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Calvinism in the South
Calvinism is an interconnection of beliefs and influences adopted by many denominations, and creeds (owen 2014). It was first known as the reformed theology, produced by the Protestant Movement started by Martin Luther in the 16th century. It sought to alter or reform the perspectives of the Roman Catholic Church in explaining the basis for man's salvation through the sovereignty of God (CARM 2014). Since then, it became known as Calvinism after the name and works of John Calvin, a French theologian and Protestant reformer (Christianity Guide 2014, Wilson 2004). Calvin belonged to the second-generation of reformed theologians, along with Heinrich ullinger, Wolfgang Musculus, Peter Martyr Vermigii and Andreas Hyperius. First-general theologians included Huldrych Zwingli, Martin ucer, Wolfgang Capito, John Oecolampadius and Guillaume Farel. These first-generation theologians came from different academic disciplines but soon their thoughts and beliefs cohered with the Scripture as the primary…… [Read More]
His most crucial involvement was in the organization of the governing of the church and the social structure of not only the church but the city (of Geneva, Switzerland). He was also a major political strategist and thinker. He modeled the social organization entirely on biblical principles. It was Calvin, for instance who established the same hierarchy we utilize today in Christian churches. He incorporated the church into the Geneva city government; he assisted in the complete restructuring of municipal government to involve church leaders in the city's decisions. Calvin also initiated statute reforms to impose a moral code on the city.
y the middle of the fifteenth century, the city of Geneva was completely Calvinist in thought and structure. It had become, by far, the most important Protestant center of Europe in that century. Those Protestants no long desired in other countries such as France, England, Scotland, and the…… [Read More]
17th Century Portraits
Art that was produced in northern Europe in the 17th century quite different from the art in southern Europe. This difference was based on the fact that in northern Europe -- particularly in the Netherlands, Germany and Switzerland -- Calvinist approaches to Christianity were the rule. In southern Europe, particularly Italy and Spain, the Catholic Church still held sway, and painters tended to be loyal images that reflected Catholicism.
hy Catholicism was represented in 17th Century Italian Art
In response to the 16th century Protestant Reformation, the Roman Catholic Church launched the Counter-Reformation movement. ithin that movement was the Council of Trent, which "…firmly resisted Protestant objections to using images in religious worship…" and art (Kleiner 2013). Author Kleiner writes that the Catholic Church was "…the leading art patron in 17th century Italy," and moreover the central point of much of Italian Baroque art was to "…restore…… [Read More]
Salvation Debate- Calvinism and Arminianism
Calvinism and Arminianism are two different systems of theology that attempt to explain the relationship between God's sovereignty and man's free will. What differentiates these views is the issue of free will and whether people have any as compared to God's will. Some people claim that God's will supersedes human will in all situations if God's will is different. On the other hand, some people claim God created man with free will and He would not intervene. However, there are those who do not believe man was created with free will and the sovereignty of God causes everything to occur. The Scripture teaches both the sovereignty of God and the free will of man. It appears unconditional in some places and conditional in other. Although, both systems are based on the Word of God, and both contain truth, neither system can be substituted for reading…… [Read More]
Providence debate or the debate over depravity and atonement, Armenianism vs. Calvinism is one of the "doctrines that divide."[footnoteef:1] The debate continues among Evangelicals even though the original battle began in the seventeenth century. The crux of the difference between Calvinism and Armenianism is that the latter group believes that God has bestowed free will upon human beings, and as such, free will can be used to opt out of sinful behavior and therefore accept the grace of God. Calvinists are more deterministic, believing instead that God has predetermined who can and cannot be saved. [1: Erwin Lutzer. Doctrines that Divide. Grand apids: Kregel, 1998.]
However, an additional corollary to the Providence debate regards the principle of eternal security. Calvinists tend to favor the concept, as God has already preordained grace and salvation and therefore eternal security is either granted or it is not. Armenianists believe that free will is…… [Read More]
Calvinism and the Reformation
John Calvin (originally Jean Cauvin) was born July 10th, 1509, in the merchant city of Noyon, France, in a family of modest ancestry of watermen and artisans.
His father, Girard Cauvin, ran the course of a respectable bourgeoisie member who studied law and went all the way from a town clerk to the position of a procurator of the cathedral chapter. As a prediction to his son's further relationship with the Catholic Church, by the time he died he was excommunicated.
His older brother, a priest encountered similar troubles this department and was also excommunicated. Standing Firm on his position, he refused the sacraments on his death bed and was buried outside the churchyard.
