Filter By:

Sort By:

Reset Filters

Budget Cuts Essays (Examples)

Having trouble coming up with an Essay Title?

Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly

Briefing Note and Make a Recommendation for a Budget Cut
Words: 862 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39008926
Read Full Paper  ❯

Briefing Note

The recent economic climate has been a challenge in all sectors of life, including the health care sector. The purpose of this document is therefore to propose a 10% budget cut for health care in the province, based on the fact that severe economic circumstances have necessitated a lower allocation of government funding for this purpose. The question and focus for this briefing note is therefore: How can we achieve the necessary budget cut without compromising the quality of care taxpayers and insurance holders have come to expect in this country?

The current economic turndown has affected both individuals, businesses, and governments. Most individuals are in a situation where they need to manage their money very carefully in order to make ends meet in an economy where salaries remain the same while prices increase incrementally. The same is true for governing bodies such as ours.

The cost of…

State Health Department Budget Cut During the Revenue Shortfall
Words: 1204 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 68946951
Read Full Paper  ❯

Health Department Budget Cut during the Revenue Shortfall

Yersey Yersinian, State Governor

FROM: Curtis Healy, Health Commissioner

Cutting Budgets during the imes of Revenue Shortfall

Our current fiscal budget has revealed that we have already run short of our project revenue and the issue requires immediate attention. In the present fiscal year, we are facing challenges of raising tax revenue for the projected fiscal year. By consequence, the tax revenue projected for the fiscal year between July and June is short of $30 Million. While the fiscal year has nearly run into half, the shortfall could increase by 7% if immediately solution has not been implemented to arrest the situation. he immediate problem that we are facing is the strategy we could adopt to raise up to $60 Million within six months. he solution is not to raise the government fees or taxes because implementing these policies will make us…

The memo recommends different policy options that the government should employ in order to cut expenses of the state health department to meet the proposed budget for the fiscal year. The memo recommends that the government should cut the WIC expenses to save $2 million. Moreover, the memo suggests that the government should cut expenses on the health promotion program to save $3 million. We should also cut expenses on marketing program to save $150,000. All these savings will assist us to implement high quality health program in the state.


Grum, G.E.(2014). State Health Department Cutting Budgets in Times of Revenue Shortfall. University of Virginia. Wise.

Impact of Budget Cut in State Government Public Policy
Words: 2169 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23279743
Read Full Paper  ❯


The current fiscal crisis facing American states has led to some drastic changes in state budgets. Throughout the country various states have been struggling to balance budgets without cutting vital services to citizens. In many states this quandary has caused a great deal of debate and has proven to be a major hurdle for governors. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the New York State budget as proposed by New York's governor, Andrew Cuomo. The research will focus on how the budget affects the public policy especially in the health care field. The discussion will also evaluate the advantages of the proposed budgetary cuts.

Proposed Budget

On February 11, 2011 the governor of New York released the 2012 budget proposal. There are several cuts that are expected to take place as a result of this budget. The governor explains that

"New York is at a crossroads, and…

Works Cited

Early Medicaid proposal calls for fee on hospitals. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from: 

Future of NY schools, teachers online in budget. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from; 

Medicaid and New York's Budget. New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from: /2011/02/19/opinion/19sat1.html?src=twrhp

Cuomo, A. State Budget. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from:

Budget Crisis How Current Budget Crisis Impact
Words: 904 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88676129
Read Full Paper  ❯

Budget Crisis

How current budget crisis impact public Health & Community services individual states? 1) Colorado 2) South Carolina 3) New Hampshire 4) California 5) Arizona 6) Oklahoma 7) Virginia

How does the current budget crisis impact the public health & community services in the following individual states?


Even before the current crisis, Colorado ranked "near the bottom when compared to other states for covering families and children for health care" (Anderson 2011). Now, because of recent budget cuts, healthcare services are likely to suffer further. For some healthcare centers, cuts will comprise up to 20% of their annual operating budgets. The need for services has increased, given that job losses mean that more people are reliant upon state assistance. "Demand is up as much as 40% by Medicaid patients and 23% by the uninsured" (Anderson 2011). Public clinics are closing or laying off staff and reducing hours because…


Anderson, Polly. (2011). The crisis: Field perspective Colorado. NACHC.


Kaine's budget proposal: Cut mental health services, facilities. (2009). Hampton Roads.


Budgets in Order to Address
Words: 1145 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58811411
Read Full Paper  ❯

125% to 6.0% would increase the estimated revenues by approximately $300 million, bringing this revenue to its highest level in history. This rate would still be lower than the state sales tax rate in neighboring Southwest states such as Arizona (6.6%), Texas (6.25%), Nevada (6.85%) and California (7.25%) (Sales Tax Clearinghouse, 2010). ith this increase, personal income tax rates would not need to be increased. Corporate income tax rates would also remain the same, as they are not a significant component of general revenues. hile the move to increase the state sales tax would prove unpopular, it would allow New Mexico to build for a more stable budget future, less reliant on federal transfers, while remaining competitive in terms of corporate and personal income taxes.

Appropriations will also need to be cut in order to save money. The main problem with appropriations in the budget is that a looming and…

Works Cited:

Massey, B. (2010). NM revenues weaken, more state budget cuts loom. Business Week. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from 

McCaffrey, S. (2010). State budget shortfalls may reach $180 billion this year. Boston Globe. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from 

McNichol, E.; Oliff, P. & Johnson, N. (2010). States continue to feel recession's impact. Center of Budget Policy Priorities. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from 

New Mexico 2011 Budget. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from

Budget Process for Las Vegas Metropolitan Police
Words: 1499 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11927155
Read Full Paper  ❯

budget process for Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department (LVMPD). LVMPD was formed in 1973 as a result of the merger of the Las Vegas Police Department with the Clark County Sheriff's Department. LVMPD serves the city limits of Las Vegas along with unincorporated areas of Clark County.

LVMPD is funded by the City of Las Vegas and Clark County. Police department funding is based on a complex formula determined by population, calls for service, and the number of felony crimes from the previous year. Both city and county governments must approve not just the annual operating budget, but also their respective percentage of the budget. In addition to funding supplied by the two governments, the department itself generates approximately one-third of its funds though property tax and the charging for certain services, such as special events. A special sales tax to fund commissioned positions generates additional funding.

The Law Enforcement…

Works Cited

Haynes, B. (2011). Board votes to tap Las Vegas police reserves. Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved August 4, 2011 from: 

Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department. (2011). Amended Final Budget FY 2011- 2012. Retrieved August 4, 2011 from: Retrieved August 4, 2011 from: 

Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department. (n.d.). About Us Consolidation. Retrieved August 4, 2011 from: 

Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department. (2011). Fiscal Year 2011-2012 Budget-in-Brief. Retrieved August 4, 2011 from:

Cut Down and Lay Offs
Words: 3249 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98720884
Read Full Paper  ❯

Cut Down and Lay Offs

Contemporary eview

Success Cases or Programs

Practical ecommendation

As the world has crossed the threshold of twenty first century, the human race is confronting several diverse and different challenges in every corner of the globe. In this regard, considering the world of commerce, the human resource managements are constantly been observed to witness quite a few grave challenges that have become the top priority for the healthcare managers to take into account.

