible through innovative technology. Disney's primary strategic objective is to produce high-quality content through their entire product mix which includes a variety of brands that are used to target different market segments. Since Disney's product mix is so diversified and includes many different brands and operating channels, maintaining close relationship with its customers and maintain its level of quality and customer service can be difficult to manage effectively.
To illustrate the complexity in product mix, the media channels alone consist of The Walt Disney Motion Pictures Group which operates as its own brand but also has several extensions including Walt Disney Pictures and Television, Miramax…
Aurand, T., Gorchels, L., & Bishop, T. (2005). Human resource management's role in internal branding: an opportunity for cross-functional brand message synergy. The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 163-169.
Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and Their Brands: Developing Relationship Theory in Consumer Research. Journal of Consumer Research, 343-373.
Hitt, J. (2009, June 16). How Disney Uses Branding. Retrieved from Business: http://voices.yahoo.com/how-disney-uses-branding-3469357.html
Kelly, L., Kerr, G., & Drennan, J. (2010). Avoidance of Advertising in Social Networking Sites: The Teenage Perspective. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 10(2), 16-27.
(Martin 1992:1). On the most basic level, the most popular brands have very narrow associations, such as Coca-Cola with America, McDonald's with fast, cheap, fun food, etc. But what if consumer tastes change and a long-popular brand's association that is narrow but popular falls out of favor? Is a more broad marketing strategy the wave of the future that goes beyond pure brand extensions, like the example of Mountain Dew, an extension of a particular soda line? This intriguing concept, which might provide a clue to the difficult question of the inevitability of brand death, goes unanswered.
Kotler, P. & Keller, K. (2006). Marketing Management (12th Ed.). Upper Saddle
Roth, Martin S. (Jun 1992)." Depth vs. breadth strategies for global brand image management." Journal of Advertising. Retrieved 21 Mar 2007 from allbusniess.com at http://www.allbusiness.com/management/323170-1.html
Kotler, P. & Keller, K. (2006). Marketing Management (12th Ed.). Upper Saddle
Roth, Martin S. (Jun 1992)." Depth vs. breadth strategies for global brand image management." Journal of Advertising. Retrieved 21 Mar 2007 from allbusniess.com at http://www.allbusiness.com/management/323170-1.html
Brand Strategy Management
Nespresso Brand Strategy
History of Nespresso
Mission and Ambition of Nespresso
Business Product ranges
n home product Ranges
User Segmentation and Target Market
The evolution of the Packaging
Design of The Boutique
Nespresso brand equity
ncrease the number of boutique stores
Brand Association and management
History of Nespresso
Nestle was founded in 1866 by Henri Nestle in Vevey, Switzerland. Today Nestle is the world largest corporation in the food, nutrition, health, and wellness markets. The company now has more than 8000 products in their portfolio in various markets and they own over 140 brands. Since the beginnings, Nestle has been loyal to the traditionally and healthy made products. n 2012…
In 1987 the first Nespresso system was launched in Italy the world largest espresso drinking market and Switzerland, Nespresso's hometown follow by Japan the fastest growing of Asia's coffee market, strategy in targeting the business sector. By the end of 1987 only half of the manufactured Nespresso's machines were sold due to limited of this sector and subsequently, in 1992 Nespresso strategy was shift to focus in household market and targeting consumer at the top of market as its believed to build long-term business with discerning consumer Nespresso have to be in household market (IMD International, 2003).
Nespresso accomplished break-even in 1995 and became one of the fast growing business in the Nestle' corporation. Even with the economical crisis, the increase of competition and the increase of raw materials nothing seems to stop Nespresso's growth. Since 2000 Nespresso's sales have been multiplied by 16 (or 30%) to attain 2,5 billion euros. Furthermore, the company sold 450 millions capsules in 2000 and 6 billion in 2010. To give you an idea 12,300 cups of Nespresso are drunk each minute in the world. (Bader, 2011)
In the present Nespresso is actually the leader in the European market. It is present in markets all around the world for instance Belgium, Germany, Great Britain, America and Japan. Most of the sales of Nespresso are account at 80% by Europe while the rest of the world provides for the 20% left over (Bader, 2011). In 2012 Nespresso open 270 boutiques in the big city and employ more than 7000 around
"Thee aspects of Concept: Band Expeiences, Band Image and Custome Satisfaction.
I must discuss and give examples of how each band inspies loyalty. Name a few bands.
The seven bands that inspie the most loyalty, accoding to business website ("Main Steet") ae the following:
Each of these fits the definition of band expeiences as conceptualized by Bakus et al. (2009) as something which consists of sensations, feelings, cognitions, and behavioal esponses. Each of these factos too is evoked by cetain aspects of the band's packaging such as envionment, communication, and oveall stimuli. Band expeience, theefoe, accoding to Bakus et al. (2009) is synonymous to band image which essentially consists of fou dimensions: sensoy, affective, intellectual, and behavioal. When each of these fou concete dimensions is fulfilled, custome loyalty is the end esult since the custome has been satisfied in…
references. It looks ahead. Brand image, on the other hand, is subjective, particular (rather than general), and looks back (to subjective experience) in forming one's opinion about the brand (MSG; online).
Brand identity is active; the company invests enormous expense, thought, time, and effort into creating its brand. Image, on the other hand, is passive. It is the consumer's experience with the brand or his experience with image associations of brand.
Finally, brand identity signifies the company's promise to consumer about deliverance of their brand. Brand image, on the other hand, signifies the consumer's experience with the brand: whether or not she is satisfied (managementstudyguide.com, online).
Each of the 7 brands listed above were packaged with their own identity. Each of them gained a certain image that according to Barkus et al. (2009) satisfied clients in the dimensions of sensory, affective, intellectual, and behavioral. At least three of them also provided COR associations. The result is a product that produces a satisfied customer. And a satisfied customer -- if he/she remain so -- becomes a loyal one.
The disadvantages of employing brand extension strategy
This work compeers and contrasts the merits and demerits of implementing brand extension a s a growth strategy by various firms. This is done by means of practical examples. In the end of the debate, the paper indicates why it is better to adopt the extension strategy as opposed to shunning it due to its numerous demerits. A discussion of the key points is presented and then a final conclusion to hammer out the reason for the need to implement the strategy
Brand extension, which entails the use of a given brand name which is established in a given product class in entering another product class is noted to be hugely beneficial to several organizations (Tauber,1988).Keller (2003) pointed out that the concept of brand extension is clearly defined whenever a given firm employs an established brand name in the introduction of…
Aaker, D.A. (2004). Brand Portfolio Strategy. New York: Free Press.
Aaker, D.A.; Keller, K.L. (1990) Consumer Evaluations of Brand Extensions, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 27-41.
Bhat, S., & Reddy, S.K. (2001). The impact of parent brand attribute associations and affect on brand extension evaluation. Journal of Business Research, 53, 111-22
Chen, K.F., & Lue, C.M. (2004). Positive Brand extension trial and choice of parent brand. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 13(1), 25-36.
Sears is a retail company that offers a range of products and services via brick and mortar locations and online shopping portals. Its brand focuses on offering quality proprietary brand products and in-home services in an industry that is currently led by larger retailers like Wal-Mart, Target and Amazon, the e-commerce giant that is single-handedly changing the nature of retail today. In order to stay competitive, Sears is focusing on building brand loyalty among the young target market with disposable income—the 25-30 year old demographic; it is differentiating itself from its competitors by focusing on providing quality products and services as opposed to only discounted options. Sears’s main selling point, therefore, is its quality brand products—like Kenmore and Craftsman—that appeal to homeowners, especially to new homeowners who are in a prime position to develop brand loyalty to the types of appliances and services that only Sears can offer.…
' Even if the brand has an indelible image, if tastes change, the company must vary its formula and change its brand associations. Because of the increased concern about obesity, which has come to outweigh concerns about convenience, McDonald's image as a family-forward, all-American company has become tarnished, and now the fast food giant features healthy options as well as its large portions. Its commercials proclaim the cheapness of its dollar menu rather than feature images of families eating under the golden arches. Instead of seeming hypocritical by stressing family values, McDonald's stresses the ability of consumers to save money by eating its food and makes a token nod to obesity concerns by offering salads.
