Too much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere heats the earth, and trapped water in ice melts, raising the sea levels and placing more water into the atmosphere in some areas, and in other areas greater evaporation.
Analysis - Our analysis considers a typical American backyard, this one with a pool next to the house. We can visualize the carbon and water cycle in this environment in several ways:
1. Organic Carbon is present in the soil from fossils, dead organisms, and waste products, as well as decaying organisms based on what look to be deciduous trees that will lose their leaves to decay during the Fall and Winter months.
2. While not visually seen, there are likely numbers of organisms eating the vegetative matter (insects, herbivores), while the insects also feed birds and other creatures; depositing their waste for additional plant fuel.
3. Photosynthesis occurs as plant respiration, releasing carbon…… [Read More]
The fact is that numerous rooted macrophyte structures are not full of naturally strong and healthy particles and sediments and nutrients. It is because of the restriction or absence of these particles, sediments and nutrients that the study of these systems has not been as extensive and thorough as the concentration on the terrestrial structures when understanding the fate, sources and sinks of Co2 levels in the ecosystems and the plants structures (e.g., Drake and Leadley 1991). Researchers assert that "rooted macrophyte systems can be sources of CO2, Chapter 4 and other gases through microbial processing of organic matter in the sediments and direct emission from leaves" (Delaune et al. 1990).
Table 1. Total net primary production (NPP) from world systems (Modified from Valiela, 1984)
% of Total
% of Total
gC m-2 y-1
15,355…… [Read More]
Questions: Why are there different forms of precipitation? Why would it make sense that the water cycle regulates the amount of water on earth?
Actvities: Analyze different forms of precpitation by following a drop of water through water cycle. Why is it important that some water be stored in ice or snowpacks? (See: http://www.proteacher.com/redirect.php?goto=5347)
Focuses on a particular aspect of experience and demonstrates conceptual understanding.
Questions: Does salt water act the same way as fresh water in the water cycle?
Activity: Place appropriate terms for water cycle in visual representation, as the one from the U.S. Geological Survey. (3 stage learning technique; identification, understanding, evaluation/explanation). See: http://www.proteacher.com/redirect.php?goto=5347
Challenge and extend conceptual understanding and skills through new, deeper, and broader activities.
Questions: What impact has civilization had on the water cycle? Are there dangers to irrigation or transforming arid areas into agriculutural areas? What about the polar ice caps?…… [Read More]
ationale for the use of life cycle Management at Glazers
LCM (Life Cycle Management) is a framework which manages and scrutinises the performance and sustainability of services and goods. This framework aims to achieve the long-term objectives of the business, and gives less stress on the short-term objectives. For getting a more sustainable value chain, organizations are making use of this framework, which would in turn improve their economic and social performance. Businesses throughout the world are making use of this framework for many purposes, like to improve their standing within the market, to strengthen the relationships with the stakeholders and to produce more environment friendly goods.
LCM urges the companies to look away from their own processes, and focus on activities which are not under the direct control of the company. Such activities include the upstream and the downstream operations that become a part of value chain. In…… [Read More]
Both, ironically, are forms of pressure that also cause heat and changes. Water for instance, is so abundant on earth that it drives much of weathering and erosion. Precipitation, acidic soil water and groundwater dissolve mineral and rocks; serpentinization from heated seawater causes destruction of volcanic rock or changes in other seabed rocks; and the presence of water and carbon dioxide change rock as well. This is the manner in which the carbon and water cycle continually interact to change rock.
Plate tectonics, on the other hand, show that there are large scale motions within the earth that move, converge, and drive materials from deep inside the earth towards the surface and vice versa. Zones within the 8 or 9 major plates (subduction zones) form slabs of crust that become embedded and then if pressured enough with heat and more pressure, contribute to the evolution of rock. In addition, one…… [Read More]
Environmental Pollution Scenario: eview and Summary
Although cities contribute to both waste and global warming because of population density and the demands of urban life, they also offer the potential to conserve energy in terms of transportation costs, in comparison to suburban and rural areas. The compact nature of cities makes alternative transportation such as buses, subways, walking, jogging, and bicycle use a feasible alternative to using cars. egarding the effectiveness of public transportation, in terms of mitigating the effects of global warming it is estimated that "public transit reduces carbon monoxide emissions by nearly 745,000 tons annually. This equals nearly 75% of the carbon monoxide emissions by all chemical manufacturers in the United States" (How public transportation helps the environment, 2014). Public transportation also reduces smog-generating pollutants by 100,000 tons per year (How public transportation helps the environment, 2014).
Finally, using public transportation reduces U.S. dependency on oil in…… [Read More]
causes of Climate Change?
It is ideal to focus on the primary causes of climate change with the aim of understanding the influence or implication on the growth and development of the planet earth. This paper seeks to unveil the major or primary causes in relation to climate change. This is through evaluation of natural and artificial events/activities with massive implication on climate thus changes in the climatic conditions within the modern society. I have chosen this topic because of its sensitivity to the growth and development of the humanity. Modern society associates itself with constant debates on the concept of global warming. This is a reflection of the significance of the topic of the research with reference to the examination of the primary causes of climate change. It is ideal to understand the primary causes of climate change with the aim of adopting and implementing various critical issues in…… [Read More]
Global Warming: Fact ather Than Fiction
The focus of this paper is on global warming and its causes. In the introduction phase, we have given a brief overview of the problem alongside a brief look at the details of the problem itself. It is mentioned here that how much change has actually recorded in the previous decades and what the future might hold on for the planet if the trend keeps on going as it is right now. It has also mentioned the consequences of rise in temperatures which can result in many different scenarios.
