Calvinism Essays (Examples)

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Calvin and the Reformation

Words: 1823 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38151006

Calvinism and the Reformation

John Calvin (originally Jean Cauvin) was born July 10th, 1509, in the merchant city of Noyon, France, in a family of modest ancestry of watermen and artisans.

His father, Girard Cauvin, ran the course of a respectable bourgeoisie member who studied law and went all the way from a town clerk to the position of a procurator of the cathedral chapter. As a prediction to his son's further relationship with the Catholic Church, by the time he died he was excommunicated.

His older brother, a priest encountered similar troubles this department and was also excommunicated. Standing Firm on his position, he refused the sacraments on his death bed and was buried outside the churchyard.

John Calvin was the second son of Girard Cauvin and Jeanne LeFranc. For some, John Calvin's birthday was an unfortunate event, for others, a blessing. Throughout his career, he only appears to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Hesselink, I. John (2004), Calvin's theology, in McKim, Donald K., The Cambridge Companion to John Calvin, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

2. Parker, T.H.L. (1995), Calvin: An Introduction to His Thought, London: Geoffrey Chapman

3. Niesel, Wilhelm (1980), The Theology of Calvin, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House

4. Naphy, W, (1994), Calvin and the Consolidation of the Genevan Reformation, Westminster John Knox Press
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Sociology -- Sociology of Religion

Words: 1771 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99126995

Finally, the rise of science and technology due to industrialization militated against institutionalized religion (Bruce, 2002, p. 18). As people became more educated and reliant on science and technology in their everyday lives and work lives, religious disagreements with science and led people to abandon institutional religions as unscientific and backward. People knew that science and technology worked; therefore, religious arguments against science and technology tended to be rejected. In sum, the religious and secular teachings of the Protestant Reformation caused people to move toward greater secularization for religious, economic, social and intellectual reasons.

3. Conclusion

The Protestant Reformation significantly contributed to both Capitalism and Secularization in the est. By eliminating or reducing the Roman Catholic Church's underpinnings, including the Sacraments and obedience to Church authorities for salvation, the Reformation caused individuals to search here on earth for signs that they were saved and to rely on themselves rather than…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bruce, S. (2002). God is dead: Secularization in the west - (Religion and spirituality in the modern world). Malden, MA: Blackstone Publishing, Ltd.

Stepan, a.C. (October 2000). Religion, democracy, and the "twin tolerations." Journal of Democracy, 11(4), 37-57.

Weber, M.A. (2003). The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc.
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Western Civilization Reformation Martin Luther

Words: 457 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79237181

They felt that they Church was getting richer and the poor were getting poorer. And as a result, there were no great protests when the King broke away from the Church, because many felt that Henry would ease up on taking money from them. Henry knew of the Catholic Church's unpopularity and used this to his advantage (Truman, 2009).

Christian Humanism played a large role in the development of the English Reformation as it also did with Calvinism, which emphasized the rule of God over all things (Belief system within Christianity: Calvinism, 2004). Both of these were very similar to the ideas Lutheranism, in which each individual was seen as responsible for their own fate. There were several other heretic groups that were persecuted by the Roman Catholic Church for their beliefs; these were the aldenses and the Albigenses. These were a couple of groups of Christians who would not…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"About Martin Luther." 2003. PBS. 24 April 2009



"Belief system within Christianity: Calvinism." 2004. Religious Tolerance.org. 24 April 2009

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Comparison of Roman Catholics and the Calvinist in the Eucharist

Words: 3060 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14143661

Eucharist in Catholicism and Calvinism

Our word "Eucharist" is derived directly from the Greek of the New Testament: etymologically, it derives from the word for grace (charis) with a prefix (eu) meaning "good" or "well," but the original Greek word "eucharistia" means, simply enough, "thanksgiving" -- like our word "thanksgiving" it is a noun that derives originally from an equivalent verb describing the action involved (i.e., the giving of thanks). The Eucharist is intended as a sort of commemoration of Christ's Last Supper. The story of the Last Supper is attested to in three of the four canonical Gospels: Matthew 26:26 -- 28; Mark 14:22 -- 24; Luke 22:17 -- 20. (John's Gospel lacks a similar account but does include relevant statements that become important to later Eucharistic practice, such as John 3:36, "He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life.") Yet it is the fourth…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. Web. Accessed 20 Feb 2011 at:  http://www.newadvent.org/summa/index.html 

The Holy Bible. Print.

Bouwsma, William. John Calvin: A Sixteenth Century Portrait. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988 Print.

Calvin, John. Institues of the Christian Religion. Web. Accessed 20 Feb 2011 at: http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.html
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Providence Debate

Words: 3248 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17404719

Providence Debate

According to J.P. De Caussade, God speaks "today as he spoke in former times to our fathers when there were no directors as at present, nor any regular method of direction."

In other words, Fr. De Caussade asserts that God maintains and has always maintained a personal relationship, or a providential relationship, with mankind. However, the exact way in which God exercises control over the world and the lives of humans in the world has been debated for many centuries. Indeed, in the realm of God's providence, there are numerous variables and nuanced positions, which have been argued by Christians since the time of the Apostles through to the Protestant Reformation right up to today. This paper will consider the two broader views of recent centuries -- the Arminian and the Calvinist -- and evaluate whether there might be alternative views that incorporate both perspectives of how Providence…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologiae, Benziger Bros, ed. [trans. Fathers of the English

Dominican Province]. Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 1947.

Chang, Andrew D. "Second Peter 2:1 and the Extent of the Atonement," Bibliotheca

Sacra, Jan-Mar, 1985, 52.
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Protestant Ethic and the Evolution

Words: 7228 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62928220

Any one who tried to gain enough power and wealth would be considered a threat to the power of the church and was therefore quickly deposed of their wealth.

Weber proposed that even though Catholics tolerated a greater display of outward wealth, Protestant doctrines asked the followers to concentrate on mundane pursuits. It also asks its followers to accept a lower station in life without a hierarchical structure to force the issue. There were no examples of upward mobility or examples of extravagance to follow. The Protestant faith in promoted a pride in one's work and the "work and Save" ethic. The members were self-motivated, not forced into submission by the Church. This was a key difference between these two philosophies. Weber claimed that this attitude was much more productive than the Catholic idea of wealth attainment. The Calvinists had a word which meant ones calling, or duty on earth.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ashley, D. And Orenstein, D. 1995. Sociological Theory: Classical Statements, third edition, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Baechler, J. 1988. The Cradle of Capitalism: the Case of England

John A. Hall & Michael Mann, Europe and the Rise of Capitalism (Blackwell, 1988).

