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Budget management analysis is used by mangers as a tool and helps determine that all resources available are being used efficiently. The budgets are determined yearly and are based upon the previous year's budget and variances. This paper will discuss specific strategies to manage budgets within forecast, compare five to seven expense results with budget expectations, describe possible reasons for variances, give strategies to keep results aligned with expectations, recommend three benchmarking techniques, and identify those that might improve budget accuracy, and justify the choices made.
Strategies to Manage Budgets
Many strategies may be used to control budgets; managers and the chief financial officer of most healthcare organizations have the tools needed to manage the budget. By managing the budget the organization will be better prepared for the financial forecasts, which are the company's future expenses. Some strategies and tools that will assist with managing the budget are zero based,…… [Read More]
Budget Management Analysis
In budgeting, one of the major challenges is accurately predicting the profit margins of a firm. This is because there are uncertainties from changes in the economy and their industry. These factors could adversely affect their earnings. To improve accuracy, accounting personnel must use tools and strategies that will enhance analysis. This will be accomplished by focusing on: tactics for managing budgets, comparing results with expectations and recommending three benchmarking techniques. Together, these elements will provide insights as to the best approaches for controlling the budget. (Kimmel, 2009)
Determine specific strategies to manage budgets within forecasts.
A common issue with any kind of budget is managing expenses. This is because costs will inadvertently rise, as there will be impacts from inflation. When this happens, the firm's profit margins are negatively affected. To prevent this there must be strategies developed that are focusing on intelligently controlling spending and…… [Read More]
budget management analysis, it generally looks at how budgets can be effectively managed so as to be in line with the forecast that was earlier made. The first section of the easy spells out different strategies that can be applied to effectively manage budgets. The second section looks at budget variance and how they arise and what strategies can be used to remove them. The last section of the study will indicate three bench marking techniques that can be used to improve the accuracy in future forecast.
Strategies to manage budget within forecasts
Budget as a financial plan is based on expected future activities and is used to control that activity and hence it is possible to make a number of forecast of the financial outcome under different assumptions and the forecast which best meets the firm's or individual objective and is within its capabilities is chosen as the budget.…… [Read More]
budgeting management was most helpful to me, I believe, in the sense that it actually helped clarify the various processes about which I wrote, providing me greater conceptual awareness of budget management planning, processes, and content. Of the essays I completed, I must admit that I like various parts of all of them, but feel that my third essay was the best. By then I was more confident about what I was writing. Overall, what I learned from writing all three essays, an insight that will, I believe, remain with me long after this course, is that one learns a great deal more about a subject from writing about it.
My third essay was the best-focused of the three, and most detailed and specific. It was the end result of much thinking I had done. My best sentence, within that essay was (I feel): "The top management, working with the…… [Read More]
Budget Management Analysis
So much connected to the process of budgeting is difficult. It can be difficult to draft a budget which is accurate and which connects to all project needs. Moreover, it can be quite challenging to stay within the guidelines of a budget. However, organizations and projects must be held to that regardless for their present and future success, not to mention their own level of sustainability.
Thus, whenever finance teams draft budgets, there still need to be people on the accounting team who are specifically there just to enforce the budget and to ensure that all members of the team are able to follow the guidelines set forth. Even with these specific professionals involved with the project, there is still a need to engage in concerted steps to ensure that the project remains on budget. Specific measures need to be taken by the accounting and finance team…… [Read More]
Budgeting is not only useful for a business organization but it is also useful for personal planning and spending. The existence of a well structured budget within an organization or a personal budget tells how well a person or the business is organized. From a business perspective regardless of the type and size a budget is an important recipe for success and smooth running of the business.
According to Burrows and Syme (2000) depending on the size, a business can have various types of budget that include; the sales budget, the production budget, the general administrative budget, cash budget and the master budget. It is important to note that the master budget encompasses all the other different types of budget into one and through the master budget a business can plan its expenses in advance and also can use it to obtain additional finances. This present study will further discuss…… [Read More]
udgeting and Cost Control in Healthcare
One of the most critical issues facing healthcare facilities and organizations is the rapidly increasing cost of providing services. Cost control and budgetary issues are the first consideration for many healthcare facilities. According to statistics, the "single most important thing on the minds of healthcare decision makers is cost management and containment." (Lawson, 2004). In fact, more than 95% of respondents to a survey concluded that cost containment and budgetary issues were among the most pressing issues in the healthcare industry. Yet budgetary issues within the world of healthcare are among the most difficult to address, as most healthcare facilities vary greatly in the level of services they provide to consumers, and the amount of resources readily available to serve those consumers.
Healthcare facilities face increasingly and rapidly rising costs in the face of a poor economy and rising costs associated with providing healthcare…… [Read More]
Functions That udgeting Accounts for Is the Planning Function
We will be arguing for the importance of the planning function in the overall budgeting activity and will be arguing for the many ways the budgeting planning function is coordinating with the company's strategic planning.
First of all, the planning function in terms of budgeting refers to the planning activities that the company, starting with the financial department, needs to (1) determine what the company's long-term strategy is, (2) determine what projects bring most added value to the company and (3) determine what priority these projects should have.