Inequity at workplace is one of the unfortunate and adverse realities that the workforce experiences on everyday basis. Layoffs or cut down of hours is one of the serious and severe issues of the contemporary environment that has is being experienced particularly in the health care institutions, and hence has become an extensive issue on a broad spectrum within the industry. Due to this, it has been taken into consideration with severity by…


Fallon, L. F. & McConnell, C.R. (2007). Human Resource Management in Health Care: Principles and Practice. USA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Graban, M. (2012). Lean as an Alternative to Mass Layoffs in Healthcare. Retrieved from Becker's Hospital Review website: 

Herman, B. (2012). 3 Reasons Why Layoffs Don't Benefit Hospitals in the Long Run. Retrieved from Becker's Hospital Review website: 

Larocque, M. (2012). Staff layoffs at Taunton's Morton Hospital a possibility. Retrieved from Taunton Daily Gazette website:

Budget DQ1a I Don't Need
Words: 1073 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 89806186
Read Full Paper  ❯

Looking over a spreadsheet can clarify when to make larger purchases, such as waiting until the start of a new billing cycle, or negotiating better payment terms offered by suppliers and any creditors, especially when interest rates are volatile.

Once the need for a budget is established then the organization can consider what type of budget it desires. For example, with zero-based budgeting, "all expenses must be justified for each new period. Every function within an organization is analyzed for its needs and costs. Budgets are then built around what is needed for the upcoming period, regardless of whether the budget is higher or lower than the previous one" (Zero-based budgeting, 2009, Investopedia). hile it is true that zero-based budgeting is more costly than traditional cost-based budgeting, it also favors enterprises specializing in areas "that achieve direct revenues or production" in the enterprise (Zero-based budgeting, 2009, Investopedia). For larger organizations,…

Works Cited

Activity-based budgeting.. (2009). Investopedia. Retrieved February 25, 2009 at  (Thebeauty of budgeting 2009). Investopedia. Retrieved February 25, 2009 at 

Budget. (2009). Investopedia. Retrieved February 25, 2009 at 

Capital budgeting. (2009). Investopedia. Retrieved February 25, 2009 at 

Cash budget. (2009). Investopedia. Retrieved February 25, 2009 at

Budget Problem Health Care Is
Words: 1819 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92902059
Read Full Paper  ❯

S. debt.


Health care is a large part of the federal budget and it is increasing in importance. The rate of growth in health care outlays is greater than the rate of growth in the budget itself. The poses a problem, because the federal budget deficit is increasing in size. Debt service is going to be the most rapidly growing component of the federal budget over the next several years, highlighting the need to control costs in all aspects of the budget. The challenge, however, is that both demographic trends and health care cost inflation trends signal a dramatic increase in health care costs in the coming couple of decades. Health care reform is expected to help with cost containment, primarily through shifting some eligibility requirements, but greater solutions are required. Privatizing health care would take if off the government's books, but would have significant negative externalities with respect…

Works Cited:

Budget of the U.S. Government, fiscal year 2011. Retrieved December 9, 2010 from 

CBO. (2010). HR 4872. Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved December 9, 2010 from 

Klein, E. (2010). Rep. Ryan proposes radical solution to budget problem. Washington Post. Retrieved December 9, 2010 from

Budgeting Prior to the Classical
Words: 1212 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56011190
Read Full Paper  ❯

.. discretion as a practical matter" (1988, p. 78).

Wildavsky's was not critical of classical budgeting theory. He was more in favor of the concept of incrementalism that was a vital part of classical budgeting. He felt that incrementalism was superior to other budgeting approaches because it "increases agreement among the participants" (1984, p. 136) and also because it could reduce "burden of calculation" (1984, p. 136). Wildavsky went on to say that: "Clinging to last year's agreements is enormously economical of critical resources . . . which would be seriously depleted if all or most past agreements were reexamined yearly." (1984, p. 217).

The classical budgeting model proved efficient and practical for many decades but it lost its appeal in mid-20th century when a general trend towards excessive spending took over. This trend was observed all over the world and the main reason for the scope of government's responsibilities…


1. Caiden, Naomi. 1982. "The Myth of the Annual Budget." Public Administration Review 42 (6):516 -- 523.

2. Meyers, Roy T. 1997, Late Appropriations and Government shutdowns: Frequency causes, consensus and remedies. Public Budgeting and Finance. 25:38-45

3. Schick, Allen. 1980. Congress and Your Money. Washington: Urban Institute.

4. Schick, Allen. 1990. The Capacity to Budget. Washington: Urban Institute.

Government Budgeting for Kelsey Budget Changes Needed
Words: 2104 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83456162
Read Full Paper  ❯

Government Budgeting for Kelsey: Budget Changes Needed to Better Protect and Serve the Community

"We're not going to use the budget as an excuse. We're not crying about it. But I'm going to push as hard as I can to get as many people on the streets as I can. We need all hands on deck," so were the words of the Philadelphia Police Chief when faced with a similar situation to what Kelsey faces now (Steele 2010 p 2). Police strength is an absolute necessity in the effort to fight crime, both on local and larger federal levels. Without the appropriate funding resources, many local police forces around the country are beginning to suffer in terms of just how effective they are at fighting crime overall. Limited budgets mean limited capabilities, and that is exactly what the city of Kelsey is experiencing right now. Essentially, the budget is already…


Budget of the United States Government. (2004). Budgets and taxes. Almanac of Policy Issues. Web.

City of Kelsey. (2006). Annual Budget for the Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of Phoenix. Web. 

City of Kelsey. (2009). Kelsey profile. City Government. University of Phoenix. Web. 

DeWeese, Adrianne. (2011). Police say safety tax is needed to help alleviate 'blackout.' The Examiner. Web.

Municipal Budget
Words: 1550 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 95401588
Read Full Paper  ❯

Municipal Budget Analysis

The objective of this work in writing is to assess the budget of the Municipality of Chicago, Illinois in terms of how well budget documents and auxiliary information address each of these functions. The assessment will be substantiated with examples and information from documents studied. This work will examine a variety of sources including the most recent approved budget of Chicago, Illinois.

The City of Chicago 2011 budget includes provisions of no property tax increases and no new tax, fee, or fine increases to balance the budget. This is to effect that there will be no additional budget to residents already impacted by the recession. Secondly, included is the preservation of $576 million in asset lease funds to protect Chicago's future, which is inclusive of maintaining the entire $500 million Skyway long-term reserve. Third stated is the maintenance of the commitment to provide critical services to Chicago…


City of Chicago 2011 Budget. City of Chicago Organization Online Retrieved from: 

2006 American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from: 

Chicago Central Area Plan Foresees the Future (2002) Inside. 17-23 July 2002. Retrieved from: 

2006 American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from:

Public Budgeting
Words: 709 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15666377
Read Full Paper  ❯

budget analyst guided by control concerns takes a more conservative view of the budget, and is likely to put forward conservative guidelines for the budget. These create a stronger form of control, and provide a basis for management to beat the budget. This is because the financial control aspect of budgeting is based on setting realistic benchmarks, and setting budgets in a way that forces management to be efficient. Management is more likely to take an approach that sets budgets higher. Management likely has a preference for having more resources at their disposal, and less tight control on activities. This is not because management does not want to succeed, but management does have an interest in working with a greater amount of resources.

