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Partial cost recovery. This is an objective that might have interest for an organization that has other revenue sources.
Maximize quantity. The objective seeks to maximize the quantity of products/services sold or the number of customers in order to reduce costs in the long-term as predicted by the learning curve, also known as the experience curve.
Quality leadership. Use price as a tool to designate high quality and position the product as a quality leader.
Survival. Whenever the market situation is in decline or at overcapacity, a company may choose a pricing level that covers the costs and allows it to remain in the market even though the profits may be affected. This is usually a short-term strategy.
Status quo. A company may choose price stabilization, thus avoiding price wars and maintaining a moderate profit level.
'Nutri Mix' will be positioned as a medium priced product, just like other healthy…… [Read More]
Furthermore, the researcher could explore the frequency of purchase, consumption, budget, and usual places where the mother purchases the product. Also, the exploratory discussion could lead to other dimensions and information about breakfast cereal purchase and consumption that were not identified in previous studies. Similarly, in IDIs, concepts that will be explored and discovered during the one-on-one interview could be developed into variables for the survey. For concepts identified in FGDs and IDIs, they will be used as variables for the survey, and will be tested during the analysis stage for validity and reliability.
Another proposed approach is through an ethnographic study. Similar to the qualitative methods, an ethnographic study would explore concepts that will be quantitatively tested for validity and reliability in the survey. In ethnographic studies, the researcher will observe and take note of the processes that take place in the target groups' natural environment. This could be…… [Read More]
There is always a question as to who is really the purchase-driver of children's foods. One school of thought suggests that children, through the 'nag factor.' drive the purchases of sugary cereals. On the other hand, some might say that it is always the parent who puts down the final dollars for the product. The contemporary Frosted Flakes advertisement shows Kellogg's savvy in understanding that it is both: Tony the Tiger's image draws children in, yet parents are comforted by the fact that the cereal apparently contains some nutritional value.
Unlike the earlier box, however, this ad is quite misleading. Its stress that the flakes are "full of energy" hides the fact that 'energy' is being used as a synonym for calories and sugar. Even a Snickers bar, after all provides energy. The advertisement of today is more holistic in its audience target. It also reveals that the way people…… [Read More]
Kellogg's Marketing Plan
Consumer Buying Process
Consumer behavior is a complex phenomenon to study the consumer certainly is not as rational as once believed. Marketers used to believe that if you provide the consumer all of the information then they would make a rational decision. However, we have learned that psychological and personality traits also play a large role in the decision making process. Kellogg itself learned this fact the hard way when it tried to enter the Indian market. In the 1990s, Kellogg's spent $65 million trying to enter the Indian market in hopes of gaining a small percent of the entire market share with its Corn Flakes cereal (Vaish, 2012). They ignored the buying habits of Indian consumers that were built upon thousands of years of breakfast habits and ultimately there market entry failed.
In the U.S. And other Western markets, one of the biggest trends has been…… [Read More]
Sanitarium Heal & Wellbeing Company is the operating/trading name of twin fod companies (New Zealand Health Association Ltd. And Australian Health and Nutrition Association Ltd.). Both of these companies are owned and operated by the Seventh-Day Adventist Church .The company produces a wide range of breakfast cereals and a wide range of vegetarian products. Sanitarium was founded in 1898 with Weet-Bix being its flagship products that topped sales in the New Zealand and Australian breakfast market. Sanitarium also operated several health food shops in numerous cities before the 1980s.The company has factories in various locations across New Zealand and Australia. In this paper we conduct the company's Organisation, Environmental and Market analysis as well as a determination of its segmentation and positioning strategies.
A SWOT analysis of Sanatorium
In order to conquer and dominate any given market, adequate information is needed on the prevailing market conditions as well as the…… [Read More]
Market of Grain in the United States
In the United States, millions of Americans are confronting the latest trends in the commodities markets where the costs of agricultural products have driven up costs of breakfasts of average Americans. Over the past year, the price of orange juice has increased a quarter, and the price of milk has also risen by 5%, and egg by a fifth. The issues have made General Mills and Kellogg's to increase the prices of their breakfast cereal products. The cause of an increase is due to a recent rise in the price of grains such as wheat and corn. Underpinning the rise in the price of grains is that the demand has outpaced the supply because of the growing demand for cereals for the production of biofuels such as ethanol. Thus, the author is trying to reveal the factors that lead to an increase in…… [Read More]
Ethics in Marketing
BP and Toyota have been in the news due to serious failures, which created significant safety risk and ultimately resulted in deaths as well as significant environmental damage in the case of BP with the exposition on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. In both cases there were internal failures. In these two cases there were notable failures which received a high level philosophy and have damaged the reputations of the firms. The causes of the safety problems may be divergent, but the marketing problem of the two firms are similar'; to guide the firm though a recovery and restore faith in the brand; unless this is achieved the firms are likely to suffer financial with lower sales.
If working for the marketing the department's responsibility is to support the firm's recovery, but this does not mean it should be undertaken in an unethical manner. The marketing…… [Read More]
The weaknesses of the company are first that it relies on just a few top customers for the majority of its revenue growth and its lack of product quality have at times led to recalls. Opportunities include the growing level of health consciousness in globally, higher levels of product demand in Latin America nations that today have relatively low levels of adoption today and the potential to grow through mergers and acquisitions (Kissas, 2007). The threats Kellogg's is facing include stringent regulations and a lack of strategies for managing foreign exchange risk. In addition there is intensive pricing pressure from competitors as well.