John Calvin was the second son of Girard Cauvin and Jeanne LeFranc. For some, John Calvin's birthday was an unfortunate event, for others, a blessing. Throughout his career, he only appears to…… [Read More]
Finally, the rise of science and technology due to industrialization militated against institutionalized religion (Bruce, 2002, p. 18). As people became more educated and reliant on science and technology in their everyday lives and work lives, religious disagreements with science and led people to abandon institutional religions as unscientific and backward. People knew that science and technology worked; therefore, religious arguments against science and technology tended to be rejected. In sum, the religious and secular teachings of the Protestant Reformation caused people to move toward greater secularization for religious, economic, social and intellectual reasons.
The Protestant Reformation significantly contributed to both Capitalism and Secularization in the est. By eliminating or reducing the Roman Catholic Church's underpinnings, including the Sacraments and obedience to Church authorities for salvation, the Reformation caused individuals to search here on earth for signs that they were saved and to rely on themselves rather than…… [Read More]
They felt that they Church was getting richer and the poor were getting poorer. And as a result, there were no great protests when the King broke away from the Church, because many felt that Henry would ease up on taking money from them. Henry knew of the Catholic Church's unpopularity and used this to his advantage (Truman, 2009).
Christian Humanism played a large role in the development of the English Reformation as it also did with Calvinism, which emphasized the rule of God over all things (Belief system within Christianity: Calvinism, 2004). Both of these were very similar to the ideas Lutheranism, in which each individual was seen as responsible for their own fate. There were several other heretic groups that were persecuted by the Roman Catholic Church for their beliefs; these were the aldenses and the Albigenses. These were a couple of groups of Christians who would not…… [Read More]
According to J.P. De Caussade, God speaks "today as he spoke in former times to our fathers when there were no directors as at present, nor any regular method of direction."
In other words, Fr. De Caussade asserts that God maintains and has always maintained a personal relationship, or a providential relationship, with mankind. However, the exact way in which God exercises control over the world and the lives of humans in the world has been debated for many centuries. Indeed, in the realm of God's providence, there are numerous variables and nuanced positions, which have been argued by Christians since the time of the Apostles through to the Protestant Reformation right up to today. This paper will consider the two broader views of recent centuries -- the Arminian and the Calvinist -- and evaluate whether there might be alternative views that incorporate both perspectives of how Providence…… [Read More]
Any one who tried to gain enough power and wealth would be considered a threat to the power of the church and was therefore quickly deposed of their wealth.
Weber proposed that even though Catholics tolerated a greater display of outward wealth, Protestant doctrines asked the followers to concentrate on mundane pursuits. It also asks its followers to accept a lower station in life without a hierarchical structure to force the issue. There were no examples of upward mobility or examples of extravagance to follow. The Protestant faith in promoted a pride in one's work and the "work and Save" ethic. The members were self-motivated, not forced into submission by the Church. This was a key difference between these two philosophies. Weber claimed that this attitude was much more productive than the Catholic idea of wealth attainment. The Calvinists had a word which meant ones calling, or duty on earth.…… [Read More]
All human beings are considered corrupt and sick and, because of the original sin, are in close relations with the powers of evil, rending them unable to make a significant contribution to their liberation. Ironically in some way, it can be said that Lutherans believe in faith. Faith is understood as trust in God's love and is viewed as the only appropriate way for man to answer to God's initiative. "Salvation by faith alone" is the distinctive and criticized (by catholic adepts) slogan of Lutheranism. Opponents of this doctrine argued that this position does not do justice to the Christian responsibility to do good works; the answer was that faith has to be active in love and that there is an indivisible connection between good works and faith: the former follow from the latter as a good tree produces good fruit.
Worship. The Lutheran church is, by its own definition,…… [Read More]
Luther and Calvin as theologians. Specifically, it will compare and contrast Martin Luther and John Calvin as theologians, while making a strong and convincing opinion on both men. John Calvin and Martin Luther were both great thinkers, and the foundation of the Reformation that shook Europe in the 1500s. hile they both had different theologies, there were some remarkable similarities, and both men certainly changed the face of religion by speaking out openly regarding their beliefs.
Luther and Calvin
Martin Luther is probably the most significant and renowned Protestant religious leader in the world. Luther was born in Eisleben, Saxony in 1483, and spent his undergraduate years studying for a law career, and then he switched focus to the priesthood. However, Luther found himself disagreeing with many of the Catholic Church's philosophies, and in 1517, Luther posted his famous "95 theses" on the door of a castle church in Saxony,…… [Read More]
Meier, David a. "An Appeal for a Historiographical Renaissance: Lost Lives and the Thirty Years War." The Historian 67, no. 2 (2005): 254+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010923917.
Murdoch, Steve, ed. Scotland and the Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648. Boston: Brill, 2001. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109286924.
Silve, Benoit M. "From Leadership to Partnership: a New American Security Strategy for Europe." Naval War College Review 50, no. 1 (1997): 88+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5037619771.
