Cancer Treatment Essays (Examples)

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Cancer care and Treatment

Words: 1685 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80919770

Cance Cae and Teatment

Diagnosis and staging of cance

Diagnosis

In almost all cases, the disease, cance, is diagnosed by a specialist following a micoscopic examination of tissue o cell samples of a paticula individual. In a few instances, physicians may know of the pesence of a cance with the aid of tests pefomed on DNA (deoxyibo-nucleic acid), RNA (ibo-nucleic acid) and cell poteins. Such tests' outcomes pove highly citical when it comes to selecting the optimal theapeutic altenative. Tissue and cell examinations may also aid in the diagnoses of a numbe of othe foms of ailments. Fo example, if a physician is unsue of whethe a paticula lump o gowth in a patient's body is cance, he/she might extact a little bit of it fo testing to diagnose any one of many poblems, including cance, infections and othe issues which may lead to the development of cance-like lumps. This…… [Read More]

references-tools/Pages/What-is-Cancer-Staging.aspx

MFMER. (2017). Cancer Complications. Retrieved from Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cancer/basics/complications/con-20032378

The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team. (2015, July 30). How is cancer diagnosed? Retrieved from The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team:  https://www.cancer.org/treatment/understanding-your-diagnosis/tests/testing-biopsy-and-cytology-specimens-for-cancer/how-is-cancer-diagnosed.html
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Treatment Approach for Cancer

Words: 1278 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60685405

Care of cancer can be a complex process and always needs the engagement of several specialists because treating cancer is multifaceted. The multifaceted and complex nature of approach to care of cancer is attributed to that fact that this process not only revolves around treating the condition itself but also focuses on dealing with non-cancer issues. Some of these non-cancer issues to address during treatment and care of cancer include the patient's coexistent illnesses, health behaviors, and preventive care initiatives. Moreover, the approach to care requires coordinated efforts from various healthcare providers such as oncologists, surgeons, and radiation oncologists. However, the identification a suitable approach to care of cancer requires examining diagnosis and staging of cancer, probable complications, side effects of treatment, and measures to reduce physical and psychological impacts.

Diagnosis and Staging of Cancer

The treatment of cancer begins with diagnosis, which involves a physical examination and medical history…… [Read More]

References

"Cancer Staging." (n.d.). Diagnosis and Staging. Retrieved from National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health website: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/diagnosis-staging/staging/staging-fact-sheet

"Complications." (2014, January 20). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved May 13, 2015, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cancer/basics/complications/con-20032378

Davis, C.P. & Balentine, J.R. (2014, December 22). Cancer. Retrieved May 13, 2015, from http://www.medicinenet.com/cancer/page6.htm

"Physical Side Effects." (n.d.). American Cancer Society. Retrieved May 13, 2015, from http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/physicalsideeffects/physical-side-effects-landing
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Staging Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer

Words: 1252 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69754541

Cancer and Treatment

The identification and treatment of cancer as well as the care provided the patient are essential aspects of quality care nursing. Cancer is a complicated illness that progresses in stages and takes both a physiological and psychological toll on the patient. This paper will discuss the act of diagnosing cancer, the stages of cancer, complications that can arise, available treatments, and recommendations for addressing physiological and psychological side effects of care.

Diagnosing cancer is the first step in treatment. Diagnosing consists of performing laboratory tests of blood and urine along with imaging procedures, which take pictures of target areas within the body and allow the physician to see any tumors that are growing. Imaging processes such as CT scans, ultrasounds, MIs, PET scans, nuclear scans, and x-rays are common practices and methods of diagnosing cancer. Performing a biopsy is another important step in the method of diagnosing…… [Read More]

References

Mayo Clinic. (2015). Treatments and drugs. MayoClinic. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cancer/basics/treatment/con-20032378

National Cancer Institute. (2015). Staging. NIH. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/diagnosis-staging/staging
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Treatment and Management of Cancer Diagnosis Obligations

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16892447

Treatment and Management of Cancer

Cancer Diagnosis

Obligations of community health nurse in providing healthcare

Cancer Diagnosis

The high demand for healthcare services, especially to those managing dreadful illnesses such as cancer, there is a dire need to understand the health promotion strategies and also ensure quality lives. Here, is a discussion assisting to analyze how best to improve health and better management of dreaded conditions like diseases such as cancer. Those affected will learn to adopt the right measures that will help to improve functional abilities, and what to practice in case self-care is not an option. The mandate of community health nurses will be scrutinized, to help acquire general knowledge on efficient management of diseases.

Cancer is a disease, which has characteristics of growths that cannot be controlled, and also the abnormality of how rapidly the cells are spread to other organs. Cancers vary in their areas of…… [Read More]

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Care of Cancer In the Past Few

Words: 1961 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15672668

Care of Cancer:

In the past few years, cancer has developed to become one of the major leading causes of deaths across the globe. The disease can be described as the uncontrolled growth or development of abnormal cells in the body even as cancerous cells are also known as malignant cells. Since cells are the building blocks of humans and other living things, cancer develops out of the normal cells within the body. Generally, the normal cells multiply when needed by the body and die when the body does not need them. When the growth of the cells in the body is out of control and cells divide too quickly, cancer appears to occur. Nonetheless, cancer also appears to happen when cells in the body forget how to die.

Causes of Cancer:

There are various kinds of cancer because the disease can develop in nearly every tissue or organ like…… [Read More]

Reference:

Barraclough, J. (2002). Integrated Cancer Care. Retrieved from Royal College of Psychiatrists

website:  http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/PDF/barraclough.pdf 

"Cancer Complications." (n.d.). Info.com. Retrieved August 31, 2012, from  http://topics.info.com/Cancer-Complications_3416 

"Cancer Staging." (2010, September 22). National Cancer Institute Factsheet. Retrieved from National Cancer Institute website: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/staging
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Dealing With Side Effects of Treatment and Diagnosis Approach to Care of Cancer

Words: 1816 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90758422

Care of Cancer

Cancer has overtaken HIV / AIDS and malaria to top the list of headaches for medical departments and policy makers alike. In 2012, cancer claimed a massive 8.2 million lives, with breast, colorectal, stomach, lung, and liver cancers accounting for more than three-quarters of these. Alcohol and tobacco use, lack of physical activity, low vegetable and fruit intake, and high body mass index have been found to be responsible for a significant 30% of cancer deaths, with tobacco use causing 70% of the 1.59 million global lung cancer deaths reported in 2012. Metastasis, the process occasioned or characterized by unusual growth of abnormal cells, which end up invading adjacent parts, eventually extending to neighboring organs, is the mainspring of death from cancer. The World Health Organization projects that annual cancer cases will hit 22 million by the year 2020, but maintains that mortality can be reduced if…… [Read More]

References

Epstein, J.B., Thariat, J., Bensadoun, R.J., Barasch, A., Murphy, B.A., Kolnick, L., Popplewell, L. & Maghami, E. (2012). Oral Complications of Cancer and Cancer Therapy: from Cancer Treatment to Survivorship. CA Cancer J. Clin, 62(6), 400-422.

Kelvin, J.F. & Tyson, L. (2010). 100 Questions and Answers about Cancer Symptoms and Cancer Treatment Side Effects (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

NCI. (n.d.). Cancer Staging. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 8 July 2014 from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/staging

Redd, W.H., Montgomery, G.H. & DuHamel, K.N. (2001). Behavioral Interventions for Cancer Treatment Side Effects. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 93(11), 810-823.
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Care of Cancer Diagnosis in Many Cases

Words: 1666 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53309325

Care of Cancer

Cancer diagnosis

In many cases the sooner cancer is diagnosed and treatment begins the better the chances of a person recovering fully. If one develops cancer they can improve the chance of early detection if they have regular medical checkups and do some self-exams. Doctors often find early cancer during a physical exam or when carrying out routine tests even when there were no symptoms presented.

There are several methods that are used to diagnose cancer .with technological advancement these methods are now better as they help in a better understanding of cancer .there are now many diagnostic tools that can be used in cancer detection. Once cancer I suspected a diagnosis is made by pathologists and oncopathologists and imaging radiologists. The common diagnostic methods are;

Biopsy

This test involves a small tissue sample being taken from the area where cancer is suspected using a fine tipped…… [Read More]

References

Mandal, A.(2010). Cancer Diagnosis.Retrieved September 24,2013 from  http://www.news-medical.net/health/Cancer-Diagnosis.aspx 

American Society of Clinical Oncolog.(2013). Stages of Cancer. Retrieved September 24,2013 from http://www.cancer.net/all-about-cancer/treating-cancer/stages-cancer

Armstrong, B.(2012).What are the different stages of cancer and what do they mean? Retrieved September 24,2013 from  http://www.cancerinstitute.org.au/patient-support/what-i-need-to-know/about-cancer/what-are-the-different-stages-of-cancer 

Info.com.(2013).Cancer complications. Retrieved September 24,2013 from  http://topics.info.com/Cancer-Complications_3416
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Medical Advances in Cancer

Words: 553 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44527155

Medical Advances in Cancer Treatment Research

This paper discusses the medical advances in cancer treatment research. The writer explores several treatment options and compares them to treatment options of the past. There were two sources used to complete this paper.