GOALS and OBJECTIVES
The goal of transforming Kellogg's Fruit Loops into a healthy alterative and also spinning off new products for its widespread popularity is the goal of this marketing plan. Specifically concentrating on product line extensions for the product into the ready-to-eat cereal category is the…… [Read More]
The Kellogg Company is a producer of cereal and convenience foods with a number of brands. The company is located in Battle Creek, Michigan, and was founded in 1906. Kellogg's posted earnings of almost $13 billion in 2010 and employs about 31,000 people. Facing global sales stagnation and decline, Kellogg promoted Carlos Gutierrez, who had risen in the company from the ground up since 1975, as CEO. Gutierrez believed in the strategy of "Volume to Value," a way to increase sales by focusing resources on Kellogg's highest margin products like Special K, kasha, and Nutri-Grain. This extra income would fund advertising, promotion and R&D, which would also encourage high-margin sales growth. "Volume is a means to an end -- not an end. What counts is dollars" (Boyle, 2004).
PIC Analysis for Rice Kipsies:
Rice Krispies, also known as Rice Bubbles in Australia and New Zealand, is one of…… [Read More]
..hile older children and adults understand the inherent bias of advertising, younger children do not, and therefore tend to interpret commercial claims and appeals as accurate and truthful information," said psychologist Dale Kunkel, Ph.D., Professor of Communication at the University of California at Santa Barbara and senior author of the task force's scientific report. (Kunkel, et.al, 2004)
The Lego ads, when seen by younger children who "do not understand persuasive intent in advertising," might feel as if the balance of the world really does hang in their hands -- and an older child might be confused by the overlapping techniques of advertising, which blur the lines between advertising with a persuasive ulterior motive to encourage consumption, and entertainment in the form of cartoons. This confusion might be another reason for the greater efficacy of movie and product tie-ins with children's advertising."(Briesch, Bridges, & Kim, 2004) This fact is seconded by…… [Read More]
In the "question marks" category were introduced the products of the "Specialty channel," as they appeared in 2004 and tried to conquer a relatively new market for the company, that of the non-traditional products. Therefore, this attempt has not been proved to be a real success because, just as in the case of the natural, organic and frozen products, the market of the specialties had been reached by other companies and, even though the investments were quite high, because the offer of products was diverse, the growth has proved to be quite low.
The QSPM Matrix
Having all these in mind, the main two directions I could identify for the Kellogg Company to follow are represented by a potential enlargement of its company in Europe -where for example, the sugar free chocolate chips cannot be found- or by a diversification of the products line in the North America, the most…… [Read More]
As far as the decision to use penetration pricing or skimming pricing is concerned, Crispy Fruit should be emerged with the penetration pricing (Waterschoot & Bulte, 1992). That is; set a low price in the introductory stage then gradually increase it with the passage of time. It will help it to strengthen the customer base and increase the level of acceptability in the market (Waterschoot & Bulte, 1992). Price skimming should not be used in any case. This is because all the top competitors of Crispy Fruit are charging high price because they have a surety of a developed customer base. If Crispy Fruit charges a higher price than these competitors, no consumer will like to pick a new brand with a higher price in the presence of their favorite brand or brands (Waterschoot & Bulte, 1992). Converse to this situation, if Crispy Fruit charges a very less price than…… [Read More]
Human esource Management PBL exercise
Human esource Management
PBL exercise 1: Taking an HM job
The cereal company Sanitarium is currently seeking an H generalist. Sanitarium advertises itself as the company that transformed Australia's eating habits, shifting the tastes of the national palate from traditional 'fry-ups' to more healthy whole grains at the breakfast table. "We were the first to introduce healthy and innovative breakfast foods and soy foods. We promoted plant-based eating before it became trendy, and offered well-being clinics in our cafes throughout Australia. In caring for the health and well-being of all Australians, we have created great breakfast cereal foods, soymilks, spreads and healthy vegetarian foods" (About us, 2012, Sanitarium).
Sanitarium's flagship products include the popular wholegrain staple Weet-Bix, which is currently Australia's best-selling breakfast cereal. Sanitarium emphasizes sustainability in its product offerings as well as good health. It has made a particular commitment to…… [Read More]
In other words, it's all well and good for McKevith to focus only on the hard figures (fiber content, what makes up each cereal, etc.) but Berketova is focusing on both parts of the research equation (everything McKevith looked at but also inclusive of consumer opinion, why consumers choose one cereal over another, personal opinions, etc.) and thus this research will be more illuminating if done correctly since the research addresses the hard figures as well as the insights that statistics and figures cannot provide.
Using qualitative only (which Berketova did NOT do) would be unwise for anything that has relevant statistical information to gain. As such, it is wise that Berketova included both dimensions. McKevith did quantative only which is fine if assessing the "what"…but again, it's not the least bit adept at answering any "why" questions about who is consuming what and "why."
As noted above, quantitative…… [Read More]
A strictly vegetarian diet is best suited to the human body's needs, mankind's ability of survival on earth, and our inherent compassion. Switching to such a diet is fairly simple and creates the opportunity to lead a healthier, happier, and gentler life (Marcus, xi).