We then focused on the causes of the problem and again had a brief overview of it, the causes were divided into two main sections and proper emphasis was given on one of it in order to give the root cause of the phenomena. The discussion phase have a more in-depth look at the causes…… [Read More]
Global warming, or more accurately, climate change, is the phenomenon that has been scientifically observed over repeated studies that the planet is experiencing warming and changing climates at a pace much more rapid that has been observed in any prior era. The increase in the pace of the climate change has been correlated with the coming of the industrial age, and in particular with the mass adoption of fossil fuels. The burning of hydrocarbons to create energy unleashes a chemical reaction that ends with carbon entering the atmosphere, where it then traps solar radiation in the atmosphere, leading to the warming process. This paper will outline this process and the evidence supporting the fact of anthropogenic global warming.
Observations of Climate Change
The first step in understanding climate change is understanding how it is determined to be occurring. Weather is an observable phenomenon, and over a long period of time…… [Read More]
Economics of Forestry
Timber is the major product currently harvested from forests. Timber is used in a variety of products ranging from houses to paper and paperboard products. Long ago it seemed as if the supply of wood from forests was abundant and as if there would always be enough to provide everything that we could possibly need. However, recently we have realized that this is not the case. Timber is a major source of income and has become necessary to sustain out life-style as we know it. There has been a clash of ideology between ecologists and economists. Ecologists point out that forests have many other benefits besides just providing timber and are quick to point out that we need them to reduce the level of green house gases and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Economists are equally as quick to point out that we need timber to sustain…… [Read More]
How global warming induced natural resource shortages will cause violent conflict in the Middle East
Background on Climate Change
Implications for the Middle East
Global warming, or climate change, is no longer begging the question of when the effects of this phenomenon will begin to unfold; rather the changes in the climate are already being witnessed. There are many at risk populations all over the world. Many of these populations already are dealing with food and/or water shortages which will only become more problematic in the near future. Once resources become scarcer and exceed the carrying capacity of the local or regional population then this will introduce a new level of conflict that has the potential to easily become violent. There are few mitigation strategies that can help this point. Migration is always an option, but regional areas will be affected in similar ways. This analysis…… [Read More]
The local community will know that the library and the campus in general support local businesses and local efforts. They have an excellent opportunity to build community support and rapport through purchasing locally as a part of the sustainability plan.
The campus library has many reasons to commit to sustainable building design. Aside from the apparent environmental reasons, the long-term benefits to their financial well-being and contribution to the community also make this an excellent project for the library. Sustainable building design demonstrates excellent community leadership for the library. People come to the library in search of knowledge and enlightenment. esponsible building design promotes the overall goals of the library as an example of what can be achieved and as a community resource.
Sustainable building creates sustainable communities. It only takes a single act to create the need for future buildings to follow sustainable principles. This will spread…… [Read More]
Deforestation can also lead to soil erosion, and more silt in rivers, streams, and behind dams throughout the deforested area. Biological diversity, including many unique species and ecosystems are lost, as well.
IN order to stop deforestation, people must be more aware of the problem and stop using products made from wood, such as paper, cardboard, and other products. We also need to find alternatives for wood products, such as the recycling of paper and wood products, and building materials such as steel, and products like Trex, which is a non-wooden material used for outdoor decks and such. To stop deforestation, we have to stop cutting down trees. eplanting deforested areas does not help, because it takes too long for the trees to grow, and the damage cannot quickly be repaired.
Collins, Jocelyn. "Deforestation." University of the Western Cape. 2001. 26 May 2008. http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/envfacts/facts/deforestation.htm
Stock, Jocelyn and Andy ochen.…… [Read More]
Americans will face important decisions as consumers, voters, and global citizens.
We need to understand that global warming has to be treated as a problem for all in order to properly solve it. If we continue to see it as a political issue as we sometimes do, it will never be fully resolved. Earth has to be made livable for everyone. It is not a place for first world or third world countries. It is a place for every human being and all life present here. Thus the issue must be seen clearly and humanitarianly instead of turning into another senseless political debate.
K. Taylor, "apid Climate Change," American Scientist 87 (1999): 320-327.
Scientists' Statement on Global Climatic Disruption, 1997" (Washington, DC: Ozone Action, 1997). Online at www.ozone.org/stateii.html.
K. McDonald, "Debate Over How to Gauge Global Warming Heats up Meeting of Climatologists," the Chronicle of Higher Education (February 5, 1999);…… [Read More]
The subject of the book is clearly applicable to the field of paleoanthropology because the same techniques can be applied to studies of human populations and their response to changes in the environment. In the contemporary world, the discussions in the book are also important in analyzing the nature of global warming, what might cause it, and what its consequences might be, given that global warming is one of the issues raised as a cause for the Permo-Triassic extinction. The book therefore may suggest what sort of future we ourselves face if the temperature does warm to a significant degree over the next several decades.