Let's refer to each of these steps in part and determine how they impact the budgeting strategy of a company. The long-term strategy for a company is essential in determining the overall objective of a company. For the long run, this may be increasing the volume of sales or increasing the market share…… [Read More]
Budget Management Analysis
The main purpose of this report is to establish the necessities as well as the costs of iPatientCare HE software to the already existent record keeping system of Home Health Care Agency. Home Health Care Agency is an organization that offers health care to patients in their homes in its targeted region. The agency provides both medical and non-medical services for adult patients in their places of residence. The agency is attributed to provide specified home care and private nursing. The health care services which are provided by the agency are split into two broad classifications which are skilled nursing and therapeutic services. This particular report will reveal the finance costs and also the deemed benefits of the capital expenditure item.
The issue at hand is that in the past number of years, Home Health Care Agency has had a healthy financial performance but the organization has…… [Read More]
The document states the plan of an organization in different phases. For each phase there will be a different management strategy. The document has described the management strategy and the effects that they will have on the performance of the business and why that particular management strategy has been chosen.
Management structure needs to be examined carefully when a new business venture is setup. In order to develop and build on the business plan a compact management structure is necessary. The managers are the people who are responsible for steering an organization towards achieving the business objectives. In the second phase the business plan will be implemented on the basis of geographical region and the management structure will be based accordingly.
The four key functions of management are planning, organizing, leading and controlling the business. The type of managers which are selected for the business venture must be…… [Read More]
Decreasing purchases of the items that regularly expire, assuming that such a decrease does not dramatically increase the per-unit cost of each of these items, would definitely present a cost savings to the organization. The other major costs that the organization has some (though not total) control over are the lost balls and the cost of trainers; it is likely that a move to hiring permanent trainers would be more cost-effective than hiring them on an as-needed basis, but more regular participation levels will need to be established for this to be effective. Likewise, it is possible for the organization to reduce lost equipment costs by erecting a temporary barrier to contain wildly hit balls, but the cost of the barrier would need to be fairly low and its durability fairly high to justify this.
6)a. Sales price variance = (25x40000) -- (25x39200) = 20000
Sales volume variance = (20x40000)…… [Read More]
Trending analysis through a balanced scorecard methodology is used to evaluate the level of performance of each practice relative to another based on patients served, costs, and support costs. The use of balanced scorecards as part of the strategic planning process in healthcare organizations is a best practice that delivers insights and intelligence that drives ROI strategies (Niles, 2010). This is certainly the case with the healthcare organization interviewed.
3. What are some of the most important practices or activities related to this function? What is your involvement?
Managing the underlying IT systems that make the reporting performance evaluation and improvement processes possible is the most important activity related to that specific function. As the acting CIO for the healthcare organization, the person interviewed must also manage the teams that keep the computer systems up and running over time. The have completely accountability and responsibility for keeping the entire IT…… [Read More]
At the same time, he then acts as an interface and communicates to the team the general directions in which the company is moving. However, the project manager also acts as an internal motivator within the team, a coordinator and organizer.
A similarly important role will be played by the project manager in his capacity to act as an interface between the different entities and shareholders involved in a certain project. In order to control scope, several documents should be used, such as, for example, the statement of work, as part of the requests for proposals, or scheduling and budget estimates. For these, the project manager will work with representatives from other departments (marketing and sales etc.), but also with the clients. At the same time, the project manager will have consulted previously with his own team, thus being able to carry to these meetings their own evaluations and estimates.…… [Read More]
Management Audit of San Francisco's IT Practices
San Francisco's IT Practices must generate strategic reports capable of setting targets and securing its IT infrastructure. The city must identify assets and determine their importance. The city of San Francisco's IT Practices entails valuable data, which is an asset necessary for production and delivery of services and goods. Such an asset is also relevant in the social and economic activity of the city and welfare of citizens. Assets refer to IT equipment, information, operations, and facilities.
The loss of such assets reduces the city's competitive advantage. This arises from the financial expenses incurred and the loss of a technological advantage or unique knowledge of information. It would be difficult to reproduce or replace such an advantage. The city must worry about the loss of its reputation. In order to characterize, identify, and evaluate a threat, it can obtain relevant data from news…… [Read More]
Given the fact that the entire organizational structure relies on performance, one needs to ensure that (1) performance levels are reasonably defined and (2) that these performance levels are known to all employees within the organization.
In this sense, an organization that will be implementing the respective framework needs to make sure that the performance levels are reasonably defined. Perhaps an external structure or organization can help defined reasonable levels for outcomes.
The problem we have previously discusses seems to have itself a counterpart in terms of the performance measurement and reporting systems. First of all, measuring performance means that there are specific performance criteria that can be used. These are, in part, related to the strategic planning details I have mentioned on the previous paragraphs.
Second of all, one needs to take into consideration the reasonability of the person who is making the assessments. Again I suggest here someone…… [Read More]
The performance of each team member depends on the performance of all others, this being a team project. Constraints include time and financial resources; as such improvement requires permanent improvement effort.
isk Management. No risk has been identified related to the project's completion.
Monitoring and Controlling Mechanisms. The data analysts will develop a metric system to measure each member's performance on a weekly basis. This weekly performance will be submitted to the project manager for potential adjustments.
