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Thus to some, Chinese acceptance of Buddhism was surprising given that "China was already a very old civilization, with a written language, a well-organized government system and educational system, with two well-established philosophical and religious traditions -- the Confucian and Daoist Traditions -- sophisticated literature, poetry, art & #8230; so we had here a very highly developed highly literate civilization, and Buddhism came from outside via missionaries" (Garfield 2010). Acceptance by the elite and the splintering of Buddhism into many different sects in China -- combined with syncretism with local deities, proved to be effective.
However, its outreach, even in ideological climates which might seem less-than-harmonious suggests that Buddhism stands apart from the insistence upon 'purity' of dogma characteristic of so many Western religions, which demand that the adherent choose between that religion and all others. There is no 'jealous God' in Buddhism, and since the ultimate goal is liberation…
Encyclopedia of Religion. Lindsay Jones (Ed.) Macmillan Reference, 2004.
Garfield, J. 2010 Buddhism in the West. Tibetan Buddhism in the West. Available:
http://info-buddhism.com/Buddhism_in_the_West_Jay_Garfield.html [12 Jun 2013]
Growth and the spread of Buddhism. 2002. The British Museum. Available:
An examination of the many issues like the left-right divisions in the monastic order, Buddhist social activism, the rise of organized lay movements as well as the Buddhist founded and inspired forms of political activity indicates that indeed politics has a great influence on Buddhism (Harris 1).
How cultural and social forces shaped Buddhism in China
A review of literature indicates that cultural and social forces shaped Buddhism in China. The vice versa is also true. The adoption of Buddhism in China is noted to have been accelerated the social and political duress that was affecting China. Buddhism was initially an alien concept in China with its origin being traced to India. By the time the concept was taking root among the Chinese population during the Tang dynasty, the concept was quickly losing its appeal in India.It is correct to say that the concept of Buddhism was at the right…
Buddhism and Shamanism Within Mongolian Culture
What origins relationships Buddhism Shamanism Mongolian culture? Show origins, evolved time, affected 50-year Socialist period, role plays modern day Mongolia. This applies country proper necessarily semi-autonomous area China referred -Mongolia.
Origin of Buddhism
Buddhism in Mongolia began as a result of its characteristics that it derives from Tibetan Buddhism which is of the Gelugpa School. In the past, Mongols worshipped heaven which was referred to as the eternal blue sky. The Mongol ancestors then followed the Northern Asian practices of Shamanism which were ancient. In Shamanism, human negotiators went into a state of trance and spoke to a numberless infinity of spirits which were accountable to the situations which involved luck or misfortune. The human intermediaries also spoke on behalf of the Mongols Davids, 1900()
The emperor of the Yuan Dynasty converted back to Tibetan Buddhism in the 14th and 15th centuries. However, the…
Boyle, J.A. (1972). Turkish and Mongol Shamanism in the Middle Ages. Folklore, 83(3), 177-193.
Bradsher, H.S. (1972). The Sovietization of Mongolia. Foreign Affairs, 50(3), 545-553.
Buyandelgeriyn, M. (2007). Dealing with Uncertainty: Shamans, Marginal Capitalism, and the Remaking of History in Postsocialist Mongolia. American Ethnologist, 34(1), 127-147.
Davids, T.W.R. (1900). Buddhism. The North American Review, 171(527), 517-527.
Buddhism vs. Islam
hat is the purpose of life? Life holds different meaning for people across the world; such different perceptions on life are framed by religious beliefs. Such meanings and significance be divided into two groups. There are people for whom the significance lies within the world we live in and then there are those who would like to believe in life after death and the entire notion of heaven (Shun 1995, 240). Those belonging to the first category can be further divided into three groups: those who perceive life in terms of family, those who belief life is all about love for country and lastly those for whom life is about mankind. The latter concept appears in religion; it is used by almost all religions to signify the meaning of life (Shun 1995, 242). Taking the latter notion into account, the paper investigates and draws on teachings and…
Hardy, Julia. (2012). Patheos Library-Human nature and the purpose of existence. n.d. http://www.patheos.com/Library/Buddhism/Beliefs/Human-Nature-and-the-Purpose-of-Existence?offset=1&max=1 (accessed 06-14, 2012).
Inc., Quran Explorer. Quran Explorer. (2006). http://www.quranexplorer.com/Search / (accessed 06-14, 2012).
Scott, David.(1995). "Buddhism and Islam: Past to Present Encounters and Interfaith Lessons." pg. 141-155.
Shun, Yin. (1995). "Teachings in chinese buddhism." 06 1995. http://www.buddhanet.net/ebooks_ms.htm (accessed 06-14, 2012).
Human beings, perhaps above all else, are storytellers. Humans value their stories highly and have extensive traditions of passing down the most captivating and popular stories through the generations. One such story that has lasted the test of time is the story of Buddha. His life and teaching grew into a philosophy and/or religion called Buddhism. There is a substantial quantity of writings on Buddha regarding his extended existential dialogues with disciples and colleagues. Buddha, is some ways similarly to the Ancient Greeks, saw the utility in discussion as a way to address and solve dilemmas of the human condition. Of the various aspects that construct Buddhism, the paper will focus only ethics, the nature of self, ultimate reality, and death. While all of these are aspects of Buddhism, they are all connected by their perspective and how one should integrate these ideas into one's everyday existence and over…
Buddha Dharma Education Association. (2012) Buddhist Ethics. Available from http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/budethics.htm . 2012 June 22.
Hardy, J. (2012) Ultimate Reality and Divine Beings. Patheos Library, Available from http://www.patheos.com/Library/Buddhism/Beliefs/Ultimate-Reality-and-Divine-Beings . 2012 June 22.
Piyadassi, M. (1982) The Buddha, His Life, and His Teachings. Buddha Dharma Association, Inc. The Wheel Publication, The Buddhist Publication Society 5. Retrieved from http://www.buddhistelibrary.org/en/displayimage.php?album=15&pid=49#top_display_media .
Seidel, E.C. (2012) Influence of Buddhism on Popular Culture. Available from http://www.eseidel.com/lu/matrix.html .
uddhism is a worldwide religion started over 2,500 years ago by Siddhartha Gautama, called "The uddha," in India (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004). Since then it has grown and spread across the globe and now 300 million people profess to be uddhist (Grow, 1996).
uddhism, like Protestantism, is actually a group of related religions that have some similarities and some differences (Grow, 1996). However, just as all Christians trace their beliefs back to the life and teachings of Christ, all uddhists trace their beliefs back to Siddhartha Gautama. One of the most significant differences between uddhist beliefs and other religions is that in uddhism, the basic perception of the world around us changes. uddhism characteristically describes reality in terms of process and relation rather than entity or substance (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004).
uddhist beliefs are organized into related groups of concepts. The basic doctrines of early uddhism, which remain common to all uddhism,…
Columbia Encyclopedia. "Buddhism." The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: columbia University Press, 2004.
(Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004)
Grow, Gerard. 1996. "Buddhism -- A Brief Introduction for Westerners." Accessed via the Internet 2/15/04.
Charity, it may be said, therefore, is the initial step in establishing any relationship with a person of another faith.
The barriers that one may face when attempting, however, to present the Gospel to a person of the Buddhist worldview may be found in the fact that Buddhism itself is not a religion. It is, rather, a kind of philosophy that enables one to remove oneself from the things in life which cause one to desire permanence -- or, rather, the infinite in the finite world. This, of course, could also be turned into an advantage when presenting the Gospel -- which contains the Infinite in the finite world in the Person of Jesus Christ Who is called the Beginning and the End -- the Alpha and the Omega. Christ is a religious solution to the problem of pain, which the Buddhist practices overcoming through adherence to the Buddhist Scriptures…
Sheen, Fulton. (2008). Life of Christ. NY: Doubleday.