There was a time when a diagnosis of cancer meant a death sentence. The word still strikes a chord of fear among the millions each year who are told they have it, but in recent years there have been many advances in medical science that allow many who would have died from the disease to live long and full lives. There are more cancer survivors now than ever before and treatment options continue to be made available.

In the past there were only two options for the treatment of cancer. One could have surgery and one could be given a course of radiation treatments. The surgery was for the purpose…… [Read More]

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Diagnosis of Cancer There Is

Words: 1108 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77105913

He may also be humiliated by his having the disease or may be avoided by others who do not know how to approach the patient or are discomfited by doing so, particularly since cancer indicates mortality and mortality is one aspect of life's facts that individuals generally like to avoid.

Other feelings of inferiority and shame are caused by loss of autonomy and independence, vulnerability, and mutilation and most frightening of all is the fear of death. Clinical depression can easily become an outcome.

Some may also experience psychiatric disorder as a result, with the Psychological Collaborative Oncology Group finding that 47% of patients who had been diagnosed with cancer fell into psychiatric disorder with two thirds having depressed or anxious moods whilst one third experienced major depression, delirium, anxiety disorder, or some other major mental illness (Sandoval-Cros, 1999)

Methods to lessen physical and psychological effects.

The three most common…… [Read More]

References

American Cancer Society Staging www.cancer.org/Treatment/UnderstandingYourDiagnosis/staging

MD Anderson Cancer Center: Diagnostic tests www.mdanderson.org/.../diagnostic-tests/index.html

MedicineNet.com: Chemotherapy and cancer treatment, coping with side effects www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=21716

Sandoval-Cros CJ. (1999) Common psychological problems in the cancer patient Moffitt Cancer Center
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Basic Information About Cancer

Words: 1643 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69395774

Care of Patients With Cancer

Diagnosis and Staging of Cancer

Because cancer is a complex disorder that often progresses over long periods of time -- including long periods before an actual diagnosis can be made -- it is very useful to medical practitioners to identify various stages in the progression of the disease. Diagnosis may occur as the result of presenting complaints that cause a patient to seek medical help, or diagnosis may occur when routine check-ups lead to a suspicion by a physician or a laboratory specialist that a more thorough investigation is indicated. Indeed, one of the reasons why certain procedures are included in routine annual physicals is because these tests result in a diagnosis at sufficiently high rates to make them worth conducting. As medical technology advances, the procedures are modified accordingly -- and sometimes the frequency standards for these procedures are modified, as well.

The nomenclature…… [Read More]

References

Diseases and Conditions: Cancer. Complications. Mayo Clinic Retreived from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cancer/basics/complications/con-20032378

Understanding Your Diagnosis: Staging. American Cancer Society. Retreived from http://www.cancer.org/treatment/understandingyourdiagnosis/staging
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Radioimmunotherapy for the Treatment of

Words: 6684 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44678591

This has been the traditionally used mode of treatment for non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas, but the fact remains that there have not been many clinical trials conducted that would reveal the benefits of CHOP in comparison to various other chemotherapy options for the treatment of CLL, which is a very slowly growing form of cancer and is therefore conversely very difficult to treat and cure because of the fact that all the traditional methods of treatment, whether chemotherapy or radiation, are meant to quickly and rapidly destroy the fast growing cancerous cells. (Cancer Treatment and Prevention)

Curing a patient with the CLL or SLL forms of cancer is considered to be highly unusual, but it is true that these patients will b able to lead productive lives even after 6 to 10 years after the cancer have been diagnosed for them. A patient when he is making the choice of treatment for…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bischof, Delaloye a. (2003) "The role of nuclear medicine in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)" Leuk Lymphoma. Volume: 44 Suppl 4; pp: S29-36

Cancer Treatment and Prevention" Retrieved at http://patient.cancerconsultants.com/treatment.aspx?id=782Accessed on 26 December, 2004

CHOP - complementary considerations. Lymphoma-tion" (2 October, 2004) Retrieved at  http://www.lymphomation.org/chemo-CHOP.htm . Accessed on 26 December, 2004

CHOP Patient Information Sheet" Newcastle General Hospital, Northern Center for Cancer treatment. (June, 2005) Retrieved at http://www.newcastle-hospitals.org.uk/v2/PDF/patientleaflets/NCCT/Standard/CHOP.PDFAccessed on 26 December, 2004
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Aetiology and Management of Cancer

Words: 4918 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77784533

This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (obinson, 2009).

It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.

The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy…… [Read More]

References

Cancer Research UK. (2011). Cancer in the UK: April 2011. Retrieved from http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/mortality/

Friedman, Howard. (1990). Personality and Disease. Publisher: New York, John Wiley & Sons.

Abrahamson; Seligman; Teasdale. (1978). Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation. Abnormal Psychology. Vol 87. pp 49-74.

McAllister, Robert. (May 1974). Viral Etiology of Cancer: Two Hypotheses with relevance to chemical exposure. Pediatrics. Vol 53 (5). pp826.
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Significance of Cancer Registry

Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64103605

Quality cancer data is an important part of cancer management programs and efforts to prevent the disease and treatment measures. This article examines the significance of cancer registry and cancer registrars in the process of collecting quality cancer data. The discussion incorporates determining what a cancer registry is and the role of the cancer registrar in the process. AHIMA requirements for credentialing as a certified tumor registrar and maintaining the certification are also discussed. The author concludes with an evaluation of the role of certified tumor registrar in the American Cancer Society.

Cancer egistry

The availability of quality cancer data is integral to the fight against cancer throughout the country. The significance of quality cancer data has contributed to the development and establishment of cancer registrars that help in capturing such data. The registrars capture important information related to this disease i.e. history, diagnosis, treatment, and health status for all…… [Read More]

References

Jensen, O.M. & Storm, H.H. (1991). Cancer registration: principles and methods. Walton Street,

Oxford: Oxford University Press.

National Cancer Registrars Association. (n.d.). Become a Cancer Registrar. Retrieved November

10, 2014, from http://www.ncra-usa.org/files/public/BecomeaCancerRegistrar2014).pdf
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Recurrence of Cancer Psychosocial Impact

Words: 1578 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10493753

(2009, March). omen's Health Law eekly, 34. Retrieved March 1, 2009 from Research Library database. (Document ID: 1651848781).

CNSs need skills in mental health. (2009). Cancer Nursing Practice, 8(1), 6. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1651343051).

Lance Armstrong Foundation. (2009). Official ebsite.

Retrieved March 1, 2009. http://www.livestrong.org/site/c.khLXK1PxHmF/b.2660611/k.BCED/Home.htm

Heyman, Patrick & Sandra olfe. (2001). Neuman's System's Model. University of Florida.

Retrieved March 1, 2009, at http://www.patheyman.com/essays/neuman/short.htm

Okamura, Masako Shigeto Yamawaki, Tatsuo Akechi, Koji Taniguchi, & Yosuke

Uchitomi. (2005). Psychiatric disorders following first breast cancer recurrence:

Prevalence, associated factors and relationship to quality of life. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 35(6), 302-9. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest

Medical Library database. (Document ID: 876421851).

Quinlin, Patrick. (2001). Beating cancer with nutrition. Nutrition Times Press.

Pengelly, Michele & Diana Purnell. (2009). An audit of levels of psychological support referrals for cancer patients. Cancer Nursing Practice,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Agnew, Thelma. (2009). Acting with confidence. Cancer Nursing Practice, 8(1), 18-20.

Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1651343111).

Baker, Maggie Koerth-Baker. (2008). The power of positive thinking: Truth or myth?