In addition, the book can give the reader a good idea of the sort of work being done today in developing an image of the change that has already taking place and so the change that might be taking place now worldwide. Those who believe…… [Read More]
These human actions that alter the living and nutrient conditions of soil organism include the repetitive tillage or burning of vegetation, soil erosion, overusing the land without replenishing it with humus or plant compost, clearing of forests. What can be done to solve this problem is to replenish the land with humus or plant compost, give the land rest after excessive use, planting of trees to reduce soil erosion etc. The soil organic matter is linked to the atmosphere; hydrosphere, biosphere and climate change in that the carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere of the earth.
The following are the strategy that I feel should be taken to restore the regions of Udaipur in India. In this area it is evident that the unnecessary human activities of over grazing, slash and burn farming, and activities causing soil erosion have…… [Read More]
Fungi (singular: fungus) are a major group of living organisms that were previously considered to be plants by biologists but are now classified in a separate category of 'Fungi Kingdom.' Fossil discoveries suggest that they were present on Earth at least 550 million years ago and may even have evolved earlier. They occur in all kinds of environments around the world and according to an estimate as many as 1.5 million species of fungi may exist on the Earth. (Hawksworth, quoted by Blackwell et al.) Some of the better known types of fungi include mushrooms, rusts, smuts, puffballs, truffles, morels, molds, and yeasts. They perform both useful as well as harmful functions. For example, by breaking down dead organic material, they are an important part of the carbon cycle in nature. On the other hand, they cause a number of animal and plant diseases that are notoriously difficult to treat.…… [Read More]
Recent discoveries about the existence of a vast band of methane hydrate ice along the world's continental slopes, at approximately 500 meters deep, have revolutionized the theories of the Ice Age and global warming cycles (Methane Hydrate Ice).
What Impact may they have on Global Warming?
Key to understanding the gravity of climate destabilization is the wide array of catastrophic irreversible impacts that could amplify damage. One area of concern is methane hydrates ices (Robertson).
Methane hydrates can be destabilized by warming ocean temperatures. When they are destabilized, they release trapped methane into the oceans, and eventually into the atmosphere. Methane has 8 times the greenhouse effect as carbon dioxide, meaning a massive release would significantly accelerate climate change related to global warming (Robertson).
Today's concerns are focused on the potential harm from allowing any of the methane trapped in methane hydrates to escape into the atmosphere, whether from burning…… [Read More]
Negative Effects of Climate Change
The weather patterns are changing all over the world and it has become one of the most debated issues across the globe with environmentalists having their concerns pertaining to global warming and its adverse effects on the environment in general. It is important for us to note here that scientists at NASA are doing extensive research on this issue and it has been proposed that the climate change is predicted to have harmful effects in some regions of the world; meanwhile the changes in the weather patterns will also have some beneficial effects in some other parts of the world. However, the main focus of this paper will be on the harmful effects of climatic changes (Cox et al.).
Current and Future Consequences
The effects of global climate change on the environment of the world have already been observed by the scientists and environmentalists. Ice…… [Read More]
Increases in manufacturing reveal benefits early, one can track the benefit at all stages and report the benefits to the public quickly. According to a statement released by the Center for American Progress, "solar panels don't install themselves. Wind turbines don't manufacture themselves. Homes and buildings don't retrofit or weatherize themselves. In our industrial society, trees don't even PLANT themselves, anymore. eal people must do all of that work." The public wants a quick fix, they want to start hearing that the economy is doing better and a focus on manufacturing will accomplish this. Additionally, there has been increasing pressure on the White House to focuses on alternative energy sources. Such a policy would gain favor with democratic and liberal environmentalists.
4. Do you consider your views to be more aligned with a classical or Keynesian approach to economic thinking? Explain. (There is no right or wrong answer). See module…… [Read More]
1. The bookmarks indicated the following six events:
· Formation of the earth and moon 4.6 billion years ago
· Earliest life, 3.9 billion years ago
· Early land plants 420 million years ago
· Largest mass extinction 248 million years ago
· Dinosaur extinction 65 million years ago
· "Lucy", early hominid, 4 million years ago
2. In the Archaean period, there are cyanobacteria and stromatites.
3. The three periods of time that are described as eras are the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic, and the Cenozoic.
4. There are five mass extinction events listed. They are:
End-Orcovician, where many types of ocean life became extinct including trilobites, brachiopods, and graptolites. The Late Devonian, stromatoporoids, brachiopods associated with reefs and more trilobites all became extinct, as coral systems suffered heavy losses. The End-Permian extinction saw some corals, trilobites, and types of brachiopods, orinoids and shelled cephalopods all became extinct at this…… [Read More]
This makes the issue a complex one without a clear answer; carbon dioxide is preferable to other potential byproducts of fossil fuel combustion due to the ease with which it can be trapped and its relative innocuousness in these sinks, but undesirable due to its volume and the lack of current capabilities to provide adequate sinks.
7) While it is understandable that the EPA would desire to increase public safety by revising standards for ground level ozone production and concentration, in reality this move is not entirely necessary. As business owners and operators, you know all too well the incessant environmental regulation can create significant operational difficulties and reduce if to eliminate profitability, often with no effect on environmental risks or damage. The EPA itself has found that ground-level ozone quickly dissipates and presents a minimal danger to health if properly vented and dispersed, yet they are revising regulations as…… [Read More]
This practically also pays big dividends for manufacturers as they continue to strive to keep their Energy STA Compliance ratings on products, leading to lower costs for power supply, electrical system integration and less product wear due to more efficient use of energy. Studies also indicate that Energy STA compliance, when designed in as part of the DfE initiatives in a PLM system, can have an exceptionally high accumulative impact as well (Preston, 2001).
