Budget Cuts Essays (Examples)

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Briefing Note and Make a Recommendation for a Budget Cut

Words: 862 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39008926

Briefing Note

The recent economic climate has been a challenge in all sectors of life, including the health care sector. The purpose of this document is therefore to propose a 10% budget cut for health care in the province, based on the fact that severe economic circumstances have necessitated a lower allocation of government funding for this purpose. The question and focus for this briefing note is therefore: How can we achieve the necessary budget cut without compromising the quality of care taxpayers and insurance holders have come to expect in this country?

The current economic turndown has affected both individuals, businesses, and governments. Most individuals are in a situation where they need to manage their money very carefully in order to make ends meet in an economy where salaries remain the same while prices increase incrementally. The same is true for governing bodies such as ours.

The cost of…… [Read More]

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State Health Department Budget Cut During the Revenue Shortfall

Words: 1204 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68946951

Health Department Budget Cut during the Revenue Shortfall

Yersey Yersinian, State Governor

FROM: Curtis Healy, Health Commissioner

Cutting Budgets during the imes of Revenue Shortfall

Our current fiscal budget has revealed that we have already run short of our project revenue and the issue requires immediate attention. In the present fiscal year, we are facing challenges of raising tax revenue for the projected fiscal year. By consequence, the tax revenue projected for the fiscal year between July and June is short of $30 Million. While the fiscal year has nearly run into half, the shortfall could increase by 7% if immediately solution has not been implemented to arrest the situation. he immediate problem that we are facing is the strategy we could adopt to raise up to $60 Million within six months. he solution is not to raise the government fees or taxes because implementing these policies will make us…… [Read More]

The memo recommends different policy options that the government should employ in order to cut expenses of the state health department to meet the proposed budget for the fiscal year. The memo recommends that the government should cut the WIC expenses to save $2 million. Moreover, the memo suggests that the government should cut expenses on the health promotion program to save $3 million. We should also cut expenses on marketing program to save $150,000. All these savings will assist us to implement high quality health program in the state.


Grum, G.E.(2014). State Health Department Cutting Budgets in Times of Revenue Shortfall. University of Virginia. Wise.
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Impact of Budget Cut in State Government Public Policy

Words: 2169 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23279743


The current fiscal crisis facing American states has led to some drastic changes in state budgets. Throughout the country various states have been struggling to balance budgets without cutting vital services to citizens. In many states this quandary has caused a great deal of debate and has proven to be a major hurdle for governors. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the New York State budget as proposed by New York's governor, Andrew Cuomo. The research will focus on how the budget affects the public policy especially in the health care field. The discussion will also evaluate the advantages of the proposed budgetary cuts.

Proposed Budget

On February 11, 2011 the governor of New York released the 2012 budget proposal. There are several cuts that are expected to take place as a result of this budget. The governor explains that

"New York is at a crossroads, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Early Medicaid proposal calls for fee on hospitals. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from:  http://online.wsj.com/article/AP84c3dac38bcd42eeac9eccbd44f1dee8.html 

Future of NY schools, teachers online in budget. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from;  http://online.wsj.com/article/APe14813e825014b1f81f3f9fbf7f95188.html 

Medicaid and New York's Budget. New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from:  http://www.nytimes.com /2011/02/19/opinion/19sat1.html?src=twrhp

Cuomo, A. State Budget. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from:  http://www.governor.ny.gov/press/020111transformationplan
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Budget Crisis How Current Budget Crisis Impact

Words: 904 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88676129

Budget Crisis

How current budget crisis impact public Health & Community services individual states? 1) Colorado 2) South Carolina 3) New Hampshire 4) California 5) Arizona 6) Oklahoma 7) Virginia

How does the current budget crisis impact the public health & community services in the following individual states?


Even before the current crisis, Colorado ranked "near the bottom when compared to other states for covering families and children for health care" (Anderson 2011). Now, because of recent budget cuts, healthcare services are likely to suffer further. For some healthcare centers, cuts will comprise up to 20% of their annual operating budgets. The need for services has increased, given that job losses mean that more people are reliant upon state assistance. "Demand is up as much as 40% by Medicaid patients and 23% by the uninsured" (Anderson 2011). Public clinics are closing or laying off staff and reducing hours because…… [Read More]


Anderson, Polly. (2011). The crisis: Field perspective Colorado. NACHC.

Retrieved: http://www.nachc.com/magazine-article.cfm?MagazineArticleID=149

Kaine's budget proposal: Cut mental health services, facilities. (2009). Hampton Roads.

Retrieved:  http://hamptonroads.com/2009/12/kaines-budget-proposal-cut-mental-health-services-facilities
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Budgeting the Current Economic Crisis

Words: 2526 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95101666

However, when you look at the overall graduation rates of the district in comparison with the state average, one could effectively argue that these programs were failures by not keeping the district in line with the state number.

There are number of different programs that are restricted from being adjusted these would include funds that would fall under the categories of: other special education funds, internally restricted funds and externally restricted funds. Some examples of the different educational programs that are subject to such restrictions would include: the Parent Teacher Coordinator, special education support staff and the Safe School Initiative just to name a few. The reason why some programs are under such restrictions is the funds could be ear marked for a particular program or may be necessary to be in compliance with the law (such as a cutting of funds to special education could result in the district…… [Read More]


Fiscal Year 2010 Budget. (2010). Retrieved April 21, 2010 from NYC Department of Education website:



FY 10 School Budget Overview. (2010). Retrieved April 21, 2010 from NYC Department of Education website:
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Budgets in Order to Address

Words: 1145 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58811411

125% to 6.0% would increase the estimated revenues by approximately $300 million, bringing this revenue to its highest level in history. This rate would still be lower than the state sales tax rate in neighboring Southwest states such as Arizona (6.6%), Texas (6.25%), Nevada (6.85%) and California (7.25%) (Sales Tax Clearinghouse, 2010). ith this increase, personal income tax rates would not need to be increased. Corporate income tax rates would also remain the same, as they are not a significant component of general revenues. hile the move to increase the state sales tax would prove unpopular, it would allow New Mexico to build for a more stable budget future, less reliant on federal transfers, while remaining competitive in terms of corporate and personal income taxes.

Appropriations will also need to be cut in order to save money. The main problem with appropriations in the budget is that a looming and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Massey, B. (2010). NM revenues weaken, more state budget cuts loom. Business Week. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from  http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9H3JT6G1.htm 

McCaffrey, S. (2010). State budget shortfalls may reach $180 billion this year. Boston Globe. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from  http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2010/01/04/state_budget_shortfalls_may_reach_180_billion_this_year/ 

McNichol, E.; Oliff, P. & Johnson, N. (2010). States continue to feel recession's impact. Center of Budget Policy Priorities. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from  http://www.cbpp.org/cms/?fa=view&id=711 

New Mexico 2011 Budget. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from http://budget.nmdfa.state.nm.us/cms/kunde/rts/budgetnmdfastatenmus/docs/284016296-01-05-2010-09-15-31.pdf
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Budget Legislation Legislative Budget Budgeting

Words: 731 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45979907

Sometimes state politics plays a major role and it shapes the outcomes of the legislative action in completely different ways. For example, the Texas Enterprise Fund was created in 2003. The main reason for its implementation of the fund was to attract new companies to Texas. However, the main point of debate here was that this fund was approved, when drastic budget cuts for state programs were being implemented (due to the economic recession). Where, this fund was contending for revenues that could have been allocated to: healthcare and insurance programs for the low-income families. In this case, state politics was a major factor in the creation of this fund. ("Texas Politics - Political Economy," 2010)

Another element that is sometimes associated with legislative action is "Pork" spending amendments. Simply put, this kind of spending is when various politicians will allocate funds, out of the budget for special projects in…… [Read More]


The Budget Process: Four Phases. (2010). University of Texas. Retrieved from: http://www.laits.utexas.edu/txp_media/html/pec/features/0403_01/slide1.html

Texas Politics - Political Economy. (2010). Texas Tribune. Retrieved from:  http://www.texastribune.org/texas-politics/2010-general-election/what-an-end-to-earmarks-would-mean-for-texas/ 

Castro, a. (2011). Texas budget draft cuts $13.7 billion in spending. Valley News Live. Retrieved from:  http://www.valleynewslive.com/Global/story.asp?S=13866526 

Philpott, B. (2010). What an End to Earmarks Would Mean for Texas. Texas Tribune. Retrieved from:
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Budget Process for Las Vegas Metropolitan Police

Words: 1499 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11927155

budget process for Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department (LVMPD). LVMPD was formed in 1973 as a result of the merger of the Las Vegas Police Department with the Clark County Sheriff's Department. LVMPD serves the city limits of Las Vegas along with unincorporated areas of Clark County.