However, equally dangerous as not varying the brand image to change with consumer tastes is expanding too quickly and diluting the successful image of one's brand, as some feel may have occurred when Starbucks began…
Branding, And Branding Management
Brands and branding are not new concepts in business. During the Stone Age, hunters used particular brands for their swords in hunting. Since then, the concept of brands and branding has developed in terms of knowledge, procedures and theories. Some theories used concerning branding, originated primarily because of the development of commercials in media. Companies have realized the importance of branding, which has added to the interest of theories behind the concept of brands and branding. This in turn has led to substantial literatures on the subject of brands and branding. Branding has undergone evolution, but the concepts of branding continue being central in every stage of evolution. In addition, branding management has also undergone substantial change since the 1950s (Marquadrt, Makens, & Larzelere, 1995).
Background: Evolution of Branding
Prior to the 1970s, branding was not a matter of attention. Even countries that understood the…
Brodie, R.J., Glynn, M.S., Van Durme, J. (2002). Towards a Theory of Marketplace Equity:
Integrating Branding and Relationship Thinking with Financial Thinking. Marketing Theory, 2(1), 5-28
Doyle, P. (1989). Building successful brands: The strategic options.Journal of Marketing, 5(1),
rand Effect on Consumer ehavior
Influence of rand Effect
The influence of brand effect on consumer behavior:
Irish and Chinese consumers in Ireland
This paper discusses the influence of brand effect on consumption behavior of the Irish and Chinese in Ireland. Since shopping and purchase decision are affect by many sociological factors, the factors that influence the Chinese and the Irish in Ireland may be inherently distinct. While the Chinese population in Dublin is only a small part of the total population, they are becoming an important cultural force in the city, which can have an effect on Ireland's economy. rand loyalty can influence purchasing behavior, however, this paper will attempt to show that Consumer purchases are strongly influenced by cultural, social, personal, and psychological characteristics as opposed to brand names.
Keywords rand effect, Chinese consumers, Irish consumers, brand loyalty
Paper type Research paper
rand effect is the ability…
Antonides, Gerritt. & van Raaij, W. Fred. (1999). Cases in consumer behaviour. John Wiley & Sons.
Bloomberg Businessweek. (2004). Ireland: A nation of immigrants? Retrieved 28
One excellent way to cut through the inflated metrics is to have customers actually define their level of sat5isfaction with the programs at an experiential level using SEVQUAL or any other number of research methodologies and programs (Norton, Pine, 2009). It is also critically important to have the metrics of participation coordinated with the financial metrics to ensure a high level of accountability is achieved and auditability of results as well (Murthi, Steffes, asheed, 2011). Often the most vocal opponents of any customer loyalty program point to the lack of traceability back to sales results and program development leading to actual sales and profits (Murthi, Steffes, asheed, 2011). It is best to anchor these two attributes together and have complete transparency and authenticity about what is going on in the customer loyalty program to ensure its success (Norton, Pine, 2009).
Customer loyalty programs can significantly increase profitability of a…
Bagchi, R., & Li, X.. (2011). Illusionary Progress in Loyalty Programs: Magnitudes, Reward Distances, and Step-Size Ambiguity. Journal of Consumer Research, 37(5), 888.
Murthi, B., Steffes, E., & Rasheed, A.. (2011). What price loyalty? A fresh look at loyalty programs in the credit card industry. Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 16(1), 5-13.
David W. Norton, & B. Joseph Pine II. (2009). Unique experiences: disruptive innovations offer customers more "time well spent." Strategy & Leadership, 37(6), 4-9.
Wei-Ming Ou, Chia-Mei Shih, Chin-Yuan Chen, & Kuo-Chang Wang. (2011). Relationships among customer loyalty programs, service quality, relationship quality and loyalty. Chinese Management Studies, 5(2), 194-206.
This stage provides comprehensive information for use in marketing and promotional plans.
Dave (2002), puts it that "The Brand Equity measure summarizes consumer perceptions on five dimensions: Familiarity, Uniqueness, elevance, Popularity, and Quality." From this, it is apparent that the promotion point and reputation of any company and products is hinged on the brand equity.
Why companies fail in brand equity
All it takes to shrink a brand in today's hyper-linked global network is a single mistake and errant behavior. For instance the recent challenges that IBM and the Toyota brand faced simply due to a defect in their product.
The challenges extend beyond erroneous policies and errant behavior. Global brands must also contend with the fundamental reality that consumers tend to prefer domestic brands over foreign brands. Studies show that home-grown brands get preference over the foreign brands. In some of the world's biggest and richest markets (the U.S.,…
Dave W. (2002). Building Brand Equity Through Advertising. Retrieved on April 11, 2010 from http://www.ipsos.com/asi/sites/ipsos.com.asi/files/pdf/rc5.pdf
Kenneth J.R, (2010). Creating the Preeminent Global Brand. Retrieved on April 11, 2010 from www.lippincottmercer.com/pdfs/s95_creating.pdf
These can bring in new audiences, retain old audiences (like dieters who might be alienated from Coke because of concerns about calories) or can encourage greater consumption (as children with the smallest of scrapes might want a Sponge Bob Band-Aid for fashion's sake). But all of these examples of product extensions do not alter the fundamental associations of the brand as synonymous with America, or with gentle and loving care (Kotler & Keller, 2003).
Brands can endure a great deal -- even Aunt Jemina, Barbie, and Betty Crocker remain, although the Civil Rights and feminist movements may shudder at their images -- the product remains popular, so people continue to buy. Of course, the downside to such ubiquitous associations between a brand and a product is that if the product, such as fast food, becomes unpopular for cultural reasons beyond the marketer's control, like the current war against obesity, the…
Kotler, P. & Keller, K. (2003). Marketing Management
12th Ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall.
Troy, Mike. (24 Oct 2005) "The Roto role: how leading brands maintain their top-shelf status." DSN Retailing Today. Retrieved 19 Mar 2007 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FNP/is_20_44/ai_n15789798
The methodologies behind consumer-driven
versus data-driven approaches vary by company yet both share a common
result of quantifying in financial terms the value of a brand.
In determining the value of a brand, its critical to first select a
methodology that fits with the specific type of company that is working to
increase the value of the brand. Consumer-driven factors that define brand
equity value vary significantly from those from data-driven methodologies
as defined by (Market esearch Executive Board, 2005) and the specific
examples of Interbrand and BrandFinance. Ascertaining the best methodology
for measuring the value of a brand needs to take into account segmentation,
financial forecasts, brand value and brand risk analysis to arrive at a
reasonable and accurate valuation of a brand.
Market esearch Executive Board (2005) - Overview of Brand Equity
Measurement Approaches. Market esearch Executive Board. September, 2005.…
Market Research Executive Board (2005) - Overview of Brand Equity
Measurement Approaches. Market Research Executive Board. September, 2005.
Washington, DC. September, 2005.
Without the customer being involved there would not be a successful service transaction. Third, there needs to be a continual refresh of the value of the service for it to be used over again. If the airline customer had been bumped from the flight even though they were a frequent flyer and been promised an upgrade, chances are the person flying would be very hesitant to fly again. The bottom line of this example and the branding of services in general is that trust is critical as the part of any brand, and execution on services to support that trust is critical for any service business. (Kelly 1998) states in Financial Times that the role of the trusted advisor as part of services branding influences 70% of all purchases by companies.