Integrating DfE into PLM frameworks then not only alleviates the unnecessary and often high costs of noncompliance to federal and global mandates, this integration has also been shown to reduce the net amount of new product components necessary, further creating higher levels of reliability in products over time (Mascle, Zhao, 2008).
There are many additional benefits to integrating DfE product development practices into the broader PLM frameworks manufacturers use for designing, launching, managing and discontinuing products.…… [Read More]
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…… [Read More]
S. production value. Exports account for approximately half this amount (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). Figure 2 portrays three views of bamboo. One: A bamboo forrest; Two: A bamboos shoot; Three: A bamboo grove walkway.
Figure 2: Three Views of Bamboo (adapted from Stickman).
As bamboo production levels have risen, the amounts of raw materials needed to facilitate the production have simultaneously increased. The bamboo industry in Anji predominantly harvests bamboo from plantations, as it primarily grows a fast growing and easily cultivated, bamboo species, locally known as "maozhu" or "moso bamboo" (phyllostachys heterocycla) (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). .
Currently in Anji, the cultivation of moso bamboo encompasses 60% of the forest area, with the percentage rising as plantations expand. Along with the hefty production of bamboo, the intense cultivation bamboo industry uses mammoth amounts of fertilizers and pesticides; which contributes to negative environmental effects. In reference to the bamboo production…… [Read More]
Exercise and Cardiac/Respiratory Health
Heart health is positively correlated with exercise and, according to the research, physical activity can be a good way to diagnosis, detect or treat emerging heart conditions in individuals. Connections are also made in general research between exercise and both aerobic and anaerobic gains for individuals. Indeed, as the discussion hereafter will show, exercise is among the most consistently effective and proven methods of preventing heart disease and such causal conditions as obesity or hypertension. Research points to a host of indicators that suggest exercise should in some form be a regular part of every individuals lifestyle. Chief among these indicators is the evidence demonstrating that exercise and physical activity are directly related to cardiovascular and respiratory health.
e find that there are a wide array of methods to diminishing the risk of heart disease, which can be associated with a sedentary lifestyle, a poor…… [Read More]
Noncoding DNA, also known as "junk DNA" describes portions of the DNA sequence that do not appear to have any presentable use -- they do not encode for proteins, etc. In fact, in a most eukaryote cells, a rather large percentage of the total genome is noncoding DNA, but this varies between species. However, it is now a misnomer to call this material "junk," because the more sophisticated we become at biochemistry, we find that many do have subtle biological functions, including the transcriptional and translational regulation of certain protein-coding sequences. esearchers also belive that other noncoding sequences have a likely, but unconfirmed function, as an inference from high levels of inherited tratis and natural selection processes (Masters, 2005, 163-5).
esearchers know that the amount of genomic DNA varies widely between organisms, as does the proportion of coding and non-coding DNA within these genomes. For instance, 98% of the human…… [Read More]
Transform Unsustainable Organization Into Sustainable One
Land and water management
Energy, carbon and transport management
Supply chain management
Waste, pollution, recycling management
Sustainability performance indicators
Long-term sustainability vision
The final report is prepared in conjunction with the ANW Construction Ltd. The report prepared to demonstrate the level of sustainability is effective in highlighting the key features that the business has implemented in its operations. The following sections are focused to the differences that a sustainable organization can have in comparison with the unsustainable business. The recommendations are made based on the academic and professional literature. The notable areas for sustainability in a business are addressed as land, water management, energy, carbon, transport management, supply chain management, waste, pollution, and recycling management. Furthermore the report also provides insight on the sustainability performance indicators, social sustainability, and long-term sustainability vision for businesses.
According to Bell, and Morse (2008)…… [Read More]
Project Management, Sustainability and Whole Lifecycle Thinking
ITT Project Management - Sustainability and Whole Lifecycle Thinking
Although the sustainability movement has been advocated predominately in response to the irresponsible expansion of inefficient infrastructure by industrialized nations, with the United States and Japan now making significant efforts to embrace "green" growth practices, a growing movement has emerged that promoting sustainability throughout developing nations presents the most productive path. Even as the most modernized nations continue to update their consumption patterns to better suit the technological age, seeking efficiency and effectiveness that is sustainable for the foreseeable future, rising powers like China, India, and Brazil are expanding their spheres of influence at the expense of the natural environment. To address the threats posed by developing nations repeating the mistakes of prior generations, mistakes which run the gamut from China's reckless damming of its nation's natural waterways to India's inability to address its…… [Read More]
Socially Innovative and Socially Responsible Commerce: Examination of Carbon Tax in Australia
In a November 8th 2011 report in the Australian Times it is reported that as the final hurdle to carbon emission tax was cleared by the Federal Government of Australia, "Prime Minister Julia Gillard avoided saying the passage of the controversial impost would mark a turning point in Labor's fortunes." It is related that a new polled demonstrated "a modest uptick in its primary support." (Australian Times, 2011) The new tax is geared toward a reduction in carbon emissions in theory however; it is likely that the carbon tax is in reality more focused on government receipts in terms of its revenue. This issue will be examined through the lens of theorists Senge (2000) and the Dynamics of Systems, Jenkins (2008) and value and identities, and einhocker (2006) theories and global commerce.