Unit 3. There do not need to be opportunity costs associated with addressing control concerns…unless you specifically choose to blow off planning priorities or program management issues.…


IMF. (2014). Budget preparation. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved March 5, 2014 from 

Langfield-Smith, K. (1997). Management control systems and strategy: A critical review. Accounting, Organizations and Society. Vol. 22 (2) 207-232.

Simons, R. (1991). Strategic orientation and top management attention to control systems. Strategic Management Journal. Vol. 12 (1) 49-62.

National Budget Simulation Exercise the
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73149278
Read Full Paper  ❯

In addition, just over $41 billion was removed from 2001 and 2003 tax cuts. The cuts in military spending will affect a wide variety of citizenry. Specifically, military personnel will be affected with reduced budgets across the board. This will result in a reduced readiness of the military to protect the United States, in the short-term and the long-term. This reduction in spending will also negatively affect civilian contractors and other companies that provide products and services to the military. This will result in lost revenues and decreased profitability for these organizations. A secondary effect of this could result in lost jobs and reduced tax revenues for the city, state and national governments, as well as reduced revenues for other businesses in the community, if these organizations implement worker layoffs.

Social Security cuts will negatively affect the growing population of Baby Boomers and those already receiving Social Security benefits. However,…

Riorden Manufacturing Budget Money Management Is an
Words: 909 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85194034
Read Full Paper  ❯

Riorden Manufacturing Budget

Money management is an important skill for managers. No company, and thus no manager, has access to infinite amounts of money, so it is critical that a manager learn to review budgets, to account for increases in costs, and to determine how to trim a budget if the situation requires it. The Riorden Manufacturing IT Manager oversees a budget of under 2 million dollars, and must be capable of balancing the budget, which means balancing the requirements of running a capable IT department with the actual amount of money he has been given to run his department. His original budget included costs totaling $1,901,300 for the financial year, which runs from October through September. He has been tasked with decreasing the total budget from the expected level by 2%, to meet a total budget of $1,863,274 or less.

In the same financial period, Riorden Manufacturing has been…

Work Cited

Business Research Lab. (2007.) "Employee Recognition Programs." Retrieved from 

Consumer Traveler. (May 4, 2011.) "Bing Travel Summer Forecast: Airfares Rise nearly 15%, Hotels Up 7%." Retrieved from

Kawaguchi, Daiji and Ohtake, Fumio (2007.) "Testing the Morale Theory of Nominal Wage Rigidity," Industrial & Labor Relations Review, Vol. 61, No. 1, article 3. Retrieved from 

Schenberg, David. (December 1, 2008.) "Why do people go to conferences?" BusyEvent Blog. Retrieved from

Criminal Justice Budgetary Cuts in
Words: 1179 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 79990308
Read Full Paper  ❯

(Dunkelberger, 1) This is, of course, a statement of direct reflection on
the approach taken by lawmakers to building a lagging budget, which
determines to impose heavier fines and fees upon members of the public.
Rather than raising taxes, here the economic struggles are in a certain
matter only compounded amongst those who have in some manner run aground of
local or state law.
And as point of fact, the article points to another recommendation
which seems to reinforce this tack. As Dunkelberger tells, "one of the few
winners in the budget process was the Florida Highway Patrol, where
troopers will be in line for a 5 percent pay raise on Oct. 1. Lawmakers
approved the raise after hearing the agency was steadily losing personnel
to other law enforcement agencies that can pay higher salaries."
(Dunkelberger, 1) To say nothing of the fact that this pay raise was a…

Works Cited

Dunkelberger, L. (Apr. 28, 2008). Grim Budget Brings Deep Cuts.
Gainesville Sun.

Marketing Budget During Economic Crisis
Words: 2108 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 38850623
Read Full Paper  ❯

All these were achieved with immense marketing budgets.

In the current situation when the United States and the world are threatened by an economic crisis, the giant shoemaker continues to sustain an increased marketing budget. A specification that must be made however is that changes in the structure of the budget have occurred. In this order of ideas, the marketing specialists at Nike are more centred on interactive and innovative marketing, rather than traditional marketing operations. In a time of financial difficulties then, the number one shoemaker of the globe is trying to approach the audience using less conventional means. Nike officials argued that they were not in the business of keeping the media companies alive, but that their primary interest was that of best communicating with the audience. In this order of ideas then, the multinational organization drastically reduced marketing budgets for television advertisements and other traditional means and…

Works Cited

Chandler, T., Nike Gets Engaged, Shrinks Traditional Ad Spending. Here's How Copywriters Can Benefit, the Copywriter Underground, 2007, accessed on October 16, 2008

Lovell, C., Marketing Budgets Cut at Record Rate as Economic Crisis Deepends, Brand Republic, 2008,  accessed on October 16, 2008

McNamara, C., All About Marketing, Free Management Library, 2008, . Ast accessed on October 16, 2008

Ford's Product Facing a Deepening Financial Crisis, Daily Times, 2006, 57story_7-5-2006_pg5_30last accessed on October 16, 2008

Public Budgeting
Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27184381
Read Full Paper  ❯

City of Alameda Online Budget Challenge



City of Alameda Announces Series of Targeted Budget Cuts and Tax Increases to Balance 2013-14 Budget

Faced with an impending budget deficit of $4.4 million caused by a combination of rising expenditures flat revenues, the City of Alameda has implemented a series of cuts to programs funded by the General fund, as well as minimal increases in certain taxes, to assure a balanced budget for Fiscal Year 2012-13. Before a detailed description of these actions is given, the City of Alameda would like to make clear for all citizens that the proscribed measures are temporary in nature, with the objective being to guide the city through a prolonged recession while assuring financial solvency. With that said, every major department which draws funding from the city's General Fund will absorb budget cuts that are similar to those enacted last year,…

New York State Budget
Words: 2703 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 71760887
Read Full Paper  ❯

spring of 2010 y Rasmussen Reports showed that 55% of New Yorkers lamed the state's udget crisis solely on the state's politicians. The telephone survey showed that the then $9 illion udget deficit was perceived as eing a result of the "ickering" amongst Democrats and Repulicans in Alany. The voters showed their concern y electing a new governor last fall, Andrew Cuomo, the son of a former governor, Mario Cuomo. Yet the situation is still serious. See, 55% of New Yorkers lame udget crisis on legislators, Rassmussen Reports, May 6, 2010.

But the Empire State is not alone in feeling the fiscal pain of the ongoing economic downturn facing the U.S.

As states across the U.S. this spring ponder their udget proposals for the coming fiscal year, they continue to face a monumental challenge. The worst economic depression since the 1930s has fostered the steepest decline in state tax receipts…

Funding and Budget for Special Education
Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98216829
Read Full Paper  ❯

local education plan best be developed to reveal the extent to which public, private, and non-profit funding methods meet fiscal and administrative requirements of IDEA? Why?