For numerous reasons, humanity has been increasingly taking to veganism since the last few years. Some vegan supporters assert their participation in a dietary regimen wherein consuming or utilizing animal products is unethical, according to their religious beliefs or values. Meanwhile, others put forward the argument of animal consciousness's ethicality and the industrial farming process. Those who claim to be vegans most probably do so owing to environmental, animal rights, or personal health concerns, which can alter with time. Several vegans begin as vegetarians, gradually ceasing consumption of milk, eggs and other animal by-products. Meanwhile, others turn purely vegan right from the outset. In…… [Read More]
Science is a neutral human pursuit. It is only the application of science that raises potential ethical questions. Kurt Vonnegut's novel Cat's Cradle perfectly exposes the ways science can be manipulated by the hands of its sponsors. Money determines the nature of research, its methodologies, its findings, and its applications. Michael Pollan's The Omnivore's Dilemma raises similar ethical questions and concerns, focused not on the military but on the food industry. Arguably, the food industry poses far more complicated ethical issues than the military-industrial complex. The military can be viewed as an ethically incorrect institution, as even when it presumably protects the lives of Americans it does so necessarily at the expense of the lives of others. National security is not built on a universal human rights vision, but on a xenophobic model that presumes national superiority and reinforces an "us vs. them" mentality that is at the root…… [Read More]
From her conspicuous consumption of product-related merchandise it is safe to assign her firmly to the upper middle class. Gender stereotypes and messages abound in this ad, as in many others. One example is the woman-as-food or woman-as-product message; she is something to be eaten or consumed like any other fast-moving consumer good, which sets a dangerous precedent. "Turning a human being into a thing, an object, is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person." (Kilbourne, p. 278).
The implied consequence for buying the product is becoming desirable as an extraordinary female. Those who fail to buy the product must resign themselves to a passionless life full of mediocrity. Extraordinary females are those whose lives are saturated with the product. Pozner (p. 51) gives evidence of this actually happening when she says, "What disturbs me is not that I prefer the taste of Snapple (I do),…… [Read More]
Select multinational organizations describe main line business organizations. Examine ways companies utilizes internet part marketing strategies. Identify current potential problems recommendations improvement.
Multinational enterprises (MNE)s: Nike and Kellogg
Multinational enterprises (MNE)s: Nike and Kellogg
A multinational enterprise (MNE) is defined as a firm that is based in two or more nations. Although they began as iconic American companies, Nike and the Kellogg Corporation have operations all over the globe and have customers in almost all of the developed and much of the developing world. But because of the different types of products they sell, the ways in which they reach their customer base -- particularly online -- are quite distinct.
The multinational company Nike uses the Internet to both advertise its products as well as to sell its products. Nike markets fashion-forward sportswear that is supposed to fill a functional purpose, but also is noteworthy because of its style.…… [Read More]
Jon Spayde analyses our cultural concept of choice in his Utne article, "The Unbearable Lightness of Choosing." The author tries to convey underlying sociological and psychological meanings of personal choice and personal freedom.
In American society, the doctrine of freedom is often conveyed through the ideal of unlimited choices, especially with respect to material goods.
From the dozens of different breakfast cereals to the equally myriad variety of world religions to choose from, Americans value variety and multiple options.
However, Spayde argues that this notion of freedom, expressed through unlimited personal choice, is essentially a self-centered interpretation.
The choices we Westerners make are based on selfish desires: "what do I want?" It removes family, friends, and the community from the decision-making process.
This interpretation of freedom and choice causes many of our societal ills, according to Spayde, who criticizes the American vision of "choicefullness." Instead of becoming fixated on variety…… [Read More]
Quaker Oats as a Symbol and Icon of American Colonialism
Identity is important to everyone and everything; it is how we connect with an element in our mind. It is the identity that inspires the first impression of any object or even a person. For that matter; it is through identity that a connection is formed between the object and the subject and a strong connection in this regard can play an instrumental role in determining the future of such a connection.
Therefore, it is not surprising that Product Branding and Imagery have always been a vital part of any product development and launch. The image of the product is highly significant in creating the much that will be used to recognize the new product. It is this image that would play a part in creating a strong brand identity -- an image that would come to be associated with…… [Read More]
lactose intolerance, and a description of its' relevance to nutrition; consumers, health care professionals, and patients. Lactose intolerance is a disease aggravated by milk sugars. It can be controlled by diet, but often other measures must also be used to control the disease, such as the use of dietary aids such as "Lactaid." Health care professionals must understand the treatment and problems associated with the disease to help their patients combat the disease, and a major portion of understanding lies in the principles and understanding of proper nutrition.
Lactose intolerance affects millions of Americans. In fact, the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) estimates that 50 million Americans suffer from the disease, and it can make their lives miserable if it is not treated. The symptoms of lactose intolerance include stomach cramps, diarrhea, nausea, gas, painful bloating, and flatulence ("Living" 66). These symptoms can begin as soon as 30 minutes after consuming…… [Read More]
Corporate Social esponsibility
The concept of corporate social responsibility began to arise in the 1960s as an ideal that corporations can have a number of different impacts on society and the environment through their actions. Corporations are not simply answerable to shareholders, but to a wide variety of other stakeholders as well. The responsibility that corporations have, therefore, is social, not just economic. Dahlrud (2006) studied a number of different definitions for corporate social responsibility and determined that it is not something that can be defined. ather, CS is a social construct, meaning that there are multiple definitions and which definition is most suitable depends on the way the term is used. For corporations, the implication is that they can set their own definitions based on what is relevant to their interests, and the interests of their different stakeholders. The classic view that the only social responsibility corporations have is…… [Read More]
Elasticity of Demand
Demand elasticities in government
Elasticity of demand and effect on indirect taxation.