Special to LiveScience. Retrieved March 1, 2009. http://www.livescience.com/health/080829-happy-thoughts.html
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Nutrition & Cancer Rates

Words: 3994 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73183034

In the daily diet; (5) Include cruciferous vegetables in the diet. (russels sprouts, kohlrabi and cauliflower); (6) Consume alcoholic beverages only moderately; and (7) Only moderately consume salt-cured, smoked and nitrate cured foods. (American Cancer Society, 1984, pp. 122-123) What little was understood about nutrition as it relates to cancer rates is summed up in the following specific food categories by the American Cancer Society in its 1984 report:

Food Additives -- chemicals of a variety are added to foods for improving the color and flavor of the foods and to preserve the foods. While some of these have been banned due to having been shown to cause cancer in animals others are believed to protect against carcinogens.

Vitamin E -- Vitamin E is an oxidant and while it may prevent cancer in animals more research is needed of the role Vitamin E plays in preventing cancer in humans.

Selenium…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

American Cancer Society.: Nutrition for the Person with Cancer: A Guide for Patients and Families. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, Inc., 2000.

Brown, J. (2001) Nutrition During and After Cancer Treatment A Guide for Informed Choices by Cancer Survivors. Ca Cancer J. Clin. 2001; 551: 153.

Doyle, Leonard (2009) New Film Exposes Unsavory Side of U.S. Food Industry. 14 Jun 2009. Telegraph online available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/film-news/5533075/New-film-exposes-unsavoury-side-of-U.S.-food-industry.html

Jemal, A. et al. (2009) Cancer Statistics, 2009. Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 27 May 2009.
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Effects of the Experimental Anti-Cancer Drug Anaerobin on the Body

Words: 2091 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73531200

Anti-Cancer Drug Anaerobin

a) EFFECTS ON KIDNEYS, HEART AND BRAIN

Cytotoxic metabolites are created when bio-reductive drugs go through a metabolic process because they contribute to curing cancer by lowering oxygen to areas where the cancer affects the body. The local auto regulation process of the body provides the oxygen to all parts of the body where it is needed. The arterioles supplying that tissue for oxygen dilate to supply more oxygen than usual. This happens also in the case of the tumor when it demands more oxygen; it is supplied by the body and anaerobin affects the auto regulation process in all areas as it reduces the blood flow to all organs, except the lungs. It can reduce the oxygen and supply of nutrients to the tumor by up to 99%. Therefore this bio-reductive drug can help in treatment of cancer in modern therapy.

Anti-cancer drugs reduce the cell…… [Read More]

Linda Bren, 2005. Cancer Drugs: weighing the Risks and Benefits. FDA Consumer, 41(1), pp.10+.

Nootropic. Available at: Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nootropic#Vitamins_and_supplements (Accessed at 2 December 2011)

Paual Ravasco, Isabel Monterio-Grillo, Pedro Marques Vidal & Maria Ermelinda Camilio, 2005. Dietary Counseling Improves Patient Outcomes: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial in Colorectal Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23(7), pp. 1431-1438.
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How to Cope With Cancer

Words: 1682 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25766201

Coping With Cancer

According to the American Cancer Society, cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Half of all men and one-third of all women in the U.S. will develop cancer during their lifetimes. oday, millions of people are living with cancer or have had cancer. he numbers are dismal; according to most statistical data American's possess almost a fifty percent chance of developing cancer. With these alarming statistics it is unfortunate and inevitable that almost everyone will have to in some way or another learn how face and cope with the depressing hardships and obstacles of cancer. Whether an individual is diagnosed personally with cancer or a friend or family member is, it seems as though all of us at some point in time may have to learn coping mechanisms for this illness.

his paper addresses the various coping techniques that individuals can employ…… [Read More]

Telch, C.F. & Telch, M.J. "Group skills instruction and supportive group therapy for cancer patients: A comparison of strategies." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1966, 54, 802-808.

Kyngas, H.; Mikkonen, R. et al. Coping with the onset of cancer: coping strategies and resources of young people with cancer. European Journal of Cancer Care, Mar2001, Vol. 10 Issue 1, p6.

Coping with Cancer
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Conventional Treatment

Words: 2146 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77607527

Therapies Deprive Patients From Conventional Cancer Therapies

Future Ethical Prospective

Do public demand for, and clinicians' tendencies to prescribe novel targeted cancer therapies in a resource starved healthcare system deprive other patients of conventional treatment? If so, can it be justified?

Over the years, there have been several studies which have shown that a small but noteworthy fraction of cancer patients drop one or more conventional cancer treatments and use novel targeted cancer therapies instead. When it comes to recent public demands in healthcare, research into cancer control has addressed issues relevant to novel targeted cancer therapies in a resource starved healthcare system. Disparities have been addressed to a much greater degree than before, with studies of the conventional treatment of cancer especially in our variety of ethnic and socioeconomic settings. Conventional treatment have a greater social impact and the demand for such treatments of many (male and female) of…… [Read More]

References:

Borja-Cacho, D.J.E.H.S.A.K.B.D.J. & V.S.M., 2008. Molecular targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer.. The American Journal of Surgery, 196(3), p. 430.

Garvalov, B.K. & A.T., 2011. Cancer stem cells: A new framework for the design of tumor therapies.. Journal of Molecular Medicine, 89(2), pp. 95-107..

Kim, J.A., 2003. Targeted therapies for the treatment of cancer. The American Journal of Surgery, 186(3), pp. 264-8.

Kundu, S.K. & N.M., 2012. Targeted therapy in head and neck cancer.. Tumor Biology, 33(3), pp. 707-21.
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Nursing and Midwifery Cancer Scenario

Words: 2821 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28937469

treatment using the drug, tamoxifen, and higher mortality rates in females aged over forty years. The peer-reviewed papers employed for this study reveal a dynamic scrutiny of the aforementioned link. Quantitative as well as qualitative research works have been utilized, with a comparison and contrast made of the most apt methodology employed by the researchers. The end goal is ascertaining whether or not it is a risky decision to not adhere to tamoxifen treatment and how much information patients possess with regard to the drug and its effects.

The esearch Question and its Importance

After the diagnosis of her health condition, Ms. Jones is prescribed tamoxifen as medication. For an entire year, Ms. Jones fails to consume this prescribed drug. Upon revisiting the hospital after a year of not complying with this recommended treatment plan, she is told that her cancer has reappeared and is much more lethal than before.…… [Read More]

References

ANS (2010) Cancer Facts And Figures 2010. American Cancer Society. https://old.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@nho/documents/document/acspc-024113.pdf

Banerjee, S., Saxena, N., Sengupta, K. and Banerjee, S. K. (2003) 17 alpha-estradiol-induced VEGF-A expression in rat pituitary tumor cells is mediated through ER independent but PI3K-Akt dependent signaling pathway. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.300, 209-215.

Banning M (2012). Adherence to adjuvant therapy in post-menopausal breast cancer patients: a review cc_1295 1.10

 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0052637/
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Current Interventions for Pancreatic Cancer

Words: 1434 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98047009

Treating and Coping With Pancreatic Cancer

Although significant progress has been made in diagnosis and treating many types of cancers, one type of cancer that remains highly intractable to treatment is pancreatic cancer. In fact, pancreatic cancer is difficult to detect because symptoms may not occur until the condition is well advanced, and even when it is diagnosed early, patient prognoses are poor. Although pancreatic cancer represents just around 3% of all types of cancers in the United States, the condition is responsible for approximately 7% of all cancer deaths (Key statistics, 2015). This paper provides a description of the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer followed by a discussion concerning the complications and side effects that are associated with the disease. Finally, a description of the methods that are used to lessen the physical and psychological effects of treatment for pancreatic cancer is followed by a summary of the…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, P. J. (2006, May-June). Medical marijuana, compassionate use, and public policy: Expert opinion or vox populi? The Hastings Center Report, 36(3), 19-23.

Key statistics. (2015). American Cancer Society. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/pancreaticcancer/detailedguide/pancreatic-cancer-key-statistics.

MacNeil, N. S. (2009, November). Treat depression in cancer patients. Clinical Psychiatry News, 33(11), 64.

Marks. S. & Heinrich, T. (2013, August). Assessing and treating depression in palliative care patients: Antidepressants, psychotherapy can improve dying patients' quality of life. Current Psychiatry, 12(8), 35-41.
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New Ways to Treat Cancer

Words: 1980 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20394557

neoplasm: "abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should" ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

benign: noncancerous ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

malignant: cancerous ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

carcinoma: "Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs," ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

sarcoma: "A type of cancer that begins in bone or in the soft tissues of the body, including cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, fibrous tissue, or other connective or supportive tissue" ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)

anaplasia: Features of cells which indicate malignancy ("Anaplasia," 2016).