V. Operations management plan
Operations Strategy. An easy way to understand the meaning of operations strategy is to break the word into the two separate words: operations and strategy - these words being the opposite of each other (Slack & Lewis, 2002). 'Operations' is about the functions and procedures regarding the day-to-day processes, while 'strategy' is about the direction and scope of an organisation over a long period of time. The operations strategy…… [Read More]
This can come in a number of forms, including rules, "best practices" and job descriptions. Output controls place the focus squarely on the output, with significantly less attention on the behaviors that lead to the output. For example, when a sales person has a quota, that is an output control because the behavior is driven entirely by the end result. Input controls works by placing constraints on process inputs as a means of exerting control. An example might be setting a strict budget for a project. This focuses the manager on sticking to that budget, a process that the organization feels will result in the goals being achieved.
Benchmarking is useful for most firms. The exception would be firms that for one reason or another are not in a competitive environment. For those firms that are in a competitive environment, they can benefit from benchmarking because the benchmark sets the…… [Read More]
Undercover Boss is a great show for illustrating core management concepts. A season five episode features the CEO of the Larry H. Miller Company, owner of the Utah Jazz along with eighty other concerns. This episode features issues related to occupational health and safety, customer service and marketing. In the episode about Modell's Sporting Goods, a family-owned business that has been around since 1889, issues related to logistics, wages, and social justice come to the fore. In the first season episode featuring the CEO and president of 7-11, issues related to management and corporate structure, customer service, and quality assurance are brought to light. These three episodes can all be used to better understand textbook concepts, from the particular skills managers need to succeed to ethics and social responsibility. Of these three episodes, the most engaging was the one about Modell's because of the way the owner came to…… [Read More]
S. DHS "Strategic Plan," 2008, http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/strategicplan/) ealistically acts of terrorism, domestic or foreign are exceedingly rare, though slightly more common than they have been in the past and at least marginally more violent in nature, they occur very, very rarely. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Though maintaining serious preparedness the mitigation of natural disasters, most which cannot be avoided is an issue needed to be addressed almost yearly, on both small and large scales, across the nation and is much more likely to directly effect people and resources on an intimate level and should be the Emergency Management system's first and primary concern! Though worst possible case scenarios, regarding the use of WMDs is important it is not where all the resources should go.
(5. In the course, you have been introduced to the various responsibilities of different levels of government in the homeland security effort. What level of government do…… [Read More]
Some or all such authority may be in fact unlimited. This is when a committee can counterbalance authority and diffuse power within an organization since effectively only a small faction is making important decisions. The best use of committees is to have limited power to make decisions but have unlimited power to make recommendations on how things should be done.
2. Identify the initial issue that should always be thoroughly addressed when the establishment of a committee is recommended.
The initial issue that should be addressed is that of making sure that those on the committee are the people capable of carrying out the agenda of the committee and that the committee will have limited power to make organizational decisions.
3. In what ways may committees be said to dilute the recognition and diffuse the blame or responsibility? Where, based on your personal experience, have you seen one of these…… [Read More]
esearch Objectives and Scope
The main objective of the research then relates closely to the research problem. It is to research the problem of uncertainty as it manifests in the global business environment. Specific issues to be investigated include supply chain management and its related uncertainties, the production process itself and uncertainties related to it, as well as the post-production phase and market uncertainties that are related to it.
Time is also an important factor. Some industries require a long-term time frame in their planning process, which exacerbate uncertainties. The time factor should also be an important consideration in terms of creating a model that can effectively help businesses achieve their manufacturing and revenue goals.
To achieve these aims, the main objective of the research will then be to research industries and companies that operate on a global scale. They will be investigated for the models they have implemented to…… [Read More]
Managing High Performance
A familiar challenge for any expanding enterprise is how to find and manage the highest potential employees who can over time mature into leadership positions. While there are always more applicants that positions available in senior management, the task of any leadership team is to accurately and with insight find those employees with the greatest potential of success (uggiero, 2008). From the very informal succession planning techniques small businesses use that are tantamount of planning sessions, to the much more rigorous and thorough high potential employee development programs, there is a very wide variation in approach and results (Bloch, 1996). The intent of this analysis is to provide a small, rapidly growing company with insights into how best to manage the dilemma of having 50% of its workforce looking to advance their careers with a limited number of positions available while also giving the majority of employees…… [Read More]
Managing Across Cultures
Internationalization of the economy has influenced companies to operate their business globally. The global operation has impact managers with several challenges. Market, product, and production plans must be coordinated on a worldwide basis. The global operation necessitates organization structure to balance centralized home-office control with adequate local autonomy. As companies have started their business operation on the international front, the number of their employees has increased. Increase in the employee's abroad management is faced with new global challenges. The three broad international business management challenges were identified by the management gurus as follows (obert, Kossek & Ozeki, 1998):
a) Deployment: To get the right skills where it is required in an organization regardless of the geographical location.
b) Knowledge and creativity distribution: Spreading the knowledge and practices throughout the organization regardless of where they have actually originated.
c) Talent identification and development on global basis: To identify…… [Read More]
Management, Science, and Technology
Who Is a Manager?