Demand elasticities in business
Factors that affect the price elasticity of demand
In this paper, we discuss the microeconomic concept of elasticity of demand. Elasticity of demand, a term which refers to the responsiveness of the demand of a given commodity to change is very integral for the efficient operation of businesses and the government (Hays and DeLurgio,2008).The concept of elasticity of demand which in a way may refer to the responsiveness of the amount of quantity of a product which is demanded to the change in disposable income, price of a good as well as price of related goods is noted to be a subject of discussion in virtually all the textbooks on microeconomic principles. In this paper, we perform a critical evaluation of the view that the knowledge of the various elasticities of…… [Read More]
One complete performance task with an appropriate scoring tool
Children will create an 'honest' advertising campaign for a food-related product they select. Then they will explain why they chose the product and the advertising approach to the class. For example, they could select an orange, and advertise its value of vitamin C or they could select a whole grain children's breakfast cereal and advertise that it is "not really healthy, but not as unhealthy as some other cereals." The advertising campaign must be based on the nutritional information they research on their own.
After all of the students have made their presentations, the class will discuss what they have learned, in terms of how and why they make decisions about what they eat. They will discuss if the way they eat has changed as a result of the unit.
Rubric and analytic scoring matrix
The final presentation will be judged…… [Read More]
That could lead to all kinds of advertising insights," even though it could just be a coincidence (Baker 2008, p.3). The result could be a cutting-edge campaign for a rental car company stressing romance and danger, rather than safety and budget-conscious effectiveness.
No company wishes to miss out on the next new marketing trend, and all want to find the next 'hot' new connection between two seemingly discordant interests or types of behaviors. One idiosyncratic, accidental click or glance is meaningless, but being able to keep track of large amounts of data makes such decisions is significant for market researchers, as a consistent pattern can be drawn. And the blog world of online journalism is an even more willing source of "unfiltered immediacy" for marketers, who can track what types of blogs generate the largest amount of traffic for specific types of ads. Blogs are especially useful because marketers can…… [Read More]
Administrators, professors, and students all need the school to thrive and prosper, so that their reputations and the value of degrees do not suffer in the future, but all have divergent short-term interests and visions.
Please create a metaphor for some higher education organization situation. Share and explain the metaphor.
One example of divergent interest can be seen in intercollegiate athletics. Administrators want teams that attract media attention and generate alumni donations and increase the quality and number of student applicants in the fall. However, the top athletes are not always the most talented students academically, may be given extra academic help to graduate, or not graduate at all. The most recent data was cited as hopeful: "the rate for men's basketball players who graduated within six years...rose from 59% to 61%...Baseball improved from 65% to 66%" (Carey 2007). The fact that only slightly more than half of…… [Read More]
If I willingly buy from a company that contributes to environmental degradation or processed foods then I am part of the problem.
Saving fifty cents means nothing to me now. Just because a grocery store sells a cheap, non-organic version of a food item does not mean that I will buy it. I can almost visualize the chain of events that takes place when I make a purchase. Marketing techniques are savvy, taking into account each time a person like me opts for a slightly more expensive version of a product because it is organic. My actions in the grocery store are the equivalent of my donating money to charity. I pay more because I want to support businesses with ethics. Ours is a market-driven economy. Americans dislike governmental regulations and so rely on the market to control issues like corporate ethics. Unfortunately, not many people educate themselves about the…… [Read More]
Oily fish contains a particularly important EFA, which provides protection against heart disease. It can also help prevent osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, cyclic breast pain, skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis and help the development of the baby's brain during pregnancy. Another important EFA is found in oily nuts such as almonds, walnuts and razil nuts, which counteracts deposits of harmful cholesterol. Some recent research suggests that EFA's can improve your mood, prevent inflammation, water retention and can help weight loss. Monounsaturated fat remains liquid at room temperature, olive oil being the best known source. it's also found in grape seed oil, avocados and some spreads. Olive oil is rich in fat-soluble vitamin sAD. E and K, vital antioxidants that help to prevent cancer, arthritis and heart disease.
Different people require a different number of calories to lose weight and maintain health, which is dictated by their build, level…… [Read More]
hy eat locally? hy participate in the locavore movement? The locavore movement is a movement in which one's carbon footprint is reduced by eating food grown near one's home. The point of this paper is quite simple and straight forward: eating locally means reducing your carbon footprint because what you ate last night for dinner did not travel 1,500 miles -- or even 200 miles -- and hence, fossil fuels were not used in the transport of that food. This paper points to the advantages of eating locally from a person perspective, with a brief mention of why reducing one's carbon footprint is desirable in an over-heated world.
Global arming -- Carbon Footprints
There are still people who are in denial about climate change -- including some elected officials, including United States Senator Tom Colburn, a Republican representing Oklahoma. According to Climate Progress, 161 members of the U.S.…… [Read More]
Honey Maid graham crackers are a childhood staple. However, the brand has been growing its consumer base by using an unusual approach. Its “This is Wholesome” campaign depicts a variety of nontraditional families enjoying its products in the form of s’mores, in milk, and with honey. The families include same-sex couples, a punk rock family with tattoos, an East Asian family, and others. The message conveys an expanded definition of the traditional American family and is clearly marketed to people who either view themselves as being a part of such families (either because of friends or relatives) or as strong supporters of expanding the definition of family.