Van Voorst, R.E. (2008). Anthology of World Scriptures. Belmont, CA: Thomson
It is through the process of death and rebirth that the knowledge is gained which will finally liberate the individual being from the central cause of all suffering itself - the cycle of death and birth. Essentially, it is only through knowledge that this can be achieved in most uddhist schools of thought.
The rationale behind the importance of reincarnation as a process that is required to escape the centrality of suffering is discussed by Keown as follows. "... The uddha was pointing out that human nature cannot provide a foundation for permanent happiness.... Suffering is thus engrained in the very fabric of our being.... until the condition is recognized there can be no hope of a cure.
2.4. The development of the types of uddhism
The early more conservative and doctrinaire form of uddhism was known as Theravada uddhism. Theravada uddhism literally translated means Old (Thera) Way…
Akira, Hirakawa. A History of Indian Buddhism: From Sakyamuni to Early Mahayana. Trans. Groner, Paul. Ed. Paul Groner. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990.
Becker, Carl B. Breaking the Circle Death and the Afterlife in Buddhism. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1993.
BRIEF INTRODUCTION to BASIC CONCEPTS of "TIBETAN" BUDDHISM. August 1, 2005. http://dl.lib.brown.edu/BuddhistTempleArt/buddhism.html
Buddhism. August 3, 2005. http://www.kat.gr/kat/history/Rel/Bud/Buddhism.htm
In an English concept of second nature performance of an action, no thought only the action is performed. The similar concept of u in Daoism, which is being or the ultimate understanding of what being is, is also represented in Buddhism by Atman, the inner or greater self.
Taoist thought in China had been exercised for a long time over the relation of non-being to being, (chen-ju) non-activity to activity. Buddhists also had been concerned with similar problems: the relation of the Absolute being (chen-ju) to the temporal of nirvana to Samsara. The exponents of Madhyamika believed that it was impossible to describe the nature of ultimate reality. Seek to define the infinite and it no longer remains infinite. Seng-chao (384-414), who was closely associated with Kumarajiva, was the first great teacher of San Lun, combining the Madhyamika philosophy with neo-Taoist thought. (Smith 127-128)
During the latter period of the…
Aubin, Francoise. "China: A down-to-earth hereafter." UNESCO Courier, 51.3 1998: 10
Hodous, Lewis. Buddhism and Buddhists in China. New York: Macmillan, 1924.
Ikeda, Daisaku. The Flower of Chinese Buddhism. Trans. Burton Watson. New York: Weatherhill, 1986.
Kohn, Livia, and Michael Lafargue, eds. Lao-Tzu and the Tao-Te-Ching. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1998.
The "collective harming and killing committed by governments...and harming or killing being of the natural world through soil depletion, clear-cutting, lab testing and poisons," Rothberg writes (274), is a violation of the 1st Precept as practiced by those of Theravadan Buddhist faith.
And so, a person of Theravadan Buddhist beliefs would have a right, within the context of being in discussion in the temple, to criticize the Bush Administration for its role in the invasion of Iraq, the occupation of Iraq, and the ongoing tyranny in Iraq. Certainly, the "collective harming and killing" of innocent citizens in Iraq by U.S. forces - sent there by the executive branch under Bush - is an anathema to the 1st Precept of Buddhism.
One can clearly see why this form of Buddhism would resonate with modern, progressive esterners; because, in a democratic society where the citizens vote to elect leaders to represent them,…
Coleman, James William. The New Buddhism: The Western Transformation of an Ancient
Tradition. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Rothberg, Donald. "Responding to the Cries of the World: Socially Engaged Buddhism in North
America." The Faces of Buddhism in America. Eds. Charles S. Prebish and Kenneth K.
This also means that it is the Sovereign God and not just Lady Luck that is the Lord of Israel.
Since God is sovereign by nature, it means that His sovereignty even extends to the allocation of Gods to tribals and to pagans, and this also means that God did not simply hand over His very representation of Himself as the Father and as the Son and as the Spirit to Lady Luck, and then relax, nor did He give over to chance or to Providence the form of government for the nation that He had chosen to bless by spreading His teachings and wisdom among the people of that region. Krister Stendal, the former Dean of Harvard Divinity School, made a comment wherein he said that God had chosen manly and masculine metaphors with which to describe Him, and that this was by mere accident and chance. However, in…
Buddhism and gender Equality. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.faithnet.org.uk/KS4/Social%20Harmony/buddhismequality.htm. Accessed on 24 March, 2005
Christianity IV Century. Retrieved at http://library.thinkquest.org/29369/Christianity/Christianity.html. Accessed on 24 March, 2005
Decline and fall of Buddhism: A tragedy in Ancient India. Retrieved at http://www.ambedkar.org/books/dob7.htm . Accessed on 24 March, 2005
King, Karen. Women in Ancient Christianity, the new Discoveries. Retrieved at http://www.pbs.org /wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/first/women.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
12. The life of Buddha is generally illustrated in three stages. In order to attain a spiritual condition similar to Buddha, one would have to refrain from everything that is evil, to do good, and to purify the mind.
13. Psychoactive plants are often related to in Buddhism and some even claim that Siddhartha used hemp for several years before he came forth with his convictions and developing into the Buddha.
14. The Good Friday Experiment was a study directed by alter N. Pahnke with the purpose of finding out if psychoactive substances could produce philosophical theological thinking in religious individuals. The drug he used was psilocybin and the subjects tested reported that they experienced intense religious feelings, making Pahnke's experimentation a success.
15. Roland R. Griffiths conducted a similar experiment in 2006 and it is considered to be a follow-up to Pahnke's study.
16. Huston Smith promoted the belief…
1. Badiner, Alan Hunt & Grey, Alex, "Zig zag zen: Buddhism and psychedelics," Chronicle Books, 2002.
2. Dass, Ram & Metzner, Ralph, "Birth of a Psychedelic Culture:
Conversations about Leary, the Harvard Experiments, Millbrook and the Sixties."
3. Kent, James L. "Psychedelic Information Theory: Shamanism in the Age of Reason." PIT Press, Seattle, 2010.
There are three major recognized doctrines in uddhism: Theravada ("The Speech of the Elders"), Mahayana ("The Great Vehicle"), and Vajrayana ("The Diamond Vehicle").
Theravada was the initial teaching of the elderly disciples and is believed to be the most conservative of all doctrines, keeping the closest with uddha's own teachings and traditions.
The Mahayana stemmed from the liberal sect that broke away in the incipient phases of uddhism. The teachings of this sect showed that all levels of uddhist enlightenment were readily available for other uddhist believers, including some phases that were believed to have been reached only by uddha himself, such as the uddhahood. Following this and through the removal of Gautama's exceptionality, it was clear through Mahayana, that there were more uddhas in the world, all having reached a similar level of enlightenment and referred to as odhisattvas. The ways that the principles and paths for…
1. Boeree, George.1999. The History of Buddhism. On the Internet at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhahist.html.Last retrieved on September 24, 2008