Carbon Tax in Australia: An Overview…… [Read More]
All stars are born of nebulas, massive clouds comprised mainly of hydrogen, with about three percent helium gas too. Due to gravity, the atoms of the various elements in the nebula will group, bond, or "clump" together. As gravity continues to impact the behavior of the gases and elements in the nebula, a protostar is born. The process of atomic accumulation in the center of the nebula forming a protostar is known as accretion. During the accretion stage, the protostar is highly unstable. As the protostar stabilizes and achieves equilibrium, it is in a better position to become a fully-fledged star. Otherwise, the protostar will dissipate and die. Equilibrium is achieved when there is a balance between the pressure of atoms to move away from the gravitational center and the pressure to conform to the gravitational pull at the center. Gravity is a primary and formative force throughout the…… [Read More]
Climate Change -- Cause and Mitigation
There are several ways to look at climate change because there are natural causes and there are also human-influenced causes for the global climate to change. This paper defines anthropogenic climate change and it defines natural climate change and the historic record of the earth's changing climate over the millennia. This paper also provides strategies for mitigating global climate change and speculates as to the possible stabilization of climate change vis-a-vis the business and economic fields.
hat is Anthropogenic Climate Change?
The Merriam-ebster Dictionary defines anthropogenic as "…relating to, or resulting from, the influence of human beings on nature"; the first use of this team was in 1923.
Meanwhile, the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research lists three ways in which the evidence points toward humans having influence over the rising temperatures on earth. The "…concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) is rising," which is…… [Read More]
Global Warming and Climate Change
Natural versus anthropogenic forces in climate change are a common topic for discussion. Some people believe that the global warming experienced now is part of a natural cycle while other others believe it is accelerated thanks to human evolution on earth. Although there is a natural cycle on the planet concerning global warming, this is not the case regarding the information provided from scientific data on the effects of human-generated global warming. Natural global warming takes long periods of time to develop.
People that have analyzed previous global warming trends have noted the rise in temperatures occurred over a prolonged period, like thousands of years. However, human-caused global warming has produced a warming trend at a faster rate. Instead of thousands of years, it is decades. Secondly, humans were not around for the previous global warming trends and if they were, they were much smaller…… [Read More]
Doctor Determine Treatment for a Diagnosis of Hereditary Fructose Intolerance:
Explain how enzymes are involved in processes such as the breakdown of fructose.
The enzymes work as a lock and key process where the relevetn active part of the enzyme fits into the substrate (i.e. The molecule on which the enzyme acts) and activates it. There are various active sites on the enzyme and only the enzyme that will 'fit' in the substrate will work. After part of enzyme matching with substrate, enzyme breaks down substrate into two smaller products.
The following image illustrates:
(adapted from http://waynesword.palomar.edu/molecu1.htm)
At times the process can be blocked by an impediment that stops the 'key' from 'turning, as happens in the case of a lack in aldolase B. which can prompt hereditary fructose intolerance
Explain how a deficiency in aldolase B. can be responsible for hereditary fructose intolerance.
Hereditary fructose intolerance is a disease…… [Read More]
If there is an aggregate sub-base, these can provide water quality treatment. There should be good compaction and appropriate geo-textiles especially for areas accessible to heavy vehicles.
Permeable pavements reduce the need for deep excavations thereby providing a cost benefit. This system reduces the run-off rates and peak flow. The overall benefit is that it removes pollutants and holds water so that it does enter the main drainage. A lot of water in the main drainage would either need pumping or treating thereby using energy (Wild et al. 2002).
They are continuous vegetated drainage systems which convey or store water while allowing filtration when appropriate. Usually, they are the equivalent of roadside gullies or drainage pipes in conventional drainage systems. However, swales have gentle gradient so that water moves at low velocity. The sediments in storm water run-off can, therefore, settle out.
The advantage of swales is that…… [Read More]
(1) Discuss which of the interrelationships between the environmental spheres, in your experience, has had the biggest effect on human society, or vice versa. Give some examples.
The work of Manahan (2005) explains that there are four traditional environmental spheres including the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere and the biosphere. It is related however, that a fifth sphere should be included and that is the anthrosphere, which consists of "the things humans make and do." (Manahan, 2005) The atmosphere is reported as a very thin layer compared to the size of Earth, with most atmospheric gases lying within a few kilometers of sea level. The atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly energetic ultraviolet radiation from the sun that would kill living organisms exposed to it.
A specifically important aspect of the atmosphere is that the atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly…… [Read More]
Balfour Beatty UK
The multinational infrastructure PPP firm
The rise of the public-private partnership (PPP) during the onset of the global financial crisis in 2008 is most representative of market activities in the infrastructure investment sector. Appropriations linked to economic and fiscal policy in the UK since this period has had influence on the steering of PPP projects and the strategies designed by participatory entities. Conversely, the PPP relationship to infrastructure in urban planning has been nothing short of formative in the articulation of new terms to the future tax and economic foci of Britain' fiscal and monetary policies.