The advertisement’s images, however, other than the fact that nontraditional families are used, are fairly heartwarming and gentle. They include children playing drums with their parents and a baby sucking on a bottle as well as the children making food with their parents.…… [Read More]
The Psychology of Obesity
Obesity is a significant public health problem. Due to negative nutritional habits, a lack of exercise and a greater proclivity toward lifestyle decisions which expose individuals to lesser physical activity, America is suffering an obesity epidemic with extensive implications to its national well-being. Obesity is proven to have a direct link to heart disease, high blood pressure and certain types of diabetes according to the Centers for Disease Control. (CDC1,1) The strains on the individual's health that are prompted by obesity can significantly reduce treatment options for these consequences while simultaneously increasing the individual's likelihood for premature mortality. These effects intercede with a disturbing set of indicators as to the increasing psychological propensity of individuals, families and especially toward behavior which is conducive to obesity. The wide permeation of the obesity problem in American is a product of psychological conditioning resulting from a combination…… [Read More]
Forethought is necessary as is the ability to educate those around you and in some cases such precaution may lead to limitations on the child's activities, especially in cases where those who are ignorant of the seriousness of the issue discount and do not respond to offered education. Another mom who is managing a child with a peanut allergy stresses the two hardest things about having a child with this condition:
hat has been the hardest part about dealing with your child's peanut allergy for you? / Two things. First: Trust. Trusting that whoever is watching your child (be it at daycare or school or babysitting) REALLY understands the ramifications of her allergy. It doesn't matter if it's family or not, it's hard to trust another person with your child's care when they have a special need like this. I'm not worried about my daughter eating peanuts or peanut butter…… [Read More]
18). In this manner, the public and private sectors can ascertain that via reflection and debate, the appropriate issues are addressed, the product is truly what it is with no erroneous and misleading claims attached, and that consultation will be implemented in a manner equitable to all. This was the way, for instance that Pollard et al. (2001) and Roos et al. (2002) implemented food and nutrition policy schemes at the local, state, and national levels, for instance, in the case of Pollard et al. (2001), in child care centers.
Questions that involved in policy evaluation include:
Have the stated goals and performance indicators of the policy been achieved -- for instance, is corruption impeded and all foods truly styled for what they are including their potential negatives?
Are there changes in the area that the policy was supposed to be influencing?
Has the policy really caused the claimed change…… [Read More]
Development of Policy esponses
The first step in the development of these policy strategies was to identify that a problem existed with childhood obesity and frame the problem so that it could brought to light and intervention strategies debated. While some of the framing of this issue may have been based upon misinformation, policymakers did attempt to frame the problem which is in line with the Australian policy development cycle. This initial framing is an example of how misinformation can lead to poor policy decisions. When looking at childhood obesity from a policy perspective it is imperative to understand the difference between obesity prevention and obesity treatment and this has often been confused in attempts to develop policies for the Australian people (O'Dea 2005).
The Australian policy cycle is comprised of stages including problem identification, analysis of policy options, policy instrument, consultation, coordination, decision, implementation, and evaluation. While this policy…… [Read More]
Substantial cuts to farm subsidies would save taxpayers money and reduce the Federal budget deficit. Ongoing deficit spending on farm subsidies and other programs is causing large amounts of debt to be foisted on the next generation (2007)."
Paul Roberts (2008) writes that it incumbent upon first world nations, like the United States and the UK to set the pace for world policy when it comes to food, and to recognize the harm that food subsidy programs causes economically, and socially. Unfortuately, Roberts also points to the government's susceptibility to special interest (296), and we should add, self-interest. So long as we find elected officials reaping profits from farm subsidies, and so long as they are influenced by corporate special interest, then we will continue to see the government interference in agricultural free trade in the form of subsidies.
Bafalikike, Lokogo. orld Trade: A Scandal that Must End,…… [Read More]
Step 3: Identify data types and sources: Sample size and collection methods
Data must be drawn from a representative population with a wide variety of norms that could influence the results. For example, in studying the effects of fast food restaurants near schools, the study population of children with many fast food restaurants near their school should be balanced in terms of BMI, gender, socio-economic status and other factors that could influence the results. So must the control group. Of course, some research studies might wish to study intervention techniques in the context of specific population groups, like the effects of a diabetes management program upon a low-income population with a quite limited population base, demographically.
If an ideally balanced sampling is not possible to achieve, nonparametric statistics must be used to allow for an uneven breakdown of demographic data (umsey 2007, p.262). Chi-square tests create a balanced group from…… [Read More]
America's sprawling territories makes it easy for people to leave their families and connections, making it easier to kill or be killed. On one hand, the inventions of the Fair and the belief in commercialism and industry makes spectacle possible in a way that is not easily replicated anywhere else, Eiffel Tower aside. More so than anywhere else, the belief in newness and self-creation seems to be a kind of religion in America. Chicago would recreate itself, and so would Holmes. Science would set America free, leaving older primitive cultures to curiosity cabinets and freak shows, and science would give Holmes the tools to create the perfect murders, and then to profit by selling the remains, letting nothing go to waste in this little 'business' he was running. For both Holmes and Chicago, eradication of the 'dark city' beneath the image of a white facade was the essence of the…… [Read More]
Cable television also opened up the medium to numerous types of television programming that had previously been excluded, simply because it could never have competed with the demand for mainstream types of programs during the same time slot.
Initially, cable television was only available in the largest markets like New York and Los Angeles and it was priced out of the range of most consumers. The technology also required a cable connecting the television to the channel box, which often was the size of small dinner platter. Within a few years, the technology advanced to the point of providing microwave remote controls that were no larger than those already included with many television sets.