LVMPD is funded by the City of Las Vegas and Clark County. Police department funding is based on a complex formula determined by population, calls for service, and the number of felony crimes from the previous year. Both city and county governments must approve not just the annual operating budget, but also their respective percentage of the budget. In addition to funding supplied by the two governments, the department itself generates approximately one-third of its funds though property tax and the charging for certain services, such as special events. A special sales tax to fund commissioned positions generates additional funding.

The Law Enforcement…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Haynes, B. (2011). Board votes to tap Las Vegas police reserves. Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved August 4, 2011 from:  http://www.lvrj.com/news/board-votes-to-tap-las-vegas-police-reserves-120669354.html 

Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department. (2011). Amended Final Budget FY 2011- 2012. Retrieved August 4, 2011 from: Retrieved August 4, 2011 from:  http://www.lvmpd.com/pdf/FinalBudget2011-2012.pdf 

Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department. (n.d.). About Us Consolidation. Retrieved August 4, 2011 from:  http://www.lvmpd.com/about/consolidation.html 

Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department. (2011). Fiscal Year 2011-2012 Budget-in-Brief. Retrieved August 4, 2011 from:  http://www.lvmpd.com/pdf/BudgetinBrief2011-2012.pdf
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Cut Down and Lay Offs

Words: 3249 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98720884

Cut Down and Lay Offs

Contemporary eview

Success Cases or Programs

Practical ecommendation

As the world has crossed the threshold of twenty first century, the human race is confronting several diverse and different challenges in every corner of the globe. In this regard, considering the world of commerce, the human resource managements are constantly been observed to witness quite a few grave challenges that have become the top priority for the healthcare managers to take into account.

Inequity at workplace is one of the unfortunate and adverse realities that the workforce experiences on everyday basis. Layoffs or cut down of hours is one of the serious and severe issues of the contemporary environment that has is being experienced particularly in the health care institutions, and hence has become an extensive issue on a broad spectrum within the industry. Due to this, it has been taken into consideration with severity by…… [Read More]


Fallon, L. F. & McConnell, C.R. (2007). Human Resource Management in Health Care: Principles and Practice. USA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Graban, M. (2012). Lean as an Alternative to Mass Layoffs in Healthcare. Retrieved from Becker's Hospital Review website:  http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/hospital-management-administration/lean-as-an-alternative-to-mass-layoffs-in-healthcare.html 

Herman, B. (2012). 3 Reasons Why Layoffs Don't Benefit Hospitals in the Long Run. Retrieved from Becker's Hospital Review website:  http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/hospital-management-administration/3-reasons-why-layoffs-dont-benefit-hospitals-in-the-long-run.html 

Larocque, M. (2012). Staff layoffs at Taunton's Morton Hospital a possibility. Retrieved from Taunton Daily Gazette website:  http://www.tauntongazette.com/news/x1783176887/Staff-layoffs-at-Tauntons-Morton-Hospital-a-possibility-zc_p=0
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Budgeting Process Budgeting Information One

Words: 1143 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80928546

Due to Ford's international presence, this database needed to be accessible remotely, and so the database was created to have remote access from any browser in Ford's locations in 120 countries. Utilizing this technology is a fundamental piece of Ford's mission, therefore it was important to make sure that technology used would be accessible and easily manageable by its employees. Since the technology used is simple enough to be used on a regular browser, there is little in depth technology training needed by the majority of employees who would be using and accessing the system. This helps reduce training costs as well as ensures practical usage within the company. Since Ford's financial position has taken a tumble from its successful days of the past, this technology proves essential in reducing unnecessary costs and helps keep the company running as smoothly as possible without reckless spending. Eliminating unnecessary high maintenance costs…… [Read More]


Oracle. 2009. PeopleSoft gives Ford the ability to operate globally as one company, with accounting, analysis, GAAP reporting, and statutory reporting on one system. Tech Republic.  http://whitepapers.techrepublic.com.com/abstract.aspx?docid=128640 . [18 July 2009].

Takana, Yuji. 2004. Transformation of the budgeting process. Jnet. http://us.kpmg.com/jnet/English/Archives/2004/MayJune/Budget_E.pdf. [18 July 2009].
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Budget DQ1a I Don't Need

Words: 1073 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89806186

Looking over a spreadsheet can clarify when to make larger purchases, such as waiting until the start of a new billing cycle, or negotiating better payment terms offered by suppliers and any creditors, especially when interest rates are volatile.

Once the need for a budget is established then the organization can consider what type of budget it desires. For example, with zero-based budgeting, "all expenses must be justified for each new period. Every function within an organization is analyzed for its needs and costs. Budgets are then built around what is needed for the upcoming period, regardless of whether the budget is higher or lower than the previous one" (Zero-based budgeting, 2009, Investopedia). hile it is true that zero-based budgeting is more costly than traditional cost-based budgeting, it also favors enterprises specializing in areas "that achieve direct revenues or production" in the enterprise (Zero-based budgeting, 2009, Investopedia). For larger organizations,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Activity-based budgeting.. (2009). Investopedia. Retrieved February 25, 2009 at  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/a/abb.asp  (Thebeauty of budgeting 2009). Investopedia. Retrieved February 25, 2009 at  http://www.investopedia.com/articles/pf/06/budgeting.asp 

Budget. (2009). Investopedia. Retrieved February 25, 2009 at  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/budget.asp 

Capital budgeting. (2009). Investopedia. Retrieved February 25, 2009 at  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/capitalbudgeting.asp 

Cash budget. (2009). Investopedia. Retrieved February 25, 2009 at  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/cashbudget.asp
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Budgeting This Budget Is a Static Budget

Words: 821 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46366641


This budget is a static budget. The variable components are based on the number of students, and in this budget the amount of students is assumed to be fixed throughout the year. The budget does include three different student levels, but this reflects sensitivity analysis, not a flexible budget that changes over the course of the year. To make the budget flexible, the school would need to make changes to the different elements of the budget as the school year progresses. That is entirely possible the way this budget is structured, but the possibility of converting it to a flexible budget does not make it a flexible budget.