Bendix, R. 1977 http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0520031946&id=63sC9uaYqQsC&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&sig=g-kn8gtBIRvG-ss0I_-BmrBz9YE" Max Weber: An Intellectual Portrait. University of California Press.
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American Pastoral Lutheranism Originated as

Words: 2916 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46532570

All human beings are considered corrupt and sick and, because of the original sin, are in close relations with the powers of evil, rending them unable to make a significant contribution to their liberation. Ironically in some way, it can be said that Lutherans believe in faith. Faith is understood as trust in God's love and is viewed as the only appropriate way for man to answer to God's initiative. "Salvation by faith alone" is the distinctive and criticized (by catholic adepts) slogan of Lutheranism. Opponents of this doctrine argued that this position does not do justice to the Christian responsibility to do good works; the answer was that faith has to be active in love and that there is an indivisible connection between good works and faith: the former follow from the latter as a good tree produces good fruit.

Worship. The Lutheran church is, by its own definition,…… [Read More]

Reference:

http://www.newadvent.org/-Articles on the Reformation and Martin Luther

2. Encyclopedia Britannica - Articles on Protestantism and Zwingli, 1997 Edition, Vol. 26 and 12

3. Encarta Encyclopedia - Articles on Calvin and Zwinlgi
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Luther and Calvin

Words: 1807 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57279831

Luther and Calvin as theologians. Specifically, it will compare and contrast Martin Luther and John Calvin as theologians, while making a strong and convincing opinion on both men. John Calvin and Martin Luther were both great thinkers, and the foundation of the Reformation that shook Europe in the 1500s. hile they both had different theologies, there were some remarkable similarities, and both men certainly changed the face of religion by speaking out openly regarding their beliefs.

Luther and Calvin

Martin Luther is probably the most significant and renowned Protestant religious leader in the world. Luther was born in Eisleben, Saxony in 1483, and spent his undergraduate years studying for a law career, and then he switched focus to the priesthood. However, Luther found himself disagreeing with many of the Catholic Church's philosophies, and in 1517, Luther posted his famous "95 theses" on the door of a castle church in Saxony,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dillenberger, John, ed. Martin Luther, Selections from His Writings. 1st ed. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1961.

Harkness, Georgia. John Calvin The Man and His Ethics. New York: H. Holt and Company, 1931.

Luther, Martin." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000.

Mcneill, John T. "Calvin as an Ecumenical Churchman." Church History 57.Suppl. (1988): 43-55.
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War Years War Thirty Years

Words: 2047 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35858911

questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114867845.

Meier, David a. "An Appeal for a Historiographical Renaissance: Lost Lives and the Thirty Years War." The Historian 67, no. 2 (2005): 254+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010923917.

Murdoch, Steve, ed. Scotland and the Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648. Boston: Brill, 2001. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109286924.

Silve, Benoit M. "From Leadership to Partnership: a New American Security Strategy for Europe." Naval War College Review 50, no. 1 (1997): 88+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5037619771.

Theibault, John. "The Rhetoric of Death and Destruction in the Thirty Years War." Journal of Social History 27, no. 2 (1993): 272+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000249833.

Wilson, Peter H. "Who Won the Thirty Years War? Peter H. Wilson Unravels One of the Most Notoriously Bloody and Complex Conflicts in European History to Answer the Question ." History Today, August 2009, 12+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5031722573.

. Kevin Cramer, the Thirty Years' War and erman Memory in the Nineteenth Century (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2007), 1.

. Kevin Cramer, the Thirty Years'…… [Read More]

Graham Darby, "The 30 Years' War: Graham Darby Examines the Nature and Effects of the War That Dominated the First Half of the Seventeenth Century," History Review (2001), http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000921247.

Graham Darby, "The 30 Years' War: Graham Darby Examines the Nature and Effects of the War That Dominated the First Half of the Seventeenth Century," History Review (2001), http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000921247.

. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5031722573?Peter H. Wilson, "Who Won the Thirty Years War? Peter H. Wilson Unravels One of the Most Notoriously Bloody and Complex Conflicts in European History to Answer the Question .," History Today, August 2009, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5031722573.
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Dawn of American Enlightenment Started

Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89104035



Benjamin ranklin termed himself a pragmatic deist. He believes "there is one Supreme must perfect being," however that this being is distant, and that it is not necessary to build a personal relationship with such a supreme God. He concluded that it was useful and correct to believe that a faith in God should inform our daily actions. However, he did not believe in sectarian dogma, burning spirituality or deep soul searching as a part of religion (Lopez, 87). ranklin's religious views are important in the shaping of his Enlightenment philosophy. His approach to religion drew from reason and careful reflection, he did not believe in the "frivolity" of emotional thought and connectivity, but instead focused on the pragmatic understanding of the divine. His conclusion after careful reason formulates a "Supreme Being that can be manifest in various ways, depending on the needs of different worshipers" (Lopez, 88). In contrast…… [Read More]

Fiering, Norman. 1981. Jonathan Edwards's Moral Thought and Its British Context. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

Buxbaum, M.H., Critical Essays on Benjamin Franklin (1987)

Lopez, Claude-Anne, and Herbert, E.W., the Private Franklin (1975)
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Afrikaners Are the Descendants of

Words: 4136 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11391645

Having been prosecuted in Europe, they were inclined to severe all ties with the continent and considered Africa their homeland. Since most other immigrants in Cape were also Calvinists -- members of the Dutch Reformed Church, the French Haguenots were readily accepted as part of a common community and were soon integrated into settler society by intermarriage. Their emphasis on a 'pure' form of Calvinism and self-sufficiency, however, influenced the development of the Afrikaner culture and way of life.

The Afrikaans Language

Afrikaans is the language of the white South Africans that was largely derived from the 17th century Dutch language. It is estimated that about seven million people in South Africa and Namibia speak some form of Afrikaans, although 'standard' Afrikaans is spoken mainly by the whites. Until the end of the "apartheid" in 1994, Afrikaans was the official language of government and education. It is now one of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24424999

Beck, Roger B. The History of South Africa. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001835441

Grundlingh, Albert. "The Bitter Legacy of the Boer War." History Today Nov. 1999: 21.
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Price Beauty 'For Though Beauty Is Seen

Words: 6265 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40095914

Price Beauty?

'For though beauty is seen and confessed by all, yet, from the many fruitless attempts to account for the cause of its being so, enquiries on this head have almost been given up"

illiam Hogarth, The Analysis of Beauty, (1753)

Not very encouraging words, but if the great artist illiam Hogarth felt himself up to the task, we can attempt at least to follow his lead. That beauty is enigmatic goes almost without saying. Different ages, different cultures, and even different individuals, will have their own definitions of "beauty." The problem is more than skin deep. Any term that can be so widely and irregularly employed is bound to trap the casual researcher ... Or reader ... Or viewer ... Or for that matter, any other human being who attempts to define what is and what is not "beauty." People, places, things -- even ideas dreams -- can…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Al-Braizat, Fares. "Muslims and Democracy: An Empirical Critique of Fukuyama's Culturalist Approach." International Journal of Comparative Sociology (2002): 269+.

Browne, Stephen H. "EDMUND BURKE (1729-1797)." Eighteenth-Century British and American Rhetorics and Rhetoricians: Critical Studies and Sources. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. 42-50.