At the forefront of this recent history, is the UK construction and investment company, Balfour Beatty. A leader in the PPP sector, the firm offers exemplary case study to assessment of how government policy has affected one of Britain's previously cash flush business climate. Infrastructural projects are now met with unique…… [Read More]
It was hoped in the past there would be laws and regulations in place that required mandatory reductions in greenhouse gases that were put into the atmosphere. The Kyoto Protocol would have seen to this, but the U.S. rejected it. It still remains to be seen whether Obama's Administration will make renewable energy a real possibility and lower the number of greenhouse gases that are put into the environment.
Regulating greenhouse gases does not guarantee that climate change will stop or be reversed, but these kinds of gases are not good for people anyway, so there is nothing wrong with regulating them. However, the rising sea levels and rising temperatures could be cyclical and not really related to greenhouse gases or anything else that humans are doing. If that is the case, regulating the greenhouse gases and making other environmental changes will not help anything. Getting too worried about this…… [Read More]
Thus, since we are a major contributor to the problem, we need to be the first to step up with global solutions.
In addition, the country (and the world) needs to start to encourage the development of alternative energies on a large scale. Homes that utilize solar, geothermal, and/or wind power should receive tax breaks, and there should be significant incentives to build "green" in the future. In addition, we need to stop our dependence on foreign oil NOW, as the recent spike in oil prices clearly indicates. We need to develop alternative fuel sources, alternative power sources, and much more environmentally friendly ways of generating the power we need for our homes, schools, and businesses, and we need to do it as soon as possible.
There is mounting evidence that extreme weather events that have recently occurred are at least partly due to global warming. There have been studies…… [Read More]
aquatic system • Describe climate affects selected ecosystem. • Explain, based laws thermodynamics, energy flows selected ecosystem. • Examine matter transported selected ecosystem due biogeochemical cycles, carbon, hydrologic, nitrogen, phosphorus.
Aquatic ecosystems are mainly responsible for assisting energy transfers across the planet and for making it possible for all life on earth to exist. Depending on the area where it is located and on the substances that it contains, a body of water can have more or less living beings in it. Climate has a strong impact on water and on the organisms that directly depend on it. Climate change has had a severe effect on bodies of water all around the planet and this is obvious especially when considering melting glaciers and the energy that they release.
Thermohaline circulation is one of the most important circulation systems present on the planet and it is largely in charge…… [Read More]
Steam and Gas Turbines
Combining steam and gas turbines into one power generation system has been a tremendous boom for multiple industrial sectors. As Pirsh & Sage (n.d.). point out, "the major advantages advanced for such cycles were the improvement in overall cycle efficiency and the reduction in capital costs," (p. 39). A combined steam and gas turbine provides the best of both worlds by minimizing heat loss and maximizing energy output gains. Energy companies like GE have been actively promoting the use of combined steam and gas turbines; while others like ANSYS have been dedicated to the development of cutting-edge combined turbine systems for use in multiple sectors. In addition to their obvious applications in commercial and private power generation, combined steam and gas turbines also have rich potential for use in naval and maritime situations.
Gas and steam combined turbines are therefore available in a wide range of…… [Read More]
Explain how enzymes are involved in processes such as the breakdown of fructose.
Enzymes are integral to processes such as the breakdown of fructose, a monosaccharide. Thus, a deficiency in enzymes can cause malabsorption of fructose or other sugars. Chemically, enzymes are complex proteins. Some enzymes like fructokinase transform molecules into available energy via processes of metabolism. For example, fructokinase and aldolase B. are enzymes involved in the breakdown of fructose. Any imbalance or absence of these and other enzymes can lead to fructose intolerance in the person, leading to a number of medical symptoms. When fructose cannot be metabolized by enzymes, it may lead to reduced absorption of water in the intestines, which in turn may lead to "bloating, diarrhoea or constipation, flatulence, and stomach pain due to muscle spasms. (Breakspear Medical Group, n.d.).
Found throughout the human body, enzymes can be considered to be chemical catalysts that…… [Read More]
Odor Beaters Athletic Shoes
The market for athletic shoes has grown into a multi-billion dollar global enterprise in the last several decades. Athletic shoes comprise about 33% of a $48 billion market, growing annually (National Shoe Retailers Association, 2012)
Athletic footwear includes athletic, sport, and active lifestyle footwear for men, women and children. It may be performance oriented, outdoor oriented, or even casual, but is designed to aid individuals in sporting activities.
One interesting fact about athletic footwear is that it has evolved over the last few decades to also become a fashion statement. Basketball shoes, for example, are worn not just on the court, but as everyday "urban" outfits, thus drastically increasing the size of the market.
Odor in shoes, particularly those worn in sporting events in which there is heavy perspiration, are considered one of the most irksome issues for athletic shoe wear, requiring regular inserts, use of…… [Read More]
LAUNDY DETEGENT 91 OZ.
Gain Laundry Detergent is one of the most successful products of Procter and Gamble. In the year 2007, the product became the 23rd multibillion dollar product by P&G. P&G has always been an institution in product development and its wide variety of laundry detergents have all been able to capture significant market share due to distinct positioning. Tide is specifically targeted at stain removal, Gain has a fresh scent, Cheer has been positioned as the all-temperature detergent and this distinct positioning has enable P&G to dominate the detergent market without causing confusion in people's minds. Gain is currently the second largest selling laundry detergent in the U.S. And has many different variants present in the market.