The total revenue per student excluding grants is taken by adding up the non-grant revenues per student: $6,063.06

The total expenses per student depends on how many students. At the 120 student assumption, total expense per student are $4,518; at the…… [Read More]

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Budget Problem Health Care Is

Words: 1819 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92902059

S. debt.


Health care is a large part of the federal budget and it is increasing in importance. The rate of growth in health care outlays is greater than the rate of growth in the budget itself. The poses a problem, because the federal budget deficit is increasing in size. Debt service is going to be the most rapidly growing component of the federal budget over the next several years, highlighting the need to control costs in all aspects of the budget. The challenge, however, is that both demographic trends and health care cost inflation trends signal a dramatic increase in health care costs in the coming couple of decades. Health care reform is expected to help with cost containment, primarily through shifting some eligibility requirements, but greater solutions are required. Privatizing health care would take if off the government's books, but would have significant negative externalities with respect…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Budget of the U.S. Government, fiscal year 2011. Retrieved December 9, 2010 from  http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2011/assets/budget.pdf 

CBO. (2010). HR 4872. Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved December 9, 2010 from  http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/113xx/doc11355/hr4872.pdf 

Klein, E. (2010). Rep. Ryan proposes radical solution to budget problem. Washington Post. Retrieved December 9, 2010 from  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/02/05/AR2010020504796.html
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Budgeting Prior to the Classical

Words: 1212 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56011190

.. discretion as a practical matter" (1988, p. 78).

Wildavsky's was not critical of classical budgeting theory. He was more in favor of the concept of incrementalism that was a vital part of classical budgeting. He felt that incrementalism was superior to other budgeting approaches because it "increases agreement among the participants" (1984, p. 136) and also because it could reduce "burden of calculation" (1984, p. 136). Wildavsky went on to say that: "Clinging to last year's agreements is enormously economical of critical resources . . . which would be seriously depleted if all or most past agreements were reexamined yearly." (1984, p. 217).

The classical budgeting model proved efficient and practical for many decades but it lost its appeal in mid-20th century when a general trend towards excessive spending took over. This trend was observed all over the world and the main reason for the scope of government's responsibilities…… [Read More]


1. Caiden, Naomi. 1982. "The Myth of the Annual Budget." Public Administration Review 42 (6):516 -- 523.

2. Meyers, Roy T. 1997, Late Appropriations and Government shutdowns: Frequency causes, consensus and remedies. Public Budgeting and Finance. 25:38-45

3. Schick, Allen. 1980. Congress and Your Money. Washington: Urban Institute.

4. Schick, Allen. 1990. The Capacity to Budget. Washington: Urban Institute.
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Budgeting and Cost Control in Healthcare

Words: 3341 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45091812

udgeting and Cost Control in Healthcare

One of the most critical issues facing healthcare facilities and organizations is the rapidly increasing cost of providing services. Cost control and budgetary issues are the first consideration for many healthcare facilities. According to statistics, the "single most important thing on the minds of healthcare decision makers is cost management and containment." (Lawson, 2004). In fact, more than 95% of respondents to a survey concluded that cost containment and budgetary issues were among the most pressing issues in the healthcare industry. Yet budgetary issues within the world of healthcare are among the most difficult to address, as most healthcare facilities vary greatly in the level of services they provide to consumers, and the amount of resources readily available to serve those consumers.

Healthcare facilities face increasingly and rapidly rising costs in the face of a poor economy and rising costs associated with providing healthcare…… [Read More]


Berger, Steven. (1999). "The fundamentals of healthcare financial management" Boston: McGraw Hill.

Lawson. (2003). "Taking Action to Control Costs: Healthcare Financial Management." Retrieved February 20, 2004:

Medlink. (2004). "Cost Analysis and Control for Healthcare Facilities."

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Budgeting and Cost Control in Healthcare

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1801494

Budgeting and Cost Control Health Care

Budgeting and Cost Control in Health Care: Significance of Diagnosis-Related Groups and Defenders and Critics of the Current DRG system

Diagnosis-related groups, otherwise known as DRGs, are considered to be one of the building blocks of the modern healthcare and hospital system, for better or, some would say, for worse. DRGs are present in America as well as Australia, and the United Kingdom and are thus compatible with various systems of public and private funding of hospital services. Such hospitals provide individual healthcare consumers with the ability to receive hospital reimbursement under the Medicare Prospective Payment System (PPS), so long as their treatment is commensurate with the reimbursement guidelines outlined by that system.

Currently, DRGs are seen as a potential but problematic solution to rising health care costs. They offer the ability to combine quality and specific diagnostic services that target individual suffers with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

History of DRG." From the nursing home page of Pittsburgh State University. Retrieved on February 27, 2004 at  http://www.pittstate.edu/artsc/diagnosproced.htm
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Government Budgeting for Kelsey Budget Changes Needed

Words: 2104 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83456162

Government Budgeting for Kelsey: Budget Changes Needed to Better Protect and Serve the Community

"We're not going to use the budget as an excuse. We're not crying about it. But I'm going to push as hard as I can to get as many people on the streets as I can. We need all hands on deck," so were the words of the Philadelphia Police Chief when faced with a similar situation to what Kelsey faces now (Steele 2010 p 2). Police strength is an absolute necessity in the effort to fight crime, both on local and larger federal levels. Without the appropriate funding resources, many local police forces around the country are beginning to suffer in terms of just how effective they are at fighting crime overall. Limited budgets mean limited capabilities, and that is exactly what the city of Kelsey is experiencing right now. Essentially, the budget is already…… [Read More]


Budget of the United States Government. (2004). Budgets and taxes. Almanac of Policy Issues. Web. http://www.policyalmanac.org/economic/budget.shtml

City of Kelsey. (2006). Annual Budget for the Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of Phoenix. Web.  https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/aapd/cist/vop/Government/KelseyCity/docs/KelseyBudgetBook2005.pdf 

City of Kelsey. (2009). Kelsey profile. City Government. University of Phoenix. Web.  https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/aapd/cist/vop/Government/KelseyCity/docs/KelseyProfile.doc 

DeWeese, Adrianne. (2011). Police say safety tax is needed to help alleviate 'blackout.' The Examiner. Web.  http://www.examiner.net/features/x1896018474/Police-say-safety-tax-needed-to-help-alleviate-blackout
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Municipal Budget

Words: 1550 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95401588

Municipal Budget Analysis

The objective of this work in writing is to assess the budget of the Municipality of Chicago, Illinois in terms of how well budget documents and auxiliary information address each of these functions. The assessment will be substantiated with examples and information from documents studied. This work will examine a variety of sources including the most recent approved budget of Chicago, Illinois.

The City of Chicago 2011 budget includes provisions of no property tax increases and no new tax, fee, or fine increases to balance the budget. This is to effect that there will be no additional budget to residents already impacted by the recession. Secondly, included is the preservation of $576 million in asset lease funds to protect Chicago's future, which is inclusive of maintaining the entire $500 million Skyway long-term reserve. Third stated is the maintenance of the commitment to provide critical services to Chicago…… [Read More]


City of Chicago 2011 Budget. City of Chicago Organization Online Retrieved from:  http://www.cityofchicago.org/content/dam/city/depts/obm/supp_info/2011BudgetKeyFacts.pdf 

2006 American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Community_Survey 

Chicago Central Area Plan Foresees the Future (2002) Inside. 17-23 July 2002. Retrieved from:  http://www.insideonline.com/site/epage/6087_162.htm 

2006 American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from:
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Public Budgeting

Words: 709 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15666377

budget analyst guided by control concerns takes a more conservative view of the budget, and is likely to put forward conservative guidelines for the budget. These create a stronger form of control, and provide a basis for management to beat the budget. This is because the financial control aspect of budgeting is based on setting realistic benchmarks, and setting budgets in a way that forces management to be efficient. Management is more likely to take an approach that sets budgets higher. Management likely has a preference for having more resources at their disposal, and less tight control on activities. This is not because management does not want to succeed, but management does have an interest in working with a greater amount of resources.

Unit 3. There do not need to be opportunity costs associated with addressing control concerns…unless you specifically choose to blow off planning priorities or program management issues.…… [Read More]


IMF. (2014). Budget preparation. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved March 5, 2014 from  http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/expend/guide3.htm 

Langfield-Smith, K. (1997). Management control systems and strategy: A critical review. Accounting, Organizations and Society. Vol. 22 (2) 207-232.