Theibault, John. "The Rhetoric of Death and Destruction in the Thirty Years War." Journal of Social History 27, no. 2 (1993): 272+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000249833.
Wilson, Peter H. "Who Won the Thirty Years War? Peter H. Wilson Unravels One of the Most Notoriously Bloody and Complex Conflicts in European History to Answer the Question ." History Today, August 2009, 12+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5031722573.
. Kevin Cramer, the Thirty Years' War and erman Memory in the Nineteenth Century (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2007), 1.
. Kevin Cramer, the Thirty Years'…… [Read More]
Benjamin ranklin termed himself a pragmatic deist. He believes "there is one Supreme must perfect being," however that this being is distant, and that it is not necessary to build a personal relationship with such a supreme God. He concluded that it was useful and correct to believe that a faith in God should inform our daily actions. However, he did not believe in sectarian dogma, burning spirituality or deep soul searching as a part of religion (Lopez, 87). ranklin's religious views are important in the shaping of his Enlightenment philosophy. His approach to religion drew from reason and careful reflection, he did not believe in the "frivolity" of emotional thought and connectivity, but instead focused on the pragmatic understanding of the divine. His conclusion after careful reason formulates a "Supreme Being that can be manifest in various ways, depending on the needs of different worshipers" (Lopez, 88). In contrast…… [Read More]
Having been prosecuted in Europe, they were inclined to severe all ties with the continent and considered Africa their homeland. Since most other immigrants in Cape were also Calvinists -- members of the Dutch Reformed Church, the French Haguenots were readily accepted as part of a common community and were soon integrated into settler society by intermarriage. Their emphasis on a 'pure' form of Calvinism and self-sufficiency, however, influenced the development of the Afrikaner culture and way of life.
The Afrikaans Language
Afrikaans is the language of the white South Africans that was largely derived from the 17th century Dutch language. It is estimated that about seven million people in South Africa and Namibia speak some form of Afrikaans, although 'standard' Afrikaans is spoken mainly by the whites. Until the end of the "apartheid" in 1994, Afrikaans was the official language of government and education. It is now one of…… [Read More]
'For though beauty is seen and confessed by all, yet, from the many fruitless attempts to account for the cause of its being so, enquiries on this head have almost been given up"
illiam Hogarth, The Analysis of Beauty, (1753)
Not very encouraging words, but if the great artist illiam Hogarth felt himself up to the task, we can attempt at least to follow his lead. That beauty is enigmatic goes almost without saying. Different ages, different cultures, and even different individuals, will have their own definitions of "beauty." The problem is more than skin deep. Any term that can be so widely and irregularly employed is bound to trap the casual researcher ... Or reader ... Or viewer ... Or for that matter, any other human being who attempts to define what is and what is not "beauty." People, places, things -- even ideas dreams -- can…… [Read More]
Doctrine of the Holy Trinity
The Doctrine of the Trinity and Anti-Trinitarian Theologies:
Servetus, Milton, Newton
The Doctrine of the Trinity
The Arian Heresy
Anti-Trinitarianism Part I: Michael Servetus
Anti-Trinitarianism Part II: John Milton
Sir Isaac Newton
The Arian heresy -- or rejection of the Christian doctrine of the Holy Trinity -- is actually relatively uncommon among contemporary Christian denominations; to pick one particular national example, Post-Reformation England would tolerate a broad array of theological stances -- from the dour Calvinism of the early Puritans to the sunnier Arminianism of the esleyan Methodists -- but more or less drew the line at anti-Trinitarianism. Yet it is remarkable that some of England's greatest intellectuals -- including the epic poet John Milton and the father of modern physics Sir Isaac Newton -- would secretly author theological works reviving the old heresy of Arius in order to disprove the Christian doctrine of the…… [Read More]
Isaac ackus Role in Shaping of the Southern aptist Religion in the Early American Colonies
Only a few aptists were present in colonial America but their number was highest in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island because of the freedoms in those places. aptists were greatly despised in nearly all regions but mainly in New England. Luckily for the aptists present in America, they actually gained more from the Great Awakening compared to other denominations. Isaac ackus[footnoteRef:1], a young New Light Congregationalist minister, was among their very first converts from New England Congregationalism back in 1751. Over the eighteenth century, aptists started to grow and thrive among the rich religious maltreatment and harassment which was still evident in the majority of the colonies- particularly Massachusetts. Through speeches, tracts, petitions, and protests, Isaac ackus (1724-1806) headed the quest of religious freedom during the chaotic era of the American Revolution.[footnoteRef:2] [1: Michael Williams. "rief…… [Read More]
I. MY QUESTION
The topic of religious revolution interests me because much of history has been shaped by religious revolution. Consider the history of the West. The rise of Constantine to the seat of the Emperor in the early 4th century allowed Christianity to flourish. The Roman Catholic Church became deeply influential some 400 years later with Charlemagne, who was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope in 800. Religious revolution broke out in Europe with the Protestants, led by Luther, Zwingli, Knox, Calvin and Henry VIII. Their actions led to a revolution in the West that changed the nature of society. Today’s society has very much been impacted the Protestant Revolution, as strains of Puritanism are still seen in American society, for example, as authors like Hawthorne and Melville have shown.