2. Lama Surya Das. 1998. Awakening the Buddha Within: Tibetan Wisdom for the Western World. Doubleday.
3. Buddhism - the Buddha and the Fundamental Doctrines of Buddhism, Formation of Theravada Buddhism, Mahayana Buddhist Doctrines and Traditions. On the Internet at http://science.jrank.org/pages/7533/Buddhism.html.Last retrieved on September 24, 2008
4. Ross, Kelley. 2007. The Basic Teachings of Buddhism. On the Internet at http://www.friesian.com/buddhism.htm.Last retrieved on September 24, 2008
Buddhism directly evolved from the Vedic Aryan religions. The Gautama Buddha was born into a Brahmin caste family that practiced Vedic ritual and tradition. Siddhartha Gautama's teachings strongly reflect Vedic teachings regarding cosmology, morality, and culture. Although there are significant and widespread differences between the Vedic Aryan religious traditions, Buddhism reflects its roots. Some key differences between Buddhism and its Vedic counterparts include the espousal of the caste system; asceticism; theology; and forms of worship. The legend of Gautama Buddha's enlightenment reflects the ways that Buddhism diverged from its Hindu origins. According to the story, the young prince Gautama became severely disillusioned with his father's Brahmanism. His focus shifted toward a study of the human mind: Buddhism remains more solidly grounded in an individualistic, almost scientific pursuit of enlightenment while Hinduism retains its bhakti, or devotional elements. The Buddhist pantheon, or lack thereof, also reflects its branching away from the…
I have admittedly led a pretty sheltered life in terms of interactions with people from other cultures. I am not a Buddhist and so I do not have any first-hand experiences with the religious practices associated with Buddhism. Before this course, and before my experience, I knew some things about Buddhism, but only as much as most people know. For example, I knew that Buddhism is primarily associated with Asian culture, that Buddhists tend towards nonviolence and that they hope to achieve inner peace by positive actions. Buddhists are stereotyped as the idea of the monk in robes with shaved heads, but that is only a very small faction of the people who believe in Buddhism. Also, I knew beforehand that Buddhists were associated with nature and that they had many specific customs which were specialized to their own religion. Now that I have attended this religious event and…
Carus, Paul (1909). The Gospel of Buddha: Compiled from Ancient Records.
Dhammananda, K.S. (2002). What Buddhists believe. Buddhist Missionary Society of Malaysia.
Gach, G. (2010). To be continued: an editorial introduction to the future of Buddhism.
Buddhism and Kant
The Philosophies of Buddhism and Immanuel Kant:
An Examination and Comparison of Similar Beliefs
Major world religions and the philosophies that accompany them are quite numerous. With the help of the internet, anyone can research and find what certain philosophies state and how various religions correlate to one's own beliefs. In this way, he or she can adopt new beliefs, or strengthen existing ones. The study of philosophy, from Plato to Kierkegaard, from Buddha to Mao and from the temples of tribes in Africa, is a very complex and interesting field. In this paper, I will examine two philosophies: Buddhism and Kantianism. These philosophies are important, for both the aims that they promote and for their close links and similarities that are adopted by hundreds of thousands, and I will attempt to prove them both as important and similar in the central argument of this paper.
-helping others and -strengthening one's own views. [6: Retrieved from: http://web.singnet.com.sg/~alankhoo/Precepts.htm]
Within these principles, one must constantly strive to be good, which may be difficult, but this is what Kant and Buddhism teach society, and although difficult to put these principles into application today, it is not impossible, for many people can do so, if only they take some time from the fast paced, moving life of today.
Buddhism - Buddhism in Chinese History (Arthur F. Wright)
What were the political, social and cultural conditions that permitted the spread of Buddhism in the Chinese World? On page 17-19, the author indicates that there were social and political changes occurring in China that opened the door to the spread of Buddhism. For example (17), in A.D. 27-ca. 97, Imperial Confucianism, "which seemed to serve so well the needs of the monarchy and the elite," carried with it "several weaknesses which ultimately proved fatal." One weakness was the fact that "analogical reasoning" had been pushed so far it attracted the "criticism of skeptics and naturalists and thus brought the whole highly articulated structure into doubt."
Meantime, the author explains that while Imperial Confucianism was under attack (Wang Ch'ung had initiated this "process of erosion" of Imperial Confucianism), so too was Han dynasty Confucianism, which gave citizens of China during that…
Wright, Arthur F. (1959). Buddhism in Chinese History. Stanford, California: Stanford
Both Islam and Buddhism are great traditions that have contributed much to both history and religious development. In terms of morality, both religions make significant contributions. Buddhism teaches the learner that actions have consequences, and it is important to think about actions and consequences with one's own intellect in order to determine what actions should be taken. Islam, on the other hand, teaches that societal rights and wrongs are important, that morality cannot be changed from one generation to the next, and that a supreme being is the creator of morality. Both of these philosophies shine an interesting light on the topic of morality. They are excellent instigators of conversation and debate on the topic. For a modern society, however, Buddhism's version of morality seems to be the one that is more universally applicable. As Buddhism allows for religious changes over time, many would feel more convicted by…
Armstrong, Karen. (2000). Islam: A Short History. New York: Random House.
Buddhanet. (nd). Buddhist Ethics. Retrieved November 26, 2008, at http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/budethics.htm
Budhanet. (nd). Buddhist Pilgrimage. Retrieved November 26, 2008, at http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/buddha.htm
Maududi, Syed. (nd). The Moral System of Islam. Retrieved November 26, 2008, at http://islam101.org/introductory-mainmenu-33/13-introductory/17-the-moral-system-of-islam-by-syed-maududi.html
Then, the Buddha achieved Enlightenment, realizing the impermanence of human existence, and the falseness of a notion of fixed selfhood. Harrer achieved a kind of Enlightenment after experiencing the generosity of the Tibetan community where the Dalai Lama dwelled.
The film shows how the Austrian Harrer was effectively stripped of his secure sense of national identity after he was nearly conquered by the avalanche and met the Dali Lama. Once Harrer cared little for politics, and the politics he did advocate was divisive, hateful, and nationalistic. Harrer escaped from a PO camp run by the British, who found him after his accident, but by the end of the film he bears the British no resentment: he no longer identifies as part of any nation by at the film's conclusion. Like Buddhism is an international religion, so is Harrer's new, complex and more generous sense of identity. The Buddha was born…
Seven Years in Tibet. Directed by Jean-Jacques Annaud. 1997.
On top of the Chinese Buddha's head is a formation that, though it appears like a bowl, is really a rendition of the usnisa: the crown chakra. The usnisa all but disappeared in Japanese Buddhas, evident in the relatively flat-topped Kamakura Buddha.
The Kamakura Buddha thus illustrates how Japanese culture simplified the image of Buddha. The Chinese bronze statue, and many other Chinese Buddha images, are comparatively ornate when viewed alongside similar Japanese Buddhas. In the Chinese statue, Buddha sits on a platform flanked by two guardian beasts like lions or dogs. Such imagery is rare in Japanese renditions of Buddha. The Kamakura Buddha sits only on the stone platform built for the statue; there is no bronze carved platform whatsoever. This possibly indicates the Buddha's absolute simplicity and grounding.
Moreover, the Kamakura Buddha looks stunningly solid. Wide shoulders, paralleled by the folded legs, give an aura of strength and…
Ebrey, P.B. "Buddhism." A Visual Sourcebook of Chinese Civilization. Retrieved Oct 11, 2007 at http://depts.washington.edu/chinaciv/bud/5budhism.htm
Buddhism: Background, Origins, and Pillars
The life of Buddha is directly connected to the teachings of Buddha and reflect some of the main pillars of Buddhism. “Siddhartha Gautama, who would one day become known as Buddha (‘enlightened one’ or ‘the awakened’), lived in Nepal during the 6th to 4th century B.C” (biography.com). There are other religious figures that have made tremendous impacts on society, religion and the belief system of enormous groups of people; with many of these people, there is a lack of clarity regarding whether or not they actually lived. This is not the case with Buddha: most experts agree that he did live on earth for a period of time, though the exact milestones and experiences he had on earth remain under a certain amount of contention. “According to the most widely known story of his life, after experimenting with different teachings for years, and finding none…
Biography.com. (n.d.). Https://buddha. Retrieved from https://www.biography.com/people/buddha-9230587
Keown, D. (2018). The Meaning of Nirvana in Buddhism Explained. Retrieved from https://tricycle.org/magazine/nirvana-2/
This is a review of Freedom in Exile, the fourteenth autobiography known as The Autobiography of Dalai Lama. The account of The Dalai Lama was published in 1991. It is an account of his life from the point when he was born in 1935 in a village called Takster Dokham, when he was recognized as the 14 Dalai Lama at a tender age of two, movement to Central Tibet, the occupation of the PRC in the 1950s, when he went into exile in Indiana in 1959 and the life he led in exile. The autobiography gives the reader an exciting and often surprising account of the Monks life and his philosophies while in exile. It reveals that the monk’s life was far from being simple.