The addition of virtually unlimited available channels resulted in the creation of dozens of specialty-interest program content such as cable television channels dedicated exclusively to history, science, nature, sports, politics, and comedy, to name just several.…… [Read More]
III. The federal government does regulate foods for safety but plays no role in limiting how much unhealthy foods children eat when in their parents' care. On the other hand, the fact that government programs now make a specific effort to improve the ratio of healthy food choices to unhealthy food choices in public education demonstrates that without some controls, children will make unhealthy choices and eat more unhealthy foods than is good for them.
IV. Children do not develop will power by being exposed to temptation without a specific reward or an immediate consequence associated with making the more beneficial choices (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). Providing children with the information that eating too much unhealthy foods will have adverse consequences in several decades is not a sufficient motivation for them to eat less unhealthy food than they wish to at the moment.
The arguments put forth against the…… [Read More]
There may be an inevitable loss of homogeneity of company values, even while creative capital and international knowledge increases.
Communication also may be more difficult, at least initially in a culturally diverse organization. Before, in less diverse circumstances, every person might have seemed fluent in the same company or corporate language, now this is not necessarily the case. The company cannot assume that automatically, new and old workers will 'get along' and that new workers will easily conform to the corporate culture, or think that they should sacrifice their personal beliefs and practices to do so. Today, workers are likely to see their identity as pluralistic or hyphenated. They are workers for a company but also members of their culture and region of origin, rather than as the same as everyone else at the company.
Communication difficulties can mean that simple comments or gestures may be misinterpreted, and negotiating personal…… [Read More]
The greatest demand in Turkey for American soy products is for soy grains and soy meals that are used in organic farming. These products are used by farmers to feed poultry and other livestock an organic diet that many people believe produces healthier livestock meat than traditional methods of feeding livestock cornmeal, oats, and (especially) animal byproducts, a practice that has been linked to the spread of serious cattle diseases in Europe such as so-called "Mad Cow Disease."
That demand for consumable soy farming products has also generated a corresponding demand for the equipment typically used to crush, extract, and dry soy products from the raw ingredients used to make them. This trend also extends to the vegetarian food industry because it allows large suppliers to produce tofu and soy milk from raw material and thereby avoid the costs associated with importing prepackaged processed soy products.… [Read More]
hile Xylitol was being used elsewhere in the world the United States still have "an abundant amount of sugar available" so it wasn't heard of in the U.S. until it arrived in chewing gum in 1975. hile Germans and Italians -- along with the Russians and Japanese -- were using it as a sugar substitute, Americans were still heaping piles of sugar on their breakfast cereal and in their coffee and ice tea.
But today, Xylitol is marketed in the U.S. As "Miracle Sweet," "Perfect Sweet," and "Healthy Sweet" (Gare, 8). Is it more or less expensive than sugar? Gare writes that it is "far more expensive than sugar, albeit recently the price has been coming down low enough to be marketed in items like cake mixes, brownies, muffins, cookies, candies, ice creams and puddings; Gare asserts that Xylitol in these baked items make them taste as least as good…… [Read More]
Americans who eat a healthful diet consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods within and across the food groups, especially whole grains, fruits, vegetables, low-fat or fat-free milk or milk products, and lean meats and other protein sources and limit the intake of saturated and trans-fats, cholesterol, added sugars, sodium, and alcohol. They balance caloric intake and caloric needs ("Nutrition and Weight Status," 2012).
Obesity has detrimental effects on the healthcare system and the quality of life for many obese individuals. It is important to develop policies and promote a social awareness that no longer sanctions discrimination of the obese while responsibly promoting behavior modification to improve health. Stokes (2004) notes that, "not everyone can or should look like supermodels, and no one should obsess over his or her body size; however, being overweight or obese is directly linked to development of chronic disease, and it is second only to smoking…… [Read More]
In this instance, what started out as a religious ceremony among villages went very wrong and could have caused deaths; hence, the authors' points are potentially helpful in the future when outbreaks like this occur.
hat are the Benefits of Botulinum Toxin?
hile it is widely known that there are dangers associated with botulinum toxin, and with botulism, Ashley Henshaw writes in Symptom Find that there are a "…variety of medical and cosmetic procedures" that are helpful for humans. In the 1950s, research began into potential positive uses for the botulinum toxin, and in the 1970s, Henshaw writes, the toxin was used with success on humans "…to temporarily paralyze specific muscle impulses" (Henshaw, 2012, p. 2). Some of the cosmetic uses include: a) certain eye conditions (like crossed eyes and "uncontrollable blinking") can be treated by "injecting botulinum toxin"; b) "upper motor neuron syndrome" (when certain muscles are not able…… [Read More]
Demise of Guys
Psychologist Philip Zimbardo shares some startling statistics about boys: they are 30% more likely than girls to drop out of school, they are outperformed academically by girls at every level from kindergarten to graduate school, they are less likely to earn a B.A., and more likely to be in Special Education or labeled as having Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). By the time he is twenty-one years of age, the average boy has spent 10,000 hours playing video games. Boys' brains, claims Zimbardo, have been digitally rewired so they are more engaged in the "asynchronous Internet world" than in classrooms and social relationships.