One of the two main components of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the grant program that provides federal funding to the states ("What School Financial Officers Need to Know about Special Education," 2014). Under the provisions of the Department of Education, funding is provided on a per-student basis, based on total enrollment. However, additional issues such as poverty levels, are also taken into account ("What School Financial Officers Need to Know about Special Education," 2014). The state and local education plans can best be developed to reveal the extent to which public, private, and non-profit funding methods meet fiscal and administrative requirements of IDEA by focusing on ongoing support services and statistical tracking of student performance. The fundamental requirements of IDEA…


Kingston, M., et al. (2014). Learning education reform initiatives. Office of Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS). ERIC Id: ED560128

Smith, T.E.C. (2005). Idea 2004: Another round in the reauthorization process. Remedial and Special Education 26(6): 314-319.

"What School Financial Officers Need to Know about Special Education," (2014). Retrieved online:

Government Budgeting
Words: 4599 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93287495
Read Full Paper  ❯

Government Accounting Office in America (GAO)

This is an examination of the Government Accounting Office in America. The writer discusses the history, purpose and background of the GAO as well as the duties that the office is charged with performing. The writer then analyzes literature that illustrates the office in action. The final discussion revolves around the question, "Is the office effective or is it a waste of money." There were four sources used to complete this paper.

During the last few years there has been a public outcry and demand to investigate government spending. The public was brought stories by the media about the government paying thousands of dollars for toilet seats, and spending hundreds of dollars on a screwdriver and other such tools. When the reports began to surface about wasted government spending the public became angry. Lobbyists across the nation began to demand an accounting of not…

Bibliography for a listing of non-GAO publications.) It should be noted that, as with any effort to put current events into historical context, alternative interpretations are possible. Often debated are the intent and motivation of the framers of the Constitution who created the census. In this report, we have quoted the Constitution and various laws relating to the decennial census and have attempted to place their language in an historical context. We are not, however, providing our own independent review or interpretation of the constitutional and statutory issues discussed in this report, which, unless otherwise noted, are based primarily on the analysis contained in the various publications and documents we relied upon in preparing this report.

Short answers to some frequently asked questions about the decennial census are in appendix 1. Appendix 11 contains information on changes in the apportionment of the membership of the House of Representatives between the 1920 and 1990 Decennial Censuses by region of country and on changes in the nation's population and its undercount by race and ethnicity between the 1950 and 1990 censuses, as well as a snapshot of the growth and cost of census-taking since the first decennial census in 1790. Major contributors to this report are identified in appendix III.

L. Nye Stevens Director, Federal Management and Workforce Issues

Chapter 1

Why Take the Census?

Budget an Old Alliterative Adage
Words: 1112 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 32431090
Read Full Paper  ❯

"Put it on paper," Cintron advises, and adds, "The first step to creating a budget is simple: put down on paper what you are spending your money on. That sounds easy, but it takes discipline and honesty -- in other words, do not omit anything, no matter how small" (76). In fact, many of the clients who seek out Cintron's advice simply guess at how much money they are spending each month without ever committing a single item to paper. By listing all expenses, though, even the trivial ones, people can make a decision concerning how important these expenditures are to their lifestyles and eliminate those that can add up without people realizing it. For example, Cintron also notes that, "Cut unnecessary expenses. Once you see [what you are spending] in black and white, you can figure out what you can cut. I call it going on a money diet"…

Works Cited

Cintron, Ivan. 2000, May. "The Art of Savvy Budgeting." Black Enterprise 30(10): 76.

Budget Compare and Contrast
Words: 5190 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16976181
Read Full Paper  ❯

budgets of any major size will get most, but not necessarily all, of their money from taxpayers of several many sorts but the main goal of the agencies regardless of size and structure is to provide basic and needed services to the area they serve, whatever and wherever that may be.

While all budgets are quite similar in one form or another, they are all different in their own ways and this can include the aim(s) of the money to be spent, where the money will come from and the overall fiscal policy exercised within the budget including investment, tax rates and savings strategies.

Basic Description of each budget

Differences and similarities of each budget

Sources of evenues of each budget

Change of revenue accounts in the future

e. Budget's fit with mission of the domain

f. How to improve budget and/or revenue estimation for each budget


Budget Comparison…


HHS. (2014, June 1). HHS Budget in Brief. Department of Health & Human Services.

Retrieved June 28, 2014, from -


IRS. (2014, June 26). Forms and Pubs. Internal Revenue Service. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from

Budget Analysis of School System
Words: 748 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96028640
Read Full Paper  ❯

5. What are the top 3 in monetary costs for capital improvement projects recommended for the ensuing fiscal year?

The top 3 costs for Special Warrant Articles for the upcoming budget are: The GMS site de-watering study (including design and cost) at $86,000, GMS/LMS safety locks and video surveillance at $56,431 and finally LMS Emergency Access Road at $44,000.

6. Excluding food service sales what are the top 3 revenue budget lines for the year 05/06?

The top three revenue line for the school year were: Federal Program Grant at $239,042, State School Building Aid at $238,392.16 and revenue from Other Local Sources at $165,049.

7. What is the total dollar amount for appropriations recommended by the School Board?

The total amount recommended by the School Board for the upcoming year is $19,514,314. This includes the $259,854 appropriated to Special Warrant Articles as well as the $19,254,460 appropriated for all…

Budget Outlook Projections and Implications
Words: 401 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34859510
Read Full Paper  ❯

This type of policy is aimed at "stimulating total spending in the economy," through cutting taxes to leave businesses and individuals with more money to buy goods, thus raising demand and increasing production and generating increased spending (Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia).

Importantly, the authors note that these budget imbalances will have a significant negative impact on the general economy. They will reduce living standards and damage the economy, and bring the nation to a "real risk of a fiscal crisis" (p. 5). In large part, these effects will come from reducing national saving.

The authors note, however, that all is not lost if action is taken immediately to reduce budget deficits. Gale and Orszag write, "Significant changes in fiscal policy are needed to deal preemptively with the costs from low national saving and the risk of a fiscal crisis. The sooner we begin, the better" (p. 6).


Gale William…


Gale William G. And Orszag, Peter R. 2004. The Budget Outlook: Projections and Implications. The Economists' Voice: Vol. 1: No. 2, Article 6, October 27, 2004. November 2004. 

Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia. 2004. Fiscal Policy. © 1997-2004 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. 04 November 2004.

Oregon Parks and Recreation Department Budget Plan
Words: 796 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72196725
Read Full Paper  ❯

Budget Proposal

Agency: Oregon Park and ecreation Department (OPD)

Agency's Mission: "To provide and protect outstanding natural, scenic, cultural, historic, and recreational sites for the enjoyment and education of present and future generations" (OPD, 2011).

To attain its mission, the agency organizes its operations into six work areas; direct services, community support and grants, park development, central services, Oregon exposition center, and director's office (OP, 2011). The agency operates a total of sixteen programs scattered across the six work areas. Of the sixteen, Park Experiences takes up the largest amount of funds - approximately 36% of the total lottery revenues - and accounts for 39% of the agency's total budget (OPD, 2011)

Proposal: Cut down spending on Interpretative program.