Q2. Identify the correct name for both benign and malignant tumors in the following locations:

Benign Tumors/Malignant Tumors

Pancreas: Adenoma / Adenocarcinoma ("Tumors by name," 2016)

Fat: Lipoma / Liposarcoma ("Tumors by name," 2016)

Bone: Osteoma / Osteosarcoma ("Tumors…… [Read More]

References

About immunotherapy. (2016). Chemocare. Retrieved from:

http://chemocare.com/chemotherapy/what-is-chemotherapy/about-immunotherapy.aspx

Anaplasia. (2016). USC. Retrieved from:

http://www.usc.edu/hsc/dental/INTX/05/desc_2.html
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Health Concerns involving Breast Cancer

Words: 1100 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66435666

Breast cancer forms the second largest cause of deaths from cancer in American women. In the year 2015, roughly 232,000 women, mostly between 55 and 64 years of age, showed positive cancer diagnoses, with 40,000 succumbing to the disease. The median breast cancer-linked mortality age is 68 years. The US PSTF (Preventive Services Task Force) advises all females aged between 50 and 74 years to undergo screening mammography once every two years. Women may individually even decide to commence screening mammography before turning fifty. Those who set greater store by the potential advantages as compared to disadvantages of screening can even opt for screening once in two years once they turn forty. For those displaying average breast cancer risk, much of the benefits linked to mammography will result from two-yearly screening between 50 and 74 years of age. Of all age groups, the 60-69-year-old group displays the greatest likelihood of…… [Read More]

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Phenoxodiol a Medication for Cancer

Words: 821 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79287784

Phenoxodiol, a Medication for Cancer

Clinical studies have predominantly focused on a couple of standard benzopyrans, namely flavopiridol and phenoxodiol (by Novogen, via MEI Pharma, the company's subsidiary at the time). Although a benzopyran, the former's method of action apparently differs from phenoxodiol's action neither of the two aforementioned benzopyrans has gained FDA (Food and Drug Administration) or EMA (European Medicines Agency) approval. The height of research on phenoxodiol was one 'Phase III' research on resistant cancer cells in the ovaries. Although slow recruitment led the trial at this phase to formally close down, results clearly displayed that oral consumption of phenoxodiol would most probably not have benefited patients, if the trial phase had been completed. Phenoxodiol results (in combination with others) led to the following hypothesis by Novogen: the problem with phenoxodiol pertained to bioavailability (in other words, the ingested drug wasn't reaching the site of cancer in adequate…… [Read More]

References

Marc Sinatra. (2015). Novogen Limited. Lodge Partners Research.

Marshall Edwards Inc.2003Investigational New Drug Status Cleared By FDA for Phenoxodiol in Oral Formpr Newswire

Paul Howard. (2015, November 1). Why The FDA Rejected A Drug That Helps Cure Lung Cancer -- And What We Can Do To Fix It. Forbes.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services1998Guidance for Industryrockvillefood and Drug Administration
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Tumor Protein Indicates Chances Cancer

Words: 380 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5554524

Still, they discovered that finding CPE-delta N. RNA levels greater than 1 million per 200 micrograms of tissue was a definite predictor of metastasis, whereas levels less than 250,000 guaranteed the cancer would not spread in all cases studied.

his is an important discovery because it will allow doctors to test for CPE-delta N. In cases where regular staging indicates a low likelihood the cancer will metastasize, in order to double check that more intensive therapies or treatments should not be pursued. Moreover, developing a drug that can block CPE-delta N. In tumors could be a significant milestone in cancer treatment and prevention therapies.

I chose this article because it appears to be a very important discovery toward finding a cure for cancer. It applies to Biology class because the protein studied was tested by measuring its RNA, or genetic material, which is a central component of all living cells,…… [Read More]

This is an important discovery because it will allow doctors to test for CPE-delta N. In cases where regular staging indicates a low likelihood the cancer will metastasize, in order to double check that more intensive therapies or treatments should not be pursued. Moreover, developing a drug that can block CPE-delta N. In tumors could be a significant milestone in cancer treatment and prevention therapies.

I chose this article because it appears to be a very important discovery toward finding a cure for cancer. It applies to Biology class because the protein studied was tested by measuring its RNA, or genetic material, which is a central component of all living cells, along with its genetic material counterpart -- DNA.

Bock, R. (01. 02-2011). Level of tumor protein indicates chances cancer will spread. Haettu 02. 02-2011 osoitteesta NIH News: http://www.nih.gov/news/health/feb2011/nichd-01.htm
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Understanding Post Treatment Symptoms in Patients

Words: 1448 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36438841

RRL#1

The following questions pertain to:

McMillan, S.C., & Small, B.J. (2007). Using the COPE intervention for family caregivers to improve symptoms of hospice homecare patients. Oncology Nursing Forum, 34(2), 313-21.

What is the purpose of this research?

The purpose of this research was to describe the unexpected and distressing symptom experiences that women may have after undergoing breast cancer treatment, with the goal of enhancing follow-up care through practitioner education and an increase of the knowledge base.

What is the research question (or questions)? This may be implicit or explicit.

What symptoms may be experienced after breast cancer treatment that contribute to symptom distress and psychological stress that are may be temporal, situational, or attributive -- and that may be ameliorated during follow-up care?

What theories, frameworks, models or concepts may have influenced the researchers' choice of a research design?

The qualitative approach stems from a phenomenological philosophical background…… [Read More]

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Treatment of Ilds and Assessment

Words: 1247 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36414233

Interstitial lung disease is a blanket term for a big group of disorders categorized by progressive scarring of both the lung tissue supporting and between the air sacs. This tissue is called the interstitium. The interstitium consists of the region between the alveolar space and the capillaries. The scarring causes inflammation and damage in the lung tissue followed by lung stiffness, meaning the air sacs cannot expand as much as before. Lung stiffness makes it harder to breathe. People affected by the condition are not able to get enough oxygen from the lungs into their bloodstream.

Although some potential causes have been researched, there may be no underlying cause for development of interstitial lung disease. If there is no known cause, it is called idiopathic interstitial lung disease. IPF or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis remains the most common type of this illness. Of the causes most widely recognized, cigarette smoking is…… [Read More]

References

Fischer, A. & du Bois, R. (2012). Interstitial lung disease in connective tissue disorders. The Lancet,380(9842), 689-698. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(12)61079-4

Maher, T. (2014). Current and Emerging Treatment Options in Interstitial Lung Disease. Pulmonary Manifestations Of Rheumatic Disease, 193-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0770-0_14

Moazedi-Fuerst, F., Kielhauser, S., Brickmann, K., Tripolt, N., Meilinger, M., Lufti, A., & Graninger, W. (2015). Sonographic assessment of interstitial lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinical And Experimental Rheumatology,33(4 Suppl 91), S87-91. Retrieved from  http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/25665185
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Developing New Drugs for Cancer Patients

Words: 1347 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86308809

Cancer Drugs

For the past several decades, the news about cancer in the United States has been increasingly positive and that trend has continued unabated over the past decade. According to the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health, the overall incidence rate for men has declined by an average of 0.6% every year between 2004 and 2008, while for women, the incidence rate has dropped 0.5% per year from 1998 through 2006 and leveling off from 2006 to 2008 (National Cancer Institute). Just as importantly death rates from cancer have declined since 1975 and have sharply decreased between 19944 and 2008 for both men and women as shown in the graph below from the National Cancer Institute (National Cancer Institute).

There are myriad reasons for this decline in cancer deaths, including better education regarding healthy living, improved diets, and better treatment. Among the treatment options are improved…… [Read More]

References

National Cancer Institute. (2012). Report to the nation finds continuing declines in cancer

death rates since the early 1990s. Retrieved from:

http://www.cancer.gov/newscenter/pressreleases/2012/ReportNationRelease2012.

Chabner, B.A., & Longo, D.L. (Eds.). (2010). Cancer chemotherapy and biotherapy:
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Pancreatic Cancer

Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31029482

Pancreatic Cancer

Etiology:

The most common cause of pancreatic cancer is smoking which accounts for 25 -- 30% of cases (urveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program). Other factors include hereditary pancreatic cancers, adults with diabetes of minimum duration two years, hereditary pancreatic, and a history of other family cancers (GUT. Guidelines for the management of patients with pancreatic cancer periampullary and ampullary carcinomas). The Consensus Guidelines of the International Association of Pancreatology advises that patients with a genetic history of pancreatic cancer should be referred to specialist centers where they can receive diagnosis of pancreatic diseases, genetic counseling, and advice on secondary screening (Ulrich et al., 2001).