Callaghan, Karen A., ed. Ideals of Feminine Beauty: Philosophical, Social, and Cultural Dimensions. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

"The Eighteenth-Century Beauty Contest." Eighteenth-Century Literary History: An MLQ Reader. Ed. Brown, Marshall. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999. 204-234.
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Holy Trinity How Can God Be One and Three

Words: 3220 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86400189

Doctrine of the Holy Trinity

The Doctrine of the Trinity and Anti-Trinitarian Theologies:

Servetus, Milton, Newton

The Doctrine of the Trinity

The Arian Heresy

Anti-Trinitarianism Part I: Michael Servetus

Anti-Trinitarianism Part II: John Milton

Sir Isaac Newton

The Arian heresy -- or rejection of the Christian doctrine of the Holy Trinity -- is actually relatively uncommon among contemporary Christian denominations; to pick one particular national example, Post-Reformation England would tolerate a broad array of theological stances -- from the dour Calvinism of the early Puritans to the sunnier Arminianism of the esleyan Methodists -- but more or less drew the line at anti-Trinitarianism. Yet it is remarkable that some of England's greatest intellectuals -- including the epic poet John Milton and the father of modern physics Sir Isaac Newton -- would secretly author theological works reviving the old heresy of Arius in order to disprove the Christian doctrine of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bouwsma, William J. John Calvin: A Sixteenth Century Portrait. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Catholic Encyclopedia, "Nicene Creed."  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11049a.htm  (accessed 21 March 2011).

Grudem, Wayne. Sytematic Theology. Grand Rapids; Zondervan, 1994.

Hill, Christopher. Milton and the English Revolution. New York: Viking, 1978.
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role of Isaac Backus

Words: 1482 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31801817

Isaac ackus Role in Shaping of the Southern aptist Religion in the Early American Colonies

Only a few aptists were present in colonial America but their number was highest in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island because of the freedoms in those places. aptists were greatly despised in nearly all regions but mainly in New England. Luckily for the aptists present in America, they actually gained more from the Great Awakening compared to other denominations. Isaac ackus[footnoteRef:1], a young New Light Congregationalist minister, was among their very first converts from New England Congregationalism back in 1751. Over the eighteenth century, aptists started to grow and thrive among the rich religious maltreatment and harassment which was still evident in the majority of the colonies- particularly Massachusetts. Through speeches, tracts, petitions, and protests, Isaac ackus (1724-1806) headed the quest of religious freedom during the chaotic era of the American Revolution.[footnoteRef:2] [1: Michael Williams. "rief…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ascol, Thomas K. From the Protestant Reformation to the Southern Baptist Convention: What Hath Geneva to Do with Nashville? Founders Press, 2013.

Carwardine, Richard. "Baptists and the Shaping of America." Accessed October 4, 2016.http://biblicalstudies.org.uk/pdf/bq/35-4_158.pdf.

Davis, Derek H. "Baptists and the American Tradition of Religious Liberty. "PERSPECTIVES IN RELIGIOUS STUDIES 33, no. 1 (2006): 5-7

Derek H. Davis, Religion and the Continental Congress, 1774-1789: Contributions to Original Intent (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 125-28.
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Religious Revolution

Words: 1684 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84205445

I. MY QUESTION

The topic of religious revolution interests me because much of history has been shaped by religious revolution. Consider the history of the West. The rise of Constantine to the seat of the Emperor in the early 4th century allowed Christianity to flourish. The Roman Catholic Church became deeply influential some 400 years later with Charlemagne, who was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope in 800. Religious revolution broke out in Europe with the Protestants, led by Luther, Zwingli, Knox, Calvin and Henry VIII. Their actions led to a revolution in the West that changed the nature of society. Today’s society has very much been impacted the Protestant Revolution, as strains of Puritanism are still seen in American society, for example, as authors like Hawthorne and Melville have shown.

What I hope to learn from the research is how religious revolution unfolded in Europe and what its…… [Read More]

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1560 and 1650 Europe Experienced

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70143220



Between 1618 and 1648, there was an outbreak of war which was mainly caused by the struggle between a militant Calvinism and a militant Catholicism in fact it was referred to as the "last of the religious wars." Furthermore, prior to, all through, and after this three decades war, a sequence of civil wars and rebellions hit Europe. All this events and problems greatly affected Europe economically, socially, and even politically and actually qualify to be categorized as crises.

Question 2:

For the period of the 16th and 17th centuries, the European society did not respect women at all since they considered them inferior to men both mentally and morally thus were directly linked to witchcraft during the witchcraft craze. To make it worse was the fact that these low estimates were not just held by the witch hunter but also by the elites such as lawyers, theologians, and philosophers.…… [Read More]

References

Cook, et al. (1980). British Historical Facts 1760-1830. London: Macmillan.

Europe in crisis: Social disintegration, war, and revolution (1560-1650). Retrieved in March 1,

2010 from .
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Knowledge and Skills to Get

Words: 4345 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46430675

It involves the replacement of rule of thumb gradually with science for the mechanical arts.

Mesopotamia

The existence of the two rivers i.e. Euphrates and Tigris gave this name Mesopotamia which means the land between rivers to the region. Agricultural revolution was begun by the people of this region in about ten thousand years ago. They domesticated animals and plants instead of hunting and gathering as was common in the time. Their crops were tended in houses built of mud-brick or reeds and clustered in villages (Hyman 138). Their grains were stored in the granaries that they built and their trade and account were recorded in a token system that they developed. There was a sudden change and growth in the civilization of the southern Mesopotamia between 3000 and 3500, with the main focus being in the cities of Ur and Uruk. Rendering of the old ways of agriculture less…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Badiru, Adedeji, Triple C. Model of Project Management: Communication, Cooperation, and Coordination. Oxon: CRC Press, 2008.

"History of Greece." History World. 5 Jun. 2000. 22 March. 2010.



Hyman, Kavett. "Mesopotamia, A Difficult but Interesting Topic." Social studies 70.3 (1979):
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Bible and When Possible an

Words: 1475 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48228467



The Doctrine of Divine Providence

Divine Providence is the way God rules over all things in the world and the Heavens. Gotanswers. org states,

"The purpose, or goal, of divine providence is to accomplish the will of God. To ensure that His purposes are fulfilled, God governs the affairs of men and works through the natural order of things. The laws of nature are nothing more than a depiction of God at work in the universe. The laws of nature have no inherent power, nor do they work independently. The laws of nature are the rules and principles that God set in place to govern how things work" (Gotquestions.org, 2010)

The Bible, Proverbs 16:9 states: "The heart of a man plans his way, but the Lord establishes his steps." Though God allows man free will, he also has a guidance control in our life.

In Acts 9, God directly deal…… [Read More]

References

"Baptism FAQ." 2010. Retrieved on May 8, 2010 from  http://paracleteforum.org/archive/articles/baptism_faq/dialogue.html 

Cloud, D. 2006. "What about Hyper-Calvinism?" Retrieved on May 8, 2010 from  http://www.wayoflife.org/database/hypercalvinism.html 

Holman Christian Standard Bible. 2004. Holman Bible Publishers. Nashville, TN.