Identified Need: OPD does not receive any funding from the General Fund Tax kitty, and only relies "on a mix of Other Funds, Lottery Funds and a small amount of Federal…


OPRD. (2011). 2011-2013 Means and Ways Budget. OPRD. Retrieved 27 May 2014 from 

Oregon Parks and Recreation Commission. (2014). Parks and Recreation Department. OPRD. Retrieved 27 May 2014 from 

Rocco, K. & Hill, D. (2013). Legislative Fiscal Office. OPRD. Retrieved 27 May 2014 from

Government Budget
Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4789517
Read Full Paper  ❯

Budget Deficit

Government Budget

What are the consequences of an ever-burgeoning federal deficit and debt? Will there ever be a solution or compromise?

One of the most hotly-contested issues in contemporary American political life is how to deal with the current budget deficit. Despite running surpluses during the 1990s, the current budget is widely considered out of control by both Democrats and epublicans. The reasons for the deficit include two costly wars abroad and increased defense spending overall after 9/11; tax cuts, and the recent recession which required federal spending in the form of unemployment assistance and assistance to the states (who are legally required to balance their budgets); and less income tax revenue because of job losses. There also systemic factors that have contributed to high budget deficits (Amadeo 2012). Overall, "mandatory spending has increased. Spending to pay benefits for Social Security, Medicare and other mandated programs has been…


Amadeo, Kimberly. (2012). U.S. Federal Budget deficit. Retrieved at: 

Economic effects of a budget deficit. (2012). Economics Help. Retrieved at:

Miami Budget
Words: 975 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62015664
Read Full Paper  ❯

Budgeting, particular during pressing economic periods, is critical to the overall solvency of public organizations. Budgeting and proper forecasting provides a means for organizations to remain viable irrespective of the economic circumstances prevailing. History has proven that businesses along with public enterprises must endure various economy cycles and environments. The past decade has provided substantial evidence as to the importance of proper budgeting. Organizations that have failed to budget properly have suffered immensely in regards to lost reputation, profit and productivity. The subsequent decade will be no different in that regard. Budgeting in the public domain, must provide adequate reassurance that the public organization can withstands a litany of economic and monetary circumstances (Parks, 1991)

A budget provides organizations financial priorities in dollar terms. Particular in recessions or depression, public budgets, when analyzed, provide an idea as to the organizations priorities. During periods of mass euphoria and over optimism, budgets…


1) Muir, Helen. (1953) Miami, U.S.A. Coconut Grove, Florida. Hurricane House Publishers. Pp. 33, 100

2) Parks, Arva Moore (1991). Miami: The Magic City. Miami, FL: Centennial Press. p. 12. ISBN 0-9629402-2-4

3) Sullivan, Arthur; Steven M. Sheffrin (2003). Economics: Principles in action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 502. ISBN 0-13-063085-3

10 Million Fund Allocation Budget Plan
Words: 4256 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 61902064
Read Full Paper  ❯

Budget Plan for $10 Million Fund Allocation

Positive economic development in any city in the United tates relies on the provision of effective, efficient, and strong infrastructures that will attract investment to generate job opportunities in the city. A central goal of any city is also to improve health outcomes for the residents to improve their health outcomes. City public officials should also provide safety and securities, and improve students achievements to enhance quality of human developments . However, a city officials are required to keep proper accounts of all income and expenditures to deliver high quality financial resources.

As a newly elected public official of the city of between 50,000 and 250,000 population, our goal is to attract investment opportunities in the city through effective use of budgetary control to meet the economic and health needs of the residents in order to enjoy 100% federal funds. Our goal is…

Sources of Payment, and Incremental Costs, Health Affairs.

Lunenburg, F.C. (2010). Financial Controls: A Safeguard Against Misuse of Public Funds. National Forum of Educational Administration & Supervision Journal. 27(4).

Nkuah, J.F. Tanyeh, J.P. & Asante, J.(2013). The Relationship between Financial Control Systems and Public Sector Efficiency in Ghana. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences.2(7):209-235.

Malloy, L.C & Merkowitz, S.P. (2015). The Economic Impact of Expanding Medicaid. Healthy Economy.

Popovcic-Avric, S. Mizdrakovic, V. & Djenic, M.(2014). Budget Control and Fund Accounting. International Conference: XIV International Symposium .

How to Convince Management to Fund Your Budget
Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28166755
Read Full Paper  ❯

Budget eport/Justification for Elite Property Management Headquarters

The Elite Property Management (EPM) has its headquarters along the Mass Avenue at the Penthouse premises. This is an extensive building that houses the headquarters and the entire staff that deals not only in the operations of the organization from this point but also has offices for the satellite branches that the organization has to make coordination of work easier. Adjacent to the headquarters are also three stores that the firm rents to help in central storage of property of the organization.

The total cost of renting these premises was pegged at $1,395,000 with the majority share going to the main building that holds the offices, $495,000. The two massive stores were allocated $450,000 respectively.

The space that cost the $495,000 for the year will help give 150 employees working spaces and the extra space that would be used for conference halls and…


Archer North & Associates, (2015). Benefits of Appraisal. Retrieved May 30, 2015 from 

Kevin Coyne, (2010). When You've Got to Cut Costs-Now. Retrieved May 30, 2015 from

Los Angeles Budget Assessment L A
Words: 2822 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 82555002
Read Full Paper  ❯

The reason for this shortfall, as noted by the Balance Budget website, emanates from pension costs, previously agreed to cost of living pay increases, rising health care costs overall and a general weakness in the overall economic recovery that has ensued, albeit very slowly, since the end of the so-called "Great ecession" period that ended in approximately 2009 for the nation as a whole. The balance budget website notes that the shortfall in question is equivalent to 20% of the total police officer salary budget, 60% of the total firefighter budget and over 100% of the city's expenses for their libraries and parks (L.A. Budget Challenge, 2013).

Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa, in this budget summary document, notes that budget shortfalls will be addressed through expenditure cuts and increase efficiency. He makes mention of "painful" layoffs but not addressing the real problem of employee-level costs per person being the issue…


City of Los Angeles. (2012, October 29). The City of Los Angeles: LA City Controller: Adopted Budget. The City of Los Angeles: LA City Controller: Home. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from 

City of Los Angeles. (2013, April 16). The Mayor of the City of Los Angeles. The City of Los Angeles: Office of Mayor: Home. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from 

City of Los Angeles. (2013, April 16). The City of Los Angeles. The City of Los Angeles. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from 

City of Los Angeles. (2013, April 16). The City of Los Angeles: City of Los Angeles Council Committees: Budget and Finance. The City of Los Angeles: City of Los Angeles Council Committees: Home. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from

Accounting a Static Budget Is Defined as
Words: 1158 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3774204
Read Full Paper  ❯


A static budget is defined as a budget that is "planned ahead of time based on the owner's best guess about future actual activity." This type of budget is therefore put together for the upcoming time period, and is often based on the data from past time periods, plus or minus different adjustments that management thinks will be necessary. In contrast, a flexible budget is one where the business management can make changes in the midst of an accounting period. Flexible budgeting allows for management to make better decisions on the fly, because the information used in those decisions is kept more up-to-date. Static budgeting relies only on the ability of management to analyze the numbers after the period in order to determine the magnitude and direction of variance, along with the causes of variance. For a flexible budget, management can identify issues with the budget right away, and…

Works Cited:

Mueller, D. (2012). Static budget vs. flexible budget. eHow. Retrieved September 12, 2012 from

Bigelow, L. (2012). Static vs. flexible budgets for new businesses. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved September 12, 2012 from

Public Budgeting With the Talk
Words: 860 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37281215
Read Full Paper  ❯

The problems with the budget are said to arise from politicians who are unable to make difficult decisions. The problem with these laws is that they do not explicitly force politicians to make those decision. GRH provides targets for the politicians to work towards, creating motivation, and the BEA provides a framework for penalizing inaction, but neither truly forces politicians to make the tough choices.