Kelly (1998) - Paying for that old brand magic: Marketing branding professional services,…
Kelly (1998) - Paying for that old brand magic: Marketing branding professional services, Financial Times, August 12, 1998.
randing Affects the uying Decision
"How Does randing Affect Consumer Purchasing?." Using this research question, analyze the strengths and weaknesses of each research method (qualitative and quantitative) within the scope of the proposed dissertation topic. Identify which method you will select (or state whether you will use a mixed methodology) and explain the reasons for your choice.
DA Qs 1 Answer
The marketing guru Philip Kotler perceives branding as a "name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers." It has also been adopted by the American Marketing Association. Michael Dunn, President and CEO, of Prophet, a strategic professional services firm in San Francisco, states that branding is just a defensive tool against market competition; but acts as "insulation against deteriorating economic conditions."
The essence of a brand is the base upon which the prosperity of the…
Dash, M. a. (2010). Marketing Research An Applied Orientation.
Ormrod., P.D. (2010). Practical Research: Planning and Design, Eighth Edition. Pearson Prentice Hall.
Scroggins Westey A.'*, R.E. (2010). Research Challenges in Cross-cultural International Business: The Issue of Cross Cultural Construct Equivalency. Advances in Management .
SONIA WESCHE*, N.T. (2010). Challenges and Opportunities in Cross Cultural Geographic Inquiry. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 59-75.
Marketing and Branding
Discuss the history of brand and ways brands have evolve over time.
The history of brand has quickly evolved from a relatively simple approach taken by companies to differentiate their products and services by name or graphical representation alone to highly targeted, effective, emotive approaches to communicating value. Brands have evolved from fairly generic approaches to communicating the functional value of a product or service to evoking emotions customers attain when using them. An example of this is the progression of Proctor & Gamble (P&G) to communicate the utilitarian values of soap in the previous centuries of their branding to the psychographic benefits to parents of providing clean clothes for their children. P&G continues to excel on this progression from the utilitarian or functional value their products deliver to the psychographic and emotive nature of them. Today the branding and positioning from P&G and other consumer packaged…
Brand Equity and Customer Purchasing Behavior
Taking into account the numerous modifications witnessed in the marketing milieu- viz. The accessibility to plethora of knowledge through various electronic devices, the emergence of modern methods of buying, the ability of the companies to use technology to target consumer more specifically, getting a feel of customer tendencies is still more difficult. Purchasing activities is the sequence of choice and actions of individuals occupied in procuring and consuming the same. An enterprise must evaluate its purchasing activities. Purchaser's responses to the marketing technique of the enterprise put an enormous influence on the achievement of the enterprise. The marketing perception highlights that an enterprise must build up a unique blend of marketing initiatives that makes the customers happy, and hence the urgency to evaluate the substance, the place, the time and the purchasing pattern of consumers and by way of addressing this, marketing personnel can…
Aaker, David A. 1996. "Measuring Brand Equity across Products and Markets" California Management Review. Volume: 16; No; 2; pp: 43-47
AMR Research Report. 2004. "POS Data: The Beginning of DDSN for Consumer Products Manufacturers" February.
Anderson, J.C; Cleveland, G; Schroeder, R. 1989. "Operations Strategy: A Literature Review" Journal of Operations Management. Volume: 8; No: 1; pp: 56-64
Baker, M. 2000. Marketing Management and Strategy" Macmillan Business.
In support of this overarching aim, the following objectives were also be used.
he proposed study has three objectives as follows:
o deliver a comprehensive and critical review of the relevant literature concerning the relevant issues.
o administer a custom survey to various luxury hotel managers concerning their current branding strategies to identify commonalities and significant differences.
o provide a synthesis of the secondary and primary research that can be used as a set of best industry practices for promoting brand awareness and customer satisfaction in the hotel industry today.
Statement of Study Problem.
A wide range of factors have been cited in the literature for the growth of branding within the hotel industry, with virtually all authorities agreeing that the basic motive for such initiatives is increased profitability and a sustainable competitive advantage. In this regard, Allen (2007) reports that, "What has recently come…
Today's contemporary hotels, designed to please almost every taste and income level, are as rich in variety as in location, and quite a departure from an era marked by sameness and complacency, when downtown hotels, highway motels and resorts virtually monopolized the lodging industry. One of the first companies to introduce a more sophisticated form of product differentiation to the hotel industry was Quality Inns, largely in response to the blurred consumer image that its vastly diverse properties were promoting. Many other lodging companies have followed suit. The Marriot chain, for example, has shifted from its long-held position at the higher end of the market, by targeting the mid-priced market through its Courtyard, Residence Inn, and Fairfield Inn hotels (Standard and Poor 1995). Similarly, Holiday Inn's Express Hotels cater to budget travelers while the Crowne Plaza Hotels are geared towards the upper end of the market. Moreover, the French based ACCOR company offers a variety of distinct accommodation products. ACCOR's Sofitel caters to the needs of the luxury market while Novotel and Ibis are respectively tailored for the mid-scale and economy markets. Product differentiation does not only occur within a hotel company but also within individual hotel properties. For instance, in some of its properties, Sheraton offers executive floors designed with the needs of the business traveler in mind
Although there remains a gap in the relevant literature concerning how brand satisfaction can translate into increased profitability for hotels, there are some broad generalities that can be drawn from the existing body of knowledge that can be extrapolated to the situation at hand. For instance, Hung reports that, "A favourable image can lead to customer loyalty, while unfavourable image may lead to customer switch behaviour, brand image is even more important in service companies, where there is a lack of differentiation for customer to assess" (2008, p. 238).
By and large, there are two main ways for hotels to differentiate their brands: (a) price and (b) service. In this regard, Wadsworth reports that, "The hotel industry has two ways to achieve product differentiation through branding. You can either brand service or price. Red Roof Inn and Motel 6 brand price. Marriott, Hyatt, and the Four Seasons brand service" (1999, p. 45). With respect to what a hotel brand communicates to existing and potential customers, Prasad and Dev advise that, "Hotel chains constitute a classic application
The corporation or seller could benefit by developing marketing strategies prior to consumer reviews being available online.
Seller Response to Novice and Expert Consumers
efore allowing consumers to post product reviews on a corporations or sellers website, the seller should consider the size of the segments of expert consumers and novice consumers. For example, the seller may benefit from selling certain products if a significant number of expert consumers exist, especially for technology driven products. On the other hand, the seller may damage sales if the expert consumers' segment overshadows that of the novice consumers.
Unknown or Less Popular Stores Online Seller Response
Relatively unknown corporations should be overly cautious when allowing consumers to post comments on their websites. If brand marketers fail to attract enough consumers to post reviews, the corporation may damage its reputation. these corporations might consider hiring a well-known, popular third-party source to handle consumer reviews.…
About the Motley Fool. 2010. Viewed 28 June 2010, .
Ajay, K & Soberman, D 2010. 'The forgotten side of marketing.' Journal of Brand Management. 17, 301 -- 314. Viewed 28 June 2010,
Baran, J, Galka, RJ & Strunk, DP 2007. Principles of customer relationship management. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
The luxury brands in this age of fierce and intense competition perceive and believe that the conventional methods of advertising and promotion are only an itinerary that creates the knowledge and awareness amongst the consumers. Nevertheless, targeted marketing (that represents the emotional driving force) is becoming the primary and fundamental aspect of concern that many of the brands are focusing in order to create emotional engagement with the consumers that can provide them lasting relationships and loyalty from the consumers (Buckingham 2008).
However, looking at the perspective of the brand of Swarovski, it has been monitored that they have created a consumer-based pyramid in order to keep closely connected to the consumers' emotions and feelings. In this regard, they ensure high quality with proper detailing of the product during the manufacturing process and make the product a perfect one that can easily catch the attention of the consumers. They very…
American Birding Association 1998, Winging it: newsletter of the American Birding Association, Inc., Volumes 10-11, the Association, USA.