What I hope to learn from the research is how religious revolution unfolded in Europe and what its…… [Read More]
Between 1618 and 1648, there was an outbreak of war which was mainly caused by the struggle between a militant Calvinism and a militant Catholicism in fact it was referred to as the "last of the religious wars." Furthermore, prior to, all through, and after this three decades war, a sequence of civil wars and rebellions hit Europe. All this events and problems greatly affected Europe economically, socially, and even politically and actually qualify to be categorized as crises.
For the period of the 16th and 17th centuries, the European society did not respect women at all since they considered them inferior to men both mentally and morally thus were directly linked to witchcraft during the witchcraft craze. To make it worse was the fact that these low estimates were not just held by the witch hunter but also by the elites such as lawyers, theologians, and philosophers.…… [Read More]
It involves the replacement of rule of thumb gradually with science for the mechanical arts.
The existence of the two rivers i.e. Euphrates and Tigris gave this name Mesopotamia which means the land between rivers to the region. Agricultural revolution was begun by the people of this region in about ten thousand years ago. They domesticated animals and plants instead of hunting and gathering as was common in the time. Their crops were tended in houses built of mud-brick or reeds and clustered in villages (Hyman 138). Their grains were stored in the granaries that they built and their trade and account were recorded in a token system that they developed. There was a sudden change and growth in the civilization of the southern Mesopotamia between 3000 and 3500, with the main focus being in the cities of Ur and Uruk. Rendering of the old ways of agriculture less…… [Read More]
The Doctrine of Divine Providence
Divine Providence is the way God rules over all things in the world and the Heavens. Gotanswers. org states,
"The purpose, or goal, of divine providence is to accomplish the will of God. To ensure that His purposes are fulfilled, God governs the affairs of men and works through the natural order of things. The laws of nature are nothing more than a depiction of God at work in the universe. The laws of nature have no inherent power, nor do they work independently. The laws of nature are the rules and principles that God set in place to govern how things work" (Gotquestions.org, 2010)
The Bible, Proverbs 16:9 states: "The heart of a man plans his way, but the Lord establishes his steps." Though God allows man free will, he also has a guidance control in our life.
In Acts 9, God directly deal…… [Read More]
Many different views abound on the origins of modern capitalism, causalities that range from economic to political, from religious to cultural, or for some, an amalgamation of societies need to expand and the resources necessary to fuel that expansion. Max Weber's the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a study of the relationship between the ethics of ascetic Protestantism and the emergence of the spirit of modern capitalism. An ascetic Protestant is one who practices self-denial and self-discipline. Weber argues that the religious ideas of groups such as the Calvinists played a role in creating the capitalistic spirit. Calvinism focused on predestination and God's infinite power, a hierarchical system that transcended religion and moved into economic and social activities.
This is true not only in cases where the difference in religion coincides with one of nationality, and thus of cultural development . . . . The same thing…… [Read More]
Jefferson's Principles and their Impact on Education
Jefferson's radical beliefs in the inherent moral and developmental capacities of humans, and in their capacities to take part to participatory democracy, in turn reinforced his enduring commitment to an education that would be accessible to all. Jefferson was well aware that democracy could only work properly when the people were both virtuous and enlightened.
From these notions that people were naturally virtuous but not naturally enlightened, but that enlightenment was necessary for democracy, it followed that the society had a vested interest in investing in education to provide enlightenment.
In a letter to the Welsh born philosopher Richard Price dated January 8, 1789, Jefferson observed that "wherever the people are well informed they can be trusted with their government."
uch well informed or enlightened people could be relied on, "whenever things get so far wrong as to attract their notice," to set…… [Read More]
The Good News is that righteousness is not a demand upon the sinner but a gift to the sinner. The sinner simply accepts the gift through faith" (hitford 2005). Luther's emphasis on the individual's reception of that Good News fueled his skillful promotion of Bibles written in the language of the people in an accessible translation and his disdain for the abstruse philosophy of theologians such as the Scholastic Thomas Aquinas. Although a highly literate and educated man, Luther did not believe that rationalization and reason could lead one to Christ, only God. Additional philosophizing added nothing to the truth that could only be found in the actual words of the Bible.