In his preamble to the autobiography called Freedom in Exile; The Autobiography of Dalai Lama, he makes clear the motivation to offer…
Instead, the practice bhakti-style devotion to various Buddhas and other supramundane figures (Protehero, 2010, p. 177). These are not manifestations of one God, as might be understood by practitioners of most Western religions, but more similar to spirit guides.
Another aspect of Buddhism that might be surprising is the understanding of "karma." The word is commonly used in our current lexicon and refers to the good or bad that comes one's way based on one's own good or bad deeds. It is thought of as a reward or, conversely, payback. It helps people make sense of the world if they can conceive of such cosmic justice. However, karma is more complicated and really has to do with cause and effect. The idea is that everything one does has consequences, which must be dealt with constructively before one can move on (Martin, 2011). It is about learning and personal growth rather…
Bailey, S.P. (2010). American zenophilia. Humanities 31(2).
Martin, S. (2011). 10 things you didn't know about Buddhism. The Boomington Post. Retrieved from http://www.sharpseniors.com/blog/10-things-you-didnt-know-about-buddhism/
Prothero, S. (2010). God is not one: Eight rival religions that run the world -- and why their differences matter. New York: HarperOne.
Wilson, J. (2011). The popularity of selected elements of Buddhism in North America. Dharma World. Retrieved from http://www.rk- world.org/dharmaworld/dw_2011julysept selectedelements.aspx
Buddhism, religion and philosophy founded in India c.525 B.C. By Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha. There are over 300 million Buddhists worldwide. One of the great world religions, it is divided into two main schools: the Theravada or Hinayana in Sri Lanka and SE Asia, and the Mahayana in China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan. A third school, the Vajrayana, has a long tradition in Tibet and Japan. Buddhism has largely disappeared from its country of origin, India, except for the presence there of many refugees from the Tibet region of China and a small number of converts from the lower castes of Hinduism ("Buddhism").
Buddhism is a blend of philosophy, religious belief and educational principles that focuses on personal spiritual development. Although the distinction may be somewhat blurred, strictly speaking, Buddhists do not worship gods or deities, and the Golden Buddha's people pray to are supposed to be merely aids…
"Buddhism." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (2009): 1. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 18 Sept. 2010.
"BUDDHISM." The Essentials of Philosophy and Ethics. Abingdon: Hodder Education, 2006. Credo Reference. Web. 17 Sept. 2010.
Jacobson, Doranne. "Buddhism and meditation." Calliope 5.4 (1995): 40. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 18 Sept. 2010.
Van Biema, David, Jeanne McDowell, and Richard N. Ostling. "Buddhism in America. (cover story)." Time International (South Pacific Edition) 49 (1997): 50. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 17 Sept. 2010.
BUDDHISM vs. HINDUISM
Describe essential teachings Buddha. How Buddhism modify Hinduism? How explain appeal Buddhism? eference
Describe the essential teachings of Buddha. How did Buddhism modify Hinduism? How can we explain the appeal of Buddhism?
Both Buddhism and Hinduism share many similar features. Both possess the doctrine of karma, or the notion that one's actions in this life affect what transpires later on. However, while Hinduism preaches the doctrine of anatma, or self, Buddhism preaches the doctrine of non-self (Difference between Buddhism and Hinduism, 2012, difference between.net). The first noble truth of Buddhism is that there is suffering and the second noble truth of the Buddha is that the cause of suffering is our delusion that we possess a self. For Hindus, the self is a static, unchanging and eternal thing. For Buddhism, what we believe to be the self is merely a conglomeration of the five aggregates: matter, sensation,…
Difference between Buddhism and Hinduism. (2012). difference between.net. Retrieved:
Eng, Tan Swee. (2006). Differences between Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism. A Basic
Buddhism Guide. Retrieved: http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/snapshot02.htm
Columbus reveled in making distinctions between his own culture and 'the other,' in a way that prioritized his own culture, even though ironically he went in search of a non-estern civilization's Indian bounty of spices.
Columbus' eradication of another civilization is the most extreme form of estern civilization's prioritization of distinction, in contrast to Buddhism's stress upon the collapse of such distinction. The most obvious negative legacy of Columbus, for all of his striving and inquiry, is the current racial divisions of our own society and the damaged material and cultural state of Native Americans. Although a change of attitude cannot heal these distinctions alone, adopting at least some of the Buddhist spirit of the acceptance of the 'Other' as one with the self or 'non-self' might be an important first step in creating common ground in our nation. Our nation was founded not simply in democracy, but upon European…
Ancient Chinese Explorers: Part 2." NOVA. PBS.org. Jan 2001. 14 Dec 2007. http://www.pbs.org /wgbh/nova/sultan/explorers2.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Shakyamuni Buddha, grew up a prince in India. As the Brahmin teachings of his family and homeland failed to provide Siddhartha with spiritual nourishment, he pursued a path to enlightenment on his own. Thus around 650 BCE Buddhism was born.
ith no deity or creation story, Buddhism appears to be more of a philosophy of living than a fundamental religion, although different sects of Buddhism espouse various beliefs in supernatural beings and dogma. Buddhists generally accept scientific explanations of the creation of life.
The central tenets of Buddhism are summarized in the Four Noble Truths: Suffering is inevitable; suffering is caused by desire and attachment to desire; to eliminate suffering, eliminate desire; in order to do so, follow the Eightfold Path. The Eightfold Path includes Right Views, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Contemplation. Buddhism is…
Boeree, C. George. "Buddhist Morality." An Introduction to Buddhism. 2000. 3 July 2003. http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/buddhamorals.html
Buddhism Basics." 3 July 2003. http://pages.prodigy.net/vancole/Basics.htm
(owland, 1953, p. 204) (Hallisey, 2003, p. 696)
The Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] Chronicle (Mah-mvam-sa)) is primarily a history of Buddhism in Ceylon though it gives reliable information on political history. It is perhaps unjust to maintain that India had no sense of history whatever, but what interest she had in her own past was generally concentrated on the fabulous kings of a legendary golden age, rather than the great empires which had risen and fallen in historical times. (Basham, 1954, p. 44)
Literature and art reflected the lives of the ruling class along side those historical narratives of Buddha, as can be seen in the first example. Medieval revivals also attempted to rejoin these depictions through restorative works that demanded the attention of many to the idea of a foreign king effectively expressing the Sinhalese culture. (Holt, 1996, p. 41) the tradition is long standing in the region and…
http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=6357199' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Buddhism is one of the world's major religions -- yet many dispute whether it should be called a religion at all. Buddhism has been called a 'philosophy' as much as a faith, because of its non-theocratic nature. Although the Buddha is revered as a historical figure, and many Buddhist traditions invest his persona with a kind of miraculous power, it is not necessary to believe in a god or gods to be a Buddhist. Buddhism could be defined as a way of coping with some of the perplexing problems that all religions grapple with to some degree: injustice and suffering. In contrast to the caste system of India, which stressed how karma could determine the cycle of one's birth or rebirth, Buddhism stressed the adherent's need to escape from the endless karmic cycle and to find a sense of peace and detachment called Nirvana.
The first noble truth of Buddhism…
Sumedho, Ajahn. (2012). The Four Noble Truths. Retrieved:
Buddhism emerged in India around 2500 B.C. At a time when conditions were critical in the area as a result of significant social and religious conflicts. Even with the fact that this culture contradicted a great deal of traditions in India during the period, it received wide-spread appreciation. The fact that it was initially not as well-organized as other religions that it interacted with did not stop it from pervading the Indian society.