Real political solutions involve actually making those tough choices. This is not to discount the value of having these frameworks to guide the negotiations and hold Congress to the outcomes of those negotiations, but the negotiations themselves are the critical component to the budget problem. For example, if the sequester is initiated, Congress can follow it up with laws to build back some of those spending cuts, and it would likely do so quickly. There are no provisions in the BEA, for example, that call…

Works Cited:

Bancroft Library. (2011). 1985 Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act. University of California at Berkeley. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from 

Mitchell, D. (1989). Sequestration Gramm-Rudman's potent weapon for spending restraint. Cato Institute. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from 

Reischauer, R. (1993). CBO Testimony. Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from 

Sahadi, J. (2012). What's in the fiscal cliff? CNN. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from

Household Budget My Spreadsheet Reveals That I
Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17036241
Read Full Paper  ❯

Household Budget

My spreadsheet reveals that I am not spending too much per year. It shows that my spending is roughly aligned with my income. My savings rate is just over 4%, which is a low rate, but still higher than that of the average American. That I am able to save anything is a good thing, given that I am earning relatively low income in this scenario. By cutting some expenses, such as on rent, I am able to get by.

My single biggest expense, not surprisingly, is my rent. Thankfully, my rent is inclusive of utilities other than communications, which are billed separately. In every month, my rent was my most significant expense. There were some months where other expenses were also fairly high, such as December when I went home for Christmas, but the rent is always the highest.

There is a fairly high degree of variability…

Videos Mayor Nutter's Budget Speech Contained Several
Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31909139
Read Full Paper  ❯


Mayor Nutter's budget speech contained several effective elements. The mayor is delivering a challenging budget. IN order to deliver this news, he begins with two effective devices. The first is that he rallies the support of the people by pointing out that he is a leader they can trust (had an open house at City Hall) and that the people of Philadelphia had rallied to meet challenges before (picking up trash, etc.). The second effective device was that he wanted to create a sense of urgency about the situation. In order to deliver bad news, it is important that a sense of urgency is created because it compels the listener to want to act right away, as opposed to delaying action. Thus, the mayor effectively recounts how bad the recession is, and the ways that it has already had a negative effect on the national economy and on the…

Works Cited:

Peterson, J. (2012). 12 effective speech tips and checks. Speech Topics Help. Retrieved February 15, 2012 from 

Video: $14B auto bailout dies in Senate. Retrieved February 15, 2012 from 

Video: Nutter paints bleaker picture on budget crisis. Retrieved February 15, 2012 from

Guillermo Capital Budgeting Guillermo Is Faced With
Words: 1154 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47776313
Read Full Paper  ❯

Guillermo Capital Budgeting

Guillermo is faced with a difficult operating environment. Competition has intensified, and this is driving down his margins. At the same time, labor costs are rising. This is putting a squeeze on Guillermo. At present, it does not look like he can compete head to head against his new rival, as that rival is using a technological competitive advantage to outcompete Guillermo. As a result, Guillermo is now faced with three different options for revitalizing his business. The first is to become a broker for a high-tech competitor based in Norway, a move that would take him out of the manufacturing business. The second is that he could add value to his existing product perhaps allowing him to improve his margins. Guillermo's third option is to adopt the Norwegian company's technology, as this would lower his cost of production significantly, restoring some of his net margin.


Works Cited:

Accounting for Management. (2011). Payback period method for capital budgeting decisions. Accounting for Management. Retrieved February 11, 2012 from 

Baker, S. (2000). Perils of the internal rate of return. University of South Carolina. Retrieved February 11, 2012 from

Investopedia. (2012). Net present value -- NPV. Investopedia. Retrieved February 11, 2012 from

National Budget Stimulation the Debate
Words: 1618 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62895070
Read Full Paper  ❯

The final step in decrease law enforcement budgets was the cut of 20% federal prison system. As of right now, prisons take up millions of dollars to house drug offenders and other non-violent criminals. These funds are needed elsewhere, and so they must be taken from keeping up the building and regulation of so many unnecessary prisons in the United States.

In terms of protecting consumers much needed to be done. To ensure consumers protection on investments, deposit insurance increased by 10%. This will allow people to renew faith in the banking system in they have more insurance on their deposits. Additionally, I cut 20% of tax cuts for the richest 1% of tax payers, 10% for the second two richest. Hold even for the third, and an increase of 10% for the bottom tax payers. Furthermore, I cut 20% of untaxed foreign profits and 10% of tax benefits for…

Arapahoe County 2015 Adopted Budget
Words: 600 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43451305
Read Full Paper  ❯


To: Department Manager
From: Me
Date: 24 September, 2017
Subject: Results from Analyzing the Arapahoe County 2015 Adopted Budget

This memo is to delineate the findings I have obtained from conducting an analysis of the Arapahoe County for the 2015 Adopted Budget. This encompassed assessing expenditure items for both the Clerk and Recorder’s Office and the Department’s General Fund. The purpose of my analysis is to bring forth to your attention the need for interim budget deduction owing to the shortfall in revenue. The revenue adjustments will make it possible for you as the department manager to be able to review the recommendations given and thereafter make adjustments to spending cuts in view of that.

There are some recommendations I have chosen to making alterations to the spending categories. In this particular analysis, I applied a flat rate of 10 percent in undertaking revenue adjustment for the general fund.…

Balanced Budget Act of 1997
Words: 1079 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 16949468
Read Full Paper  ❯

Balanced Budget Act of 1997 is having an impact on health care providers by making cuts in Medicare and Medicaid fees. To understand what is happening requires conducting a literature review. This will provide specific insights as to how these changes are affecting the health care system over the long-term.

The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 has reshaped the way that health care providers are interacting with stakeholders (i.e. low income families and the elderly). According to Spector (2004) the reduction in the fees has meant that many facilities will not continue to offer different services to Medicare and Medicaid recipients. This results in an increase in the costs for receiving services that are an important part of their total health care solution. When this happens, they will no longer use these programs. This hurts the quality of care that they are obtaining. (Spector, 2004)

The information from this source…


Bazzoli, G. (2004). The Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Inquiry, 41 (4), 401 -- 417.

Dickler, R. (2000). The Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Annals of Internal Medicine, 132 (1), 820 -- 824.