A manager is someone who knows how to take charge, organize, direct, and be accountable for individuals and groups of people operating under his guidance. Anyone who shows leadership skills can be a manager. A manager's goal is to work towards the common good. This means keeping persons on pace to meet their objectives, budgeting time wisely, and instilling in his inferiors a desire to care.
Top management impacts ethics within an organization by setting the tone and the standard for ethical practice. Superiors shape inferiors, not the other way around. Therefore, if top management encourages unethical activity through its own unethical behavior, an organization will, ultimately, be comprised of several unethical attitudes. A great example of this is Enron Corp. Top management of Enron encouraged poor ethical practices by practicing in a disingenuous manner themselves. They hoodwinked investors…… [Read More]
In simple terms, the plant has been inefficient for most of its past, mainly because some of its technologies are still obsolete and need to be change. However, if one decides to change the machinery, then it is most likely that the budget will be surpassed and that there will be problems with the union, considering the fact that there will be a surplus of worker and that these will probably be laid off.
As such, it seems that, in order to solve a problem, one may expect troubles in the case of the other two. The case with the press is eloquent in this case. This had broken down because its shafts had never been changed since 1979, however, solutions in this case will bring additional trouble with the union and the budget, as we shall see further below.
6. 1) the operational changes implemented will probably have, in…… [Read More]
What needs to first be improved upon is the lack of ownership on the part of the unionized workers, yet even more systemic is the challenge that Perrier management has in how workers are accustomed to prosperity in an era of economic downturn. Gaining consensus with unions during a contraction of their business cycles is going to be difficult. What needs to first happen is that the Perrier and Nestle' management teams needs to first focus on being transparent and honest about the need to change, and taking pay cuts, reductions in bonuses and in generals being the champions of the needed change first (Brown, Cregan, 2008). This will help to increase their credibility with the union workers, and also show they are willing to make sacrifices they are calling on others to do as well. Second, Perrier and Nestle' management must focus on creating measures of progress that equally…… [Read More]
Another trait of leadership Zinni and Klotz (2009) explore is the ability of a leader to communicate clearly and articulately with the organization and the public. He can no longer afford to be the faceless top of a chain of command. It behooves the modern leader to develop a variety of decision making skills, such as honing his intuition, learning to quickly recognize developing patterns and trends, and quickly communicating his directions and intentions. This also means that today's leader must be able to show the way through times of crisis and change. A leader's ability to calmly steer a course in times of turmoil is crucial to the survival of any enterprise. Finally, a modern leader needs to think and act strategically. He must plan out the future course of action and guide the organization toward achieving the vision he has articulated. He must be able to hold fast…… [Read More]
Yes, managers are important to organizational success. But this is a logical fallacy question. All organizations, both the successful ones and the utter failures, have managers. So the question isn't about whether managers are important to success -- mathematically there is 100% correlation between having managers and being successful, but also 100% correlation between having managers and being unsuccessful.
Then there is the issue of where organizational success comes from. First, one must define success -- is it profitability? Or exceptional profitability? Short-term, long-term? And there are a lot of variables that contribute to organizational success, not just the actions of management. Further, to determine whether managers are integral to success, and to what degree, would require a control. It is almost impossible to define a control. You could say the managers at Google are really good, but unless there is a parallel universe Google with different managers, how…… [Read More]
The more planning that is done in the beginning the less re work there will be to do later.
4. The author focuses on the importance of being "close to the customer." What is meant by this phrase and how is it accomplished?
The customer is in the end the one person that a company must try and keep happy. Without customers there is no need for a product to be produced and thus no need for a company to be in business. Working closely with customers in order to make sure that they are getting what they want is crucial to a business being successful. Sometimes the customer doesn't really know what they want and this is where a project manager can help to facilitate the customer's wants and turn those into a solution that works best for the customer and the company. Being close to the customer consists…… [Read More]
Developing organizational strategy through the Balanced Scorecard also minimizes participants' subjectivity as they take part in the strategy-setting process and enhance managers' ability to assess all programs for strategic impact without bias (onchetti, n.d.).
While financial and customer actions are defined and available in commercial organizations, the corresponding is less easily found in non-profits. A good measure is one that management can significantly control. Non-profit organizations goals are usually influenced by many influential factors and actors beyond its authority. Commercial Balanced Scorecards usually have a financial viewpoint at the peak of the strategic reason and mapping. For the non-profit, financial goals are not the end; they are part of the means. Customary practice is to push the finance viewpoint down to the bottom of the strategy map for non-profits, treating financials as input to the strategic representation. This is difficult because financially oriented goals are also sought after by non-profits.…… [Read More]
Still, since it is looking to sell a property asset that is not their main residence, they will be required to pay a capital gains tax, in the amount of 18 per cent (Direct Gov). For an estimated retail price of £150,150, and a tax rate of 18 per cent, Olly Lloyd would have to pay £27,027 in taxes.