Baker, R 2012, 'Swarovski targets teens with new brand', MarketingWeek News, viewed September 05, 2012: http://www.marketingweek.co.uk/news/swarovski-targets-teens-with-new-brand/4000078.article
Becker, V & Taylor, JB 1995, Swarovski: the magic of crystal, H.N. Abram, Michigan
Becker, V, Langes-Swarovski, M & Le Gallais, R 2005, Daniel Swarovski: A World of Beauty, Thames & Hudson, Limited, USA.
Emotional Drivers Swarovski
The motives behind consumer decisions to purchase luxury brands like Swarovski have been studied in a number of researches. The general findings of these studies have been that these motives are largely emotional, and that they are evolving as the composition of the luxury market segment changes. De Mooij (2005) defines emotion as an "interaction between cognition and physiology." The characteristics of emotion that or of greater concern to luxury brand managers are that emotions are learned and that they vary from culture to culture.
The mode of expression of emotion also varies by culture. In capitalistic societies, consumption has evolved into a unique mode of expression of self-satisfaction, self-esteem and self-pleasures. These buying motives shape the perceptions of various brands among consumers, along with brand loyalty and brand image. De Mooij (2005, p. 116) explains luxury brand buying motives in terms of collectivism/individualism and masculinity/feminism. Conformance…
Chevalier, M., & Mazzalovo, G. 2008. Luxury Brand Management. John Wiley & Sons.
De Mooij, M. 2005. Global Marketing and Advertising. Sage Publications, Inc.
Fionda, A.M., & Moore, C.M. 2009. The Anatomy of the Luxury Fashion Brand. Journal of Brand Management, 16(5/6), 347-363. doi.10.1057/bm.2008.45.
Fog, K., Budtz, C., Munch, P., & Blanchette, S. 2010. Storytelling: Branding in Practice. 2nd ed. Springer.
The study will utilize random sampling technique at three different grocery locations. The researcher will administer the study to customers who are shopping at the store. The researcher will ask the customer questions about what influenced their decision to shop at that particular store that day.
Data Collection Method
The primary data collection method for the study will be quantitative. Quantitative study methods are most useful when the data can be transformed into t numerical data point. This study will compare the importance of the factors being examined through a Likert-type survey questionnaire. Study participants will fill out and return the study results immediately to the researcher onsite.
Contribution of Study
This study will contribute to a better understanding of the importance of customer loyalty cards to the decision to shop at a particular grocer. The study will help manager, policy makers, and other researchers better understand how…
Basso, L., Clements, M., & Ross, T. 2007. Moral Hazard and Customer Loyalty Programs. [online]. 14 August 2007. Available at http://www.economics.ucr.edu/seminars/winter08/ets/TomRoss.pdf [Accessed 25 October 2008[.
Butscher, S. 2002. Customer Loyalty Programmes & Clubs. 2nd Edition. Aldershot, England: Gower Publishing Company.
CIOInsight. 2003. Trends: Loyalty Programs. CIO Insight Online. [internet] 1 December 2003. Available at http://www.cioinsight.com/c/a/Special-Reports/Trends-Loyalty-Programs/ [Accessed 25 October 2008]/
Dowling, G., & Uncles, M. 1997. Do Customer Loyalty Programs Really Work? MIT Sloan Management Review [online] Summer 1997. 38 (4): 71-82. Available at http://sloanreview.mit.edu/smr/issue/1997/summer/6/ [Accessed 25 October 2008].
usiness Marketing brand manager was quoted as saying, "You may think you define your relevant market." Comment.
rand management, as a recognized organizational objective, is attributed to Neil McElroy in 1931, who was then a junior marketing manager assigned to advertising Camay soap, and who later become Procter & Gamble's CEO. The intended purpose of brand management was to solve sales problems through the use of research to understand weakening sales in distinct markets, followed by the design and implementation of strategies to turn around these markets. Strategies used many marketing tools including advertising, pricing, promotion, packaging and displays (Aaker & Joachimsthaler, 2000). This desired objective of brand management has remained the primary role of brand managers since McElroy explicitly stated his intent in 1931. However organizations in general, and brand managers in particular, need to be aware that forces other than the strategies of brand managers will affect brands,…
Aaker, David and Erich Joachimsthaler. Brand Leadership. Brandweek. Feb. 21, 2000; 41, 8; pages 30-38.
Customer Vs. Brand Management. Brandweek. Nov. 2, 1998; 39, 41; pages 32-33.
Beckman, M. Dale, David Kurtz and Louis Boone. Foundations of Marketing. Toronto; Harcourt Brace & Company Canada, Ltd.; 1997.
According to Spring (2002), in 2002, YUM! Brands acquired a& and Long John Silver's; at that time, the company reported that, "The acquisition allows us to accelerate our multi-branding strategy and...to be expanded international leaders...in chicken, pizza, Mexican and seafood" (quoted in Spring at 203).
As noted above, the company's motto is, "Our passion is to put YUM on our customer's faces all over the world," and this marketing approach appears to be paying big dividends. Indeed, Spring notes that YUM! Brands is currently a leader in the construction and operation of themed environments: "For instance, in 1922, the a& logo was created by Roy Allen and Frank right to represent their two last names. Opening in Lodi, California, the men constructed an outdoor stand that looked like a root beer barrel. In 1923, a& developed the first car-hop service initiating the spread of drive-in restaurants. Later restaurants relied on…
About YUM! Brands. (2007). YUM! Brands, Inc. [Online]. Available: http://www.yum.com/about/default.asp .
Corporate Profile. (2007). Yahoo! Finance. [Online]. Available: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=YUM .
De Marco, Donna. (2005, March 23). "Under One Roof; Yum Brands Cooks Up Success with Fast-Food Combos." The Washington Times, 10.
Elango, B. (2007). "Are Franchisors with International Operations Different from Those Who Are Domestic Market Oriented?" Journal of Small Business Management 45(2): 179.
Branding strategies are key to a company's success. Levi-Strauss must take care not to sully its reputation by jumping into a new line of business attire. The proposal to create a new line of Levi-Strauss office clothes is flawed. The following consulting report outlines the reasons why the company must change its approach towards developing a new line.
Branding strategies are key to a company's success and why the Levi-Strauss name is synonymous with jeans worldwide. Having expanded beyond dungarees and into men and women's casual apparel, the Levi-Strauss brand has remained consistent without being stagnant. Market research would be immanently helpful in making a final decision on whether or not to diversify the brand even further, but based on what we already know, Levi-Strauss cannot enter the business attire industry as a formidable competitor to Brooks Brothers without risking significant if not debilitating losses. It is therefore not…
Barwise, P. & Meehan, S. (2010). The one thing you must get right when building a brand. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved online: http://hbr.org/2010/12/the-one-thing-you-must-get-right-when-building-a-brand/ar/1
Deshpande, R. (2010). Why you aren't buying Venezuelan chocolate. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved online: http://hbr.org/2010/12/why-you-arent-buying-venezuelan-chocolate/ar/2
Lake, L. (n.d.). Developing your brand strategy. Retrieved online: http://marketing.about.com/od/brandstrategy/tp/brandstrategydev.htm
Milkman, Katherine L. (2008) Tap Consumers' Desire for "Shoulds." Harvard Business Review; Jul-Aug2008, Vol. 86 Issue 7/8, p22-23
Much marketing research has been done on analysing customer behaviour and retention. As a consequence, it is crucial for online companies to create a loyal customer base, as well as to monitor the profitability of each segment (Reinartz and Kumar, 2002)
Definition of customer e-loyalty
Customer loyalty has been defined as "a deeply held commitment to re-buy or re-patronize a preferred product/service consistently in the future, thereby causing repetitive same-brand or same brand-set purchasing, despite situational influences and marketing efforts having the potential to cause switching behaviour" (Oliver, 1999). This general definition appears to apply to e-loyalty as well. Another briefer and more specific definition is provided by Anderson and Srinivasan (2003), who define e-loyalty as "the customer's favourable attitude toward an electronic business, resulting in repeat purchasing behaviour" (p. ____).