Simons, R. (1991). Strategic orientation and top management attention to control systems. Strategic Management Journal. Vol. 12 (1) 49-62.
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National Budget Simulation Exercise the

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73149278

In addition, just over $41 billion was removed from 2001 and 2003 tax cuts. The cuts in military spending will affect a wide variety of citizenry. Specifically, military personnel will be affected with reduced budgets across the board. This will result in a reduced readiness of the military to protect the United States, in the short-term and the long-term. This reduction in spending will also negatively affect civilian contractors and other companies that provide products and services to the military. This will result in lost revenues and decreased profitability for these organizations. A secondary effect of this could result in lost jobs and reduced tax revenues for the city, state and national governments, as well as reduced revenues for other businesses in the community, if these organizations implement worker layoffs.

Social Security cuts will negatively affect the growing population of Baby Boomers and those already receiving Social Security benefits. However,…… [Read More]

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Riorden Manufacturing Budget Money Management Is an

Words: 909 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85194034

Riorden Manufacturing Budget

Money management is an important skill for managers. No company, and thus no manager, has access to infinite amounts of money, so it is critical that a manager learn to review budgets, to account for increases in costs, and to determine how to trim a budget if the situation requires it. The Riorden Manufacturing IT Manager oversees a budget of under 2 million dollars, and must be capable of balancing the budget, which means balancing the requirements of running a capable IT department with the actual amount of money he has been given to run his department. His original budget included costs totaling $1,901,300 for the financial year, which runs from October through September. He has been tasked with decreasing the total budget from the expected level by 2%, to meet a total budget of $1,863,274 or less.

In the same financial period, Riorden Manufacturing has been…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Business Research Lab. (2007.) "Employee Recognition Programs." Retrieved from  http://www.busreslab.com/policies/goodpol4.htm 

Consumer Traveler. (May 4, 2011.) "Bing Travel Summer Forecast: Airfares Rise nearly 15%, Hotels Up 7%." Retrieved from http://www.consumertraveler.com/today/bing-travel-summer-forecast-airfares-rise-nearly-15-percent-hotels-up-7-percent/

Kawaguchi, Daiji and Ohtake, Fumio (2007.) "Testing the Morale Theory of Nominal Wage Rigidity," Industrial & Labor Relations Review, Vol. 61, No. 1, article 3. Retrieved from  http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/ilrreview/vol61/iss1/3 

Schenberg, David. (December 1, 2008.) "Why do people go to conferences?" BusyEvent Blog. Retrieved from http://www.busyevent.com/blog/?p=58
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Criminal Justice Budgetary Cuts in

Words: 1179 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79990308

(Dunkelberger, 1) This is, of course, a statement of direct reflection on
the approach taken by lawmakers to building a lagging budget, which
determines to impose heavier fines and fees upon members of the public.
Rather than raising taxes, here the economic struggles are in a certain
matter only compounded amongst those who have in some manner run aground of
local or state law.
And as point of fact, the article points to another recommendation
which seems to reinforce this tack. As Dunkelberger tells, "one of the few
winners in the budget process was the Florida Highway Patrol, where
troopers will be in line for a 5 percent pay raise on Oct. 1. Lawmakers
approved the raise after hearing the agency was steadily losing personnel
to other law enforcement agencies that can pay higher salaries."
(Dunkelberger, 1) To say nothing of the fact that this pay raise was a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dunkelberger, L. (Apr. 28, 2008). Grim Budget Brings Deep Cuts.
Gainesville Sun.
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Marketing Budget During Economic Crisis

Words: 2108 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38850623

All these were achieved with immense marketing budgets.

In the current situation when the United States and the world are threatened by an economic crisis, the giant shoemaker continues to sustain an increased marketing budget. A specification that must be made however is that changes in the structure of the budget have occurred. In this order of ideas, the marketing specialists at Nike are more centred on interactive and innovative marketing, rather than traditional marketing operations. In a time of financial difficulties then, the number one shoemaker of the globe is trying to approach the audience using less conventional means. Nike officials argued that they were not in the business of keeping the media companies alive, but that their primary interest was that of best communicating with the audience. In this order of ideas then, the multinational organization drastically reduced marketing budgets for television advertisements and other traditional means and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chandler, T., Nike Gets Engaged, Shrinks Traditional Ad Spending. Here's How Copywriters Can Benefit, the Copywriter Underground, 2007, http://copywriterunderground.com/2007/10/22/nike-gets-engaged-shrinks-traditional-ad-spending-heres-how-copywriters-can-benefit/last accessed on October 16, 2008

Lovell, C., Marketing Budgets Cut at Record Rate as Economic Crisis Deepends, Brand Republic, 2008,  http://www.brandrepublic.com/Campaign/News/852748/Marketing-budgets-cut-record-rate-economic-crisis-deepens/last  accessed on October 16, 2008

McNamara, C., All About Marketing, Free Management Library, 2008,  http://www.managementhelp.org/mrktng/mrktng.html . Ast accessed on October 16, 2008

Ford's Product Facing a Deepening Financial Crisis, Daily Times, 2006,  http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2006 57story_7-5-2006_pg5_30last accessed on October 16, 2008
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Public Budgeting

Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27184381

City of Alameda Online Budget Challenge



City of Alameda Announces Series of Targeted Budget Cuts and Tax Increases to Balance 2013-14 Budget

Faced with an impending budget deficit of $4.4 million caused by a combination of rising expenditures flat revenues, the City of Alameda has implemented a series of cuts to programs funded by the General fund, as well as minimal increases in certain taxes, to assure a balanced budget for Fiscal Year 2012-13. Before a detailed description of these actions is given, the City of Alameda would like to make clear for all citizens that the proscribed measures are temporary in nature, with the objective being to guide the city through a prolonged recession while assuring financial solvency. With that said, every major department which draws funding from the city's General Fund will absorb budget cuts that are similar to those enacted last year,…… [Read More]

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New York State Budget

Words: 2703 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71760887

spring of 2010 y Rasmussen Reports showed that 55% of New Yorkers lamed the state's udget crisis solely on the state's politicians. The telephone survey showed that the then $9 illion udget deficit was perceived as eing a result of the "ickering" amongst Democrats and Repulicans in Alany. The voters showed their concern y electing a new governor last fall, Andrew Cuomo, the son of a former governor, Mario Cuomo. Yet the situation is still serious. See, 55% of New Yorkers lame udget crisis on legislators, Rassmussen Reports, May 6, 2010.

But the Empire State is not alone in feeling the fiscal pain of the ongoing economic downturn facing the U.S.

As states across the U.S. this spring ponder their udget proposals for the coming fiscal year, they continue to face a monumental challenge. The worst economic depression since the 1930s has fostered the steepest decline in state tax receipts…… [Read More]

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Funding and Budget for Special Education

Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98216829

local education plan best be developed to reveal the extent to which public, private, and non-profit funding methods meet fiscal and administrative requirements of IDEA? Why?

One of the two main components of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the grant program that provides federal funding to the states ("What School Financial Officers Need to Know about Special Education," 2014). Under the provisions of the Department of Education, funding is provided on a per-student basis, based on total enrollment. However, additional issues such as poverty levels, are also taken into account ("What School Financial Officers Need to Know about Special Education," 2014). The state and local education plans can best be developed to reveal the extent to which public, private, and non-profit funding methods meet fiscal and administrative requirements of IDEA by focusing on ongoing support services and statistical tracking of student performance. The fundamental requirements of IDEA…… [Read More]


Kingston, M., et al. (2014). Learning education reform initiatives. Office of Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS). ERIC Id: ED560128

Smith, T.E.C. (2005). Idea 2004: Another round in the reauthorization process. Remedial and Special Education 26(6): 314-319.