Pathology:

Most pancreatic cancers (about 90%) originate in the ductal region and are usually discovered when they are locally advanced. They are called ductal adenocarcinoma. Others (80-90%) occur in the head of the gland (GUT). Lymph node metastasis is common as well as…… [Read More]

Sources

Doheny, K ( July 2, 2012) Medication Errors Affect Half of Heart Patients WebMD  http://www.webmd.com/heart/news/20120702/half-of-heart-patients-make-medication-errors 

GUT. Guidelines for the management of patients with pancreatic cancer periampullary and ampullary carcinomas  http://gut.bmj.com/content/54/suppl_5/v1.full 

Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program. http://seer.cancer.gov/faststats/html/inc_pancreas.html

Neoptolemos JP, Dunn JA, Stocken DD, et al. (2001) Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy in resectable pancreatic cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet;358:1576-85
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Cellular Proliferation Cancer One-60-Year-Old Might

Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23453679

Immunotherapists can provide sensitive and accurate cancer diagnostic tools for the successful treatment of the disease and to stop it well in its tracks (cancerresearch.org, 2009). The outward advantages of immunotherapy are as follows: certain drugs have fewer side effects and offer patients a higher quality of life, bolstered anti-cancer effectiveness and rates of survival, benefits are often reaped quickly for the patient (cisncancer.org). The disadvantages are as follows: some varieties of this treatment have serious side effects, are very expensive and occasionally offer just a short-term efficacy (cisncancer.org)

5. An overexpression of proto-oncogenes can cause cancer as mutated forms of these genes can promote unrestrained cell proliferation: "oncogenes actively promote proliferation (analogous to the gas pedal of the cell cycle). Mutations that convert proto-oncogenes to oncogenes typically increase the activity" (Hyland). An underexpression of tumor suppressor genes can also put an individual in a precarious situation. Tumor suppressor genes…… [Read More]

References

Cancer.gov. (n.d.). Understanding Cancer Series. Retrieved from Cancer.gov: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/understandingcancer/cancergenomics/AllPages

Cancer.gov/topics. (n.d.). Tumor Markers. Retrieved from Cancer.gov: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/tumor-markers

Cancer.org. (n.d.). Tumor Markers. Retrieved from Cancer.org: http://www.cancer.org/Treatment/UnderstandingYourDiagnosis/ExamsandTestDescriptions/TumorMarkers/tumor-markers-common-ca-and-t-m

Cancerresearch.org. (n.d.). Cancer and the Immune System: Advantages of Cancer Immunotherapy. Retrieved from Cancerresearch.org: http://www.cancerresearch.org/resources/cancer-immune-system/cancer-immunotherapy-advantages.html
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Thromboembolism Venous Thromboembolism Cancer Care

Words: 1776 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15623853

bmj.com/cgi/content/full/325/7369/887

Pfizer, 'NEW FRAGMIN INDICATION FIGHTS SECOND LEADING CAUSE of DEATH in CANCER PATIENTS, CANCER-ASSOCIATED THROMOSIS', retrieved feb 29th 2008, from, http://www.pfizer.ca/english/newsroom/press%20releases/default.asp?s=1&releaseID=160

Dirix LY,

Salgado R,

Weytjens R,

Colpaert C,

enoy I,

Huget P, van Dam P,

Prove a,

Lemmens J,

Vermeulen P. (2002), 'Plasma fibrin D-dimer levels correlate with tumor volume, progression rate and survival in patients with metastatic reast Cancer', ritish Journal of Cancer, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11875705

John a Heit, (Sep 2005), "Cancer and Venous Thromboembolism: Scope of the Problem', Cancer Control, Vol! 2, Supplement 1.

Diana M. eck, (Oct 2006), 'Venous Thromboembolism: Prophylaxis: Implications for Medical Surgical Nurses,"

MEDSURG Nursing -- October 2006 -- Vol. 15/No. 5, Available online at, http://www.medsurgnursing.net/ceonline/2008/article10282288.pdf

Race, Tara Kay SN, RN, CCRN; Collier, Paul E. MD, (July-Sep 2007), 'The Hidden Risk of Deep Vein Thrombosis -- the Need for Risk Factor Assessment: Case Reviews.', Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 30(3):245-254

Susan egelman MD, 'Venous Thromboembolism',…… [Read More]

Bibliography

MF Scully (2005), 'Clinical Guide Cancer and Thrombosis', retrieved Feb 28th 2008, at http://www.tigc.org/pdf/cancervte05.pdf

Alexander G. Turpie, (2002) 'ABC of Antithrombotic Therapy', British Medical Journal, available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/325/7369/887

Pfizer, 'NEW FRAGMIN INDICATION FIGHTS SECOND LEADING CAUSE of DEATH in CANCER PATIENTS, CANCER-ASSOCIATED THROMBOSIS', retrieved feb 29th 2008, from, http://www.pfizer.ca/english/newsroom/press%20releases/default.asp?s=1&releaseID=160

Dirix LY,
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Women's Issues Breast Cancer Awareness

Words: 1292 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94859216

Screening for breast cancer before there are symptoms is very important. Screening helps doctors find and treat cancer in its early stages. Treatment is more likely to be successful when the cancer is detected early. A doctor may suggest any of the following screening tests for breast cancer: screening mammogram, clinical breast exam, beast self-exam (Stoppler, 2009).

Mammograms can often show a breast lump before it can even be felt. A mammogram is a picture of the breast that is made with an x-ray. It can also show a cluster of tiny deposits of calcium. These deposits are known as micro calcifications. Lumps can be from cancer, precancerous cells, or a host of other conditions. Further tests may be needed to find out if abnormal cells are present. Women in their 40s and older should have mammograms every 1 to 2 years (Stoppler, 2009).

During a clinical breast exam the…… [Read More]

References

Cancer Gap Between Whites, Blacks May Be Biological in Part. (2009). Retrieved August 11,

2009, from http://healthday.com/Article.asp?AID=628785

Carcinogen Found in KFC's New Grilled Chicken. (2009). Retrieved August 13, 2009, from News and Media Center Web site: http://www.pcrm.org/news/release090521.html

National Breast Cancer Awareness Month. (2008). Retrieved August 11, 2009, from American
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Nursing Bowel Cancer Discuss the

Words: 1581 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46486825



The nurse would need to explain the FOBT process along with what the results of this test would indicate. It would need to be explained that if the test were to come back positive then there would be a need to undergo diagnostic testing in order to determine what is really going on. The process of a colonoscopy would need to be explained in detail. The nurse would need to make sure that all of the tests and procedures were explained so that they patient could understand why the screening and testing was necessary and what their options are at every step of the way.

The ethical, legal and professional implications of providing this advice to the patient would lie in the fact that as a nurse a person has a reasonability to provide the best possible medical care to those who seek their services. This includes providing the correct…… [Read More]

References

Australia National Bowel Cancer Screening Program. (2009). Retrieved April 7, 2010, from Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing Web site:

http://www.cancerscreening.gov.au/internet/screening/publishing.nsf/Content/bowel-about
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Genetic Pathway of Breast Cancer

Words: 2282 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53395187

, 2006). He visualized and described the malignancy process. He suggested that early that "cells of tumors with unlimited growth" would develop with the elimination of chromosomes, which inhibit the growth. The multiple genetic alterations in these inhibiting chromosomes are today known as TSGs. The theory supposes that cancer arises from functional defect or absence of one or more TSGs. Clinical trials of TSG gene replacement therapy for breast cancer include the viral wild-type p53, Rb, and mda7. Molecular chemotherapy involves the introduction of suicide genes. The concept evolved from the assumption that cancer cells could be made more sensitive to chemotherapeutics or toxins by introducing "suicide genes." It was a concept initiated in the late 80s. Suicide gene therapy is categorized into toxin gene therapy and enzyme-activating pro-drug therapy. Suicide gene therapy is also called gene-directed enzyme pro-drug therapy or GDEPT. GDEPT treatment consists of the delivery of the…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abaan, O. D and Criss, Wayne E (2002). Gene therapy in human breast cancer. 32

(2002): 283-291 Turkey Journal of Medical Science: Tubitak. Retrieved on April 15,

2010 from http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/medical/issues/sag-02-32-4-1-0204.pdf

Lowery, A.J., et al. (2009). MicroRNA signatures predict oestrogen receptor,
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Boss Has Cancer Written by

Words: 761 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22722978

They deserve to be given importance and value in all kinds of decision-making and important matters of the company. If the CEO or any upper level management personal is diagnosed with cancer; than it is the right of the shareholders to be acknowledged. Hiding it from shareholders will result in confusion and misunderstandings.