The sense of self is a very important concept in Buddhism, as the religious ideology promotes it as being a constantly changing idea. Buddhist teachers emphasize the need to acknowledge that it would be wrong for someone to consider his identity as being equivalent to a particular value all the time. Identity changes over the years and ideas that seemed intriguing in the past might seem less impressive in the present.
Buddhism addresses life as a trial…
Bainton, R.H. (2000). "Christianity." Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Renard, J. (2002). "101 Questions and Answers on Buddhism." Random House Value Publishing.
D.). Rather than standing alone and interacting with the gazer, this Buddha holds back and is flanked by attendants, creating his own scene in the context of the relief. The Buddha's divinity, rather than his humanness is stressed in the design. The Buddha's hand is in a gesture of reassurance, conveyed from on high, as he sits upon an elevated platform.
Three seated Buddhas in the halo symbolize the deity's eternal nature, a concept that gained importance in China in the fifth century a.D" ("Seated Buddha with Attending Bodhisattvas," Early 6th century a.D.). Rather than being of the moment, and simplicity, the unique and eternal nature of the divine Buddha is stressed. The man's extraordinary, rather than ordinary qualities are at the forefront of the work. The limestone work is also embedded with scenes of the life of the historical Buddha and fantastical legends about his many incarnations over the…
Schumacher, Mark. "Overview of Zen Buddhism and Its Influence on Japanese Art."
21 Feb 2007] http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/zen_art_tour.shtml
Seated Buddha with Attending Bodhisattvas." Early 6th century a.D. [21 Feb 2007] http://www.worcesterart.org/Collection/Chinese/1934.34.html
Shaka Nyorai: Historical Buddha Enlightened One." [21 Feb 2007] http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/shaka.shtml
Compare and contrast Siddhartha Gautama's (uddha's) "going forth" into the monastic life with that of Maechi Wabi, based on the reading of "Journey of One uddhist Nun."
In his account of the story of uddha, Jonathan Landaw writes "As Siddhartha stood alone in the forest, ready to begin his great adventure, he thought, "From today onwards I am no longer a prince. Therefore, it is not right that I continue to look and dress like one." (Story, p 14). So began Siddhartha's journey of knowledge and enlightenment which would lead him to learning "the way to end all suffering" and becoming a uddha.
Like, Siddhartha, the uddhist nun, Maechi Wabi, also began her journey into uddhism from a background that otherwise would not shun, and not expect her to change her way of life so drastically. As a woman, Wabi's decision to become a nun was not initially acceptable…
Brown, S. The Journey of One Buddhist Nun: Even
Against the Wind
State University of New York Press, 2001
Gyatso, T. Dalai Lama My Land and My People
S. There were 2,794,130 Americans of East Asian decent in the United States in 1990. Not all of these people practice a traditional East Asian religion, and reliable figures for the religious affiliations of East Asians are impossible to obtain because the United States Census does not ask questions about religion. In addition, the religious groups are very disparate and keep different kinds of records, and many East Asians observe traditional religious practices only in a family and not in an institutional context. Still, it is clear that the number is sizeable. In addition, many Americans of occidental background have also become involved in East Asian religions, sometimes through a spiritual quest, sometimes through marriage, and sometimes as a by-product of an interest in meditation or the martial arts. Commitment may range from entering a Zen monastery to taking class or doing practices on a lower level. Figures for this…
Bendure, G. & Friary, N. (1993). Hawaii. Berkeley: Lonely Planet.
Cook, F.H. (1994). Heian, Kamakura, and Tokugawa Periods in Japan in Buddhism: A Modern Perspective, C.S. Prebish (ed.), 223-228. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Ellwood, R.S. (1994). East Asian Religions in Today's America. In World Religions in America, J. Neusner (ed.), 219-242. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster/John Knox Press.
Hammoind, P. & Machacek, D. (1999). Supply and Demand: The Appeal of Buddhism in America. In American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship, C.S. Queen & D.R. Williams (eds.), 100-114. Surrey, England: Curzon Press.
Today, the Dalai Lama works tirelessly to bring attention to the Tibetan cause, to illuminate human rights abuses by China and to move forward in creating an autonomous, if not independent Tibet. The quest for Tibetan independence and, subsequently, the quest for Tibetan autonomy, have both been informed by this distinct orientation of the Buddhism. The Tibetan mode of Buddhism has historically been a channel for political resistance and the vocalization of protest against injustice. As the text by Fisher indicates, Buddhists have "often been non-violent social activists, protesting and trying to correct injustice, oppression, famine, cruelty to animals, nuclear testing warfare, and environmental devastation. E.F. Schumacher preached what he called 'Buddhist economics,' to restore willingness to live simply, generously, and humanely with each other." (p. 161)
These are the very principles which underlie the global endeavors of the 14th Dalai Lama and which have garnered support from international human…
Fisher, M.P. (2011). Living Religions, Eighth Edition. Upper Saddle River: Pearson
Similar to how Keanu Reaves's character in Little Buddha is determined to achieve his goal, so are all Buddhists devoted to achieving enlightenment through intense meditation. Buddhists are constantly reminding themselves that life is but a small element in a much longer process, and, that life passes uncontrollably.
Both in Little Buddha and in heel of Time, the audiences are presented with the world of Buddhism shown from an outsider's point-of-view. To them, Buddhist monks appear to be mysterious and intriguing in the same time. Furthermore, most people are likely to feel an attraction to Buddhism consequent to viewing both movies. hile the general public considers Buddhist monks to be exceptional people, with an incredible dedication for their religion, Buddhists think of themselves as being nothing more than simple people, with goals that are different than the normal ones in society.
hile both movies succeed in promoting Buddhism, they also…
1. Little Buddha. Dir. Bernardo Bertolucci. Miramax Films, 1994.
2. Wheels of Time. Dir. Werner Herzog. 2003.
3. There is the cessation of suffering (duhkha-nirodha); and 4. There is a path leading to the cessation of suffering (duhkha-nirodha-marga)." (illis)
In Buddha's opinion, suffering (duhka) can be represented through any kind of pain and regardless of its form. The best representation of suffering can be presumably felt when a change from a state of happiness to a state of unhappiness occurs.
The cause of suffering (duhka-samudaya) states that most of the suffering that humans feel is because of their desires. Most humans are inclined to wish for something that they believe would grant them happiness. However, in most cases, the goal set by some might not have the desired effect on them once it has been achieved. In order for people to leave suffering behind, they would need to understand that the human nature does not necessarily depend on granted wishes.
The cessation of suffering (duhka-nirodha) refers directly…
2. Keown, Damien V., Prebish, Charles S., Husted, Wayne R.. 1998. HUMAN RIGHTS and UNIVERSAL RESPONSIBILITY. Curzon Press.
2. Sundaram, P.K. Om Sakthi Spiritual Movement. Available from: http://www.omsakthi.org/essays/buddhism_peace.html
3. Tenzin Gyatso, H.H. The XIVth Dalai Lama. His Hollines, the 14th Dalai Lama. Available from: http://www.dalailama.com/page.233.htm
4. Traer, Robert. Religion and Human Rights. Available from: http://religionhumanrights.com/Religion/Buddhist/buddhist.fhr.htm
uddhism and Christianity: Complementary Worldviews
According to the Gospel of Matthew, when a wealthy young man came to Jesus, and asked him how he might be made perfect, Jesus advised the eager young man to keep the commandments and essentially adhere to the Golden Rule to be good. ut when the young man persisted and asked the Savior for more advice, Jesus said that the man should sell all he owned and follow Him. Jesus said that the man should sell all he owned and seek to be rewarded in heaven, not on earth. ut the young man turned away, saddened that he would give up his great wealth to achieve spiritual perfection. Jesus commented to his disciples that it was easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven (Matthew 19:28). However, in the uddhist…
Boeree, George C. "The Basics of Buddhist Wisdom." Published by Shippensburg University.