"Secularism." 2010. Retrieved on May 8, 2010 from  http://www.answers.com/topic/secularism
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Sociological Theories the Theory of

Words: 3250 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16562043



Many different views abound on the origins of modern capitalism, causalities that range from economic to political, from religious to cultural, or for some, an amalgamation of societies need to expand and the resources necessary to fuel that expansion. Max Weber's the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a study of the relationship between the ethics of ascetic Protestantism and the emergence of the spirit of modern capitalism. An ascetic Protestant is one who practices self-denial and self-discipline. Weber argues that the religious ideas of groups such as the Calvinists played a role in creating the capitalistic spirit. Calvinism focused on predestination and God's infinite power, a hierarchical system that transcended religion and moved into economic and social activities.

This is true not only in cases where the difference in religion coincides with one of nationality, and thus of cultural development . . . . The same thing…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Durkheim, E. (1997). The Division of Labor in Society. New York: Free Press.

____. (2008). The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. New York: Oxford University

Press.

Grusky, D., ed. (2000). Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological
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Thomas Jefferson A Pioneer in

Words: 5416 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9505486



Jefferson's Principles and their Impact on Education

Jefferson's radical beliefs in the inherent moral and developmental capacities of humans, and in their capacities to take part to participatory democracy, in turn reinforced his enduring commitment to an education that would be accessible to all. Jefferson was well aware that democracy could only work properly when the people were both virtuous and enlightened.

From these notions that people were naturally virtuous but not naturally enlightened, but that enlightenment was necessary for democracy, it followed that the society had a vested interest in investing in education to provide enlightenment.

In a letter to the Welsh born philosopher Richard Price dated January 8, 1789, Jefferson observed that "wherever the people are well informed they can be trusted with their government."

uch well informed or enlightened people could be relied on, "whenever things get so far wrong as to attract their notice," to set…… [Read More]

Sources

Primary

Ford, W. Ed. Thomas Jefferson Correspondence. Boston, 1916.

Jefferson, T. The Life and Selected Writings of Thomas Jefferson. New York: Modern Library, 1993.

Public and Private Papers New York: Vintage Books/the Library of America, 1990.
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Theological Interpersonal and Political Roots

Words: 1349 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4025518

The Good News is that righteousness is not a demand upon the sinner but a gift to the sinner. The sinner simply accepts the gift through faith" (hitford 2005). Luther's emphasis on the individual's reception of that Good News fueled his skillful promotion of Bibles written in the language of the people in an accessible translation and his disdain for the abstruse philosophy of theologians such as the Scholastic Thomas Aquinas. Although a highly literate and educated man, Luther did not believe that rationalization and reason could lead one to Christ, only God. Additional philosophizing added nothing to the truth that could only be found in the actual words of the Bible.

As is evidenced in Chaucer, in medieval society there had long been simmering a strong dislike of clergymen who appeared to use their office for financial gain, rather than as an exercise of piety: "The poor resented the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hooker, Richard. "Reformation: Martin Luther." 1996. Updated 1999. World Civilizations.

http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/REFORM/LUTHER.htm

Kries, Steven. "Lecture 5: The Catholic Reformation." History Guide. 2002.

Revised 2004. http://www.historyguide.org/earlymod/lecture5c.html
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Charles Lindblom Pendleton Herring the

Words: 1478 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97128871

242). This approach to decision making in public administration was thought to result in improved policies since the approach was well suited to the pluralist environment in which these decisions were being made and provided opportunities for alternative views to be advanced. The incremental model as "took into account the limitations of human cognitive capacities and the costs of acquiring information" (Utter & Lockhart, 2002, p. 242).

Lindblom, C.E. (1959, Spring). The science of 'muddling through.' Public dministration

Review, 19, 79-88 in Stevens at 15.

Stevens, J.B. (1993). The economics of collective choice. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Utter, G.H. & Lockhart, C. (2002). merican political scientists: dictionary. Westport, CT:

Greenwood Press.

Unit II ssessment.

Question 1:

Marble cake federalism

Question 2:

Congressional Budget Office

Question 3:

Municipal

Question 4:

Pluralism and Calvinism

Question 5:

Federal system of government

Question 6:

"Why can't the citizens of the states just keep their…… [Read More]

According to Hanson (1998), "Adherents to picket fence federalism contend that the most important components of the federal system are the various functional bureaucracies, not the national, state, or local governments" (p. 24). From this perspective, the "pickets" of the governmental fence (e.g., the national, state, and local governments) are frequently too fragmented to provide the level of coordination needed to effect meaningful action at the local level (Hanson, 1998). A good example of how this approach has been used in New Brunswick, New Jersey is the implementation of so-called "Special Improvement Districts" (also known as Business Improvement Districts) that are described by the municipality as being "Self-help ventures organized by property owners and local governments to identify and develop defined areas of cities where a more successful and profitable business climate is needed" (Special improvement districts, 2009, p. 1). These districts, which are referred to by the acronym "SID," are managed by private agents who coordinates commercial promotional activities, as well as identifying opportunities for improving the security and maintenance services for existing businesses in their districts (Special improvement districts, 2009). According to the city's official Web site at  http://www.newbrunswick.com , "The law permits property owners and businesses in the specified district to organize and assess themselves to pay for the services that they determine. SIDs provide specialized services to advance business revitalization in downtowns. These services are designed to complement rather than replace municipal government services" (Special improvement districts, 2009, p. 3).

Hanson, R.L. (1998). Governing partners: State-local relations in the United States. Boulder,

CO: Westview Press.
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Emily Dickinson Was One of

Words: 1505 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22107123

On the one hand, she had an almost desperate sense of wanting to believe, while on the other, she had little reason to do so. Her poetry addresses her doubts and fears regarding religion, inspiring critics to often jump to conclusions regarding her religious persuasions or indeed lack of these. This very ambiguity is what makes Emily Dickinson's poetry such a fulfilling experience. Her work lends itself to various interpretations and combinations, which will never become worn or repetitive.

ources

Franke, William (2008, Autumn). "The missing all": Emily Dickinson's apophatic poetics. Christianity and Literature. Online database: findArticles.com http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb049/is_1_58/ai_n31041796/

Ladin, Jay. (2006, Fall). Meeting her maker: Emily Dickinson's God. Cross Currents. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2096/is_3_56/ai_n27002612/?tag=rbxcra.2.a.22

UXL Newsmakers (2005). Emily Dickinson. Online Database: Findarticles.com. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_gx5221/is_2005/ai_n19136112/?tag=rbxcra.2.a.11

Yezzi, David (1998, Oct 9). Emily Dickinson and the Art of Belief. Commonweal. Online Database: Findarticles.com: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1252/is_n17_125/ai_21227669/?tag=rbxcra.2.a.33

Zapedowska, Magdalena. (2006, March). Wrestling with silence: Emily Dickinson's Calvinist God. The American…… [Read More]

Sources

Franke, William (2008, Autumn). "The missing all": Emily Dickinson's apophatic poetics. Christianity and Literature. Online database: findArticles.com http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb049/is_1_58/ai_n31041796/

Ladin, Jay. (2006, Fall). Meeting her maker: Emily Dickinson's God. Cross Currents. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2096/is_3_56/ai_n27002612/?tag=rbxcra.2.a.22

UXL Newsmakers (2005). Emily Dickinson. Online Database: Findarticles.com. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_gx5221/is_2005/ai_n19136112/?tag=rbxcra.2.a.11

Yezzi, David (1998, Oct 9). Emily Dickinson and the Art of Belief. Commonweal. Online Database: Findarticles.com: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1252/is_n17_125/ai_21227669/?tag=rbxcra.2.a.33
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Reformation the Protestant Reformation Was

Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30651000

However, a large portion of Luther's Ninety Five Theses focused on theological issues ranging from a critique of Marianism to a rejection of the sacraments. The critique of Catholic ritual and theology was remarkable considering the scope of the Church's power over religious doctrine.