Disclosing cancer to shareholders is also important because even if the cancer is at an early stage; it needs to be treated immediately through surgery, radiation or chemotherapy. These treatments make patient weak and look physically different from before. Secondly, he or she will also be absent from work for some time due to hospital visits. Therefore, it is important to share this news with shareholders so that they can give a soft corner, emotional support and courage to their boss.

As stated in the article, according to Kim Thiboldeaux, the president of Cancer Support Community; there…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Feuerstein, Michael. Work and Cancer Survivors. USA: Springer, 2009.

Viallet, Hawawini. Finance for Executives, Managing for Value Creation. 4th ed. USA: South

Western Cengage Learning, 2011.
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Overcoming Breast Cancer the Definition of Courage

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60457092

True Courage; Facing Breast Cancer

When we think of courage it is easy to look at heroes that are portrayed in the media; individuals who may be seen as an inspiration because they have faced difficult situations, often where there is a significant amount of danger, putting the needs of others before their own safety. There is little doubt that this is courage, but it is only one form of courage. If courage is defined as facing fears and have the resolution to overcoming difficulties there are many types of courage that may go unnoticed as they do not attack headline news or gossip. It can take courage to stand up to bullies, especially if they are larger or more powerful than yourself, to stand up for what you believe in even if others disagree and to overcome a phobia. These all require courage, as they involve facing a fear…… [Read More]

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Living With Incurable Cancer at the End

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3990699

Living With Incurable Cancer at the End of Life-Patients' Perceptions on Quality of Life

Johansson, Christina Melin RN, Phd-student; Axelsson, Bertil MD, PhD; Danielson, Ella RN, PhD

This article is either a qualitative or a quantitative research study. Identify which, and then complete the table below where applicable. Write no more than three sentences in each cell of the table. The study may not contain all of the elements listed, or the element may be necessary and is not addressed. If the study does not address one of these elements and it is not necessary, simply indicate as N/A in the appropriate box. If the element is not adequately discussed, explain based on your readings and your understanding of the research study.

Qualitative

Quantitative

Research question

How do patients describe their perceptions of the quality of life (QoL) in incurable cancer at the end of life?

N/A

Problem

Patients with…… [Read More]

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Attitude on Cancer the Idea That the

Words: 406 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55675063

Attitude on Cancer

The idea that the acceleration or retardation of cancers cells is positively correlated with an individual's attitude, personality, and emotional development is incongruent with my understanding of medical science and psychology. Positive attitudes do not shrink tumors or cause tumors to grow nor do negative attitudes increase the white blood cell count in leukemia patients. Even studies that have been conducted in the past have been inconclusive and have not evidenced a direct correlation between the two. However what several studies do indicate is that a positive attitude can enhance the quality of life of a cancer patient (Herth, 2000; Saleh & Brockoop, 2001). Even though attitude is not a causative factor in cancer in terms of acceleration or retardation, there is evidence to suggest that individuals who adopt a negative attitude, have low self-esteem or are stressed and anxious are more likely to be at risk.…… [Read More]

References

De Raeve, L. (1997). Positive thinking and moral oppression in cancer care. European Journal of Cancer Care, 6, 249-256.

Herth, K. (2000). Enhancing hope in people with a first recurrence of cancer. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 32, 1431-1441.

Saleh, U.S., & Brockopp, D.Y. (2001). Hope among patients with cancer hospitalized for bone marrow transplantation: A phenomenologic study. Cancer Nursing, 24, 308-314.
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Etiology Symptoms Prevention and Treatment HIV

Words: 1764 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15431072

Etiology

Symptoms

Prevention and Treatment

HIV / AIDS is one of the most prevalent and devastating diseases in the world today. It has already killed millions throughout the world, especially in developing countries like Africa. I chose this topic due to the importance of HIV for world heath issues and because of the larger social issues that this virus has for many countries. The statistics over the last decades are evidence of the growth and devastating effect of this virus. The total number of recorded deaths due to HIV / AIDS, between 1981 and 2003, was a staggering 20-million. The number of children in Sub-Saharan Africa who were orphaned by the end of 2003 was an estimated 12-million. Later figures indicate that the situation in Africa is not improving, with these figures increasing in 2004, especially among women in Africa. "y December 2004 women accounted for 47% of all people…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Approved Medications to Treat HIV Infection. 2004. Accessed January 3, 2004 http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/other/cbrochure/english/05_en.html

Acute HIV Infection. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet. 2004. http://www.thebody.com/nmai/acute_infection.html

Background Information on Fourteen FDA Approved HIV / AIDS Drugs. Consumer projects on technology. 2000. Accessed January 4, 2004.  http://www.cptech.org/ip/health/aids/druginfo.html 

Death Stalks a Continent. Time Magazine, February 12, 2001
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Unequal Treatment Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities

Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8102880

Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities

in Health Care

The recent report of the Institute of Medicine, Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care (2002 Smedley et. al.), indicates that bias, stereotyping, and prejudice may often contribute to the quality of health care that is provided to non-white patients. For anyone entering into the field of health care, this information is beneficial because it uncovers many of the reasons why some patients receive inadequate health care that can lead to future prevention of this problem.

The vast majority of studies reviewed concluded that minorities are less likely to get the same treatment as whites, including necessary procedures. The studies also suggested that patient attitudes cannot explain completely why disparities exist in health care. Clearly, race has become as issue in the health care industry. The report brings to light the depth of the problem when it…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Smedley, Brian, Stitth, Adrienne, and Nelson, Alan. (2002) Unequal Treatment:

Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Retrieved September 5,

2003, from http://books.nap.edu/books/030908265X/html/index.html
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Etiology and Treatment of a Psychological Disorder

Words: 2917 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83230922

Individual Programmatic Assessment

TEATMENTS OPTIONS FO IEGULA SLEEP-WAKE SYNDOME

Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome is a form of a psychological disorder also called Irregular Sleep-Wake hythm. People with Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome have non-aligned sleep times. These people have sleeping patterns that do not adhere to the "normal" times of sleeping at night. The sleeping patterns are disorganized to a magnitude that one cannot tell the presence of a clear sleep or wake pattern. Such people have a tendency to sleep off on some naps over a 24-hour period. The sleep patterns have been split into pieces. They behave like infants who sleep for a few hours, wake up for some other few hours, and also sleep off for some few hours, with the cycle repeating with no clear sequence. During the day, the number of sleep times may be high since they like napping a lot. During the night, they seem to…… [Read More]

References

American, P. A. (2015). Sleep-Wake Disorders: DSM-5 Selections. New York: American Psychiatric Pub

Flamez, B., & Sheperis, C. (2015). Diagnosing and Treating Children and Adolescents: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals. New York: John Wiley & Sons

Fontaine, K. L. & LeFontaine (2014). Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Nursing Practice. New York: Pearson

Kerkhof, G. A., & Dongen, H. P. A. (2011). Human Sleep and Cognition: Part II. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
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Diagnosis and Treatment Options for Pancreatic Cancer

Words: 2844 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93529969

Etiology of Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer has emerged as the most lethal human cancers. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) has termed it an unresolved health problem of the 21st century. The disease presently causes about 30,000 deaths in the U.S. per year (Yarbro et al. 2015). Despite past efforts, conventional interventions like radiation, surgery, chemotherapy and combination of these had minimal success in the course of this aggressive disease. It is imperative to develop an in-depth understanding of the molecular biology of pancreatic cancer to help us effectively diagnose, prevent and treat the disease. Nearly all pancreatic cancer patients experience metastases and die due to the frustrating metabolic effects of their unrestrained growth (Shrikhande et al. 2010). Hence, a crucial requirement for progress is the establishment of effective systemic interventions, can reverse the aggressive biology of the disease.

According to the WHO, pancreatic cancer is the fifth most…… [Read More]

References

Casil, A. S. (2011). Pancreatic Cancer: Current and Emerging Trends in Detection and Treatment. New York: Rosen Pub.

Gress, T. M. (2010). Molecular Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer. Amsterdam [U.A.: IOS Press.

Hoff, D. D., Evans, D. B., & Hruban, R. H. (2015). Pancreatic Cancer. Sudbury: Mass.

Jeruc, J., Kos, I., & Vodovnik, A. (2012). Pancreatic Cancer: Epidemiology and Risk Factors. International Conference on Diseases of Pancreas, Biliary Tract and Duodenum, 17-19.
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Managing Cancer of the Lungs

Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92991317

HEALTH

COLON CANCE

Colon cancer is defined as a cancer that begins in the rectum or colon. The cancers are referred to as colon or rectal cancer with reference to their orientating point. Colon and rectal cancers share different features and ultimate diagnosis procedures. The disorders are discussed collectively in this paper including their treatment approach.