As is evidenced in Chaucer, in medieval society there had long been simmering a strong dislike of clergymen who appeared to use their office for financial gain, rather than as an exercise of piety: "The poor resented the…… [Read More]
242). This approach to decision making in public administration was thought to result in improved policies since the approach was well suited to the pluralist environment in which these decisions were being made and provided opportunities for alternative views to be advanced. The incremental model as "took into account the limitations of human cognitive capacities and the costs of acquiring information" (Utter & Lockhart, 2002, p. 242).
Lindblom, C.E. (1959, Spring). The science of 'muddling through.' Public dministration
Review, 19, 79-88 in Stevens at 15.
Stevens, J.B. (1993). The economics of collective choice. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Utter, G.H. & Lockhart, C. (2002). merican political scientists: dictionary. Westport, CT:
Unit II ssessment.
Marble cake federalism
Congressional Budget Office
Pluralism and Calvinism
Federal system of government
"Why can't the citizens of the states just keep their…… [Read More]
On the one hand, she had an almost desperate sense of wanting to believe, while on the other, she had little reason to do so. Her poetry addresses her doubts and fears regarding religion, inspiring critics to often jump to conclusions regarding her religious persuasions or indeed lack of these. This very ambiguity is what makes Emily Dickinson's poetry such a fulfilling experience. Her work lends itself to various interpretations and combinations, which will never become worn or repetitive.
Franke, William (2008, Autumn). "The missing all": Emily Dickinson's apophatic poetics. Christianity and Literature. Online database: findArticles.com http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb049/is_1_58/ai_n31041796/
Ladin, Jay. (2006, Fall). Meeting her maker: Emily Dickinson's God. Cross Currents. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2096/is_3_56/ai_n27002612/?tag=rbxcra.2.a.22
UXL Newsmakers (2005). Emily Dickinson. Online Database: Findarticles.com. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_gx5221/is_2005/ai_n19136112/?tag=rbxcra.2.a.11
Yezzi, David (1998, Oct 9). Emily Dickinson and the Art of Belief. Commonweal. Online Database: Findarticles.com: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1252/is_n17_125/ai_21227669/?tag=rbxcra.2.a.33
Zapedowska, Magdalena. (2006, March). Wrestling with silence: Emily Dickinson's Calvinist God. The American…… [Read More]
Of course, a separation of the races meant really the preservation of white superiority at the expense of those formerly enslaved. The law mandated distinct facilities for hites and Blacks. Everything from schools, to transportation, movie theaters, hotels, and even public restrooms were carefully segregated. Few Black only facilities approached white ones in quality or amount of money expended on their upkeep. Black public schools were notoriously inferior as were hospitals and other essential services. As arguments about the disparities became more apparent toward the mid-Twentieth Century, the South sought to defend its segregationist policies by - in the case of medical schools - expanding and consolidating its physician training facilities so as to avoid providing more facilities for Blacks. A plan was actually floated, not to increase Black enrollment at the South's twenty-six medical colleges, but rather to consolidate all training of Black medical personnel at a single facility.…… [Read More]
The Baby Boomer Revival assumed shapes and forms different than the former ones with programs Charismatic movement, the East Timor Indonesian Revivals, the 'Jesus People', the Asbury College Revival; and the Saskatoon Revival representing the spirits of the times in order to woo people to the mission movement and get them interested in the Church. At oen time, the church would have prohibited these charismatic programs and many, indeed, were controversial when they first appeared and still are today. Nonetheless, their impression and effects have been enduring and in a time when traditional programs were falling flat with the church losing members per day, innovative programs were the only ones that succeeded.
What I have learned
Sometimes, dramatic changes -- a shift in perspective and a change of habits -- are necessary for end-goals and objective to be reached.
The Pre-Reformation Revival, 1300-1500
Corruption of the church lowered…… [Read More]
If he had love, he had no pot in which to plant it. And so it stayed trapped in his mind, separate from any object -- for Kant insisted on the gulf between faith and reason. If one had to accept certain truths on the authority of the one revealing them -- Kant wanted no part in it. According to Kant, one should accept only that which can be reasoned. According to Aquinas, it is not unreasonable to accept that which is revealed.