Since it is considered difficult to gain loyal customers on the internet without directly contact (Gommans et al., 2001),…
Bibliography and Reference
Anderson, R.E. And Srinivasan, S.S. (2003), E-satisfaction and e-loyalty: a contingency framework, Psychology and Marketing, Vol.20 No.2, pp. 123-38
Arregle, J.L., Borza, A., Dacin, M.T., Hitt, M.A., and Levitas, E. (2000), Partner selection in emerging and developed market contexts: Resource-based and organizational learning perspectives. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 449-67. In Everett & Lo, p. 17.
Bailey, Scott and Schultz, D.E. (2000), Customer/brand loyalty in an interactive marketplace. Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 40, No. 3, p. 41.
2 of the respondents were self-employed and 11.2% of respondent were white-collar workers with 1.2% of respondents being blue-collar workers. The following chart shows the factor analysis results with VARIMAX rotation of traveler's perceptions of hotel attributes in the study of Choi and Chu (2000).
Factor Analysis Results with VARIMAX Rotation of Traveler's Perceptions of Hotel Attributes
Source: Choi and Chu (2000)
The following chart shows a 'regression analysis results of hotel factors according to Asian and Western travellers overall satisfaction levels.
Regression Analysis Results of Hotel Factors According to Asian and Western Travelers Overall Satisfaction Levels
Source: Choi and Chu (2000)
2.3.1 Definition of customer loyalty
Kandampully and Suhartanto (2000) define a loyal customer as "a customer who purchases from the same service provider whenever possible, and who continues to recommend or maintain a positive attitude toward the service provider" (p. 346).
2.3.2 Loyalty dimensions
Andreassen, Tor Wallin and Lindestad, Bodil (1998) Customer Loyalty and Complex Services: The Impact of Corporate Imagine on Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty for Customers with Varying Degrees of Service Expertise. International Journal of Service Management Vol. 9, No. 1, 1998. MCB University Press.
Bowen, John T. And Chen, Shiang-Lih (2001) the Relationship Between Customer Loyalty and Customer Satisfaction. The International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 13/5 2001. MCB University Press.
Kandampully, Jay and Suhartanto, Dwi (2000) Customer Loyalty in the Hotel Industry: The Role of Customer Satisfaction and Image. Vol. 12 Issue 6. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. Abstract Online available at http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=A7BB20EB4B5CF3B4A2F5E96AD85BD78B?contentType=Article&hdAction=lnkpdf&contentId=867348
Lindberg-Repo (nd) Word-of-Mouth Communication in the Hospitality Industry. CERS Center for Relationship Marketing and Service Management. Hotel School Cornell University. Online available at http://www.hotelschool.cornell.edu/chr/pdf/showpdf/chr/research/wordofmouth.pdf-my_path_info=chr/research/wordofmouth.pdf
Product Management and SWOT Analysis
In her 1998 article titled, Consumers and Their Brands: Developing elationship Theory in Consumer esearch, Susan Fournier demonstrates that consumers commit themselves to a particular brand because a purposive, consumer-brand relationship exists between them and the brand. This consumer-brand relationship, the author posits, is maintained as long as the brand's characteristics align with the customer's living experiences. Towards this end, the author expresses that there exists a strong, direct relationship between emotions and brand loyalty. Positive emotions lead consumers to maintain their purchase behavior and even recommend their preferred brand to others; whereas negative emotions produce the opposite effect. This text uses Fournier's (1998) perspective to evaluate the effectiveness of the product management, positioning, and branding strategies of Apple and Philips.
Branding and Positioning Strategies
The Apple brand has evolved, expanding its range of products over the years, to compete in some of today's…
Apple Inc. (2014). Apple Info. Apple Inc. Retrieved 2 September 2014 from http://www.apple.com/about/
Business Case Studies. (2014). Brand Repositioning and Communications: A Philips Case Study. Business Case Studies. Retrieved 2 September 2014 from http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/philips/brand-repositioning-and-communications/research.html#axzz3F4Fmdr54
Clark, D. (2011). Reinventing your Personal Brand. Harvard Business Review. 89(5), 78-81.
Deshpande, R. (2010). Why You Aren't Buying Venezuelan Chocolate. Harvard Business Review 88 (12), 25-27.
Spectrum Brands is a highly diversified company, encompassing consumer batteries, lawn and garden care products, specialty pet supplies, and shaving and grooming products. There is no single consumer profile for all of these products; a wide range of demographics are encompassed although overall Spectrum capitalizes upon a strategy of a broad market outreach with relatively low prices, versus niche marketing. Consumers usually wish to purchase the majority of products issued by Spectrum at the lowest price possible. However, solely competing on price is not a wise idea given that price wars can drive product pricing below what is profitable, even for a company able to operate on a large economy of scale such as Spectrum. Additionally, to distinguish it from generics and cultivate some kind of brand loyalty is wise: customers should ideally believe that all the products give them some added value in terms of quality, durability, and other…
Falconi, J. (2007). Spectrum Brands, Inc.: The Sales Force Dilemma.
The latter was clearly not the case when the packaging was changed as the customer dissatisfaction was evident. That said, the firm's decision of withdrawing the new packaging showed that it valued its customer satisfaction equally.
The CSR steps taken by the Coca Cola Company not only contribute back to the society immensely, but also have created massive employment, and added value to the brand itself. Many of its CSR strategies are incorporated in mainstream marketing strategies this helping the company generate greater brand loyalty (Ronen 637).
Mohr, Lois a., and Deborah J. ebb. "Do Consumers Expect Companies to Be Socially Responsible? The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Buying Behavior."Journal of Consumer Affairs 35.1 (2001): 45. Questia. eb. 23 Feb. 2012.Blossfeld, Peter, ed. The New Role of omen: Family Formation in Modern Societies. Boulder, CO: estview Press, 1995. Questia. eb. 21 July 2011.
Shamir, Ronen. "Between Self-regulation…
Mohr, Lois a., and Deborah J. Webb. "Do Consumers Expect Companies to Be Socially Responsible? The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Buying Behavior."Journal of Consumer Affairs 35.1 (2001): 45. Questia. Web. 23 Feb. 2012.Blossfeld, Peter, ed. The New Role of Women: Family Formation in Modern Societies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995. Questia. Web. 21 July 2011.
Shamir, Ronen. "Between Self-regulation and the Alien Tort Claims Act: on the Contested Concept of Corporate Social Responsibility." Law & Society Review38.4 (2004): 635+. Questia. Web. 23 Feb. 2012.
Sims, Ronald R. Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility: Why Giants Fall. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003. Questia. Web. 23 Feb. 2012.
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One relevant example in this sense is represented by the organizational investment in the brand value.
In order to ensure a successful management of the brand, it is necessary for the economic agents to engage in a series of steps which maximize their strengths and minimize their chances of failure. All in al, the recurrent trait in the recommendations is that of adapting the branding strategy to the features of the customer base and ensuring that the product promoted has a high quality and ability to serve customer needs; continuous research and adaptation is the key success factor to maintaining a powerful brand.