For the new employment contract, Lloyd would have to pay taxes in the amount of £5,281. The sum is decreased significantly by deductions adherent to contributions made by Olly to the pension funds (Listen to Taxman).
c) Suggestions for financial management
Leone Lloyd-Cardle is, without a doubt, facing severe problems. In order to restore the responsibility and stability of her financial decisions, the following financial management recommendations are made:
Discussing the problem with her husband. Having reached such a high level of debt indicates severe problems which cannot be overcome by…… [Read More]
Most audit managers assign supervisory tasks to senior auditors and, in general, consistently encourage more senior auditors to fulfill a mentor role within the audit team.
The dual benefit of this practice is that it fosters greater team unity and a healthier organizational culture, in addition to enabling junior auditors to learn technical skills from their more senior associates. Very often, the types of relationships maintained by senior auditors within their audit teams is one of the most important criteria considered in conjunction with possible recommendations for future promotion of senior (GS-13) auditors to management at the GS-14 level. By the time auditors reach the GS-13 level, they are not readily distinguishable from one another in technical skill (or they would not have risen above the GS-12 level).
Therefore, it is precisely their performance in the unofficial role of "supervisory" auditor that is most often considered the difference between auditors…… [Read More]
Innovation in its simplest form can be termed as something new or newly introduced into the market. Innovation in the business field is quite necessary since it forms the backbone of a company's growth and that of the economy as a whole. Innovation is the success of every business and must be managed effectively and efficiently (Limerick, 2002).
The ever changing technology and instant global communication have made it easier for companies to find answers to some problems they encounter and more so come up with innovations to improve on the current ones. Companies are also faced with pressures arising from global competition and by this; most of them are seeking the need to manage their innovations. Companies are nowadays attracting and managing innovations by having rewards or prizes for individuals within the company who manages to come up with brilliant and innovative concepts. This will give the…… [Read More]
What are the benefits of a comprehensive control program? If you were advising this corporation, what would be the specific benefits for them?
The benefits of a comprehensive internal control program include: the ability to monitor for unusual activities and it will increase vigilance. This will help to prevent fraud by providing actuaries with an actual way of discovering when these events are occurring through early detection. It is at this point that the negative impact on the firm and various stakeholders can be minimized. (Silverstone, 2011, pp. 14 -- 16)
Once this has been consistently implemented, is when it will have an impact on the entire organization by creating an atmosphere that is looking for these issues. When different staff members are actively involved in the process, this will make it difficult to be able to conduct any kind of fraudulent activities. In the future, this will…… [Read More]
Operating expenses include selling and administrative expense. Ordinarily, a forecast or budget for selling expenses is prepared together with the sales budget or profit target because selling efforts such as promotions, commissions and salaries of the sales staff are directly related to sales. Selling expenses may either be variable or fixed. Administrative expenses include projected administrative costs for other than production or selling activities. These expenses are mostly composed of fixed costs such as research and development, insurance payments and government taxes.
3. Calculate expected profits
Profit is the excess of revenue over total costs and expenses incurred in generating such revenue during the period of operation. Profit can be expressed in the mathematical equation:
Profit = Sales - Total Costs and Expenses]
Costs having been considered, the budgeted profit plan may now be established. Injecting the concept of 'revenue less expenses equals profit,' the profit may be calculated as…… [Read More]
Due to Ford's international presence, this database needed to be accessible remotely, and so the database was created to have remote access from any browser in Ford's locations in 120 countries. Utilizing this technology is a fundamental piece of Ford's mission, therefore it was important to make sure that technology used would be accessible and easily manageable by its employees. Since the technology used is simple enough to be used on a regular browser, there is little in depth technology training needed by the majority of employees who would be using and accessing the system. This helps reduce training costs as well as ensures practical usage within the company. Since Ford's financial position has taken a tumble from its successful days of the past, this technology proves essential in reducing unnecessary costs and helps keep the company running as smoothly as possible without reckless spending. Eliminating unnecessary high maintenance costs…… [Read More]
Beyond budgeting, two words that some believe hold the future to a company's financial strength and profitability. No longer is it necessary to implement a plan, make and sell business model. Instead, in today's current business environment it is much simpler to organizations to go beyond the traditional budgeting organization to one that goes beyond that budgeting process by providing the opportunity to respond much faster to the demands of a fickle consumer.
One report determines that the old business model involves protracted time and energy in a budgeting process that assumes "that customers will buy what the company decides to make" (Hope, Fraser, 2000, p. 31) but the report goes on to make the assertion that companies run a huge risk when they make assumptions that "are no longer valid in an age when customers can switch loyalties at the click of a mouse" (p. 31). What Hope…… [Read More]
Criminal justice agencies rarely use a program budget, although this format does offer some advantages. This budget places a strong emphasis on different programs' social utility and strives to define the relationship between policy objectives, programs, and specific expenditures (such as citing the amount of money allocated to DUI prevention and arrests for the offense). It justifies and explains budget areas to provide accountability for objectives, and enables employees and politicians alike to understand department objectives. However, it can be expensive to implement.
PPBS (planning- programming- budgeting systems) and zero-based budgeting formats were used by several states during the 1970s as well as private industries, although these formats are rarely used by cities and have since fallen out of favor. There are three basic budget processes -- planning, management, and control. PPBS and zero-based budgeting strives to define all of these elements, every year, as part of the budgetary development…… [Read More]
This budget is a static budget. The variable components are based on the number of students, and in this budget the amount of students is assumed to be fixed throughout the year. The budget does include three different student levels, but this reflects sensitivity analysis, not a flexible budget that changes over the course of the year. To make the budget flexible, the school would need to make changes to the different elements of the budget as the school year progresses. That is entirely possible the way this budget is structured, but the possibility of converting it to a flexible budget does not make it a flexible budget.