Of course, Luther was excommunicated and began his own Christian sect that later blossomed into a diverse set of Protestant denominations. The consequences of the sixteenth century Reformation include a diversification of Christianity. The religion had been relatively monolithic, even after the Great Schism. ithin the Holy Roman Empire, only the Pope was vested with supreme ecclesiastic authority. Martin Luther and other reformers harshly criticized the authority of the Pope, representing a radical revolution in the European consciousness. In many ways the Reformation was an ideological precursor to political revolutions like those in France as well as the New orld.

The trend in critical thinking and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Protestant Reformation." Retrieved Mar 6, 2009 at  http://history.hanover.edu/early/prot.html 

Reformation Europe." Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved Mar 6, 2009 at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook02.html#Protestant%20Reformation
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African Studies Racial Policy The

Words: 2852 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34202767

Of course, a separation of the races meant really the preservation of white superiority at the expense of those formerly enslaved. The law mandated distinct facilities for hites and Blacks. Everything from schools, to transportation, movie theaters, hotels, and even public restrooms were carefully segregated. Few Black only facilities approached white ones in quality or amount of money expended on their upkeep. Black public schools were notoriously inferior as were hospitals and other essential services. As arguments about the disparities became more apparent toward the mid-Twentieth Century, the South sought to defend its segregationist policies by - in the case of medical schools - expanding and consolidating its physician training facilities so as to avoid providing more facilities for Blacks. A plan was actually floated, not to increase Black enrollment at the South's twenty-six medical colleges, but rather to consolidate all training of Black medical personnel at a single facility.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=7745289

Boskin, Joseph. Into Slavery: Racial Decisions in the Virginia Colony. Philadelphia J.B. Lippincott, 1976.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113156830

Louw, Eric P. The Rise, Fall, and Legacy of Apartheid. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
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1904 Revival Beginning in Wales

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Analysis

The Baby Boomer Revival assumed shapes and forms different than the former ones with programs Charismatic movement, the East Timor Indonesian Revivals, the 'Jesus People', the Asbury College Revival; and the Saskatoon Revival representing the spirits of the times in order to woo people to the mission movement and get them interested in the Church. At oen time, the church would have prohibited these charismatic programs and many, indeed, were controversial when they first appeared and still are today. Nonetheless, their impression and effects have been enduring and in a time when traditional programs were falling flat with the church losing members per day, innovative programs were the only ones that succeeded.

What I have learned

Sometimes, dramatic changes -- a shift in perspective and a change of habits -- are necessary for end-goals and objective to be reached.

The Pre-Reformation Revival, 1300-1500

Summary

Corruption of the church lowered…… [Read More]

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Faith and Reason an Analysis

Words: 2122 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79858429

If he had love, he had no pot in which to plant it. And so it stayed trapped in his mind, separate from any object -- for Kant insisted on the gulf between faith and reason. If one had to accept certain truths on the authority of the one revealing them -- Kant wanted no part in it. According to Kant, one should accept only that which can be reasoned. According to Aquinas, it is not unreasonable to accept that which is revealed.

In a sense, many of us today are Kantian rather than Thomistic. We are Hamlet figures, forever trapped in doubt. What Aquinas allows us to do is put away doubt. He allows us -- in fact, implores us, to act. He is now to us like the ghost of Hamlet's father -- reappearing to urge his son to action. Still, Hamlet delays. What happens to Hamlet --…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Contra Gentiles. London: Burns and Oates, 1905.

Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. UK: Fathers of the English Dominican

Province, 1920.

McInerny, Ralph, ed. Thomas Aquinas: Selected Writings. England: Penguin, 1998.
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Religious Liberty as Stated in the First

Words: 2471 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42497451

eligious Liberty as Stated in the First Amendment

eligious Liberty

The practical and legal ramifications of religious liberty are not difficult to determine, for they follow from the theological implications of the concept of religious liberty. The idea of religious truth, such as defined by the North Carolina state government in 1776 which forbade anyone from serving who denied the truth of the Protestant religion, has no place in a country that holds religious liberty as law. Yet, religious liberty has not always been practiced, as North Carolina and Maryland (which was officially declared an Anglican state in 1692) both show. Today, the first amendment has been ratified to make such claims untenable. Nonetheless, many scholars question whether religious liberty itself is defensible. By acknowledging the right of religions to be exercised publicly, the U.S. constitution sets the stage for a massive fight between various and contending religious beliefs, which…… [Read More]

Reference List

Associated Press. (2011). High Court Rules Against Fallen Marine's Father In Funeral

Protest Suit. KWTX. Retrieved from  http://www.kwtx.com/home/headlines/High_Court_Rules_Against_Fallen_Marines_Father_In_Funeral_Protest_Suit_117242333.html 

De Tocqueville, A. (1838). Democracy in America. (H. Reeve, Trans.). New York,

NY: George Adlard. (Original work published 1835). Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=DUAvAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover#
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Management Theories Historical Records Show That People

Words: 2061 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99899559

Management Theories

Historical records show that people always organized themselves in order to work together towards a common objective and they coordinated their efforts to achieve this objective (Accel-Team 2004). It was not until the latter part of the 19th century that the concept of scientific management entered history during the Industrial evolution, but management skills existed long before the 19th century. Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids, ancient Chinese erected the Great Wall of China, the Mesopotamians irrigated their lands and walled their cities and the omans of old put up their roads, aqueducts and notably Hadrian's Wall not without established and superb management standards of their leaders (Accel-Team) and massive obedience and coordination among the followers. The pyramids of Egypt, wonders of the world, each measure 75,600 square feet at the base, 480 feet high and consists of more than two million blocks of stone, each weighing 2.5 tons.…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

1. Accel-Team. (2004). Developments from Ancient History. Accel-Team.com. http://www.accel-team/scientific

2. Allen, G. (1998). Management History. Supervision. http://allie.dcccd.edu.mgnmt1374

3. Geocities. (2004). Human Behavior. http://www.geocities.com/the sydication/hr.html

4. McNamara, C. (1999). Very Brief History of Management Theories. http://www.mapnp.org/library/mgmnt/history.htm
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Massachusetts Bay Virginia Massachusetts Bay

Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25408735

Augustine, Florida) in the America's was at Roanoke in 1585. The first settlement was a disaster and all returned to England. The second settlement in 1587 disappeared. (Taylor, 1998)

Religiously, the South remains dominated by English ways and hierarchies. There is no democratic debate about the faith, even to expunge sinners from the fold. Politically, only men with land dominate the legislatures. And in terms of Native relations, the disappearance of previous colonies speaks for itself. Disease also weakens the bodies of the colonists, making them more open to Native attacks.