Glynn, M.L., 2009, Business-to-business brand management: theory, research and executive case study exercises, Emerald Group Publishing
Jones, E., 2011, the dos and don'ts of reputation management, Trackur.com, http://www.trackur.com/the-dos-and-donts-of-reputation-management last accessed on April 23, 2012
Knowles, a., So what are the do's and don'ts for choosing a…
Glynn, M.L., 2009, Business-to-business brand management: theory, research and executive case study exercises, Emerald Group Publishing
Jones, E., 2011, the dos and don'ts of reputation management, Trackur.com, http://www.trackur.com/the-dos-and-donts-of-reputation-management last accessed on April 23, 2012
Knowles, a., So what are the do's and don'ts for choosing a brand? WIPO, http://www.wipo.int/sme/en/documents/brand_choosing.htmlast accessed on April 23, 2012
Weib, C., 2007, the influence of brands and images on the financial performance -- an empirical investigation on the EuroStoxx 50, GRIN Verlag
Lai, F et al. (2009) How quality, value, image, and satisfaction create loyalty at a Chinese telecom mpact of Culture on Marketing Strategy, 62, 980 -- 986
Lai et al. (2009) propose and test a model that examines possible associaitons between service quality, value, image, satisfaction, and loyalty in China. The investigation and analysis of survey data from 118 customers of a Chinese mobile communications company reveals that quality of service directly influences both the perceived value and the image perceptions of the company, that this perceived value and customer image of the company after influence customer satisfaction, that the image of the manager influences the value of the company, and that both customer's satisfaction and perceived value (as well as real value) of company are the basic factors of loyalty.
The research is reliable in that a significant number of customers were surveyed. Limitations, however, consist in the…
Implications for our essay suggest that loyalty can be premised on management strategies that seek to understand the customer and satisfy his desires. Loyalty can be traced, as the previous articles suggested, to various factors. Liao and Hsei (2011) suggest that excellent customer service is the key value.
'Loyalty' is an important concept that stretches across disciplines and, being abstract, may be hard to achieve. Nonetheless, it is important both for businesses and for public and private concern. Loyalty can be achieved through various ways -- trust in manager, trust in service, trust in brand, attraction to perceived value of company and so forth. Is there one overall way to achieving and retaining an individual's loyalty? The thesis suggests that by manager (or individual) predicting and fulfilling the customer (or other's) needs and desires in all ways, customer loyalty can be achieved and retained.
Understanding the characteristics of the target market is a crucial step in developing the branding and marketing plan. This basically involves segmenting consumers. Consumers can be segmented based on their demographic, geographic, behavioral, and psychographic characteristics (Lamb, Hair & McDaniel, 2009). For the automobile industry, consumers can be segmented as follows.
Individuals, male and female, families, middle- to high income, businesses, and professionals
First-time buyers, repeat buyers, seeking functional benefits, with family needs, seeking social status benefits, seeking quality cars, seeking off-road capabilities.
Enthusiastic about cars
As per the table above, the target market is broad. It encompasses middle- to high-income individuals and families as well as professionals and business in the US seeking to buy a car for mobility, status, and/or off-road usage. With an understanding of the market segments, the marketing mix and other elements of the marketing…
The overarching brand of the store is coordinated with these sub-brands to accentuate breadth of selection and an aggressive direction on Everyday Low Price (EDLP) positioning. Wal-Mart's influence on its supply chain partners, the ability to continually drive down costs and increase quality, and its use of EDLP on Black Fridays (the shopping day after Thanksgiving in the U.S.) have continually reinforced the brand and also created a significant competitive advantage vs. competitors K-Mart Corporation and Target. K-Mart's positioning on EDLP historically has been to concentrate on low-priced leadership through its blue light specials throughout the store. In 2001, in an attempt to counteract the effects of Wal-Mart on its brand and market position, K-Mart initiated the "Blue Light Always" program to further underscore their EDLP strategy on 30,000 items, primary comprised of food, consumable and other high-frequency items. Consumers however did not equate the Blue Light Always campaign as…
Despite the fact that the balance seems to lean in favor of the more modern approach, the final decision must also consider the relationship of these types of techniques to niche markets.
A successful campaign for a niche market must consist of several strategies that combine each other in order to minimize risks and maximize the chances of gains. Jean Marie Caragher (2008) believes that an adequately developed niche marketing campaign has to consist of at least a mission statement, a situational analysis and SMAT goals and strategies; the acronym stands for specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and timely. Aside these however, the proper niche marketing campaign must also integrate features which refer to the unique characteristics of the organization discussed or the product or service promoted. This means that the campaign must be built on both traditional and experience-based marketing techniques. Consequently then, the ultimate decision of the manager should…
Balasubramanian, S., 1998, Mail vs. Mall: A Strategic Analysis of Competition between Direct Marketers and Conventional Retailers, Marketing Science, Vol. 17, No. 3
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Caragher, J.M., 2008, Expand Your Horizons: Niche Marketing Success Stories, Journal of Accountancy, Vol. 25
Davis, S., Halligan, C., 2002, Extending Your Brand by Optimizing Your Customer Relationship, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 19 Issue
Building a Brand: Case Study
The difference between creating and developing a brand in a business to business context is dramatically different than building one in that is strictly in the consumer market. The key difference in this type of business revolves around the distinction in the type of audience one is trying to communicate with. With consumers, one is trying to grab their attention and distinguish oneself from one's competitors. With other businesses, there's the need to establish trust and transparency, along with being able to assert oneself as a brand that will be able to meet the needs of other businesses.
With both business and consumers, the brand is fundamentally the promise to the customer, telling them what they can anticipate from all products and services, while still signaling how the brand is different from others. The brand still needs to be derived from who one is and…
HBR (2007). How to Build a B2B Brand. Retrieved from: hbr.org. http://blogs.hbr.org/2007/11/how-to - build-a-b2b-brand-1/
brand strategy is a challenging task for many companies but it is a vital step in giving the company an identity of its own. It is this identity that is repeatedly communicated thought the business life. Developing a brand management strategy involves applying marketing techniques to a brand, or a product with the intention of giving it a unique image and to set it apart from the competitors. We will focus on the competitive analysis or model analysis that will briefly introduce our project, the competition or model, as well as describing the strengths and weaknesses of the competition or model.
The group is intending to come up with the shuttle bus service which is to serve the York collage, its student as well as staff. This shuttle bus service will transport valid students and staff from York College to predetermined stops in the area. By doing so, the shuttle…
Alex, W, 1999, The Brand Marketing Book, McGraw Hill, London. Retrieved September 26, 2013 from http://www.iei.liu.se/fek/svp/mafo/artikelarkiv/1.310120/Building_brand.pdf
Clancy, Kevin J.; Peter C. Kriegafsd (2000). Counter intuitive Marketing. Retrieved September 26, 2013 from The Free Press. ISBN 0-684-85555-0. Retrieved September 26, 2013 from http://www.iosrjen.org/Papers/vol2_issue10%20%28part-4%29/H021043538.pdf
Garth 2000, Strategic Management; Wiley, New York. Retrieved September 26, 2013 from. http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-EHEP000004.html
Keller, L. 2003, Strategic Brand Management', Prentice Hall. Retrieved on 25/09/2013 Retrieved September 26, 2013 from www.gfk-academy.de/files/gfk_a_sembr_sbman.pdf
Cultural analysis of the Fortress Company focuses on different perspectives, including its competencies, behaviors, organization, and social fabric. The competencies of the company are varied. The company has an asset-based nature that contributes to its competencies. The company invests in various activities including assets to extend its influence on pricing, ownership, and financing of the company. It has vast industry knowledge that enables it to acquire the desired competitiveness by investing in profitable markets. The established management system of operations for assessing the structural and strategic challenges that face the organization. The company also has its competence in corporate acquisitions and mergers alongside significant capital markets that build its competencies.
The behaviors adopted by the Fortress Company show its excellent performance in the marketplace. The expansion of the company's outlets in new markets has contributed significantly to its performance. It has developed organizational culture that has earned it the desired…
Branding & Product-Market Expansion
Corporate Branding and Product-Market Expansion
Growth strategies developed within companies vary according to the nature and dynamics of the market or industry that the company's products and services are competing in. Different strategies are utilized, such as increasing market penetration, undergoing a market expansion, implementing vertical integration, or developing innovative/creative ideas for the market/industry. In the market of consumer goods and services, a prevalent practice and the strategy that has proven to be economically viable and effective in strengthening corporate branding is through product-market expansion.