"What School Financial Officers Need to Know about Special Education," (2014). Retrieved online:  http://www.aasbo.com/pdf/CSFOMarch2014_Highfield.pdf
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Government Budgeting

Words: 4599 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93287495

Government Accounting Office in America (GAO)

This is an examination of the Government Accounting Office in America. The writer discusses the history, purpose and background of the GAO as well as the duties that the office is charged with performing. The writer then analyzes literature that illustrates the office in action. The final discussion revolves around the question, "Is the office effective or is it a waste of money." There were four sources used to complete this paper.

During the last few years there has been a public outcry and demand to investigate government spending. The public was brought stories by the media about the government paying thousands of dollars for toilet seats, and spending hundreds of dollars on a screwdriver and other such tools. When the reports began to surface about wasted government spending the public became angry. Lobbyists across the nation began to demand an accounting of not…… [Read More]

Bibliography for a listing of non-GAO publications.) It should be noted that, as with any effort to put current events into historical context, alternative interpretations are possible. Often debated are the intent and motivation of the framers of the Constitution who created the census. In this report, we have quoted the Constitution and various laws relating to the decennial census and have attempted to place their language in an historical context. We are not, however, providing our own independent review or interpretation of the constitutional and statutory issues discussed in this report, which, unless otherwise noted, are based primarily on the analysis contained in the various publications and documents we relied upon in preparing this report.

Short answers to some frequently asked questions about the decennial census are in appendix 1. Appendix 11 contains information on changes in the apportionment of the membership of the House of Representatives between the 1920 and 1990 Decennial Censuses by region of country and on changes in the nation's population and its undercount by race and ethnicity between the 1950 and 1990 censuses, as well as a snapshot of the growth and cost of census-taking since the first decennial census in 1790. Major contributors to this report are identified in appendix III.

L. Nye Stevens Director, Federal Management and Workforce Issues

Chapter 1

Why Take the Census?
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Budget an Old Alliterative Adage

Words: 1112 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32431090

"Put it on paper," Cintron advises, and adds, "The first step to creating a budget is simple: put down on paper what you are spending your money on. That sounds easy, but it takes discipline and honesty -- in other words, do not omit anything, no matter how small" (76). In fact, many of the clients who seek out Cintron's advice simply guess at how much money they are spending each month without ever committing a single item to paper. By listing all expenses, though, even the trivial ones, people can make a decision concerning how important these expenditures are to their lifestyles and eliminate those that can add up without people realizing it. For example, Cintron also notes that, "Cut unnecessary expenses. Once you see [what you are spending] in black and white, you can figure out what you can cut. I call it going on a money diet"…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cintron, Ivan. 2000, May. "The Art of Savvy Budgeting." Black Enterprise 30(10): 76.
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Budget Compare and Contrast

Words: 5190 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16976181

budgets of any major size will get most, but not necessarily all, of their money from taxpayers of several many sorts but the main goal of the agencies regardless of size and structure is to provide basic and needed services to the area they serve, whatever and wherever that may be.

While all budgets are quite similar in one form or another, they are all different in their own ways and this can include the aim(s) of the money to be spent, where the money will come from and the overall fiscal policy exercised within the budget including investment, tax rates and savings strategies.

Basic Description of each budget

Differences and similarities of each budget

Sources of evenues of each budget

Change of revenue accounts in the future

e. Budget's fit with mission of the domain

f. How to improve budget and/or revenue estimation for each budget


Budget Comparison…… [Read More]


HHS. (2014, June 1). HHS Budget in Brief. Department of Health & Human Services.

Retrieved June 28, 2014, from  http://www.hhs.gov/budget/fy2015/fy-2015 -


IRS. (2014, June 26). Forms and Pubs. Internal Revenue Service. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from  http://www.irs.gov/
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Budget Analysis of School System

Words: 748 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96028640

5. What are the top 3 in monetary costs for capital improvement projects recommended for the ensuing fiscal year?

The top 3 costs for Special Warrant Articles for the upcoming budget are: The GMS site de-watering study (including design and cost) at $86,000, GMS/LMS safety locks and video surveillance at $56,431 and finally LMS Emergency Access Road at $44,000.

6. Excluding food service sales what are the top 3 revenue budget lines for the year 05/06?

The top three revenue line for the school year were: Federal Program Grant at $239,042, State School Building Aid at $238,392.16 and revenue from Other Local Sources at $165,049.

7. What is the total dollar amount for appropriations recommended by the School Board?

The total amount recommended by the School Board for the upcoming year is $19,514,314. This includes the $259,854 appropriated to Special Warrant Articles as well as the $19,254,460 appropriated for all…… [Read More]

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Budget Outlook Projections and Implications

Words: 401 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34859510

This type of policy is aimed at "stimulating total spending in the economy," through cutting taxes to leave businesses and individuals with more money to buy goods, thus raising demand and increasing production and generating increased spending (Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia).

Importantly, the authors note that these budget imbalances will have a significant negative impact on the general economy. They will reduce living standards and damage the economy, and bring the nation to a "real risk of a fiscal crisis" (p. 5). In large part, these effects will come from reducing national saving.

The authors note, however, that all is not lost if action is taken immediately to reduce budget deficits. Gale and Orszag write, "Significant changes in fiscal policy are needed to deal preemptively with the costs from low national saving and the risk of a fiscal crisis. The sooner we begin, the better" (p. 6).


Gale William…… [Read More]


Gale William G. And Orszag, Peter R. 2004. The Budget Outlook: Projections and Implications. The Economists' Voice: Vol. 1: No. 2, Article 6, October 27, 2004. November 2004.  http://www.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1004&context=ev 

Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia. 2004. Fiscal Policy. © 1997-2004 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. 04 November 2004. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761579937/Fiscal_Policy.html
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Oregon Parks and Recreation Department Budget Plan

Words: 796 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72196725

Budget Proposal

Agency: Oregon Park and ecreation Department (OPD)

Agency's Mission: "To provide and protect outstanding natural, scenic, cultural, historic, and recreational sites for the enjoyment and education of present and future generations" (OPD, 2011).

To attain its mission, the agency organizes its operations into six work areas; direct services, community support and grants, park development, central services, Oregon exposition center, and director's office (OP, 2011). The agency operates a total of sixteen programs scattered across the six work areas. Of the sixteen, Park Experiences takes up the largest amount of funds - approximately 36% of the total lottery revenues - and accounts for 39% of the agency's total budget (OPD, 2011)

Proposal: Cut down spending on Interpretative program.

Identified Need: OPD does not receive any funding from the General Fund Tax kitty, and only relies "on a mix of Other Funds, Lottery Funds and a small amount of Federal…… [Read More]


OPRD. (2011). 2011-2013 Means and Ways Budget. OPRD. Retrieved 27 May 2014 from  http://www.oregon.gov/oprd/documents/2011-2013-budget-presentation-20110316.pdf 

Oregon Parks and Recreation Commission. (2014). Parks and Recreation Department. OPRD. Retrieved 27 May 2014 from  http://www.oregon.gov/oprd/Documents/Commission/2014.4_Bend/COM_Item9_2014.4.pdf 

Rocco, K. & Hill, D. (2013). Legislative Fiscal Office. OPRD. Retrieved 27 May 2014 from  https://www.oregonlegislature.gov/lfo/Documents/2013-3%20LAB%20Summary%2013-15.pdf
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Government Budget

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4789517

Budget Deficit

Government Budget

What are the consequences of an ever-burgeoning federal deficit and debt? Will there ever be a solution or compromise?