In this study of the brand, we have chosen to focus on the original Gain detergent in a box of 91 oz.
Gain has gained its market share…… [Read More]
The greenhouse effect is a condition that occurs when the Earth's atmosphere captures radiation from the Sun. Solar heat is trapped by certain gases (including carbon dioxide and methane). These gases allow sunlight in but not back out of the atmosphere. This effect can be seen on a small scale when a car parked in the sun with its windows closed heats up. Global warming is the relatively gradual increase in Earth's surface temperature that results from human activity. It has been set in motion by the greenhouse effect but is more complicated because there are feedback effects involved in climate change that magnify the initial effect of the build-up of gases such as carbon dioxide.
Global warming has the capacity -- indeed, probably the inevitable capacity -- of transforming nearly every aspect of our lives, and in most ways for the worse (Solomon etal, 2009, p. 1706).
Question Four…… [Read More]
Strategic Framework in BP-Deepwater horizon accident
One of the most eminent names in the oil and gas industry is British Petroleum, considered as the largest provider of oil and gas to its customers for transportation, energy for heating and light and retail services for petrochemical products globally. The financial and operational picture of the company's performance is illustrated in table1 below.
Performance at a glance for 2010
Facts and figures
Sales and other operating revenues
eplacement cost profit
Number of employees
efineries (wholly or partly owned)
$297,107 million (year 2010)
($4,519) million (year 2010)
79,700 (at 31 Dec 2010)
18,071 million barrels of oil equivalent
Active in 29 countries
2,426 thousand barrels per day (year 2010)
(BP's Corporate website, 2010)
On 20th April 2010 the company faced a serious challenge when one of its oil rigs started leaking and simply couldn't…… [Read More]
In The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, Sogyal inpoche (2002) distills the essence of Tibetan Buddhist teachings into a format digestible for a modern Western audience. The central premise of The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying is that death can be a "teaching for us all," (inpoche, 2002, p. 3). The title of inpoche's book refers to the Tibetan Book of the Dead, which describes the bardo, of transition between this life and the next. Through a concerted practice of meditation and spiritual discipline cultivated in the person's current lifetime, a practitioner can remain conscious through the bardo and therefore die as a self-empowered and spiritually aware being. The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying is divided into three main parts: sections on living, dying, and on death and rebirth. There is also a conclusion and appendixes. inpoche opens his Tibetan Book of Living and Dying with…… [Read More]
Project Management Concepts
Question 1; the Triple Constraint
The term triple constraint refers to three interdependent factors which will act as constraints on the way projects are completed. The triple constraints, which may also be called the 'project triangle', will be found in all projects, they are the factors of time, cost, and scope. Successful projects are usually defined as those which are delivered at the right time, within the correct budget, and to the specified scope. These different influences converge, to understand their interrelationship each factor may be considered individually, followed by a discussion on the way in which the influence each other.
The time constraint refers to the timescale in which the project should be delivered, meeting the required completion schedule. For a project to be delivered on time it is essential there is effective time management exercised within the projects, ensuring that each stage of the project…… [Read More]
The release of fossil fuels has been driving industrial and civic expansion for the past century and a half, and there is therefore a compelling reason to deny such causes: "some corporations whose revenues might be adversely affected by controls on carbon dioxide emissions have also alleged major uncertainties in the science (Oreskes). Just as in the debate over the heliocentric solar system, issues of political and/or economic motive are raised to cloud the science at issue.
hat truly separates the global warming debate from the issues that Galileo dealt with, however, is that there really is hard science at the base of both camps with vastly different interpretations. This has made the contention all the more fierce, and personal accusations only seem more rampant now than during Galileo's trial due to the increased difficulty of a scientific attack. One example of this is Gore's insistence on using Revelle's name…… [Read More]
discover how marketing principles work in different corporations. First there is Parcelforce, a company which has a mission of providing parcel service that is connected to the oyal Mail Group. The company is the parcel branch of the UK mail system, and as such they have had to compete with other services that are both national and international in nature. As a matter of fact, Parcelforce works in other countries as well, so they also are an international entity as well. The other company to be examined is Peacock an international clothier. Peacock is primarily based in Britain, but they also have more than 200 stores outside of the UK. How these companies conform to basic market principles, distribute products, react to economic local and international market forces will be discussed.
Task 1 - Understand the Concept and Process of Marketing
1a) Identify the main elements of the marketing process…… [Read More]
Since 1970, the economic growth in U.S. had increased in real terms at a rate of 3.16% per annum, up to 2001, when the American economy registered a slow down period and the economic growth amounted 1.7%. Since 2003, the growth rate averaged 4.62% per annum. Currently, the economic growth is heavily influenced by fiscal relaxation policy that led to increased investments and economic growth level. The average return rate on investment was of 14.6%, especially in the computer software and telecommunication sector.
The U.S. Labour Statistics office gives the data on the employment situation of the American society. This is important due to the fact that a high level of unemployment depicts the situation of a possible recession, while a low level of unemployment indicates that a certain nation cannot provide staff for the interested companies, and the labour force is insufficient for the demand on the market.…… [Read More]
Its importance relies on the fact that the company must quickly adapt to changes determined by the external and internal environment.