In product-market expansion, the company increases its growth through the development and launch of additional products and services that are still categorized under the corporate brand but extends the company's scope by expanding or adding more markets apart from the existing markets that the company already operates in. In product-market expansion, the company thinks about the specific market that it wants…
For both B2B and B2C-based organizations, a highly differentiating story is the highest priority from a current best practice or trend standpoint for managing and promoting a brand image. Figure 3, Top Challenges Creating and Managing a Brand, shows a prioritization key challenges from a marketing, sales and executive management perspective. At the top of all factors is differentiating with a story followed by linking brand value to business objectives.
Figure 3: Top Challenges Creating and Managing a Brand
Source: (Analysis of eports Accessed with Permission from the Publisher & Jump, 2012).
Assessment of Brand Management Theories and Best Practices to Build Consumer Trust
Dr. Aaker's theories and frameworks including the Aaker Model illustrate how brand management is a highly synchronized strategy, encompassing every aspect of an organization (Aaker, 2007). As has been shown in this analysis the future of branding is predicated both on the pried advances related to…
Aaker, D. (2007). Innovation: Brand it or lose it. California Management Review, 50(1), 8-24.
John M.T. Balmer. (2012). Corporate brand management imperatives: Custodianship, credibility and calibration. California Management Review, 54(3), 6-33.
Bogomolova, S., & Romaniuk, J. (2010). Brand equity of defectors and never boughts in a business financial market. Industrial Marketing Management, 39(8), 1261.
Bronnenberg, B.J., Dhar, S.K., & Dube, J. (2007). National brands, local branding: Conclusions and future research opportunities. JMR, Journal of Marketing Research, 44(1), 9-9.
Coke's Brand Equity
One of the most important factors for all firms is protecting and improving their brand image. This is because the favorability of a company and the products / services they are selling will have an impact on sales. As a result, the most successful corporations will harness this strategy in order to effectively reach out to large demographic of customers.
In the case of Coca Cola, they have been utilizing this approach since 1919. At the heart of their basic philosophy, is to always create a favorable brand image in minds of consumers. To achieve these objectives, the company's strategy has always been focused on promoting itself to customers. To fully understand how this is achieved requires looking at: the desired outcomes of their marketing communications program, how the different brands were able to remain strong, the role that image plays in advertising and how they compare…
Coca Cola Marketing Mix. (2012). Hub Pages. Retrieved from: http://bilaras.hubpages.com/hub/Coca-Cola-0
Bell, L. (2004). The Story of Coca Cola. Mankato, MN: A+
The branding of Kazakhstan as a tourist destination 'Branding' is a critical component of selling any product or service and this is no less true in regards to marketing a tourist destination than it is of a container of soap or a car rental company. When marketing to tourists, it is essential to convey a brand's unique value to likely purchasers. "For destinations, effective differentiation is critical given the increasingly competitive nature of tourism markets, where many places offering similar features are becoming substitutable" (Pike 2009: 857). In the case of Kazakhstan, one would be marketing a country which has not traditionally been a destination of choice for many tourists. However, exoticism can also have a certain appeal for a certain 'type' of tourist. A former republic of the U.S.S.., Kazakhstan is now mainly known for its rich oil and gas resources but it is striving to…
Kazakhstan travel information. (2013). Visit Kazakhstan. Retrieved from:
Pike, S. (2009). Destination brand positions of a competitive set of near-home destinations.
Tourism Management, 30 (2009) 857 -- 866
Taken together, United Natural Foods is looking to create pull-based demand throughout its distribution channels and increase sales activity, leading to more profitability over the long-term. The focus on two of the three elements being oriented towards the consumer is deliberate to further pull products through distribution channels as well.
If they are not used, should they be used?
They are used as the analysis indicates, yet United Natural Foods could also augment these efforts by concentrating more on channel-based and retailer-specific promotions over the long-term, further ensuring a higher level of sales productivity as well.
If they should be used, explain why they should be used. If they should not be used, explain why they should not be used.
Each one of the elements or components of the strategy need to be used and expanded over time to more fully meet the unmet needs of the customers these communication…
" (Sinha and atra, 1999)
Sinha and atra state that "most researchers now content that a generalized price -- quality relationship does not exist" although the "degree to which a higher price implies higher quality" has been examined and as well has been the "topic of considerable research in marketing." (1999) Therefore for the purpose of this study this antecedent relating to price consciousness will not be a variable in understanding the questions posed in this study.
Sirha and atra (1999) state that this inference "is widely accepted as being context-specific, moderated by situational characteristic such as the extensiveness of a consumer's cognitive schemes and his/her product class knowledge" and cite the work of Peterson and Wilson (1985). Therefore, it can be understood that while the consumer might believe that a higher price being paid obtains the same equal receipt of quality in some categorical purchases but yet not in…
Aiken, Leona and Stephen West (1991), Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions. London: Sage Publications.
Ailawadi, Kusum and Bari Harlam (2004), "An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Retail Margins: The Role of Store Brand Share," Journal of Marketing, 68 (January), 147 -- 66.
Ailawadi, Kusum and Kevin Keller (2004), "Understanding Retail Branding: Conceptual Insights and Research Priorities," Journal of Ailawadi, Kusum L., Pauwels, Koen and Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E.M. (2008) Private Label Use and Store Loyalty. Journal of Marketing Vol. 72 (November 2008), 19 -- 30. 2008 American Marketing Association.
Ailawadi, Kusum, and Scott Neslin, and Karen Gedenk (2001), "Pursuing the Value Conscious Consumer: Store Brands vs. National Brand Promotions," Journal of Marketing, 65 (January), 71 -- 89.
He also knew that Time Warner Cable has at times been known to zap televisions with too much voltage and a few had been damaged. This had actually been written about in the local press. In short, what made this situation unique was the knowledge the sales person had of the local market and the potential hazards to such a large investment in entertainment.
Second, the cross-sell strategies (Reinartz, Thomas, ascoul, 2008) at est uy also centered on making the flat screen television more integrated into my existing stereo system as well. As there is already an amplifier, receiver and a series of speakers in the room where the television sis going, the est uy salesman was able to draw and define an approach for me to integrate all the components together. At first I didn't believe him yet after I went back home and looked at the connectors on…
Pennie Frow, Adrian Payne. (2007). Towards the 'perfect' customer experience. Journal of Brand Management: Special Issue: Brand management and the customer experience, 15(2), 89-101. Retrieved May 31, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1389481111).
David H. Maister, Charles H. Green, Robert M. Galford. (2000). What is a trusted advisor? Consulting to Management, 11(3), 36-41. Retrieved May 31, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 64851016).
Christopher Meyer, Andre Schwager. (2007). UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE. Harvard Business Review, 85(2), 116-126. Retrieved May 31, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1206867001).
Werner Reinartz, Jacquelyn S. Thomas, Gana l Bascoul. (2008). Investigating cross-buying and customer loyalty. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 22(1), 5. Retrieved May 31, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1472046991).
Identity is often part of a branding strategy: contrast the wholesome, clean-cut image of a wearer of alph Lauren Polo clothing or Abercrombie & Fitch with that of a Hot Topic teen. Consider Coca-Cola's all-American image vs. that of Pepsi's more teen-friendly branding as the drink of the next generation of soda drinkers. Pillsbury's branding of wholesomeness and home-cooked yet fast and easy to prepare meals and the 'cuteness' of the Doughboy, while iconic, does not necessarily stand out in the crowded atmosphere of today's marketplace.