As Zimbardo stated at the end of his talk, it is not his job to provide solutions, only to sound the alarm. He paints the Millenial generation with too broad a brush. There are certainly boys who are scholars, athletes, musicians and thoughtful human…… [Read More]
Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Fitness and Wellness
Fat is back. The American public is no longer fat-phobic. Fat is essential for the body to function in a healthy manner. The low-fat craze is dead and fortunately the supermarket shelves are no longer lined with cookies and crackers proudly proclaiming themselves to be healthy because they are low in fat. But it is critical that people get the right kind of fats, in the right balance. And that is where omega-3 fatty acids come into play.
Omega-3 fatty acids are called essential fatty acids. This means that your body cannot make them and you have to either get them through food or supplements (Ehrlich 2011). The best and most easily-absorbed omega-3s are found in fish. Salmon, tuna, and sardines are some of the most popular sources of omega-3s. All of these can be easily purchased at your local supermarket in canned…… [Read More]
America's Participation in the World War II
The role of identifying areas that narrate home front stories is challenging. Many factories, research laboratories, government office buildings, housing projects, United Service Organization canteens, military bases, schools, and day care centers were expanded or built during the Second World War. Theaters in many of communities in the nation had a role in the sponsorship of the War through driving and showing terrifying newsreels as well as uplifting entertaining movies. Bus and railroad stations in small towns and major cities could not contain the millions of people passing through to new defense jobs or military service. The alternative places represented negative wartime stories with segregated military bases and housing, war relocation environments for individuals with Japanese descent, prisons, and conscientious objectors were observed. Most of the sites were engaged in racial conflict and labor confrontation in Pearl Harbor.
All American society segments were…… [Read More]
Political risk is one of the different elements of country risk that a company must take into consideration when operating internationally. Political risk reflects the risk posed by the government of a country, including risks that the government will take action against your company (China v. Google), up to and including the risk of nationalization (Argentina v. YPF). Governments have the capacity to, in an unpredictable and ad hoc manner, change the rules governing a company's operations in a country. In the West, where political processes tend to be transparent, it is a lot easier to understand and measure political risk. Political risk, it should be noted, reflects actions taken on existing ventures, and not something like project approval. So Keystone XL is a pending decision, not a political risk. isk would be if Keystone is approved and then after it is started the next government moves to block the…… [Read More]
Generation Techniques in New Product Development
The process of new product development begins with identification of good product ideas and the use of an appropriate criterion to determine ideas to pursue. This process involves concept generation, which is the most important step since it involves generating and/or obtaining ideas regarding the product. Concept generation in new product development entails developing a set of customer needs, specifying targets, and determining several product alternatives for the design process. Given the significance of concept generation in new product development, there are several concept generation techniques. These techniques can be utilized to create variations of the basic concept in relation to different product form, characteristics, positioning, benefits, and customer target.
Overview of Concept Generation
According to Nobel (2013), concept generation is the process through which product development team creates or obtains ideas relating to the various aspects of a product such as product form…… [Read More]
reakfast is considered the important meal of the day. It is a good, nutritional start for the rest of the day. The metabolism of the human body is at its peak from morning to noon. More energy is required during this period. Nutritionists believe that breakfast should be the heaviest meal of the day. And meals should become smaller as the day progresses. Cereal is a good source of carbohydrates -- the body's primary fuel-source. When the body does not get enough carbohydrates, it scavenges muscles for fuel. This leads to a toxic condition known as ketosis.
In this day of hectic time-schedules and careers, a mother's access to a quick and healthy diet is essential. Cold cereals are healthy. They are quick and easy to prepare. They often provide both carbohydrates (from the cereal) and protein (from the milk) -- essential components for the body. Many recent studies have…… [Read More]
Diet Plan (Anemia)
The following iron rich diet plan is designed to help my 18-year-old sister address her iron deficiency anemia. Health needs include a more balanced diet and healthier eating habits with more consistency. This includes 18 milligrams of iron per day (based on age, condition and gender). This nutritional recommendation will decrease anemia effects such as general fatigue and body chills.
Three meals (with 2-3 snacks) per day are recommended for a balanced diet. This includes the appropriate intake of iron and other basic nutrients. Limits should be placed on white sugar, soda and sweets; they should be consumed in moderation or eliminated from her diet due to their low nutritional value. Iron rich foods are recommended -- lean poultry and fish are more easily absorbed sources of iron and foods high in Vitamin C aid in absorption. Choices include citrus juice and fruits,…… [Read More]
Return guests comprise approximately 15% of bed and breakfast guests with another 15% of guests being individuals who have been referred by former guests of the bed and breakfast. Therefore, it can be understood that "quality of stay and customer satisfaction" are both important factors in the decision making process of the guest when choosing to stay at the bed and breakfast as compared to staying at another establishment. Qualities of the room that contribute to the overall satisfaction of guests include the following:
Mattress and pillow quality - 88%
Towels - 84%
Linens - 82%
Washcloths - 75%
Glasses - 62%
Reading lights - 61%
Soap - 50%
Reading material - 30%
The work of Tucker and Lynch entitled: "Hospitality, Tourism and Lifestyle Concepts" states that there are several categories of host types based on social control strategies and interactions with guests. Each of these types of accommodations along…… [Read More]
The total supply of milk might remain the same, because the remaining high-efficiency producers are likely to be able to earn profits at this level of output. In the long-run, however, lower prices are going to sustain the quantity of milk demanded at higher than equilibrium levels, and the profits available to producers at lower than equilibrium levels. Producers, in their efforts to control costs, are going to reach a point of diminishing returns on those efforts. The result of this is that the market for milk will eventually become so distorted by the price ceiling that the government is forced to raise the price ceiling in order to ensure that there are producers remaining in the market. The government will have created a situation where to simply maintain the milk market requires active management.