In a sense, many of us today are Kantian rather than Thomistic. We are Hamlet figures, forever trapped in doubt. What Aquinas allows us to do is put away doubt. He allows us -- in fact, implores us, to act. He is now to us like the ghost of Hamlet's father -- reappearing to urge his son to action. Still, Hamlet delays. What happens to Hamlet --…… [Read More]
eligious Liberty as Stated in the First Amendment
The practical and legal ramifications of religious liberty are not difficult to determine, for they follow from the theological implications of the concept of religious liberty. The idea of religious truth, such as defined by the North Carolina state government in 1776 which forbade anyone from serving who denied the truth of the Protestant religion, has no place in a country that holds religious liberty as law. Yet, religious liberty has not always been practiced, as North Carolina and Maryland (which was officially declared an Anglican state in 1692) both show. Today, the first amendment has been ratified to make such claims untenable. Nonetheless, many scholars question whether religious liberty itself is defensible. By acknowledging the right of religions to be exercised publicly, the U.S. constitution sets the stage for a massive fight between various and contending religious beliefs, which…… [Read More]
Historical records show that people always organized themselves in order to work together towards a common objective and they coordinated their efforts to achieve this objective (Accel-Team 2004). It was not until the latter part of the 19th century that the concept of scientific management entered history during the Industrial evolution, but management skills existed long before the 19th century. Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids, ancient Chinese erected the Great Wall of China, the Mesopotamians irrigated their lands and walled their cities and the omans of old put up their roads, aqueducts and notably Hadrian's Wall not without established and superb management standards of their leaders (Accel-Team) and massive obedience and coordination among the followers. The pyramids of Egypt, wonders of the world, each measure 75,600 square feet at the base, 480 feet high and consists of more than two million blocks of stone, each weighing 2.5 tons.…… [Read More]
Augustine, Florida) in the America's was at Roanoke in 1585. The first settlement was a disaster and all returned to England. The second settlement in 1587 disappeared. (Taylor, 1998)
Religiously, the South remains dominated by English ways and hierarchies. There is no democratic debate about the faith, even to expunge sinners from the fold. Politically, only men with land dominate the legislatures. And in terms of Native relations, the disappearance of previous colonies speaks for itself. Disease also weakens the bodies of the colonists, making them more open to Native attacks.
The inequality of relations between fellow colonists is further underlined by the treatment of Black slaves in the colony. Since its inception, slave laws reflect the racism of the colony, stressing the deliberate separation of blacks and whites. Even Christian slaves are not called Christian, (another defamation of the religious attitudes of Virginia) as one 1680 law has a…… [Read More]
religion shaped development of colonial society in 1740s New England, Chesapeake, and the Mid-Atlantic. eligion shaped development in these areas in a wide variety of ways, and the most important religious development during this time was the "Great Awakening." The "Great Awakening" was an important event in American history and religious history. It was the first real step away from the organized, strict religions that had followed the settlers here from England.
The "father" of the Great Awakening was Jonathan Edwards. He wrote a sermon called "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God," which became very famous. A religious historian writes, "In that sermon he used the image of a spider dangling by a web over a hot fire to describe the human predicament. His point was that at any moment, our hold on life could break and we'd be plunged into fires of eternal damnation" (Matthews). While many…… [Read More]
Continual mistrust and desire for maintaining political power played a large role in the Swedish intervention and the later Swedish-French intervention. France entered the war on the Protestant side, though it was mostly Catholic, as French leaders felt threatened by the Holy oman Empire's size and strength.
Following the Battle of ocroi in 1643, where the French beat the Spanish, negotiations began and resulted in the 1648 Treaty of Westphalia. Most notably, the Treaty maintained that states must not interfere in the internal affairs of other states. It also established standards for binding treaties between states, setting the standard for modern international affairs. Finally, the Treaty had numerous territory adjustments to stabilize Europe in the post-war periods. It is unlikely that the Thirty Years War could have been avoided, in that considerable tensions over religion had built to such a point that peaceful resolution was unlikely. Years of war, mistrust…… [Read More]
Dickinson, however, approaches art and nature in a much different way. She does not attempt to assert herself or set herself up as "Amerian Poet" the way that hitman does. Instead she wrote her poetry without ever once doing so for fame or fortune. She meditated on her relationship to her surroundings, her understanding of beauty, her admiration for truth, her appreciation of the essence of things. "The Sailor cannot see the North, but knows the Needle can," she wrote in 1862. She considered Death and Judgment as actual realities, doorways to Eternity, rather than the ending of existence. Dickinson looked beyond the here and now, beyond the fleeting feelings of transcendental poetry, to the Infinite. Her fascination with mortality produced vivid images and verses: "Because I could not stop for Death, / He kindly stopped for me; / the carriage held but just ourselves / and Immortality." Because she…… [Read More]
Martin Luther's involvement in sixteenth century's Christian controversy brought forward the Protestant Reformation. His teachings generated a new Christian branch that has come to be one of the ideology's most important beliefs. In comparison to Catholic law, Lutheranism promotes the idea that the church is not necessarily one of the most important institutions making it possible for people to connect with God. Moreover, the ideology encourages individuals to focus on developing a more personal relationship with God, as this respective connection can apparently be even stronger as long as the person is determined and as long as he or she concentrates on faith.