The total revenue per student excluding grants is taken by adding up the non-grant revenues per student: $6,063.06
The total expenses per student depends on how many students. At the 120 student assumption, total expense per student are $4,518; at the…… [Read More]
In October 2005, EXXON had to pay a $8.7 million civil penalty, while at the same time spending $9.7 million on community environmental projects. In my opinion, these are unnecessary costs that can be eliminated in the future with an adequate financing for research and development in environmental protection and pollution reduction.
The marketing segment also needs an increased attention in 2006. For example, on the gasoline market, EXXON brands such as Mobil or Esso are already well-known throughout the world. Nevertheless, the specificity of the industry brings about the necessity to constantly promote these brands. How is an Esso gas station different from a Shell or Texaco one? EXXON needs to think out marketing campaigns deemed to bring out the main competitive advantages over other companies on the market: excellent service, better quality gasoline (going hand in hand with the spending in research and development in this segment, previously…… [Read More]
Engineering organizations, like most other types of organizations, develop cost budgets that include all the resources they can track such as money, people hours, calendar time and space; both as initial investments and recurrent operational costs or future commitments (Gilb, 1997). However, according to Gilb, engineering organizations face unique challenges because it is often impossible to estimate a step cost budget until the following is known about a particular step:
The design ideas to be used, and their costs
The functionality to be changed, and their costs
The process for acquiring the step content, and its cost
The process for integrating and testing the step content, and its cost
The process for deploying the step content to the recipient, and its cost
Some organizations ignore costs while others attempt to deal with these unknowns in the budget process by turning to techniques such as design to cost (DTC) and…… [Read More]
Looking over a spreadsheet can clarify when to make larger purchases, such as waiting until the start of a new billing cycle, or negotiating better payment terms offered by suppliers and any creditors, especially when interest rates are volatile.
Once the need for a budget is established then the organization can consider what type of budget it desires. For example, with zero-based budgeting, "all expenses must be justified for each new period. Every function within an organization is analyzed for its needs and costs. Budgets are then built around what is needed for the upcoming period, regardless of whether the budget is higher or lower than the previous one" (Zero-based budgeting, 2009, Investopedia). hile it is true that zero-based budgeting is more costly than traditional cost-based budgeting, it also favors enterprises specializing in areas "that achieve direct revenues or production" in the enterprise (Zero-based budgeting, 2009, Investopedia). For larger organizations,…… [Read More]
In fact I sincerely wanted to help them find positions where they could excel. The lack of trust on their part and the acute resistance to change was so strong that structuring for integration to the point of even defining what conditions needed to be changed to overcome shortcomings and design a new position for them was not possible. As trust was not present and despite my best attempts to earn it through being genuinely concerned about them, all attempts were seen more as patronizing and less about attempting to help them. On the occasion that they did ask for pay increases, I told them they would need to get their cumulative customer satisfaction scores up and also call volumes. Not interested in the position or excelling at it, these employees refused to improve and when let go, saw it as very personal given my continual efforts to help them…… [Read More]
15. I see teachers tease students.
16. I tease other students.
17. I see students hurting others physically.
18. I hurt others physically.
19. I hurt others emotionally.
20. I am interested in coming to school.
21. I am a good listener.
22. I am involved in extra-curricular activities.
23. I do my homework.
24. I get good grades.
25. Adults listen to me.
26. I am lonely.
27. I feel lonely when I'm at school.
28. I share my feelings easily.
29. I used tobacco within 2 weeks.
30. I used alcohol within 2 weeks.
31. I used drugs within 2 weeks.
(not at all) to 10 (a lot).
Low Substance Culture:
32. Students in this school use tobacco.
33. Students in this school use alcohol.
34. Students in this school use drugs.
What methods will be used to answer the evaluation…… [Read More]
" (fom Wold envionmental news, Intenet edition)
Besides developing flexible legislation that will distibute the functions of ecycling between manufactues and municipal sevices thee has to be a definite and developed pogam that would specialize on the optimal and the most exhaust utilization of electonic waste, eduction of e-waste landfills and incineation. Recycling pogam should not be limited to the ecycling of CRT monitos, as thei ownes ae moe likely to bing the whole obsolete compute system to the ecycling, not just compute monitos.
The benefit of integal pogam of ecycling is that it allows using a vaiety of mateials used in the electonics manufactuing like pecious metals, semi-pecious metals, and some electonic items in the euse.
The most impotant pat of the e-waste management is seach of the most appopiate and qualified patnes in the technical o pactical pat of the poblem solution. This poblem is of the essential…… [Read More]
Managing the Effectiveness of the Audit Process
Mission and Objectives of the International Audit Department
The IAD stakeholder power-interest grid
The Audit Process
Objectives, Scope and Approach of the Research
Purpose and Mandate
Sustaining People Excellence
Tools and Technology
Infrastructure and Operations
Japan Tobacco International (JTI) is an international tobacco business that is operated by Japan Tobacco Inc. Japan Tobacco Inc. is the third largest player in the international tobacco industry with a market capitalization of 32 billion USD and a market share of 11%. JTI was established in the year 1999 when Japan Tobacco Inc. purchased the operations of United States multinational R.J. Reynolds, for 8 billion USD.