The inequality of relations between fellow colonists is further underlined by the treatment of Black slaves in the colony. Since its inception, slave laws reflect the racism of the colony, stressing the deliberate separation of blacks and whites. Even Christian slaves are not called Christian, (another defamation of the religious attitudes of Virginia) as one 1680 law has a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. "Slavery and the Law in Virginia." 2005

 http://www.history.org/history/teaching/slavelaw.cfm .[14 Feb 2005]

Logan, Samuel. "The Pilgrims and Puritans: Total Reformation for the Glory of God." Table talk magazine, vol. 20, no. 11, November 1996.

Norris Taylor, Jr. "The Massachusetts Bay Colony." 1998. Massachusetts Bay Colony Website. http://members.aol.com/ntgen/hrtg/mass.html
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Religion Colonial Society

Words: 1294 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15554600

religion shaped development of colonial society in 1740s New England, Chesapeake, and the Mid-Atlantic. eligion shaped development in these areas in a wide variety of ways, and the most important religious development during this time was the "Great Awakening." The "Great Awakening" was an important event in American history and religious history. It was the first real step away from the organized, strict religions that had followed the settlers here from England.

The "father" of the Great Awakening was Jonathan Edwards. He wrote a sermon called "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God," which became very famous. A religious historian writes, "In that sermon he used the image of a spider dangling by a web over a hot fire to describe the human predicament. His point was that at any moment, our hold on life could break and we'd be plunged into fires of eternal damnation" (Matthews). While many…… [Read More]

References

Goen, C.C. Revivalism and Separatism in New England, 1740-1800: Strict Congregationalists and Separate Baptists in the Great Awakening. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1962.

Matthews, Terry. "The Great Awakening." Wake Forest University. 1996. 20 Sept. 2005.

< http://www.wfu.edu/~matthetl/perspectives/four.html >
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War Was Fought Mainly Over

Words: 389 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52465957

Continual mistrust and desire for maintaining political power played a large role in the Swedish intervention and the later Swedish-French intervention. France entered the war on the Protestant side, though it was mostly Catholic, as French leaders felt threatened by the Holy oman Empire's size and strength.

Following the Battle of ocroi in 1643, where the French beat the Spanish, negotiations began and resulted in the 1648 Treaty of Westphalia. Most notably, the Treaty maintained that states must not interfere in the internal affairs of other states. It also established standards for binding treaties between states, setting the standard for modern international affairs. Finally, the Treaty had numerous territory adjustments to stabilize Europe in the post-war periods. It is unlikely that the Thirty Years War could have been avoided, in that considerable tensions over religion had built to such a point that peaceful resolution was unlikely. Years of war, mistrust…… [Read More]

References

Asch, R.G. (1997). The thirty years war: The Holy Roman Empire and Europe, 1618-48. New York: Palgrave.
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Whitman and Dickinson and Whitman

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Dickinson, however, approaches art and nature in a much different way. She does not attempt to assert herself or set herself up as "Amerian Poet" the way that hitman does. Instead she wrote her poetry without ever once doing so for fame or fortune. She meditated on her relationship to her surroundings, her understanding of beauty, her admiration for truth, her appreciation of the essence of things. "The Sailor cannot see the North, but knows the Needle can," she wrote in 1862. She considered Death and Judgment as actual realities, doorways to Eternity, rather than the ending of existence. Dickinson looked beyond the here and now, beyond the fleeting feelings of transcendental poetry, to the Infinite. Her fascination with mortality produced vivid images and verses: "Because I could not stop for Death, / He kindly stopped for me; / the carriage held but just ourselves / and Immortality." Because she…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Douglas. "Presence and Place in Emily Dickinson's Poetry." The New

England Quarterly, vol. 57, no. 2, 1984, 205-224. Print.

Dickinson, Emily. The Letters of Emily Dickinson. Harvard University Press, 1886.

Print.
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Lutheran and Lutheranism

Words: 1750 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14694768

Lutheranism

Martin Luther's involvement in sixteenth century's Christian controversy brought forward the Protestant Reformation. His teachings generated a new Christian branch that has come to be one of the ideology's most important beliefs. In comparison to Catholic law, Lutheranism promotes the idea that the church is not necessarily one of the most important institutions making it possible for people to connect with God. Moreover, the ideology encourages individuals to focus on developing a more personal relationship with God, as this respective connection can apparently be even stronger as long as the person is determined and as long as he or she concentrates on faith.

I chose to speak about Lutheranism because this branch of Christianity attempts to have people use both rationality and morality in trying to interpret religious passages. By refraining from putting across subjective ideas, Lutheranism serves a greater good and is actually intended to provide assistance for…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Bishop, Paul A., "Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation," Retrieved April 17, 2013, from the Hillsborough Community College Website:  http://www.hccfl.edu/media/173616/ee2luther.pdf 

Gritsch, Eric W., "Fortress Introduction to Lutheranism," (Fortress Press, 1994)

Handerl, Gerald, "Social welfare in western society," (Transaction Publishers, 2009)

Kersten, Lawrence K., "The Lutheran Ethic: The Impact of Religion on Laymen and Clergy," (Wayne State University Press, 1970)
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Federal Plans for Post War European Order Within Anti-Fascist Movements During World War Two

Words: 3766 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2276224

European Federalism: Historical Analysis

Fascism is considered to be a political belief and concept, which is based on the principle that social, economic and cultural and traditional beliefs of a country must be used in order to increase nationalism. In Europe, fascist movements had emerged in twentieth century. The goal of these fascist movements was to promote fundamentalist and fanatic beliefs in order to deal with the social and political turmoil that occurred in the European region after the end of World War I. Federalism is considered to be the theory, which is based on the principles of federation, which seeks to create a balance of power by dividing it among the member of the same institution. The aim of this paper is to historically analyze the rise of European Union from 1918 to the end of World War II in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources. Furthermore,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Boka Eva (2005): The Democratic European Idea in Central Europe, 1849-1945 (Federalism contra Nationalism) Specimina Nova, University of Pecs,2005. 7-24

2. Boka Eva (2006): In Search of European federalism. Society and Economy (The Journal of the Corvinus University of Budapest), 28. 2006. 3. 309-331.