1999. 7 Feb 2009. http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhawise.html
Boeree, George C. "The Life of Siddhartha Gautama." Published by Shippensburg University.
1999. 7 Feb 2009. http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/siddhartha.html
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy founded in India around 525 B.C. By Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha (Buddhism pp). There are two main schools of Buddhism, Theravada or Hinayana, which is found in Stri Lanka, Southeast Asian, and the Mahayana, which is found in China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan (Buddhism pp). A third school, called Vajrayana, is traditional in Tibet and Japan (Buddhism pp).
The basic doctrines of Buddhism include the "four noble truths," which state that existence is suffering, called dukhka, the cause of suffering is due to craving and attachment, called trishna, the cessation of suffering is called nirvana, and the path to the cessation of suffering includes the "eightfold path" of right views, "right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration" (Buddhism pp). Buddhism describes reality in terms of process and relation rather than entity and substance (Buddhism pp).…
Deegalle, Mahinda. "Is violence justified in Theravada Buddhism?"
The Ecumenical Review; 4/1/2003; pp.
Buddhism. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition; Columbia University: Gale
Group. 2005; pp.
Early Judaic religion also has a long extensive history. The ancient beginnings of Judaism come from the sands of the Syro-Arabian desert. Ancient ancestors of the later Hebrew people moved from the Mesopotamian desert towards the coast, moving into what is now known as Jerusalem and Palestine. Abraham was born into a family which still practiced early forms of animism. Through a religious epiphany, he began to worship only one deity, which he named El-Shaddi, meaning "the rock of the mountain," (383). He was encouraged by God to move to better grazing grounds, "The Lord had said to Abram [Abraham], leave your country, your people and your father's household and go to the land I will show you. I will make you a great nation and I will bless you; I will make your name great and you will be a blessing," (Gen. 12:1-2). After proving his loyalty, God rewarded…
King James Bible. Genesis. Found at http://etext.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/KjvGene.html . On October 13, 2007
Powers, John. A Concise Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Oneworld Publications. Oxford.
Noss, David S. History of the World's Religions. Prentice Hall. 12th ed. 2008.
Smith, Jean. The Beginner's Guide to Zen Buddism. Bell Tower. New York. 1999.
Hume believed that we couldn't really see what tied one event to the other, and that cause-and-effect does not hold up as an infallible rule, which means that by eliminating cause we can not guarantee that we are eliminating effect (Rich, 169). Perhaps Hume is more flexible on this point than Buddhism.
According to your understanding of Kuhn's writings, would an acceptance of an Eastern worldview in nursing constitute a paradigm shift by the profession? Explain.
A strict interpretation of Kuhn might lead one to believe that the incorporation of Eastern philosophy would indicate a revolution that would cause a paradigm shift in nursing. But because nursing already has elements of Eastern philosophy, it would be difficult to say a shift will occur, and perhaps more appropriate to say it already has occurred. The empathetic nature of nursing, and the role of nurse as educator, are not new. In fact,…
Naef, Rahel (2006). "Bearing witness: a moral way of engaging in the nurse-person relationship." Nursing Philosophy, Issue 3.
Rich, Karen (2003). "Critical Response to Rodgers and Yen's Article: Rethinking Nursing Science Through the Understanding of Buddhism." Nursing Philosophy, Issue 4.
Rodgers, Beth L. And Yen, Wen-Jiuan (2002). "Re-thinking Nursing Science Through the Understanding of Buddhism." Nursing Philosophy, Issue 3.
Treating others with compassion thinking "what a good person this will make me seem like," is rooted in egoism, one of the causes of the failure to achieve bodhichitta. Being able to give also means being able to receive compassion from others. Giving requires a state of egolessness and acceptance.
The second of the six conditions which enable us to achieve bodhichitta lies in a commitment to one's ethical worldview. In Buddhism this means committing acts which generate good karma. This is designed to circumvent the negative effect or failure of generating bad karma through evil actions.
The second condition is patience. This is an especially difficult virtue to cultivate today, given that in today's society, we expect instantaneous results. Expecting that bodhichitta will come instantly will hinder us on the path.
The fourth condition is determination or perseverance. This is also difficult to achieve today, given the many distractions…
Buddhism vs. Quine vs. Crowley
The research intends to compare Buddhism, vs. Quine vs. Crowley by examining some of the philosophy put across by the two Buddhist and other two contemporary philosophers. The research will spell out each philosophy one by one giving each a critical analysis and interpretation. The research intends to start by looking at Vasubandhu's Indian Buddhist Theory to be followed by the other Buddhism philosophy of Nagarjuna known as the philosophy of the middle way of Persons. The third and the fourth section will look at Quine's relativism, and Crowley's idea of crossing the abyss respectively. Lastly after a thorough look at each of the four philosophies the conclusion will give the comparison between each of the philosophy so as to satisfy the objective of the research.
Vasubandhu's Indian Buddhist Theory of Persons
Vasubandhu own contribution is the refutation or proving of the theory of self…
Bechert, Heinz & Richard Gombrich the World of Buddhism: Thames & Hudson, 1984.
David Kalupahana, (Ed) Nagarjuna, and Nagarjuna: Albany: State University Press 1986.
Davidson, Ronald M. Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.
Donath, Dorothy C. Buddhism for the West: Theravada, Mahayana and Vajray-na; a comprehensive review of Buddhist history, philosophy, and teachings from the time of the Buddha to the present day. Julian Press, 1971.
It is small, real elements like this that keep the characters' human consciousness alert and unable to yet make the final step towards enlightenment with a final departing from the real world.
Above the two rises the personality and figure of the Master Hyegok. A Zen master, he has devoted his entire life to learning about Zen uddhism and is now ready to pass that knowledge along to his pupils. With his time passing and his death approaching, he becomes more and more determined to leave the appropriate instruments for his pupils to use in order to achieve enlightenment and they use his teachings in order to attempt this after his death.
The "Ten ulls" pictures of the Zen tradition reflect the steps in the path to enlightenment and are a good fit on the stages that each of the characters in the movie have achieved. The bull itself is…
1. Reps, Paul; Senzaki, Nyogen. Zen Flesh, Zen Bones: A Collection of Zen and Pre-Zen Writings. (1957). On the Internet at http://www.iloveulove.com/spirituality/buddhist/tenbulls.htm.Last retrieved on July 31, 2008
Reps, Paul; Senzaki, Nyogen. Zen Flesh, Zen Bones: A Collection of Zen and Pre-Zen Writings. (1957). On the Internet at http://www.iloveulove.com/spirituality/buddhist/tenbulls.htm.Last retrieved on July 31, 2008
If however she had achieved the ideal non-attachment of Buddhism, her grief would still be real, but she would experience it in a different way. Her grief would be part of a process of letting go the son who is no longer there. A degree of non-attachment would then allow her to experience the grief as outside of herself rather than as part of her individuality. This would help her to move on with the life that is her own. In the above way a too great degree of attachment to human relationships may become destructive to the spiritual goal.
The same is true of a great degree of attachment to materialistic ideals such as food or money. Great ambition to accumulate money or physical assets may cause a person to lose sight of spiritual goals. This is a very one-sided approach to life, and may lead to destruction when…
They both emphasize on the teaching of doing good and following rules to live right and happily. They both have vigorous missionary programs, in which they convert people to their religion. In the two religions, the people can worship in groups or individually. The religions have a leader of worship that is a monk in Buddhism and a Priest in Christianity. The two principles in the religion used parables to teach, and they are egalitarians. The teachings on respecting others and treating them as oneself are acceptable in both religions. They both emphasize on charity towards the poor and aspire for greater spiritual perfection.