Schlenker, R. (2002). Rural -- Urban Health Care. The Journal of Rural Health, 18 (2), 359 -- 372.

Spector, W. (2004). Home Care Before and After. The Gerontologist, 44 (1), 39 -- 47.

Public Budgeting Process
Words: 1698 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77663404
Read Full Paper  ❯

Public Budgeting Process

The options for financing President Bush's plan to partially privatize Social Security might well be as unworkable as his plan to cut taxes five times, while increasing defense spending by starting two wars in the Middle East -- to say nothing of his other ambitious, but underfunded, plans such as No Child Left Behind. On the face of it, the near-term prospects for national solvency in any form of Social Security privatization -- especially in the undertaxed, overspent configuration of the current U.S. budget -- conform to the old adage, slim to none. A quick glance at the figures even during the pre-tax-cut, economic boom times of the middle of the Clinton presidency foreshadow the potential for disaster lurking in Social Security privatization. At that time, U.S. national debt amounted to "not $5 trillion as our politicians tell us -- it is between $14 and $17 trillion!"…


Lamm, Richard D. (1996) The new agenda. Vital Speeches of the Day, July 1, 62 (18).

Mallaby, Sebastian. (2004) Bush's ungrounded vision. The Washington Post, November 8. Retrieved 25 November 2004 from

Montagne, Renee. (2004) Analysis: How Social Security privatization might work, Morning Edition (NPR) transcript, November 11. Retrieved 25 November 2004 from

Strope, Leigh. (2004) Bush Moves to Privatize Social Security. AP Online, November 11. Retrieved 25 November 2004 from

Balanced Budget Act of 1997
Words: 1100 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 12670779
Read Full Paper  ❯

Balanced Budget Act of 1997

Introduction with Background

In the last several years, health care costs have been increasingly exponentially. To control the expenses associated with Medicare and Medicaid, the Balance Budget Act of 1997 was enacted. At the heart of its focus, was on reducing the total amounts of fees that are provided to health care providers, doctors and nurses. This is troubling, as these transformations will have an impact on facilities and health care professionals (who may not want to work with these kinds of patients). When this happens, there will be a decrease in choices and the overall quality of services that are provided to these individuals. This is the point that these challenges could adversely impact treatment options that are provided. (Kilgore, 2009)

Evidence of this can be seen in a study that was conducted by Kilgore (2009). She found that the act has changed consumer…


Comparative Analysis. (2012). Business Dictionary. Retrieved from: 

Qualitative Research. (2012), Retrieved from:

Kilgore, M. (2009). The Effects of the Balance Budget Act of 1997. Med Care, 47 (3), 279 -- 285.

Olsen, W. (2012). Qualitative Comparative Analysis. University of Manchester. Retrieved from:

New Hampshire State Budget New
Words: 2033 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38963312
Read Full Paper  ❯

The Category Totals for the 2006-2007 Biennial State Operating Budget, found in Chapter 176, Laws of 2005, are as follows:

Chapter 176 - Laws of 2005 - NH Operating Budget

Fiscal Year 2006

Fiscal Year 2007

Total Appropriation for Category 01


AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.01-403,003,676 416,233,183



FEDEAL FUNDS 17,924,517 17,918,180

OTHE FUNDS 106,867,295 105,489,779

GENEAL FUND 278,211,864 292,825,224

TOTAL 403,003,676 416,233,183

Total Appropriation for Category 02


AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.02-420,003,205 424,638,566


FEDEAL FUNDS 52,837,182 50,445,675

OTHE FUNDS 152,998,319 155,855,692

GENEAL FUND 213,213,595 217,790,891


TOTAL 420,003,205 424,638,566

Total Appropriation for Category 03


AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.03-222,979,010 217,030,487



Hall, D.E.. (Sep 2002). Six Programs Fueled State Spending Increases, 1993-2003. New Hampshire Center for Public Policy Studies. Concord, NH. Retrieved on February 7, 2007 at 

Norton, S.A. (Dec 2006). Fiscal Feast and Famine. New Hampshire Center for Public Policy Studies. Concord, NH. Retrieved on February 7, 2007 at .

Operating Budget for the State of New Hampshire (2004-2005). (2005). About the LBA-Budget Division. State of New Hampshire Office of Legislative Budget Assistant. Concord, NH. Retrieved February 7, 2007 at

President George W. Bush (07 Feb 2005). President Bush's Budget and New Hampshire: FY Budget. The White House. Retrieved February 8, 2007, at .

Reality-Based Budgeting
Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25969486
Read Full Paper  ❯

eality-Based Budgeting

The "Great ecession" that has crippled local economies throughout America has exposed the traditional budgeting procedures used by legislators and municipal leaders as a fallacious exercise in stopgap financing that fails to address the systemic problems of mismanagement, inefficiency, and wasteful spending. As an increasing number of city and state governments struggle to balance their budgets in the wake of curtailed income and overextended expenditures, economists have worked to develop innovate forms of budgeting which are better suited to meet the demands of modern financial planning. The concept of reality-based budgeting has emerged in recent years as a viable alternative to the traditional method of balancing governmental budgets, which is largely predicated on a combination of across the board spending cuts and untargeted increases in tax rates. As Bob Williams wrote in a recent article published by the non-profit organization State Budget Solutions, "reality-based budgeting assumes the rules…


Cuomo, A.M. State of New York, Division of the Budget. (2012). Governor cuomo's 2012-13 executive budget and reform plan outlines vision to continue building a new york. Retrieved from website: 

Williams, B. (2013). Reality-based budgeting: How to permanently resolve state budget gaps. State Budget Solutions, 33(4), Retrieved from - permanently-resolve-state-budget-gaps

Public Administration Budgeting an Important
Words: 1698 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85492056
Read Full Paper  ❯

Six Steps in the Budgeting Process. Bottom-up vs. Top-down Budget Plans, 2010).

The budget rules that are prepared by top management are passed down through successive levels within the company. Managers at each level may make additions and offer greater detail for their subordinates. The managers at each level prepare the plans for items under their control. The budgeting process will caution management of possible problems that may occur. By knowing the problems, solutions may be formulated. For example, at the valleys in cash flow, a shortage of cash may occur. Knowing this ahead of time allows management to arrange for a short-term loan for the financing need rather than face an unexpected financing crisis. In a similar element, planning allows for a smooth manufacturing program to result in both lower production costs and lower inventory levels. It steers clear of a crisis circumstances requiring overtime or high transportation charges…


Fuller, Julia. (2010). How to Make a Budget for an Organization. Retrieved August 7, 2010,

from eHow Web site:

How to Prepare A Sound Budget Process. Six Steps in the Budgeting Process. Bottom-up versus

Top-down Budget Plans. (2010). Retrieved August 7, 2010, from Online Success Center

Capital Budgeting the Aim of Hospitals Is
Words: 3028 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63314935
Read Full Paper  ❯

Capital Budgeting

The aim of hospitals is to measure and improve the quality of health care service for the patients. Patient satisfaction is the foremost concern. However, to run a hospital, there are a lot of other factors are also involved; e.g. managing cost, budgeting, optimizing operations and increase patient satisfaction level. In order to achieve the desired level of performance, the hospital needs to be up-to-date with the latest technology.