The Internal Audit Department (IAD) of the organization is accountable to the board of directors. The department is headed by the Global Internal Audit Vice President. He took his position in…… [Read More]
Management of Information Systems Business Strategy: Lessons to Be Learned From the Clinic and esort Cases about the Creation, Implementation and Use of Business Intelligence
The objective of this work is to examine the lessons to be learned from the clinic and resort cases about the creation, implementation and use of business intelligence in management of information systems business strategy.
Business intelligence is described as the "business capability of extracting actionable insight from business and market data to support better decision-making and improved corporate performance." (The Business Intelligence Guide, 2011) Furthermore, Business Intelligence is the business reported to be the "most wanted technology by business across the world" because business intelligence "even in current times of economic downturn, when IT budgets are being cut, is still at the top of the list of urgently needed business capabilities." (The Business Intelligence Guide, 2011) The critical need for business intelligence was learned…… [Read More]
This contribution to fixed costs is the same for every customer. Thus, the breakeven point is 250,000 / 500 = 500 customers.
In another example, if the price is 200 and the variable costs are 110, and the fixed costs are 100,000, then the breakeven point is 1112 customers. The breakeven point is always rounded up because to have less than that the company would not yet have broken even. By rounding up, the company has officially passed the breakeven point.
4. The relative value scales are 150, 300, 568.75, 264 and 160 for a total of 1442.75
The relative value scales indicate how much effort goes into each type of acuity. The cost per RVU is relative to the total nursing costs, so it is a weighted-average:
$36,389 for Acuity Level 1
$72,777 for Acuity Level 2
$137,974 for Acuity Level 3
$64,044 for Acuity Level 4
$38,814 for…… [Read More]
Managing a New Product Launch
This paper discusses Keurig at home gourmet single-serve coffee product launch. Keurig is an established business attempting to break into the at-home single-serve product industry. It attempts to distinguish itself as a key player by offering gourmet coffee services. Coffee continues to be a booming product, with many opportunities. While coffee consumption continues to grow, there are many potential obstacles that Keurig may face. For example, there have always been many competitors in the market. There are two-serve and even single-serve vendors already in the market. The manner in which Keurig at home single-serve will attempt to distinguish its product successful is by promoting itself as an upscale provider to young, primarily male coffee drinkers interested in buying a high quality product with lots of variety. The odds are the company will do well if it markets its product to vendors that already…… [Read More]
Management of Continuum of Care Services
As the new director appointed for the Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), I realize the climbing costs of payments of these two programs and have met with the other members to come up with a plan of that will help enforce the strategies and guidelines in the state of North Carolina that can help us follow a budget that will assist the overall national requirements for persistent care. In doing so fellow board members have met with me to look at the Medicare Modernization Act (MMA), Administration on Aging (AoA), and other parts of the medical services to help come up with an arrangement that will help us reduce costs in our particular area that will assist the national healthcare problems that we currently face.
After looking at the problems within our own area we have decided to enforce the guidelines of the current…… [Read More]
As the workplace and management techniques have developed over the decades, employees have enjoyed an increasingly powerful position in their companies. According to Eisler and Montuori (2001), the changes in both business and its surrounding environment in terms of society, the economy and the environment have necessitated new paradigms of the employer-employee relationship. It is no longer sufficient to mindlessly follow traditional methods such as marionette management. Instead, the workplace needs to be assessed in terms of which management styles will most efficiently drive the specific business.
Partnership management is one of these new paradigms. In partnership management, it is acknowledged that employees are more than entities to perform specific functions for a specific time during the day. In this management style, employees are recognized as an important part of business growth and success. As such, they are expected to provide input that would be valuable for the…… [Read More]
To become successful, consequences are to be applied consistently and they never are to be physically or psychologically injurious to the student. (Wiggins, Classroom Management Plan)
Features about the techniques that I like These techniques enable to mend the behavior of the students who do not respond to conventional discipline. It promotes student involvement because it makes learning attractive and fun and particularly because of the focus being provided to the expectations and needs of the students and also because of the dignity and respect provided to the students. (Wiggins, Classroom Management Plan)
Features of the techniques about which you have reservations
While the students are not accepting the consequences for breaking the rule of the class it is sometimes imperative to infuse the Insubordination ule i.e. The student will not be allowed to remain the class until the consequence is being accepted, which is a part of the technique…… [Read More]
Management Action and Productivity
usinesses in developed countries tend to think of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a characteristic that is centered in their own businesses or, failing that, situated in the industries of wealthier nations. The CSR movement is substantively skewed in the direction of the developed world where the motivation for adopting a CSR initiative is driven more by altruism -- or "enlightened self-interest" (Vogel 2006: 18) -- than profit margins. It is unusual to find a perspective that considers CSR from the perspective of a sourcing company. In the centrically-oriented corporate arena of the developed world, CSR is seen as originating with the company that establishes a supply chain with a multinational company -- not the other way around. In order to manage and control ethical issues arising from doing business with overseas markets, many corporations rely on a social compliance model (PricewaterhouseCoopers 2007).