One of the most hotly-contested issues in contemporary American political life is how to deal with the current budget deficit. Despite running surpluses during the 1990s, the current budget is widely considered out of control by both Democrats and epublicans. The reasons for the deficit include two costly wars abroad and increased defense spending overall after 9/11; tax cuts, and the recent recession which required federal spending in the form of unemployment assistance and assistance to the states (who are legally required to balance their budgets); and less income tax revenue because of job losses. There also systemic factors that have contributed to high budget deficits (Amadeo 2012). Overall, "mandatory spending has increased. Spending to pay benefits for Social Security, Medicare and other mandated programs has been…… [Read More]


Amadeo, Kimberly. (2012). U.S. Federal Budget deficit. Retrieved at:


Economic effects of a budget deficit. (2012). Economics Help. Retrieved at:

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Miami Budget

Words: 975 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62015664

Budgeting, particular during pressing economic periods, is critical to the overall solvency of public organizations. Budgeting and proper forecasting provides a means for organizations to remain viable irrespective of the economic circumstances prevailing. History has proven that businesses along with public enterprises must endure various economy cycles and environments. The past decade has provided substantial evidence as to the importance of proper budgeting. Organizations that have failed to budget properly have suffered immensely in regards to lost reputation, profit and productivity. The subsequent decade will be no different in that regard. Budgeting in the public domain, must provide adequate reassurance that the public organization can withstands a litany of economic and monetary circumstances (Parks, 1991)

A budget provides organizations financial priorities in dollar terms. Particular in recessions or depression, public budgets, when analyzed, provide an idea as to the organizations priorities. During periods of mass euphoria and over optimism, budgets…… [Read More]


1) Muir, Helen. (1953) Miami, U.S.A. Coconut Grove, Florida. Hurricane House Publishers. Pp. 33, 100

2) Parks, Arva Moore (1991). Miami: The Magic City. Miami, FL: Centennial Press. p. 12. ISBN 0-9629402-2-4

3) Sullivan, Arthur; Steven M. Sheffrin (2003). Economics: Principles in action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 502. ISBN 0-13-063085-3
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10 Million Fund Allocation Budget Plan

Words: 4256 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61902064

Budget Plan for $10 Million Fund Allocation

Positive economic development in any city in the United tates relies on the provision of effective, efficient, and strong infrastructures that will attract investment to generate job opportunities in the city. A central goal of any city is also to improve health outcomes for the residents to improve their health outcomes. City public officials should also provide safety and securities, and improve students achievements to enhance quality of human developments . However, a city officials are required to keep proper accounts of all income and expenditures to deliver high quality financial resources.

As a newly elected public official of the city of between 50,000 and 250,000 population, our goal is to attract investment opportunities in the city through effective use of budgetary control to meet the economic and health needs of the residents in order to enjoy 100% federal funds. Our goal is…… [Read More]

Sources of Payment, and Incremental Costs, Health Affairs.

Lunenburg, F.C. (2010). Financial Controls: A Safeguard Against Misuse of Public Funds. National Forum of Educational Administration & Supervision Journal. 27(4).

Nkuah, J.F. Tanyeh, J.P. & Asante, J.(2013). The Relationship between Financial Control Systems and Public Sector Efficiency in Ghana. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences.2(7):209-235.

Malloy, L.C & Merkowitz, S.P. (2015). The Economic Impact of Expanding Medicaid. Healthy Economy.

Popovcic-Avric, S. Mizdrakovic, V. & Djenic, M.(2014). Budget Control and Fund Accounting. International Conference: XIV International Symposium .
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How to Convince Management to Fund Your Budget

Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28166755

Budget eport/Justification for Elite Property Management Headquarters

The Elite Property Management (EPM) has its headquarters along the Mass Avenue at the Penthouse premises. This is an extensive building that houses the headquarters and the entire staff that deals not only in the operations of the organization from this point but also has offices for the satellite branches that the organization has to make coordination of work easier. Adjacent to the headquarters are also three stores that the firm rents to help in central storage of property of the organization.

The total cost of renting these premises was pegged at $1,395,000 with the majority share going to the main building that holds the offices, $495,000. The two massive stores were allocated $450,000 respectively.

The space that cost the $495,000 for the year will help give 150 employees working spaces and the extra space that would be used for conference halls and…… [Read More]


Archer North & Associates, (2015). Benefits of Appraisal. Retrieved May 30, 2015 from  http://www.performance-appraisal.com/benefits.htm 

Kevin Coyne et.al., (2010). When You've Got to Cut Costs-Now. Retrieved May 30, 2015 from  https://hbr.org/2010/05/when-youve-got-to-cut-costs-now
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Los Angeles Budget Assessment L A

Words: 2822 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82555002

The reason for this shortfall, as noted by the Balance Budget website, emanates from pension costs, previously agreed to cost of living pay increases, rising health care costs overall and a general weakness in the overall economic recovery that has ensued, albeit very slowly, since the end of the so-called "Great ecession" period that ended in approximately 2009 for the nation as a whole. The balance budget website notes that the shortfall in question is equivalent to 20% of the total police officer salary budget, 60% of the total firefighter budget and over 100% of the city's expenses for their libraries and parks (L.A. Budget Challenge, 2013).

Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa, in this budget summary document, notes that budget shortfalls will be addressed through expenditure cuts and increase efficiency. He makes mention of "painful" layoffs but not addressing the real problem of employee-level costs per person being the issue…… [Read More]


City of Los Angeles. (2012, October 29). The City of Los Angeles: LA City Controller: Adopted Budget. The City of Los Angeles: LA City Controller: Home. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from  http://controller.lacity.org/AdoptedBudget/index.htm 

City of Los Angeles. (2013, April 16). The Mayor of the City of Los Angeles. The City of Los Angeles: Office of Mayor: Home. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from  http://mayor.lacity.org/Issues/BalancedBudget/index.htm 

City of Los Angeles. (2013, April 16). The City of Los Angeles. The City of Los Angeles. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from  http://www.lacity.org/index.htm 

City of Los Angeles. (2013, April 16). The City of Los Angeles: City of Los Angeles Council Committees: Budget and Finance. The City of Los Angeles: City of Los Angeles Council Committees: Home. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from http://councilcommittee.lacity.org/budget/index.htm
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Accounting a Static Budget Is Defined as

Words: 1158 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3774204


A static budget is defined as a budget that is "planned ahead of time based on the owner's best guess about future actual activity." This type of budget is therefore put together for the upcoming time period, and is often based on the data from past time periods, plus or minus different adjustments that management thinks will be necessary. In contrast, a flexible budget is one where the business management can make changes in the midst of an accounting period. Flexible budgeting allows for management to make better decisions on the fly, because the information used in those decisions is kept more up-to-date. Static budgeting relies only on the ability of management to analyze the numbers after the period in order to determine the magnitude and direction of variance, along with the causes of variance. For a flexible budget, management can identify issues with the budget right away, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Mueller, D. (2012). Static budget vs. flexible budget. eHow. Retrieved September 12, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/info_7784641_static-budget-vs.-flexible-budget.html

Bigelow, L. (2012). Static vs. flexible budgets for new businesses. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved September 12, 2012 from  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/static-vs.-flexible-budgets-new-businesses-20879.html
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Public Budgeting With the Talk

Words: 860 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37281215

The problems with the budget are said to arise from politicians who are unable to make difficult decisions. The problem with these laws is that they do not explicitly force politicians to make those decision. GRH provides targets for the politicians to work towards, creating motivation, and the BEA provides a framework for penalizing inaction, but neither truly forces politicians to make the tough choices.