I chose to speak about Lutheranism because this branch of Christianity attempts to have people use both rationality and morality in trying to interpret religious passages. By refraining from putting across subjective ideas, Lutheranism serves a greater good and is actually intended to provide assistance for…… [Read More]
European Federalism: Historical Analysis
Fascism is considered to be a political belief and concept, which is based on the principle that social, economic and cultural and traditional beliefs of a country must be used in order to increase nationalism. In Europe, fascist movements had emerged in twentieth century. The goal of these fascist movements was to promote fundamentalist and fanatic beliefs in order to deal with the social and political turmoil that occurred in the European region after the end of World War I. Federalism is considered to be the theory, which is based on the principles of federation, which seeks to create a balance of power by dividing it among the member of the same institution. The aim of this paper is to historically analyze the rise of European Union from 1918 to the end of World War II in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources. Furthermore,…… [Read More]
Faustus' Acceptance to Eternal Damnation
Many traditions and legends have been created all the way through the long history of western culture. Among which one of the most outstanding and well-known as well long lasting traditions of western culture is of the Faustus legend, where in this legend, a man called Faust or Faustus, sells his soul to the devil for almost twenty-four years for the purpose of worldly power. This makes it a very prominent story that has been narrated many times over by writers such as Goethe, Lessing, and Mann. However, most probably the famous telling is Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe.
The social upheaval during the time period is the most prominent influence on Marlowe's version of Doctor Faustus. This novel has been suspected of being first performed in 1594, which was a time of great change in Europe. During this period the Medieval Times were over…… [Read More]
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen. This invocation, accompanying the sign of the cross, marks the beginning and end of every Roman Catholic prayer. It has become synonymous with Catholicism -- a celebration of the crucifix as representative of the lessed Trinity. While, every good Catholic takes this Triumvirate for granted, it is left to theological scholars like Jurgen Moltmann to dissect and analyze the salient features of the Trinity. Is the Trinity a Pneumatological or Christological entity? Is it a combination of the two? Where is God in the scheme of Moltmann's thesis? The theoditic question challenged the omnipotence, omnipresence and omniscience of God in his relationship with man. Is this question revisited in relation to Jesus Christ as the carrier of the Holy Spirit during his life on earth? Moltmann presents a clear interpretation of the relationship between Christ and the Holy Spirit…… [Read More]
Keynes's policy ideas so difficult to accept in the 1930s?
This is a paper that analyzes the above questions and answers it by identifying the factors that were responsible for the rejection of Keynes ideas during the 1930s. It has 12 sources.
It is quite usual that people do not readily accept changes in their lives easily. A change in routine and economic patterns would certainly disrupt people's lives, which they would certainly not great warmly. This is because of the fact that it would mean readjusting themselves to almost everything that they do.
A change in economic relationships too would mean that virtually everything in society would change. This is because of the fact that nearly everything in society is economic based (Begg, 2000).
When there were problems visible in society, Keynes formulated economic policies that he believed would solve economic crises if a country adopted them. However, this…… [Read More]
The purpose of this discussion is to examine two interpretations of the functions of lay spirituality during reformation in France. For the purposes of this discussion we will examine "ine, Community and Reformation in Sixteenth-Century Burgundy" by Mack Holt, and "Strikes and Salvation in Sixteenth-century Lyon" by Natalie Davis. e will discuss the most important factor shaping lay spirituality in each article during this period. Our discussion will explore whether or not the two historians agree or disagree, and which one we believe has the greater validity and why.
In "ine, Community and Reformation in Sixteenth-century Burgundy" Holt argues that the most important factor shaping lay spirituality during this period is that the "city's magistrates and elites forged an alliance with the wine growing community to produce a militant anti-Huguenot culture." (Holt)
The ine growing community consisted of Catholics while the Huguenot was composed of Protestants. There were obvious…… [Read More]
As the Archbishop of Canterbury during the tumultuous reign of Henry VIII, Thomas Cranmer was in an extraordinary position to effect changes in England's political and religious direction. Through his writings, Cranmer laid the foundations for establishing the Church of England and moved England into the path of the growing European Reformation Movement.
By facilitating the numerous divorces of Henry VIII, he helped to weaken the authority of the Pope in England and contributed to the greater hold of the King.
This paper examines the effects of Cranmer's developing theology on the history of Tudor England. The first part of the paper looks at the role Cranmer played in justifying the theological bases of Henry VIII's numerous divorces. The next part then examines Cranmer's religious convictions, as enshrined in the Ten Articles and later, in the two versions of the Book of Common Prayer.