3. Levi, Lucio (ed.) (1990): Altiero Spinelli and Federalism in Europe and in the World. Franco Angeli, Milan

4. Lindberg, Leon (1963): The Political Dynamics of European Economic Integration. Stanford University Press
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Doctor Faustus Reasons Why He Was Willing to Accept Eternal Damnation

Words: 6431 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66458997

Faustus' Acceptance to Eternal Damnation

Many traditions and legends have been created all the way through the long history of western culture. Among which one of the most outstanding and well-known as well long lasting traditions of western culture is of the Faustus legend, where in this legend, a man called Faust or Faustus, sells his soul to the devil for almost twenty-four years for the purpose of worldly power. This makes it a very prominent story that has been narrated many times over by writers such as Goethe, Lessing, and Mann. However, most probably the famous telling is Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe.

The social upheaval during the time period is the most prominent influence on Marlowe's version of Doctor Faustus. This novel has been suspected of being first performed in 1594, which was a time of great change in Europe. During this period the Medieval Times were over…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Conflict in the Tragical History of Doctor Faustus. November 6, 1998.

A www.kcweb.nhmccd.edu

Christopher Marlowe. Books and Writers.

A www.kirjasto.sci.fi
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Father and of the Son and of

Words: 3558 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96653151

Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen. This invocation, accompanying the sign of the cross, marks the beginning and end of every Roman Catholic prayer. It has become synonymous with Catholicism -- a celebration of the crucifix as representative of the lessed Trinity. While, every good Catholic takes this Triumvirate for granted, it is left to theological scholars like Jurgen Moltmann to dissect and analyze the salient features of the Trinity. Is the Trinity a Pneumatological or Christological entity? Is it a combination of the two? Where is God in the scheme of Moltmann's thesis? The theoditic question challenged the omnipotence, omnipresence and omniscience of God in his relationship with man. Is this question revisited in relation to Jesus Christ as the carrier of the Holy Spirit during his life on earth? Moltmann presents a clear interpretation of the relationship between Christ and the Holy Spirit…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dabney, D. Lyle. "The Advent of the Spirit: The Turn to Pneumatology in the Theology of Jurgen Moltmann." Asbury Theological Journal 48 (1993): 81-107.

Hume, David. The Theodice Problem. 2002 n.d. God And Science. org. Available. December 7, 2002.  http://godandscience.org/apologetics/nogod.html#01 

Macchia, Frank. "the Spirit and Life: A Further Response to Jurgen Moltmann." Journal of Pentecostal Theology 5 (1994): 122.

McWilliams, Warren. "Why All the Fuss About Filioque? Karl Barth and Jurgen Moltmann on the Procession of the Spirit." Perspectives in Religious Studies 22 (1995): 176.
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Why Were Keynes' Policy Ideas'so Difficult to Accept in the 1930s

Words: 2619 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38937121

Keynes's policy ideas so difficult to accept in the 1930s?

This is a paper that analyzes the above questions and answers it by identifying the factors that were responsible for the rejection of Keynes ideas during the 1930s. It has 12 sources.

It is quite usual that people do not readily accept changes in their lives easily. A change in routine and economic patterns would certainly disrupt people's lives, which they would certainly not great warmly. This is because of the fact that it would mean readjusting themselves to almost everything that they do.

A change in economic relationships too would mean that virtually everything in society would change. This is because of the fact that nearly everything in society is economic based (Begg, 2000).

When there were problems visible in society, Keynes formulated economic policies that he believed would solve economic crises if a country adopted them. However, this…… [Read More]

Sources:

Nymeyer, Frederick. Progressive Calvinism: Traditional Capitalism's Policy Just The Reverse Of Keynes's. 1958. At http://www.visi.com/~contra_m/pc/1958/4-2traditional.html

Chick, Victoria. Macroeconomics After Keynes: A Reconsideration of the General Theory. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1983, pp. x, 374

Winch, Donald. Economics & Policy, (Fontana, 1969) Chs. 8 and 11.

Routh, Guy. The Origin of Economic Ideas, Chapter 6.
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Lay Spirituality

Words: 892 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27969388

Spirituality

The purpose of this discussion is to examine two interpretations of the functions of lay spirituality during reformation in France. For the purposes of this discussion we will examine "ine, Community and Reformation in Sixteenth-Century Burgundy" by Mack Holt, and "Strikes and Salvation in Sixteenth-century Lyon" by Natalie Davis. e will discuss the most important factor shaping lay spirituality in each article during this period. Our discussion will explore whether or not the two historians agree or disagree, and which one we believe has the greater validity and why.

In "ine, Community and Reformation in Sixteenth-century Burgundy" Holt argues that the most important factor shaping lay spirituality during this period is that the "city's magistrates and elites forged an alliance with the wine growing community to produce a militant anti-Huguenot culture." (Holt)

The ine growing community consisted of Catholics while the Huguenot was composed of Protestants. There were obvious…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Davis, Natalie. "Strikes and Salvation in Sixteenth-century Lyon"

Holt, Mack. Wine, Community and Reformation in Sixteenth-century Burgundy"
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Thomas Cranmer's Theology and How it Influenced Tudor England

Words: 2860 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89106577

Thomas Cranmer

As the Archbishop of Canterbury during the tumultuous reign of Henry VIII, Thomas Cranmer was in an extraordinary position to effect changes in England's political and religious direction. Through his writings, Cranmer laid the foundations for establishing the Church of England and moved England into the path of the growing European Reformation Movement.

By facilitating the numerous divorces of Henry VIII, he helped to weaken the authority of the Pope in England and contributed to the greater hold of the King.

This paper examines the effects of Cranmer's developing theology on the history of Tudor England. The first part of the paper looks at the role Cranmer played in justifying the theological bases of Henry VIII's numerous divorces. The next part then examines Cranmer's religious convictions, as enshrined in the Ten Articles and later, in the two versions of the Book of Common Prayer.

In the last section,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cranmer, Thomas. "The Most Healthful Medicine." ca. 1540. reproduced in Christian History, 1995. 14(4): 34-37.

D'Aubigne, Merle. Reformation in England. 2 vols. London: Banner of Truth, 1991.

McCulloch, Diarmaid. "Cranmer's Ambitious Legacy." History Today, July 1996. 49(6): 23-32.

McCulloch, Diarmaid. Thomas Cranmer: A Life. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.
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Which Is Better the Unitary or the Federal System of Government

Words: 1050 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60860349

Unitary State vs. The Federal State

Unitary vs. Federal

A unitary state government is one in which the state's entire affairs are overseen by a single central governing authority. A federal state government is one in which governing powers are shared between a central government and a local or state government(s). France offers us today an example of a unitary state, while the U.S. offers us an example of a federal state. To judge which type of government is better, one could look to these two examples -- but as neither appears to be ideal in its present-day condition (both are broke), this paper will instead look at the dynamic of both types of states to show why a federal state is preferable to a unitary state.

The unitary state solution is one that lends itself to the Weber-based system of modern bureaucracy, and for that reason is bound to…… [Read More]

Reference List

Macionis, J. (2006). Society: The Basics. Prentice-Hall.

Ritzer, G. (2009). Contemporary Sociological Theory and Its Classical Roots: The

Basics. NY: McGraw-Hill.