Real political solutions involve actually making those tough choices. This is not to discount the value of having these frameworks to guide the negotiations and hold Congress to the outcomes of those negotiations, but the negotiations themselves are the critical component to the budget problem. For example, if the sequester is initiated, Congress can follow it up with laws to build back some of those spending cuts, and it would likely do so quickly. There are no provisions in the BEA, for example, that call…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bancroft Library. (2011). 1985 Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act. University of California at Berkeley. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from  http://bancroft.berkeley.edu/ROHO/projects/debt/1985grammrudmanhollings.html 

Mitchell, D. (1989). Sequestration Gramm-Rudman's potent weapon for spending restraint. Cato Institute. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from  http://www.cato.org/publications/policy-analysis/sequestration-grammrudmans-potent-weapon-spending-restraint 

Reischauer, R. (1993). CBO Testimony. Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from  http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/ftpdocs/103xx/doc10382/1993_05_13reischauertestimony.pdf 

Sahadi, J. (2012). What's in the fiscal cliff? CNN. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from  http://money.cnn.com/2012/11/08/news/economy/fiscal-cliff/index.html
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Household Budget My Spreadsheet Reveals That I

Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17036241

Household Budget

My spreadsheet reveals that I am not spending too much per year. It shows that my spending is roughly aligned with my income. My savings rate is just over 4%, which is a low rate, but still higher than that of the average American. That I am able to save anything is a good thing, given that I am earning relatively low income in this scenario. By cutting some expenses, such as on rent, I am able to get by.

My single biggest expense, not surprisingly, is my rent. Thankfully, my rent is inclusive of utilities other than communications, which are billed separately. In every month, my rent was my most significant expense. There were some months where other expenses were also fairly high, such as December when I went home for Christmas, but the rent is always the highest.

There is a fairly high degree of variability…… [Read More]

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Videos Mayor Nutter's Budget Speech Contained Several

Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31909139


Mayor Nutter's budget speech contained several effective elements. The mayor is delivering a challenging budget. IN order to deliver this news, he begins with two effective devices. The first is that he rallies the support of the people by pointing out that he is a leader they can trust (had an open house at City Hall) and that the people of Philadelphia had rallied to meet challenges before (picking up trash, etc.). The second effective device was that he wanted to create a sense of urgency about the situation. In order to deliver bad news, it is important that a sense of urgency is created because it compels the listener to want to act right away, as opposed to delaying action. Thus, the mayor effectively recounts how bad the recession is, and the ways that it has already had a negative effect on the national economy and on the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Peterson, J. (2012). 12 effective speech tips and checks. Speech Topics Help. Retrieved February 15, 2012 from  http://www.speech-topics-help.com/effective-speech.html 

Video: $14B auto bailout dies in Senate. Retrieved February 15, 2012 from  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L7PMnKUcL1U 

Video: Nutter paints bleaker picture on budget crisis. Retrieved February 15, 2012 from http://abclocal.go.com/wpvi/video?id=6492270
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Guillermo Capital Budgeting Guillermo Is Faced With

Words: 1154 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47776313

Guillermo Capital Budgeting

Guillermo is faced with a difficult operating environment. Competition has intensified, and this is driving down his margins. At the same time, labor costs are rising. This is putting a squeeze on Guillermo. At present, it does not look like he can compete head to head against his new rival, as that rival is using a technological competitive advantage to outcompete Guillermo. As a result, Guillermo is now faced with three different options for revitalizing his business. The first is to become a broker for a high-tech competitor based in Norway, a move that would take him out of the manufacturing business. The second is that he could add value to his existing product perhaps allowing him to improve his margins. Guillermo's third option is to adopt the Norwegian company's technology, as this would lower his cost of production significantly, restoring some of his net margin.

In…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Accounting for Management. (2011). Payback period method for capital budgeting decisions. Accounting for Management. Retrieved February 11, 2012 from  http://www.accountingformanagement.com/pay_back_method_of_capital_budgeting_decisions.htm 

Baker, S. (2000). Perils of the internal rate of return. University of South Carolina. Retrieved February 11, 2012 from http://hspm.sph.sc.edu/courses/econ/invest/invest.html

Investopedia. (2012). Net present value -- NPV. Investopedia. Retrieved February 11, 2012 from  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/n/npv.asp#axzz1m6xHDhx6
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National Budget Stimulation the Debate

Words: 1618 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62895070

The final step in decrease law enforcement budgets was the cut of 20% federal prison system. As of right now, prisons take up millions of dollars to house drug offenders and other non-violent criminals. These funds are needed elsewhere, and so they must be taken from keeping up the building and regulation of so many unnecessary prisons in the United States.

In terms of protecting consumers much needed to be done. To ensure consumers protection on investments, deposit insurance increased by 10%. This will allow people to renew faith in the banking system in they have more insurance on their deposits. Additionally, I cut 20% of tax cuts for the richest 1% of tax payers, 10% for the second two richest. Hold even for the third, and an increase of 10% for the bottom tax payers. Furthermore, I cut 20% of untaxed foreign profits and 10% of tax benefits for…… [Read More]

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Specific Argument in Response to the Differing Perspectives on New Jersey's Budget Crisis

Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 892728

New Jersey's Budget Crisis

Matt Bai and David Leonhardt agree that the rising cost of state government and the lack of fiscal restraint on the part of local and state government leaders has lead us to the budget crisis that many states are facing in these uncertain economic times. There are three lessons to be learned from these two articles; local and state governments need to become more efficient, contracts negotiated with public employee unions need to be reasonable, realistic, and affordable, and American's need to lower their expectations of what the government is able to do with the resources available.

Matt Bai gives three reasons for New Jersey's current financial woes, first the state sends 40% of its annual budget to municipalities and school districts in order to compensate for the shortfall in revenue from local property taxes. Second, the state doesn't have the recourses to cover its pension…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bai, Matt. "How Chris Christie Did His Homework." New York Times. 24 Februaary 2011. Magazine. 30 April 2011. <  http://www.nytimes.com /2011/02/27/magazine/27christie-t.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1>

Leonhardt, David. "Union Contracts, Not Pay, Are States' Problem." New York Times. 1 March 2011. Business Day. 30 April 2011.
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Arapahoe County 2015 Adopted Budget

Words: 600 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43451305


To: Department Manager
From: Me
Date: 24 September, 2017
Subject: Results from Analyzing the Arapahoe County 2015 Adopted Budget

This memo is to delineate the findings I have obtained from conducting an analysis of the Arapahoe County for the 2015 Adopted Budget. This encompassed assessing expenditure items for both the Clerk and Recorder’s Office and the Department’s General Fund. The purpose of my analysis is to bring forth to your attention the need for interim budget deduction owing to the shortfall in revenue. The revenue adjustments will make it possible for you as the department manager to be able to review the recommendations given and thereafter make adjustments to spending cuts in view of that.

There are some recommendations I have chosen to making alterations to the spending categories. In this particular analysis, I applied a flat rate of 10 percent in undertaking revenue adjustment for the general fund.…… [Read More]

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Balanced Budget Act of 1997

Words: 1079 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16949468

Balanced Budget Act of 1997 is having an impact on health care providers by making cuts in Medicare and Medicaid fees. To understand what is happening requires conducting a literature review. This will provide specific insights as to how these changes are affecting the health care system over the long-term.

The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 has reshaped the way that health care providers are interacting with stakeholders (i.e. low income families and the elderly). According to Spector (2004) the reduction in the fees has meant that many facilities will not continue to offer different services to Medicare and Medicaid recipients. This results in an increase in the costs for receiving services that are an important part of their total health care solution. When this happens, they will no longer use these programs. This hurts the quality of care that they are obtaining. (Spector, 2004)

The information from this source…… [Read More]


Bazzoli, G. (2004). The Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Inquiry, 41 (4), 401 -- 417.