The differences are irrefutable, as Buddhism does not talk of a Creator, God while Christianity believes in a divine creator of Universe (allace 26). In Buddhism, the emphasis is on mediation and mindfulness, whereas that of Christianity places stress on prayer. Additionally, Buddhism emphasizes on…
Netland, Harold a, and Keith E. Yandell. Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal.
Downers Grove, Ill: IVP Academic, 2009. Print.
Wallace, BA. Mind in the Balance: Meditation in Science, Buddhism, and Christianity. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. Print.
King, Sallie B. Socially Engaged Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawai-i Press, 2009. Print.
The buggy piece of software is not embedded in the computer; it is just a program that can be eliminated by recognizing it for what it is. Likewise, the inner critic is a program that can be extricated from the mind by recognizing it as such and then erasing it from the system's hard drive. When the inner critic is no longer part of the person's identity, he or she is liberated from the tyranny of self-criticism and self-hatred. Any self-critical thoughts that arise during the day are dismissed with a simple smile, in the same way a customer service representative deftly dismisses irate customers.
Mindfulness brings up not only cognitions but emotions and physical sensations as well. Those emotions and physical sensations can be used as biofeedback tools in the process of healing. If the client becomes aware of feeling tension in the neck when certain critical thoughts arise,…
Carey, B. (2008). Mindfulness meditation: lotus therapy. International Herald Tribune. May 27, 2008. Retrieved Aug 5, 2008 from http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/05/27/healthscience/27budd.php
Elliot, J.E. (1993). Using Releasing Statements to Challenge Shoulds. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Volume 7, Number 4, 1993, pp. 291-295(5)
Elliot, K.J. (1999). The Inner Critic as a key element in working with adults who have experienced childhood sexual abuse. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic. Retrieved Aug 5, 2008 from http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1773747
Teasdale, J.D., Williams, J.M.G., Soulsby, J.M., Segal, Z.V., Ridgeway, V.A., & Lau, M.A. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence of major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 68(4): 615-623.
There are many ironies and paradoxes embedded within the Four Noble Truths. For example, it is ironic that one must desire liberation from desire. Such seeming contradictions are resolved easily by discerning the difference between the desire for truth, wisdom, and peace vs. The desire for things that are harmful to the psyche such as pride, revenge, or anger. The Four Noble Truths are essentially psychological in nature rather than spiritual or metaphysical. The Four Noble Truths are like a type of cognitive-behavioral therapy.
The Four Noble Truths can be understood as a consistent and coherent whole. In fact, the Four Noble Truths are best understood as a whole rather than being fragmented. When considered as a whole, the Four Noble Truths play themselves out in the person's mind each and every day, possibly each and every moment. The person who becomes more aware of how suffering arises in the…
) These consist in offerings made at the home shrine or performing puja to the family deities whereas Nainittika occur only at certain times during the year.For instance, the celebration of festivals in temples, offering thanksgiving etc.Kamya are pilgrimages. Although optional they are ocnsidered by the followers of the faith to be highly desirable. It allows a devotee to see and be seen by the deity which is an important part of Hindu Worship. Areas of pilgrimage would be rivers (especially river Ganges, and holy places such as Banares (believed to be the home of Lord Shiva), Allahabad, etc.), temples, mountains, and other sacred sites are popular pilgrimage places
Due to the atheistic nature of Buddhism, this faith has no doctrine of a personal god. In order to arise to enlightment buddhist meditate.Meditation involves the body and the mind. For Buddhists this is particularly important as they want to avoid…
Knipe, David M. Hinduism: Experiments in the Sacred. Religious traditions of the world. San Francisco, Calif: HarperSanFrancisco, 1991. Print
Knott, Kim. Hinduism: A Very Short Introduction. Very short introductions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Print
Meditation centers became popular during this time, and so did extensive study into eastern religions, such as Buddhism.
There is another aspect of Buddhism that has had a remarkable effect on American society in just about every area, and that is yoga. While all Buddhists do not practice yoga (or meditation, for that matter), a large part of them do. Yoga has spread from being a relatively unknown practice to one of the most popular types of no-stress exercise in the country today. Millions of people attend yoga classes each week across the country, and it is touted as an excellent source of exercise for mind and body.
Buddhists are often thought to be non-materially oriented and interested more in spiritual enlightenment, but that is another area where the religion has altered in America. Author McCormick continues, "Instead, one's external, material circumstances are viewed as an effect of one's inner,…
Coleman, J.W. (2001). The new Buddhism: The western transformation of an ancient tradition. New York: Oxford University Press.
McCormick, R.M. (2002). Buddhism in America. Retrieved 4 May 2009 from the NichirenCoffeeHouse Web Site: http://nichirenscoffeehouse.net/Ryuei/Buddhism-in-America.html.
Seager, R.H. (1999). Buddhism in America. New York: Columbia University Press.
Emptiness, as we also find in some Hindu philosophies like Advaita, is the eternal emptiness that is beyond dualism and which is rich with possibilities that far exceed the dualities of the ordinary world. In most Buddhist schools of thought we understand the search for Nirvana as the personal search for enlightenment and understanding of existence beyond ordinary duality. This is also reflected in Advaita Hinduism.
Another important area of comparison is the rejection of a personal God or the concept of God as part of the realization of Nirvana. This is evident in all forms of Buddhism and in Advaita Hinduism. However, the Dvaita school of thought and other forms of Hinduism tend to place emphasis on God or Gods as essential for enlighten.
There are many other similarities and differences between these two faiths, which would take as few books to discuss. In the final analysis we could…
Advaita. February 6, 2010.
Dasa, Shukavak N. A Hindu Primer. February 3, 2010.
He instructs people that everything is possible through belief, and, that their life is nothing as they had previously perceived it. The claim that "the universe is an infinite sphere whose center is everywhere and whose circumference is nowhere" (Bernard, I Heart Huckabees) is a clear reference to Buddhism, with the religion's followers believing that nothing is as society sees it, and, that everything has shape and color because people want it to. Also, they believe that everything in the universe is connected, even with the fact that people are accustomed to differentiating.
Bernard continues to promote Buddhist theories by describing how every person is the same and differences in language, skin color, and backgrounds are not to be considered actual dissimilarities, as they are just the outer shell of the spirit. People are generally limited by themselves, with them being unable to attain a higher state of mind because…
1. I Heart Huckabees. Dir. David O. Russell. Fox Searchlight, 2004.
2. Rashomon. Dir. Akira Kurosawa. Daiei/Rko Radio Pictures, 1950/1951.
Wisdom in Buddhism
Some twenty-five hundred years ago, Buddha Shakyamuni devoted the last forty-nine of seventy-nine-years of life teaching his practices to people in the area today of Northern India about enlightenment and how to achieve that state of being, as he had. The term Buddha as translated today from the Sanskrit word means wisdom or enlightenment, though the two terms are not interchangeable. It is the goal for all sentient beings to achieve enlightenment, or Buddhahood, where all pain and suffering in one's life are extinguished and removed from their very being. Nevertheless, wisdom is an essential concept within Buddhism; in fact, it is the third essential elemental practice within the Noble Eightfold Path. Wisdom is innate in all of us, as is enlightenment. Some two thousand years ago, some forty Mahayana sutras were composed on the perfection of wisdom, which is also known as prajnaparamita. There are three…
Buddha the founder of the Buddhist faith lived in India, Bihar, from 563-483 BCE. As the Buddha or enlightened one he preached his doctrine of the four great truths. Sorrow is inherent in life, it arises from desire, and only by eliminating desire can man be released from sorrow. This may be achieved by following the noble eight-fold path of right conduct in vision, thought, speech, action, giving, striving, vigilance and meditation. He preached that this middle path would lead to nirvana. There are now 4 distinctive types of Buddhism.