In the last section,…… [Read More]
Unitary State vs. The Federal State
Unitary vs. Federal
A unitary state government is one in which the state's entire affairs are overseen by a single central governing authority. A federal state government is one in which governing powers are shared between a central government and a local or state government(s). France offers us today an example of a unitary state, while the U.S. offers us an example of a federal state. To judge which type of government is better, one could look to these two examples -- but as neither appears to be ideal in its present-day condition (both are broke), this paper will instead look at the dynamic of both types of states to show why a federal state is preferable to a unitary state.
The unitary state solution is one that lends itself to the Weber-based system of modern bureaucracy, and for that reason is bound to…… [Read More]
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
hile not every scholar and critic fully buys into the theory that Robert Louis Stevenson (often known as "Louis" in reference works) was "obsessed" with religious themes and images. Most scholarship focuses on why the author highlighted the characters as he did, and the obvious juxtapositions. But clearly, Stevenson did indeed frequently allude to spiritual and religious themes, sometimes using subtlety, other times using stark language or even foisting his wordsmith talents on vulnerable readers through shocking images. The obvious themes of good vs. evil are there constantly, but within those themes an alert reader can detect Stevenson's seeming rebellion against the dogma he was raised with. This paper will point to those references and allusions and will also provide background into Stevenson's troubled life -- which is a vitally important key to understanding why he referenced spiritual and religious topics.
Stevenson's Family and Upbringing…… [Read More]
US PIVATE PISONS & PISONE LABO
First Theory: Karl Marx
Analysis of the Evidence
Second Theorist: Max Weber
Analysis of Evidence
The event being investigated in this study was published in the New York Times on May 24. 2014. The article is about the very low pay for working prisoners in the U.S. private jails and about allegations about them being exploited. The article is written by Ian Urbina and is titled "Using Jailed Migrants as a Pool of Cheap Labor." The article is available at the following link: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/25/us/using-jailed-migrants-as-a-pool-of-cheap-labor.html.
The article describes the plight of illegal immigrants into the U.S. and how the government policy has prevented them from being employed in the U.S. However, when these very illegal immigrants land up in the prisons, especially in the private prisons of the country, they are forced to contribute labor at very low rates or even without pay.…… [Read More]
John Wesley define the "means of grace"? What practices or activities does he include among the "means of grace"?
The means of grace are the means by which human beings can become more open to receiving God's grace. In keeping with the philosophy of most Protestant traditions, John Wesley believed that grace was not something which could be won through good works. Only God could bestow grace. Nor could human beings demand or ask for grace, or claim to be worthy of it before God would allow it. But contrary to the philosophy of predetermination, which Wesley opposed, Wesley did believe that people could take positive steps to become more open to grace when it was bestowed through God's mercy. Works of piety, such as praying alone or going to church, and works of mercy, like giving charity and fighting for social justice, were part of the means or path…… [Read More]
The universe viewed through a telescope looked different, and this difference in itself played into the Protestant argument that received truths may be fallible. In fact, the notion of truth outside empirical evidence became unsteady:
For most thinkers in the decades following Galileo's observations with the telescope, the concern was not so much for the need of a new system of physics as it was for a new system of the world. Gone forever was the concept that the earth has a fixed spot in the center of the universe, for it was now conceived to be in motion…gone also was the comforting thought that the earth is unique (Cohen 79)
However, while the telescope was transforming ideas about the shape of the cosmos and the relationship between science and faith, the microscope essentially remained a toy through much of the early modern era. If anything, the revelation of the…… [Read More]
All human beings are, however, impure and imperfect, which does not make it very difficult to rise above the rest in terms of self-perceived perfection. In comparison to God, however, this changes. The human being who is never dissatisfied with him- or herself, however, never becomes aware that there is a contrast to be made with God.
This is what Calvin appears to mean by piety. People with true knowledge of themselves as imperfect and unholy in comparison with God are those who are most pious. They are aware that there are imperfections to be addressed and aspire to do so by contemplating the nature of Gold. Instead, impious and hypocritical human beings are never aware that there is much wrong with them. They create a type of cycle by only contemplating other human beings to compare with themselves. By doing this, they become aware only of their excellence and…… [Read More]
Utilitarianism and Plato
Philosophy is an ancient process. Since the times of Ancient Greece and Rome, people have taken it upon themselves to question the reality of their worlds and to postulate what it is that causes people to behave the ways that they do. The philosophical theory of utilitarianism has gained popularity in recent years because of the way that it explains government and the need for laws and authority. However, philosophy going back to the time of Plato dealt with many of the same questions currently posed by Utilitarianism. The theory of Utilitarianism and the writings of the great Plato can be seen to differ in the following ways: in the background metaphysical understanding of the universe and humanity's place in it, the theory of human nature that each supposes, the defect in human nature that allows beings to be unhappy or unfulfilled, and in the ways the…… [Read More]