In this era of technological advancements, every company has to maintain all their records on computer because it saves time and needs less effort than manual work. Our hospital has digitalized their data but every department has its own data base. In order to optimize the operations, hospital requires having a central data base system.

As Schuhmann (2009) stated in his article that the recent economic crisis has made it difficult for hospitals finance their capital expenditures. The capital…


Bailey, C. (2012). The Cost Reduction Imperative. Becker's Hospital Review.

Cleverly, W.O., Cleverly, J.O., & Song, P.H. (2010). Essentials of Health Care Finance. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Devraj, S., & Kohli, R. (2000). Information Technology Payoff in the Heath-care Industry: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Management Information Systems, 41-67.

Finkler, S.A., Kovner, C.T., & Jones, C.B. (2007). Financial Management for Nurse Managers and Executives W.B. Saunders Company.

Public Budgeting
Words: 6131 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64152660
Read Full Paper  ❯

public budgeting comparisons of the federal, state and local budget distributions. This thesis will be focused on whether or not the increased budget allocations for transportation in the federal, state and local government will enhance travel security, efficiency, performance measures and &D development in the domain. The thesis will start off with a proposal for an agency that works across and is allocated budget in all the federal, state and local legislatures. The agency chosen for the thesis is the United States Department of Transportation. The proposal will include a detailed overview of the chosen agency inclusive of some financial data in recent years for the agency and a comparative analysis of the performance measures accomplished with those measures that were not completed. This will be followed by the details and comparative analysis of the budgetary performances of the federal, state and local budget departments in the United States which…


Budget.Gov. 2012. Fiscal year 2012: Historical tables -- Budget of the U.S. Government. Office of Management and Budget.

Budget.Gov. 2012a. Fiscal year 2012: Budget of the U.S. Government. Office of Management and Budget.

Dinapoli, T.P. (2011). Report on the State Fiscal Year 2011-12 -- Enacted Budget. New York State Comptroller

Leigland, J. And Russell, H. 2009. Another lost decade? Effects of the financial crisis on project finance for infrastructure, Grid Lines No. 48. Washington, PPIAF.

Government Budget Revolves Around Discretionary
Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67361640
Read Full Paper  ❯

There may, for instance, exist various programs for relieving PTSD in veterans. The president may propose that the government should implement and fund an intervention. All would be assessed in order to choose that which is not only efficacious but also least costly. Occasionally, various programs may be mixed and their cost-effectiveness taken into account so that the result is as least costly as possible.

Incremental budgeting is another government budgetary tools that are similar to that which industries use. . Incremental budgeting bases the current budget on the previous year's budget, implementing only minor changes in the programs that are on the budget. With this approach, poorly performing programs receive cuts in spending and disruptive conflict and change in government spending is reduced.

Cost-benefit analysis is a tool used alike for business and government where the profit and advantage of projects are assessed over time to review whether they…

Government Budget Process Over the
Words: 1035 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37867704
Read Full Paper  ❯

("ender," 2010)

Evaluate how Public Policy Decisions Affect the Receipt of Revenues

Politics and attitudes about where the various revenues should be spent can create heated amounts of debate. In the case of the Department of Defense, this can mean that periodic reviews could occur that can have an impact upon a host of different spending programs. At the same time, various assessments will take place with Secretary of Defense. Where, they will review the size and necessity of the various bases / personnel. A good example of this can be seen when the Secretary of Defense will recommend various base closures and force adjustments. As politics and changes in the Department's needs / availability of funds will affect what programs are going to receive the most appropriate amount of revenues.

Analyze the Economic Conditions that Affect Revenue Projections

The economic conditions will play a major role in determining how…


Base Closure List. (2005). MSNBC. Retrieved from: 

The Numbers. (2010). Tax Policy Center. Retrieved from: 

Bender, B. (2010). Spending Critic Brown. Boston Globe. Retrieved from: 

Dupy, T. (2010). Defense Secretary Wants Spending Cuts. Huffington Post. Retrieved from:

Balanced Budget Act of 1997
Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 32323008
Read Full Paper  ❯

Balanced Budget Act of 1997 was designed to reduce costs for Medicare and Medicaid. To fully understand the impact, there will e an examination of different scholarly sources. This will highlight the long-term effect of these changes on the health care system.

Dickler, R. (2000). The Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Annals of Internal Medicine, 132 (1), 820 -- 824.

In the article that was written y Dickler (2000), he found that the Balance Budget Act of 1997 is adversely impacting teaching hospitals. These are facilities where residents and experienced physicians will work with communities. This has reduced funding to these programs and is resulting in cut acks to the different types of services provided to patients. (Dickler, 2000)

Iglehart, J. (1999). Support for Academic Medical Centers. New England Journal of Medicine, 341, 299 -- 304.

While Inglehart (1999) found that the Balance Budget Act of 1997 is adversely impacting…

Economic and Practical Consequences of Balanced Budgets
Words: 923 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 76760886
Read Full Paper  ❯

Balanced Federal Budgets

The federal government has a wide variety of responsibilities, most of which stem from programs that the government has created. Some of these outlays are discretionary, but many are not. The trade-offs for the federal government are usually not a question economics, but politics. The current federal budget for FY2016 shows a deficit of $474 billion. The largest outlays are for social security ($891 billion), other mandatory programs ($627), defense ($589), Medicare ($529) and non-defense discretionary, which covers a wide variety of different programs. Finding $474 billion to cut there -- or some of that money in conjunction with tax increases -- is inevitably going to be a challenge. Much of government spending in the budget is in the form of mandatory programs. Further, many of these are impossible, politically, to reduce. One does not simply cut Medicare payouts without losing a strong voting bloc, for example.…


Government Finance Officers Association. (2014). Distinguished Budget Presentation Award Program (Budget Awards Program). Retrieved from 

Mikesell, J. L. (2014). Fiscal administration: Analysis and applications for the public sector (9th

ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth.

State Prison Inmates Should Be Paroled Early to Help With the States Budget Problems
Words: 3026 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33447439
Read Full Paper  ❯

Prison Inmates Should Be Paroled Early to Help Control the State's Budget Problems

This paper argues that inmates at State prisons should be having premature releases from prisons so that the States can manage their budget problems. As the paper illustrates, despite criticisms on parole that it introduces unreformed culprits back in the society and that the program is unorganized, parole is a major contributor in reducing prison populations, which directly translates to reduced State expenditures (Licari, 2009). All the implementation of parole releases has either direct or indirect economic effect to the States as well as the prisoner and society as a whole. eformed individuals are able to earn their income thus independent of the government (Sons, n.d.). In addition, as there is professional structure of parole, they lead to faster reforming and procedures that reduce caseloads enabling parole officers to spend more time with the high-risk individuals (National…


Clear, T.R., Cole, G.F., & Reisig, M. (2008). American Corrections, (8th ed.). Connecticut, U.S.:

Cengage Learning.

Corley, C. (2009, December 13). States release inmates early to cut prison costs.

Retrieved from