Dickler, R. (2000). The Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Annals of Internal Medicine, 132 (1), 820 -- 824.

Schlenker, R. (2002). Rural -- Urban Health Care. The Journal of Rural Health, 18 (2), 359 -- 372.

Spector, W. (2004). Home Care Before and After. The Gerontologist, 44 (1), 39 -- 47.
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Public Budgeting Process

Words: 1698 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77663404

Public Budgeting Process

The options for financing President Bush's plan to partially privatize Social Security might well be as unworkable as his plan to cut taxes five times, while increasing defense spending by starting two wars in the Middle East -- to say nothing of his other ambitious, but underfunded, plans such as No Child Left Behind. On the face of it, the near-term prospects for national solvency in any form of Social Security privatization -- especially in the undertaxed, overspent configuration of the current U.S. budget -- conform to the old adage, slim to none. A quick glance at the figures even during the pre-tax-cut, economic boom times of the middle of the Clinton presidency foreshadow the potential for disaster lurking in Social Security privatization. At that time, U.S. national debt amounted to "not $5 trillion as our politicians tell us -- it is between $14 and $17 trillion!"…… [Read More]


Lamm, Richard D. (1996) The new agenda. Vital Speeches of the Day, July 1, 62 (18).

Mallaby, Sebastian. (2004) Bush's ungrounded vision. The Washington Post, November 8. Retrieved 25 November 2004 from www.highbeam.com.

Montagne, Renee. (2004) Analysis: How Social Security privatization might work, Morning Edition (NPR) transcript, November 11. Retrieved 25 November 2004 from www.highbeam.com.

Strope, Leigh. (2004) Bush Moves to Privatize Social Security. AP Online, November 11. Retrieved 25 November 2004 from www.highbeam.com.
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Balanced Budget Act of 1997

Words: 1100 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12670779

Balanced Budget Act of 1997

Introduction with Background

In the last several years, health care costs have been increasingly exponentially. To control the expenses associated with Medicare and Medicaid, the Balance Budget Act of 1997 was enacted. At the heart of its focus, was on reducing the total amounts of fees that are provided to health care providers, doctors and nurses. This is troubling, as these transformations will have an impact on facilities and health care professionals (who may not want to work with these kinds of patients). When this happens, there will be a decrease in choices and the overall quality of services that are provided to these individuals. This is the point that these challenges could adversely impact treatment options that are provided. (Kilgore, 2009)

Evidence of this can be seen in a study that was conducted by Kilgore (2009). She found that the act has changed consumer…… [Read More]


Comparative Analysis. (2012). Business Dictionary. Retrieved from:  http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/comparative-analysis.html 

Qualitative Research. (2012), Wilderdom.com. Retrieved from: http://wilderdom.com/research/QualitativeVersusQuantitativeResearch.html

Kilgore, M. (2009). The Effects of the Balance Budget Act of 1997. Med Care, 47 (3), 279 -- 285.

Olsen, W. (2012). Qualitative Comparative Analysis. University of Manchester. Retrieved from:  http://www.methods.manchester.ac.uk/methods/qca/
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New Hampshire State Budget New

Words: 2033 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38963312

The Category Totals for the 2006-2007 Biennial State Operating Budget, found in Chapter 176, Laws of 2005, are as follows:

Chapter 176 - Laws of 2005 - NH Operating Budget

Fiscal Year 2006

Fiscal Year 2007

Total Appropriation for Category 01


AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.01-403,003,676 416,233,183



FEDEAL FUNDS 17,924,517 17,918,180

OTHE FUNDS 106,867,295 105,489,779

GENEAL FUND 278,211,864 292,825,224

TOTAL 403,003,676 416,233,183

Total Appropriation for Category 02


AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.02-420,003,205 424,638,566


FEDEAL FUNDS 52,837,182 50,445,675

OTHE FUNDS 152,998,319 155,855,692

GENEAL FUND 213,213,595 217,790,891


TOTAL 420,003,205 424,638,566

Total Appropriation for Category 03


AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.03-222,979,010 217,030,487

ESTIMATED SOUCE of FUNDS for…… [Read More]


Hall, D.E.. (Sep 2002). Six Programs Fueled State Spending Increases, 1993-2003. New Hampshire Center for Public Policy Studies. Concord, NH. Retrieved on February 7, 2007 at  http://www.nhpolicy.org/nhbudget/19932003v1.pdf 

Norton, S.A. (Dec 2006). Fiscal Feast and Famine. New Hampshire Center for Public Policy Studies. Concord, NH. Retrieved on February 7, 2007 at  http://www.nhpolicy.org/budget_trends2007.pdf .

Operating Budget for the State of New Hampshire (2004-2005). (2005). About the LBA-Budget Division. State of New Hampshire Office of Legislative Budget Assistant. Concord, NH. Retrieved February 7, 2007 at http://www.gencourt.state.nh.us/LBA/Indexbudget.html.

President George W. Bush (07 Feb 2005). President Bush's Budget and New Hampshire: FY Budget. The White House. Retrieved February 8, 2007, at  http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/budget/2006/states/nh.html# .
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Reality-Based Budgeting

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25969486

eality-Based Budgeting

The "Great ecession" that has crippled local economies throughout America has exposed the traditional budgeting procedures used by legislators and municipal leaders as a fallacious exercise in stopgap financing that fails to address the systemic problems of mismanagement, inefficiency, and wasteful spending. As an increasing number of city and state governments struggle to balance their budgets in the wake of curtailed income and overextended expenditures, economists have worked to develop innovate forms of budgeting which are better suited to meet the demands of modern financial planning. The concept of reality-based budgeting has emerged in recent years as a viable alternative to the traditional method of balancing governmental budgets, which is largely predicated on a combination of across the board spending cuts and untargeted increases in tax rates. As Bob Williams wrote in a recent article published by the non-profit organization State Budget Solutions, "reality-based budgeting assumes the rules…… [Read More]


Cuomo, A.M. State of New York, Division of the Budget. (2012). Governor cuomo's 2012-13 executive budget and reform plan outlines vision to continue building a new york. Retrieved from website:  http://www.budget.ny.gov/pubs/press/2012/pressRelease12_eBudget1.html 

Williams, B. (2013). Reality-based budgeting: How to permanently resolve state budget gaps. State Budget Solutions, 33(4), Retrieved from  http://www.statebudgetsolutions.org/publications/detail/reality-based-budgeting-how-to - permanently-resolve-state-budget-gaps
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Public Administration Budgeting an Important

Words: 1698 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85492056

Six Steps in the Budgeting Process. Bottom-up vs. Top-down Budget Plans, 2010).

The budget rules that are prepared by top management are passed down through successive levels within the company. Managers at each level may make additions and offer greater detail for their subordinates. The managers at each level prepare the plans for items under their control. The budgeting process will caution management of possible problems that may occur. By knowing the problems, solutions may be formulated. For example, at the valleys in cash flow, a shortage of cash may occur. Knowing this ahead of time allows management to arrange for a short-term loan for the financing need rather than face an unexpected financing crisis. In a similar element, planning allows for a smooth manufacturing program to result in both lower production costs and lower inventory levels. It steers clear of a crisis circumstances requiring overtime or high transportation charges…… [Read More]


Fuller, Julia. (2010). How to Make a Budget for an Organization. Retrieved August 7, 2010,

from eHow Web site: http://www.ehow.com/how_4464789_make-budget-organization.html

How to Prepare A Sound Budget Process. Six Steps in the Budgeting Process. Bottom-up versus

Top-down Budget Plans. (2010). Retrieved August 7, 2010, from Online Success Center