The social compliance…… [Read More]
3 Strategies of CDC
As mentioned in the introduction, the Centers for Disease Control and prevention has developed and implemented six sets of strategies as follows:
Health Impact Focus - the alignment of CDC's employees, objectives, strategies, investments and performances in order to maximize the CDC's beneficial effects upon public health
Customer Centricity - Like any other corporation, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is focused on offering those products and services required and needed by the population in order to improve and preserve their health
Public Health esearch - the CDC funds and conducts numerous researches aimed at identifying new treatments and any other issues which would positively affect the public health
Leadership - the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention possesses the best skilled and qualified employees, guided by the most committed managers and supported by strategic partners, all to improve the health system within the United…… [Read More]
Managing Organizational Change
Cincom and Accountability of Sales epresentative for esults
Cincom is a 43-year-old developer of enterprise software applications and by virtue of the designed-in nature of their applications, has been able to literally coast on a comfortable wave of recurring revenue for a decade. This recurring revenue stream is comprised of license payments, maintenance fees, and the continual need for updates to mission-critical systems the company sold, in some cases, decades ago. With the majority of revenue being generated through a recurring revenue stream, the urgency and intensity to sell which is often found in smaller, younger, and more cash-starved businesses is not as prevalent inside Cincom. The framework for change model provides an invaluable construct in which to analyze the complacency of Cincom, what contributed to that false sense of security, and the path back to being a competitor in their core markets (Kotter, 2008).
Analysis of…… [Read More]
Management Account in the Public Sector and Management Accounting in the Private Sector: A Comparative Review
The late 20th and early 21st centuries have brought increasing change to almost every country in the world, Australia included. Globalism describes, in fact, the increasing unification of the world through economic means (reduction of trade barriers, support of international trade, and mitigation of export and import quotas). They goal for globalization is to increase material wealth and the distribution of goods and services through a more international division of labor and then, in turn, a process in which regional cultures integrate through communication, transportation and trade. The overall theory is that if countries are tied together cooperatively economically, they will not have needed to become political enemies. Additionally, the idea of globalism and international trade has changed the way Australian's view public and private businesses and the opportunities afforded them because of investment,…… [Read More]
In terms of the disaster planning, the decision was made to select remote backup services, the most cost-effective strategy available for backing up records and data. In terms of recovery, the decision to rely on distributed processing was an expensive one, yet assured HEWE of continual uptime due to parallel and fault-tolerant processor-based systems. For the insurance coverage, Business Interruption Insurance Coverage was chosen as part of the disaster planning strategy that HEWE undertakes. While there are many insurance options specifically for HEWE to consider, the Business Interruption one makes the most sense from covering potential loses due to a lack of systems and data being available.
The final area of the case study regards project implementation. While there are phased implementations, Big Bang implementations or parallel implementations, the last option would be most advisable for HEWE. It is recommended that the parallel implementation to minimize risk and also provide…… [Read More]
There are two things that concern the new facility in Walkerton and that need to be addressed. The first relates to the equipment and machines in use within the plant. As we have seen, one third of the equipment is obsolete and up to 50% will have to be renewed. However, clear steps have already been taken in this direction. The company is committed to transferring new product lines into Canada and the local government has a favorable tax treatment on the purchase of equipment. In this sense, the problem of obsoleteness may be successfully solved.
An even more serious problem, however, relates to the employees. As we have seen, and this is perhaps the best description which accounts for the current situation within the plant, the working environment reminds us of high school, only with adults. It is clear that, in order for the plant to become efficient…… [Read More]
Management: Annotated Bibliography
Anyim, F.C. (2012). The Imperative of Integrating Corporate Business Plan with Manpower Planning. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(8).
This article talks about how traditionally, manpower planning as human resource activity is something that is utilized by institutions to make sure that they have the proper number and the accurate types of individuals that are performing jobs at the right places and during the right time all in a proposal to achieve business purposes. The article also explains how Business plan looks to recognize the many issues critical to the achievement of the association. The article likewise emphases on how the organization can be better positioned and equipped to contend effectually in the marketplace, while manpower planning, and contribute to the industry by providing the means (individuals) to complete the results from the planning procedure. This essay is beneficial gives theoretical explanations and inspects the authoritative…… [Read More]
Managing the Firm in the Non-Market Environment
The Heathrow Airport in London is one of the busiest airports in the world, and there are even times when it is unable to fully satisfy the demand for flight services. With this limitation in mind, a project was onset in 2008 and it saw the construction of a third runway and a 6th terminal. Still, the decision was difficult to make since the project was faced with numerous issues. These would be approached through two distinctive angles -- the SWOT analysis and the Probability -- Impact matrix.
The development project would respond to the increasing need of the London airport to offer better flight and adjacent services
London would as such become a more economically appealing region, attracting more investors through the improved infrastructure
The capacity of the airport -- and as such the customers served and the adjacent revenues…… [Read More]