Washington, G. (1796). Washington's Farewell Address. Avalon Project. Retrieved from  http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/washing.asp
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Robert Louis Stevenson's Best Work

Words: 1443 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16302529

Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde

hile not every scholar and critic fully buys into the theory that Robert Louis Stevenson (often known as "Louis" in reference works) was "obsessed" with religious themes and images. Most scholarship focuses on why the author highlighted the characters as he did, and the obvious juxtapositions. But clearly, Stevenson did indeed frequently allude to spiritual and religious themes, sometimes using subtlety, other times using stark language or even foisting his wordsmith talents on vulnerable readers through shocking images. The obvious themes of good vs. evil are there constantly, but within those themes an alert reader can detect Stevenson's seeming rebellion against the dogma he was raised with. This paper will point to those references and allusions and will also provide background into Stevenson's troubled life -- which is a vitally important key to understanding why he referenced spiritual and religious topics.

Stevenson's Family and Upbringing…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dawson, W.J. "The Religion of Robert Louis Stevenson." The Bookman. 4.1 (Sept. 1896):

35-39.

Perkins, Wendy. "Critical Essay on 'Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde'." Literature Resource Center.

Detroit: Gale, 2015. Literature Resource Center. Web. 3. March 2015.
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For Profit Prisons and Ethics

Words: 3566 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95905857

US PIVATE PISONS & PISONE LABO

Event

First Theory: Karl Marx

Analysis of the Evidence

Second Theorist: Max Weber

Analysis of Evidence

Event

The event being investigated in this study was published in the New York Times on May 24. 2014. The article is about the very low pay for working prisoners in the U.S. private jails and about allegations about them being exploited. The article is written by Ian Urbina and is titled "Using Jailed Migrants as a Pool of Cheap Labor." The article is available at the following link: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/25/us/using-jailed-migrants-as-a-pool-of-cheap-labor.html.

The article describes the plight of illegal immigrants into the U.S. and how the government policy has prevented them from being employed in the U.S. However, when these very illegal immigrants land up in the prisons, especially in the private prisons of the country, they are forced to contribute labor at very low rates or even without pay.…… [Read More]

References

Bloch, Maurice. Marxist Analyses And Social Anthropology. Print.

Bowles, Paul. Capitalism. Harlow, England: Pearson/Longman, 2007. Print.

Engels, Friedrich. On Historical Materialism. New York: International Publishers, 1940. Print.

Massey, Garth. Readings For Sociology. New York, N.Y.: W.W. Norton & Co., 2009. Print.
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What Practices or Activities Does He Include Among the Means of Grace

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84134034

John Wesley define the "means of grace"? What practices or activities does he include among the "means of grace"?

The means of grace are the means by which human beings can become more open to receiving God's grace. In keeping with the philosophy of most Protestant traditions, John Wesley believed that grace was not something which could be won through good works. Only God could bestow grace. Nor could human beings demand or ask for grace, or claim to be worthy of it before God would allow it. But contrary to the philosophy of predetermination, which Wesley opposed, Wesley did believe that people could take positive steps to become more open to grace when it was bestowed through God's mercy. Works of piety, such as praying alone or going to church, and works of mercy, like giving charity and fighting for social justice, were part of the means or path…… [Read More]

Reference

Wesley, J. (1980). John Wesley (Library of Protestant Thought). A. C. Outler (Ed.). Oxford:
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Optical Revolutions How the Telescope

Words: 967 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32027252

The universe viewed through a telescope looked different, and this difference in itself played into the Protestant argument that received truths may be fallible. In fact, the notion of truth outside empirical evidence became unsteady:

For most thinkers in the decades following Galileo's observations with the telescope, the concern was not so much for the need of a new system of physics as it was for a new system of the world. Gone forever was the concept that the earth has a fixed spot in the center of the universe, for it was now conceived to be in motion…gone also was the comforting thought that the earth is unique (Cohen 79)

However, while the telescope was transforming ideas about the shape of the cosmos and the relationship between science and faith, the microscope essentially remained a toy through much of the early modern era. If anything, the revelation of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cohen, I. Bernard. The Birth of a New Physics. Rev. ed. New York: Norton, 1991. Print.

Fermi, Laura, and Gilberto Bernarndini. Galileo and the Scientific Revolution. New York: Basic Books, 1961. Print.

Hooke, Robert. Micrographia. Charleston, SC: BiblioBazaar, 2008. Print.

Konnert, Mark. Early Modern Europe: The Age of Religious Warfare, 1559-1715. North York, on: Higher Education University of Toronto Press, 2006. Print.
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Luther Calvin Pascal the Three

Words: 2421 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24841517

All human beings are, however, impure and imperfect, which does not make it very difficult to rise above the rest in terms of self-perceived perfection. In comparison to God, however, this changes. The human being who is never dissatisfied with him- or herself, however, never becomes aware that there is a contrast to be made with God.

This is what Calvin appears to mean by piety. People with true knowledge of themselves as imperfect and unholy in comparison with God are those who are most pious. They are aware that there are imperfections to be addressed and aspire to do so by contemplating the nature of Gold. Instead, impious and hypocritical human beings are never aware that there is much wrong with them. They create a type of cycle by only contemplating other human beings to compare with themselves. By doing this, they become aware only of their excellence and…… [Read More]

Sources

Calvin, J. Institutes of the Christian Religion. The Mountain Retreat. Retrieved from:  http://www.mountainretreatorg.net/classics/calvin/institutes7-1.html 

Edwards, J.A Treatise Concerning Religious Affections. The Covenant of Grace. Retrieved from:  http://www.covenantofgrace.com/religious_affections.htm 

Edwards, J. Sinners in the hands of an Angry God. Retrieved from:  http://www.biblebb.com/files/edwards/je-sinners.htm 

Edwards, J. God Glorified in Man's Dependence. What Saith the Scripture? Retrieved from:  http://www.whatsaiththescripture.com/Fellowship/Edwards.God.Glorified.html
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Compare and Contrast Either Utilitarianism or Libertarianism With Plato or Aristotle or the Bible

Words: 1591 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70297314

Utilitarianism and Plato

Philosophy is an ancient process. Since the times of Ancient Greece and Rome, people have taken it upon themselves to question the reality of their worlds and to postulate what it is that causes people to behave the ways that they do. The philosophical theory of utilitarianism has gained popularity in recent years because of the way that it explains government and the need for laws and authority. However, philosophy going back to the time of Plato dealt with many of the same questions currently posed by Utilitarianism. The theory of Utilitarianism and the writings of the great Plato can be seen to differ in the following ways: in the background metaphysical understanding of the universe and humanity's place in it, the theory of human nature that each supposes, the defect in human nature that allows beings to be unhappy or unfulfilled, and in the ways the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Kupperman, J. (2010). Theories of Human Nature. Hackett: Indianapolis, IN.

Mill, J.S. (2002). Utilitarianism. Hackett: Indianapolis, IN.

Plato (2009). Great Dialogues of Plato. Perfection Learning Prebound.

Plato. The Apology.