Theravada - or "way of the elders" - is the sole remaining form of conservative Buddhism, of which there were once at least 18 schools, or nikaya. It originated in India during the centuries after the final nirvana of the Buddha and was probably the dominant form of Buddhism in India. Theravada is now the dominant form of Buddhism in…
Buddha-Nature and Enlightenment
Buddhism is a unique religion: it doesn't worship any deity nor does it require any individual to live their lives through divine will. Approximately 2,500 years ago, when Buddha achieved enlightenment he spent the next forty-five years teaching others that personal growth and awakening is possible through finding the truth within themselves. This concept is very alien in comparison to Western religions. There are many aspects of Buddhism, but what is essential is that personal awakening is possible personal experience and that suffering can be ceased through changing behavior, meditation, and transcendent wisdom. We are grateful to Siddartha Gautama for institutionalizing the practices we call Buddhism today so that we may better understand what Buddha experienced, and what he taught to the people along the Ganges River. Two essential understandings in the teachings of Buddhism are Buddha-nature and Enlightenment.
To understand Buddha-nature we must first to come…
Enlightenment: Karma, Bodhisattvas, and Nirvana
For some twenty-four hundred years, Buddhism has been a pre-dominantly Eastern religion. But in the last one-hundred-and-fifty years - ever since the first Asian immigrants arrived on these American shores as workers - the unique teachings and practices of Buddha have incorporated itself into Western society. And throughout the migration of this religion through the centuries, one goal has never changed: to achieve enlightenment as Buddha had under the bodhi tree. And what Buddha did next is the fundamental foundation of Buddhism: he taught others how to achieve it, too: he didn't keep the secret to himself. But there is no secret in achieving enlightenment. It only requires commitment, aspiration, following certain practices and vows, and understanding many concepts within Buddhism can an individual become enlightened. Three of the concepts an individual must come to understand are the laws of karma, identifying Nirvana, and knowledge…
uddhism and Christianity
As a system of belief, Zen uddhism arrived in Japan in the 14th century as the result of liberalization of trade relationships between Japan and China after finding it entry into the far eastern cultures through India. (Kitagawa, 1966) uddhism is a system of belief with many sects that follow individual masters who are said to have achieved a new revelation on how to apply the Four Noble Laws. uddhism was meant to give the practitioners influence and control over suffering in the world by teaching then to have greater control over themselves. The combined effect was to help the uddhist to respond differently to the suffering around him. Thereby the uddhist would be less entangled in the suffering in the surrounding world, and indirectly be able to affect change by lessening the corporate experience in suffering. In Medieval Japan, which was ruled by militaristic lords who…
The Four Noble Laws. 2004. Asunam -- Reiki Master 9 Feb 2004.
Tsunoda, R., de Bary W.T., and Keene, D. Sources of Japanese tradition. New York: Columbia University Press. 1958
Kitagawa, J. Religion in Japanese History. New York: Columbia University Press. 1966
The Thompson Chain Reference Bible, King James Version. 1964. Indiana: B.B. Kirkbride Bible Company.
hen Buddha discusses suffering or pain (dukkha), the First Noble Truth, he is referring not only to pain as though someone had burned a hand on a stove, or had stumbled and bruised knee. Dukkha-dukkha is in reference to negative things, painful emotional moments, mental agony and the suffering that goes along with mental disturbances. According to sources used for this paper, some scholars suggest that dukkha alludes to something closer to "dissatisfaction" or "stress" (about.com). And viparinama-dukkha also refers to change or a lack of permanence. For example, when a person is very happy but the success that produced that happiness fades away, that is dukkha (about.com).
The cause of suffering (samkhara-dukkha) (the Second Noble Truth) can be attributed to a "craving," and to "desire" and "ignorance"; desire means craving for material things and pleasure, along with immortality (pbs.org). Buddha believed these wants and desires could never be…
About.com. (2010). What is Self? / Life Is Suffering? What Does That Mean? Retrieved
July 20, 2015, from http://buddhism.about.com .
BBC. (2009). The Four Noble Truths. Retrieved July 20, 2015, from http://www.bbc.co.uk .
Bliss of Hinduism. (2012). The Self in Hinduism. Retrieved July 20, 2015, from https://blissofhinduism.wordpress.com.
Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam are a few of the "universal" or "universalizing" religions. Strayer frames the universalizing religions in terms of the spread of different cultures and ideas throughout the world. Religions are integral to social and political power and control, and thus have a transformative effect on society as well as on the individuals within that society. The nature of universalizing religion is such that they can be all-pervasive, permeating almost every dimension of life including political, economic, and social institutions. However, universalizing religions are distinct in that they actively seek new followers; they believe their message is indeed universal and contains universal truths embedded within it.
Although universalizing religions use different methods of spreading their faiths, they share in common the desire to influence human thought and even public discourse. Of the universalizing religions, Christianity and Islam have historically revealed the most aggressive evangelical tendencies but Hinduism and…
Kong, Lily. Christian evangelizing across national boundaries. Religion and Place, 2012, pp. 21-38.
Premawardhana, S. Religious Conversion. John Wiley, 2015.
"Religions of the World." Retrieved online: http://lindblomeagles.org/ourpages/auto/2015/2/18/44701116/L6_ReligionsReading.pdf
Strayer, R.W. Ways of the World. [Kindle Edition]. 2012.
Many believe that this judgment takes place within a person's lifetime through sufferings for acts committed, and one does not have to wait for the end of time. The basic belief of Christianity is that there is a Christian God, who is benevolent and giving, but who is also a vengeful God. In fact, a large part of Pilgrim theology was premised on God being vengeful, and that self sacrifices were needed to appease God. Christians also believe that Christ was the son of God, who came to fulfill the Messianic prophecy espoused by sages from the Old Testament. Goodness, kindness, good deeds, generosity, honesty are divinely inspired. Christians keep Christ as a cherished beacon to be emulated every step of the way. Good deeds (which would satisfy uddhists) without true faith is meaningless.
The uddhists have an assigned eight-step path to enlightenment. These are not far removed from any…
Bernstein, Alan E. The Formation of Hell: Death and Retribution in the Ancient and Early Christian Worlds. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.
Bowker, John Westerdale. The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Easwaran, Eknath. The Dhammapada. Petaluma, Calif.: Nilgiri Press, 1986.
Meeks, Wayne a. The Origins of Christian Morality: The First Two Centuries. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
This view is expressed in the Mahayana doctrine of the triple body (trikaya), of the Buddha. Such a view of Buddha also gave rise to the Mahayana concept of an infinite number of Buddhas, or transformation bodies of the essential Buddha, appearing in innumerable worlds to help others reach enlightenment. ("Mahayana Buddhism" para on Doctrine)
The Theravadians consider the Pali Canon -- the earliest recording of Buddha's oral teachings -- as the sole authoritative scripture of the Buddhist religion and philosophy. In contrast, the Mahayanas, while not disputing the Pali Canon, consider a number of other "sutras" that were written much later as Buddhist scripture. These include the Perfection of isdom (Prajna-Paramita) Sutra, the Avatumsaka sutra, the Lotus sutra, and the Nirvana sutra. The Mahayana Buddhists justify the validity of these writings as scriptures by the argument that these sermons of Buddha were initially hidden but were revealed several centuries…
Akira, Hirakawa. A History of Indian Buddhism. Trans. Groner, Paul. Ed. Paul Groner. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990.
Hooker, Richard. "Mahayana Buddhism." World Civilizations Web site. 1999. March 20, 2005. http://www.wsu.edu:8000/~dee/BUDDHISM/MAHAYANA.htm
Mahayana Buddhism." BELIEVE Religious Information Source. n.d. March 20, 2005. http://mb-soft.com/believe/txh/mahayana.htm
Theravada Buddhism." BELIEVE Religious Information Source. n.d. March 20, 2005. http://mb-soft.com/believe/txh/theravad.htm