2. There are several factors that contribute to the price elasticity of demand. One factor…… [Read More]
Diabetes and Obesity: What Are the Choices?
Diabetes is becoming an increasingly serious health problem across the United States, and indeed across the world. The majority of cases of diabetes, both in terms of new diagnoses and of current cases, are those of Type II diabetes, which is a condition generally brought on by overweight or obesity and lack of exercise, that prevents an individual's body from being able to metabolize the glucose in food in an efficient and healthy way. Individuals with Type II diabetes (as opposed to individuals with Type I diabetes) can generally be quite successfully treated by losing weight and increasing exercise. Individuals with Type II diabetes can often bring their symptoms and risks under control and even potentially eliminate them through good diet and weight loss.
Given that Type II diabetes can have very serious long-term consequences (including early death due to stroke or heart…… [Read More]
Theme: The use of popular entertainment figures in print, on television, and on the Internet to sell sugar to children
Print Advertising: Kellogg's Star Wars Pop Tarts
Who could be more worthy of one's trust than the wise, kindly figure of Star Wars' young bi Won Kenobi (embodied by the actor Ewan MacGregor) when he is fighting the Dark Forces of destruction embodied by the mature, black-mask encased Darth Vader? A recent advertising campaign for Kellogg's pop tarts deployed just such a popular media figure to sell Pop Tarts to children. "Toast up this Jedi Snack!" It shouted from the printed page. In the advertising campaign for the pop tarts, the name of Star Wars is not merely invoked to make Kellogg's Pop Tarts seem more attractive or tasty for breakfast. Rather the new 'Wildberry' flavor of the tart and the images movie are melded into one, erroneously…… [Read More]
breakfast "trumps" all other meals for the top spot."
It is widely believed that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. The likelihood of children who always take breakfast having favorable nutrients like carbohydrates and fiber and less cholesterol and fat is higher than is the case among children who seldom take breakfast. Consuming breakfast is also linked to improved overall lifestyle. Children who do not have breakfast regularly report weaker cardiovascular fitness. These assumptions of the place of breakfast in the health of children are grounded on laboratory research. While the evidence is a bit mixed, available studies indicate that breakfast improves children's cognitive aptitude and performance, especially in the areas of attention and memory. Further, the effect having breakfast causes is more pronounced among undernourished children (Katie Adolphus, Clare L. & Lawton, Louse Dye, 2013).
esearch indicates that not having breakfast reduces one's ability to solve…… [Read More]
This increases the risk of heart disease in adulthood. Those ingesting the highest added sugars had lower levels of good cholesterol and higher levels of bad cholesterol. High-density lipoprotein levels are the good cholesterol, while the low-density lipoproteins are the bad cholesterol. There was a 9% difference between those who consumed sugar at the highest levels at 54 mg/dL of HDL levels and those with the lowest levels at 54 mg/dL. Research says that sugary beverages contribute the largest amount of added sugars. Examples are sodas, fruit drinks, coffee and tea (Welsh).
Combining its findings with the sugar content data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture My Pyramid equivalent databases, the survey team found a higher risk of cardiovascular disease in adding sugar and replacing the energy requirement from less than 10% to more than 30% (Welsh et al. 2011). The study involved 646 adolescents as volunteers. It found that…… [Read More]
5 gram per pound of bodyweight. Proteins give the muscle energy to grow but carbohydrates are just as important to promote the muscle to heal.
The following is a 3 day meal schedule recommended to the athlete:
reakfast- High energy cereal with whole milk
Fruit of his choice
Apricot nectar juice
Corn and peas
Snack (3)- left up to the athlete
reakfast- Eggs and whole wheat or grain toast
Fruit of his choice
aked or roasted fish
Corn and beans
Snack (3)- left up to the athlete
reakfast- Hot cereal with whole milk
Fruit of his choice
Steak or ground beef
aked potato…… [Read More]
The interest of certain categories of public in promoting this trend has significantly intensified. Therefore, the demanded quantity of organic products is likely to increase.
2. There are several factors that influence the organic products supply. The most important factors are represented by prices, costs of production, prices of traditional products, weather, and technology. In the case of the influence of prices, if they increase the supplied quantity of organic products is likely to increase also, because the company is interested in increasing its profits. The costs of production are also very important. If these costs increase, it will be more difficult for the company to produce these products, leading to reduced supply.
The prices of traditional products can determine the purchasing behavior of organic products buyers. If prices of traditional products increase, becoming similar to those of organic products, some of these customers can orient towards organic products, leading…… [Read More]
After she got cleaned up and put down her bag, they went out to eat at a diner. Lexi wanted to order the beef that tasted of home, but Grandma and Pop-Pop said that would be too much for a little girl and ordered her chicken fingers instead. "Every kid likes chicken fingers," they said. Lexi hated chicken, and she also hated the Jell-O that came with her kid's meal. Her grandparents ordered from a menu called 'Early Bird Special.'
Lexi found riding around in the car after the long plane ride from Texas really boring, but she didn't say anything. That was Lexi's usual technique, to say nothing. Her dad called her the strong and silent type.
"What do you do all day in the middle of nowhere?" said her grandmother. Lexi imagined herself on a map labeled 'nowhere.' She knew what her grandmother meant, and kind of felt…… [Read More]