Today's marketing atmosphere is far noisier than ever before and failing to stand out may not entirely be Pillsbury's fault. Developing new, iconic brands is more difficult than in the past, and few have succeeded with the possible exception of Google and Apple. Developing a unique image as an all-American baking company may no longer resonate as well with consumers as it did in…
Duncan Heinz. (2010). Official Website. Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://www.duncanhines.com/bakers-club
Pillsbury. (2010). Official website. Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://www.pillsbury.com/
Wong, Elaine. (2010, March 24). How Sara Lee beefed up Jimmy Dean brand.
Ad Week. Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://www.adweek.com/aw/content_display/news/strategy/e3id51767e5e16b09798d71a9cec1e8d434
Affecting Customer Loyalty
Customer Grade Course
This research study introduces a comprehensive conceptual framework of customer loyalty within the retail sector. It emphasizes on the perceived loyalty amongst fast moving consumer goods and attempts to explore the moderating effects of the various different factors that might influence them.
The researcher will begin by creating an understanding of the term "customer loyalty" and its significance importance in the retail sector. Additionally, the researcher shall also attempt to explore the purchase decisions made by the consumers and what really prompts them to be loyal to certain brands of product while simultaneously evaluating the importance of price, quality, brand or any other factor that might impact their loyalty status and purchase decision.
Finally, the research study will conclude by delineating the factors which impacts consumer loyalty at the same time trying to establish a means of measuring the impact of consumer…
Aaker, Kumar & Day, 1995, Marketing Research, 5th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., United States
Assael, Henry., 1984, Consumer Behavior and Marketing Action, 2nd edition, Kent Publishing, USA
Buttle, Francis (2006, July 11), Does service failure influence customer loyalty? Available from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cb.67/abstract [May 19th 2011]
Dick, Alan S., 1994, Customer Loyalty: Towards an Integrated Conceptual Framework, Journal of Academy of Marketing Science
Customer Loyalty Program
In today's highly competitive marketing climate, the only way to ensure revenue is to retain customers; move purchasers to customers, and enhance the customer satisfaction index for all clients. Customer loyalty and customer satisfaction are not synonymous, however, and they have differing meanings to different types of customers. Usually, customer satisfaction is a quantitative measurement of client attitudes about products, services, branding, or delivery. Customer loyalty is both the behavior of the customer (repeat clients) or a strong and robust attitude about the brand or service that makes shopping habitual. It is this loyalty of behavior that has a direct correlation to sales and market share since, depending on product or service, the amount a quality of competition varies significantly (Hallowell, 1996). Research also shows us that the place to enhance these issues is that the retail point of purchase; this is the place in which all…
Increasing Customer Loyalty. (2011). Harvard Business Review. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Gitomer, Jeffrey. (1998). Customer Satisfaction is Worthless -- Customer Loyalty is Priceless.
Hallowell, R. (1996). The Relationships of Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, and Probability. International Journal of Service Industry Management. 7:4, 27-42.
bee researching the Chiquita Brand book Dreher, G. Dougherty, T. (2002). Human resource strategy: A behavioral perspective general manager. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Written Assignments Draft HM Systems/Practices - You gathered data make decisions a set HM systems practices recommend management.
The increased competition in the globalized economic environment determines companies to rely on their human resources in order to add value to their products and services and to gain competitive advantage. In addition to this, the modifications influenced by environmental factors determine companies to develop flexible strategies that allow them to adapt to such changes. Therefore, companies must take into consideration several aspects when developing their strategy.
Although technical and financial resources are very important for the company's activity, human resources play a very important role in reaching the company's objectives. The diversity of the human resources is able to encourage and support innovation. Therefore, it is required…
1. Annual Report (2009). Chiquita. Retrieved January 23, 2011 from http://www.chiquitabrands.com/InvestorRelations/AnnualReports.aspx .
2. Armstrong, M. (2006). Strategic Human Resource Management: A Guide to Action. Kogan Page, Ltd. Retrieved January 23, 2011.
3. Pettinger, R. (2004). Contemporary Strategic Management. Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire. Retrieved January 23, 2011.
4. Human Resource Strategy (2010). City University. Retrieved January 23, 2011 from http://www.city.ac.uk/hr/about-hr/hr-strategy.html .
Marketing esearch: Products and Brands
In previous years, Apple Inc. has progressed from being an abstract participant in the computer market to a major player in the technology market. Through courageous advancement, they have developed items that have totally changed the technology market. As a result, their brand recognition has increased significantly, and they have added remarkably to their legion of dedicated supporters. The Apple Company is about design, their electronic items are fashionable, their advertising is trendy, their hardware and software are stylish, and like all factors fashionable, there is a substantial price tag. However, like all other factors of fashion, consumers are unpredictable and their tastes frequently change with the next big technology improvement. In addition, Apple company still dominates over every aspect of their item lines, this in previous times turned out to be a mistake that directed them to a specialized niche in the PC market.…
Bradley, T. (2013). Android Dominates Market Share, But Apple Makes all the Money. Forbes. Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/sites/tonybradley/2013/11/15/android-dominates-market-share-but-apple-makes-all-the-money/
Deidu, H. (2012). The Value of the OS X Monopoly. Asymco. Retrieved from: http://www.asymco.com/2012/02/28/the-value-of-the-os-x-monopoly/
Linzmayer, O. (2004). Apple Confidential 2.0. San Francisco, CA: No Starch Press
Satell, G. (2013). Why Apple's Future is Uncertain. Forbes. Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/sites/gregsatell/2013/04/24/why-apples-future-is-uncertain/
In order to rise above competition, the company is committed to providing the highest quality of technical support to its clients, as demonstrated by its purchase of ATG. This software would result in reduced costs, increased revenue, and improved customer retention.
pecifically, the software gives the company the ability to reduce the time involved in solving customer queries and concomitantly increasing the volume of calls that can be handled. Furthermore, the queries and calls referred to higher levels of the company's management is decreased by centralizing the customers' access to relevant information sources. The quality and content of this service are also improved by analyzing daily interactions with customers. The service is made more efficient and accurate in this way. Finally, revenue opportunities are also increased by a feature that suggests up-sell and cross-sell possibilities.
According to Business Wire (2005), Genpact's RightAnswers' Knowledge-Pak libraries also integrate with the ATG software.…
Business Wire. (2005, Dec. 12). General Electric-Owned Genpact Delivers Superior Customer Service with ATG's Progressive Call Center Technology. Database: FindArticles. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2005_Dec_12/ai_n15929810/
General Electric (2008). GE Citizenship: Building a Customer Focus. http://www.ge.com/citizenship/performance_areas/customers_focus.jsp
O'Connor, Ashling (2008, Aug. 21). Thrilling Olympics give General Electric a surge in power. The Times. http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/media/article4576410.ece
Samuelson, Walt. (2006). Customer Satisfaction Simplified. Ad Revamp.
E-Customer Loyalty: Applying the Traditional ules of Business for Online Success, by Frederick F. eichheld, obert G. Markey, Jr., and Christopher Hopton. Specifically, it will contain a one-page synopsis and two-page critique of the material.
This article goes into detail about what many consumers have known for a long time. The most successful merchants, both online and off, are those who recognize the importance of developing a good relationship with their customers, thereby creating customer loyalty and greater profits for their company. The paper argues that many online merchants do not recognize that many brick-and-mortar business rules still apply to their businesses online. "They often forget that the fundamental rules of successful business still apply" (eichheld et al. 173). The article goes on to discuss two particular companies foray into e-commerce, and their experience with building a profitable company online. It continues with information on how to build…
Reichheld, Frederick F., Robert G. Markey, Jr., and Christopher Hopton. "E-Customer Loyalty: Applying the Traditional Rules of Business for Online Success." European Business Journal, Vol. 12, Issue 4. London: 2000, pp. 173-179.