In case cancer forms within polyps, they eventually start growing into the colon or rectal walls. While cancer cells attach to the wall, they continue growing within blood and lymph vessels. The lymph vessels are relatively thin, and tiny channels are carrying away fluid and waste (Acton, 2013). They occasionally drain into subsequent lymph nodes that are bean-shaped structures and contain immune cells to helping fighting the infections. Immediately the cancer cells start spreading to lymph or blood vessels, they travel to the lymph nodes and other distant body parts like the liver. The…… [Read More]

References

Acton, Q.A., (2013). Colon Cancer: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2013. New York: ScholarlyEditions.

Peterson, E., (2014). The Colon Cancer. New York: Sea Salt.

Young, A., Hobbs, R., & Kerr, D., (2011). ABC of Colorectal Cancer. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
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A Brief Case Study Regarding Treatment Noncompliance

Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80806730

Patient is a 69-year-Old male who is refusing treatment for cancer. The following is a description of the patient.

Primary diagnosis: Malignant Neoplasm of Head, Face and Neck (C76.0) because this is the diagnosis that brought the patient into treatment (Hogston, 1997).

Patient's past medical history: Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, stomatitis, anemia, neutropenia. Patient had right radical neck dissection in 2012.

Current Medications: Carvedilol 12.5 mg. q.d.; Furosemide 40 mg q.d.

Social History: Patient is a former smoker who quit two years ago following cancer diagnosis. He is married with children.

Current Issue: Patient is refusing to engage in further treatment regarding his cancer (chemotherapy and radiation) stating that he is tired of the untoward effects of treatment. Patient wants information regarding other options.

Complicating factors:

A. Patient's family does not agree with his decision to stop treatment.

B. Patient does not have an advanced directive or living will.

7. Possible Secondary…… [Read More]

References

Auning, E., Selnes, P., Grambaite, R., Saltyt? Benth, J., Haram, A., Lovli Stav, A., ... & Aarsland, D. (2015). Neurobiological correlates of depressive symptoms in people with subjective and mild cognitive impairment. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 131(2), 139-147.

Ellershaw, J., & Wilkinson, S. (2011). Care of the dying: A pathway to excellence. New York:

Hatfield, R. C. (2014). The everything guide to coping with panic disorder. Avon, MA: Adams.

Hogston, R. (1997). Nursing diagnosis and classification systems: a position paper. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26(3), 496-500.
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Differential Diagnosis and Treatment for Several Possible Maladies

Words: 999 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28502346

Healthcare -- Nursing -- Case Study

I am required to make differential diagnosis, examine health issues and their management, order diagnostic tests and provide health teachings/health promotion for "Ted." Ted is a 55-year-old Caucasian man with general malaise and a 6-day history of a productive cough. During this time he had noticed a gradual accumulation of fluid in his legs and feet. He had not seen a health care professional in 3 years. His social history was significant because he smoked about a pack of cigarettes a week. Ted reported having a dry, hacking cough for years, but he attributed it to 30 years of smoking. The review of systems was unremarkable. Generally he appeared well nourished and in no acute distress. The physical exam showed the following: weight 142 pounds, height 5'8," blood pressure 150/92 mmHg left arm and 158/96 mmHg right arm, temperature 99.2 degrees F, and oxygen…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ackley, B. J., & Ladwig, G. B. (2014). Nursing diagnosis handbook: An evidence-based guide to planning care, 10th ed. Maryland Heights: Elsevier-Mosby.

Jensen, M., & Rhoads, J. (2014). Differential diagnosis for the advanced practice nurse. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
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Aromatherapy in Addiction Treatment for

Words: 5849 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23652968

S ome aromas even affect us physiologically" (p. 38). esearchers exploring human olfaction have determined that:

faint trace of lemon significantly increases people's perception of their own health.

Lavender incense contributes to a pleasant mood -- but it lowers volunteers' mathematical abilities.

A whiff of lavender and eucalyptus increases people's respiratory rate and alertness.

The scent of phenethyl alcohol (a constituent of rose oil) reduces blood pressure.

These findings have contributed to the explosive growth in the aromatherapy industry; according to Furlow (1996), "Aromatherapists point to scientific findings that smell can dramatically affect our moods as evidence that therapy with aromatic oils can help buyers manage their emotional lives" (p. 38). According to Ornstein and Sobel, one recent experiment to determine the effect, if any, of fragrances on mind/body involved subjects being wired to physiological monitoring equipment, and then being interrogated with stress-provoking questions, such as "What kind of person…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, B.J., Manheimer, E. & Stein, M.D. (2003). Use and Assessment of Complementary and Alternative Therapies by Intravenous Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(2), 401.

Aromatherapy Therapy Chart of Essential Oils by Therapeutic Effect. (2004). MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart. Available:  http://www.moondragon.org/aromatherapy/aromatherapychart.html .

Ba, T.R.D.N. (Ed). (2003). An Introduction to Complementary Medicine. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Battista, J.R., Chinen, A.B. & Scotton, B.W. (1996). Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology.
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Maturing From My Mom's Cancer

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5687514

Maturing From My Mom's Cancer

High School is a very difficult stage in any teenager's life. The experiences that one has to go through and the hurdles that need to be overcome can sometimes prove to be overwhelming. This is truly a challenging phase in any individual's life as they are growing up to face situations both on a social as well as a personal level.

My story of acquiring a more mature outlook on life is no different. My transition into High School was not an easy one. From the beginning I had to face the fact that academics was not one of my strong sides. The grades which I achieved were near to average, something one should not be proud of. However, at the same time while I suffered on the academic front, my social life was doing well. In fact flourishing would be a more appropriate word…… [Read More]

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Role of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression

Words: 6318 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11568926

ole of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression

Over the last thirty years, one of the most interesting paradoxes in the study and treatment of depression has been that increased knowledge about the biomedical and genetic causes of the disease has been coupled with a renewed interest in the effect of religion and spirituality on human mental health and well-being. No matter how religion and spirituality are defined -- and many scholars and laypersons see no great distinctions between the two -- there are now hundreds of studies that demonstrate the beneficial effects of religion on both mental and physical health. Indeed, the more firmly held and intrinsic a person's religious convictions are, the more salutary the effect. eligious people are more optimistic, hopeful and trusting, and have more purpose and meaning in life than those with weak or no religious views. All of these qualities are of course lacking…… [Read More]

REFERENCE LIST

Ai, A..L. et al. (2005). "Prayer Coping, Positive Attitudes, and Cardiac Surgery" in Lee, A.V. Coping with Disease. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., pp. 23-64.

Auer, B. And J.A. Ang (2007). Torment of the Soul: Suicidal Depression and Spirituality. AuthorHouse.

Beck, A.T. And B.A. Alford (2009). Depression: Causes and Treatment. University of Pennsylvania Press.

Biebel, D.B. And H.G. Koenig (2010). New Light on Depression: Help, Hope and Answers for the Depressed and Those Who Love Them. Zondervan Publishing House.
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Nutrition Especially in the Treatment

Words: 2046 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34634928

Studies also indicate that the people of this area are more physically active than most Americans, and they have extensive social support, through large families, that tend to keep people healthier and happier throughout life. While there may be other factors that contribute to the longevity of people who partake in a Mediterranean diet, designing a low-fat, healthy diet based on Mediterranean principles of little red meat, lots of fruits and vegetables, a glass of red wine now and then, and use of "good" fats like olive oil, can lead to a healthier, more active and enjoyable lifestyle. Americans can learn a lot from the Mediterranean lifestyle, if they only take the time to learn about it and make the choice to live healthier, more active lives.

In conclusion, the Mediterranean diet is a healthy alternative to fast food and microwaved meals that can promote heart health and weight maintenance,…… [Read More]

References

Counihan, Carole M. Around the Tuscan Table: Food, Family, and Gender in Twentieth Century Florence. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Editors. 2008. Mediterranean Diet. Dallas, TX: American Heart Association. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=46444 April 2008.

Editors. 2006. Mediterranean Diet for Heart Health. Rochester, MN: Mayo Clinic. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/mediterranean-diet/CL000114 April 2008.

Editors. 2001. Tomatoes & Health. Sacramento, CA: California Tomato Growers' Association. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.ctga.org/newctga/health/studyconfirms.htm4 April 2008.
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How Best to Prevent Cancer

Words: 826 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32885497

HPV Case Study

The author of this report has been asked to assess and reflect upon a public health dilemma. In particular, the issue is whether HPV vaccination should be mandated or at least widely encouraged on a wide-spread or targeted basis. Unlike other vaccines such as those for polio, the measles, mumps, rubella and pneumonia, HPV cannot be contracted through casual contact. Indeed, sexual contact is really the only way to get it. At the same time, not being protected against HPV can cause cervical cancer in women. While there are certainly detractors when it comes to vaccines, the efficacy and importance of those vaccines cannot be understated or under sold.

The main dilemma cited is that HPV is not transmittable through anything other than sexual contact. While this may lessen the chances of it being passed from person to person, most everyone will engage in sexual contact at…… [Read More]

References

Bohlin, R. (2016). The Epidemic of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Leaderu.com. Retrieved 17 March 2016, from http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/probe/docs/epid-std.html

CDC. (2016). CDC Press Releases. CDC. Retrieved 17 March 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2014/p0424-immunization-program.html

Thornicroft, G., Brohan, E., Kassam, A., & Lewis-Holmes, E. (2008). Reducing stigma and discrimination: candidate interventions. Int J Ment Health Syst, 2(1), 3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-4458-2-3

Weissmann, J. (2014). For Millennials, Out-of-Wedlock Childbirth Is the Norm. Now What?. Slate Magazine. Retrieved 17 March 2016, from http://www.slate.com/articles/business/moneybox/2014/06/for_millennials_out_of_wedlock_childbirth_is_the_norm_now_what.html
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The Diagnosis and Treatment of Arrhythmia

Words: 1461 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76244417

Arrhythmias cause irregular hearts beats in ways that can be life-threatening but there are a number of different types of arrhythmias that require different interventions. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide the etiology and pathogenesis, prevalence, clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic pathways and optimal therapeutic approaches for paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation and Brady arrhythmias, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning these three disease states in the conclusion.

Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia

Etiology & Pathogenesis. This type of arrhythmia can occur in individuals who have normal hearts as well as in people who have structurally abnormal hearts including those with congenital heart disease, especially following surgical repair of valvular or congenital heart disease (Budzikowski & ottman 2015).

Common causes of the arrhythmia, risk factors, definition of rhythm via EKG findings. Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia (PAT) is caused by irregular firing of…… [Read More]

References

Brady arrhythmias. Boston Medical Center. [cited 2016]. Available: https://www.boston cardiovascular.org/handler.cfm?event=practice, template&cpid=50108.

Budzikowski, AS, Rottman, JN. Atrial Tachycardia. Medscape: News and Perspectives. [cited 2016]. Available: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/151456-overview.

Burke, MM, Laramie, JA. Primary Care of the Older Adult: A Multidisciplinary Approach. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 2009.

Gialama, F, Prezerakos, P. The Cost Effectiveness of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators: A Systematic Review of Economic Evaluations. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, February 2104, 12(1), 41-45.
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Substance Abuse Treatment Program for

Words: 2284 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86961027



During the assessment the participant will be asked to disclose how often and how many incidences of substance abuse he or she has participated in during the last week. He or she will also be asked to disclose what substances have been used in that time frame.

In addition the participant will participate in an interview in which he or she will provide a life history and a description of when they first began using and why and how much they currently spend on drugs or alcohol.

One element of the assessment will be specifically to ascertain what type of support system the participant has at home and at work if he or she holds a job.

When the assessment is completed the counselor will make a recommendation for treatment depending on the assessment outcome.

The recommendation will be for inpatient, intensive outpatient or low outpatient services depending on the…… [Read More]

References

Evaluating substance abuse treatment process models: I. changes on proximal outcome variables during 12-step and cognitive-behavioral treatment.

From: Journal of Studies on Alcohol | Date: July 1, 1998 | Author: Moos, Rudolf H. | More results for: substance abuse treatment

Predictors of participation in aftercare sessions and self-help groups following completion of intensive outpatient treatment for substance abuse.

From: Journal of Studies on Alcohol | Date: March 1, 1998 | Author: O'Brien, Charles P. | More results for: substance abuse treatment
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PTSD Treatment Modalities Evidence-Based Recommendations

Words: 4461 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17783376

Trauma-elated Disorders and ecommended Treatment

Clinical Presentation of Trauma-elated Disorders and ecommended Treatments

On January 13, 2015, Andrew Brannan, a 66-year-old Vietnam veteran was executed in Georgia for killing police officer Kyle Dinkheller in 1998 (Hoffman, 2015). At the time, Brannan had been living in a bunker on his mother's property without water or electricity and had stopped taking his medications. According to the Veterans Administration (VA), he was 100% disabled due to combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). He also suffered from bipolar disorder, had lost two brothers to a military plane crash and suicide, and lost a father to cancer. Veterans groups, death penalty critics, and mental health advocates, all petitioned the Georgia Supreme Court for a stay of execution unsuccessfully. The veterans groups were particularly interested in preventing the death of yet another veteran who developed severe psychiatric problems while serving his or her country.

Trauma in general…… [Read More]

References

APA (American Psychiatric Association). (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.

Cook, J.M., Dinnen, S., Simiola, V., Bernardy, N., Rosenheck, R., & Hoff, R. (2014). Residential treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in the Department of Veterans Affairs: A national perspective on perceived effective ingredients. Traumatology, 20(1), 43-9.

Dursa, E.K., Reinhard, M.J., Barth, S.K., & Schneiderman, A.I. (2014). Prevalence of a positive screen for PTSD among OEF/OIF and OEF/OIF-era veterans in a large population-based cohort. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27, 542-549.

Ehring, T., Welboren, R., Morina, N., Wicherts, J.M., Freitag, J., & Emmelkamp, P.M. (2014). Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Clinical Psychology Review, 34(8), 645-57.
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Risk Factors and Treatments for Diabetes

Words: 765 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90251917

Diabetes

isk factors for developing diabetes

Three major factors can increase the risk for diabetes. Some of them are genetic and so are with us always, but some can be reversed to help prevent diabetes. Genetics, obesity, and age are the most discussed risk factors.

Obesity: The leading risk factor for diabetes if obesity. According to statistics from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), approximately 30% of adults are obese. Overweight implies a higher risk of insulin resistance, as fat disrupts the ability of the body to use insulin. CDC cites that the number of overweight children has been tripling since 1980 (Silverstein & Silverstein, 2009). As a result, the number of children examined with the disorder has been rising.

Genetics: People with relatives suffering from diabetes are at a higher risk of developing the disease. Native Americans, Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans, all have the highest rates of diabetes. However, having…… [Read More]

References

Kahn, A.P. (2008). Diabetes: Causes, Prevention & Treatment. New Delhi: Orient Paperbacks.

Silverstein, A., & Silverstein, V.B. (2009). The Sugar Disease: Diabetes. Philadelphia: Lippincott
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Incurable Diseases Afflicting the World

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1364256

(Associated Press) This means that patients would be able to decide whether or not to undergo treatment with Provenge irrespective of cost.

The subsidization of expensive medical treatments by the Medicare program is actually nothing new. Medicare already pays for other expensive cancer treatments from companies such as Genentech and Eli Lilly. (Associated Press) However, the recent backlash against government expenditures on healthcare has compelled the Medicare program to give closer scrutiny to the drugs it agrees to cover. There were many who were surprised, and offended, that the Medicare program even considered the possibility of not covering Provenge treatments. (Associated Press) These people believe that the federal government's commitment to cover the health care costs of older individuals is absolute. They believe that this responsibility does not have a price limit.

Conclusion

Prostate cancer patients seem to have received the best of all worlds with the recent developments involving…… [Read More]

Bibliography

P.W. Kantoff, C.S. Higano, N.D. Shore, et al. (2010). "Sipuleucel-T Immunotherapy for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer." New England Journal of Medicine 363: 411 -- 422. Available at http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa1001294.

"Survival Benefit of Sipuleucel-T in Prostate Cancer Appears Durable." Elsevier Global Medical News. Mar 11, 2010. Available at http://www.oncologystat.com/news/Survival_Benefit_of_Sipuleucel-T_in_Prostate_Cancer_Appears_Durable_US.html.

"Dendreon Cancer Drug Faces U.S. Review Tied to Its Sole Product." Catherine Larkin. Nov. 16, 2010. Available at http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-11-16/dendreon-cancer-drug-faces-u-s-review-tied-to-its-sole-product.html

"Medicare panel backs $93K cancer drug Provenge." Associated Press. Nov. 18, 2010. Available at http://www.usatoday.com/yourlife/health/medical/cancer/2010-11-18-provenge-medicare_N.htm