Also, the company must quickly identify new opportunities that can be exploited with the help of research and development personnel that is in charge of creating new products designed to adapt to rapid modifications in the customers' needs.
Therefore, the research and development personnel require special attention from the company and a special reward system. It is recommended that employees in this field benefit from more days of leave on pay than other categories of employees. Also, they can be rewarded with trips to other countries, or experience exchanges with professionals from other companies or other countries.
The amount invested by the company in the reward for each category of employees must be proportional with the effort made by the employees in case and with the importance that each…… [Read More]
Among the animals found in these relatively lush riparian zones are elk, deer, bear, sheep, and mountain lions. In addition, smaller animals that live and feed along this biologically vital corridor may include birds (like the ring-necked pheasant, grouse, geese, falcons, great blue herons, hummingbirds and warblers), small mammals (such as longtail weasel and striped skunk), reptiles (garter snake and the western painted turtle), and amphibians (red-legged frog and the Pacific giant salamander). The flora and fauna often include many threatened, endangered, or sensitive species, among which could be the bald eagle, peregrine falcon, and kit fox (The Columbia iver Basin watershed and its ecosystems 2005).
The plant life along the river can also has an effect on the health of the species living in the river by maintaining the health of the river by influencing the amount and kind of sediment in the river. The vegetation along the side…… [Read More]
Many businesses in this day and age seek to demonstrate stewardship and resolve to do business within a guideline of corporate social responsibility. In this quest many have chosen to focus on greening their business often including both procurement and manufacture, seeking to reduce the effect of their business on the environment. The different systems approaches that an organization can utilize to demonstrate more effective environmental sustainability are almost as varied as the companies themselves. The utilization of pollution prevention programs depends almost entirely on what it is a company does and what wastes they challenge to control. Additionally companies seek to demonstrate their compliance utilizing various accounting tools that are often made public and become incorporated in their systems designs. These designs will incorporate procurement, logistics, on demand manufacture, i.e. lean manufacture and many other possible systems designs to both demonstrate cost savings and produce a more…… [Read More]
large scale project, effective management is critical in dealing with key challenges and becoming responsive to the needs of stakeholders. In the case of the Brantas iver Basin Development and Ourzazate Solar Power Station projects, these strategies are critical to avoiding cost overruns and ensuring it meets the long-term needs of both regions. To fully understand what is taking place requires carefully examining each one, demand, the regulatory / political environment, ecological / social, the financing model, execution / control, security challenges / safety and post implementation assessment. Together, these different elements will illustrate how to deal with critical challenges and ensure that both are capable of meeting the needs of stakeholders.
Brantas iver Basin Development Project
The Brantas iver Basin project is focused on developing a hydro electric dam inside Indonesia. The basic idea is to control flooding, provide greater amounts of irrigation and produce electricity that will address…… [Read More]
Nike's tremendous success up until the mid-90s?
Nike was founded by Phil Knight in 1964 when he put his MA project into practice along with his former track coach ill owerman. At that time, the companies which were already established were manufacturing the sports shoes in economy that was high waged; while the project showed that decreasing the costs of transport would mean that the company could gain high sourcing from the countries that had low costs of labor. Keeping this in mind, Nike started importing shoes from Japan; however with the birth of waffle trainer by owerman one night, the company became a designer logo rather than an importer. The strong personalities and the love for sports of Knight and owerman played a lot of role in defining the purpose of Nike and it attracted a lot of confident and young employees to the company. The logo of Nike…… [Read More]
Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability
This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. Given the threat posed by climate change, it makes sense that nuclear power would be increasing in share, not decreasing. This esearch proposal seeks to look at some of the issues facing nuclear power, and how it can overcome these issues to increase share going forward.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents v
List of Tables viii
List of Figures vii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Topic Overview 7…… [Read More]
He describes how wild grains and animals were domesticated, as well as the new technologies that made farming possible (sickles, baskets, pestles, gourds, irrigation, the wheel, the plow). He uses a chart to plot these movements. His evidence is mainly archeological, historical, and botanical with heavy doses of appeal to imaginary scenarios. Its power to convince is narrational. His ultimate point in cataloguing this change is to assert how, for first time in history, humans become a prime factor in altering earth's natural landscapes. Land was now exploited and degraded through deforestation for crops and soil erosion.
Summary: Ruddiman summarizes the history of how humans began to shape the earth through technology and landscape transformation. He relies on the credibility of his narrative.
Ch. 8, pp. 76-83: His main claim is that humans rather than nature have created a rise in atmospheric methane. He presents several lines of argument, beginning…… [Read More]
The feedstocks that are considered include going back on coal Gasification, and coal liquefaction, stranded natural gas and oil which was heavy and available from the 'oil shale' or 'tar sands', and biomass. Because of its eco friendly nature and sustainability biomass is to be considered as the better alternative. There are some technical barriers that have to be overcome in using biomass as alternate feedstock. Governments are now considering the aspects of power generation and production of transportation fuels. The know-how for the chemical industry is yet to be developed fully and this can be using feedstock alternatives to petroleum and using sustainable manufacturing practices. (McFarlane, 2006)
It is also argued that the resources and environmental pressures spring from the throughput of materials in the economy. That is determined by total output. Now total output could be considered again in the denomination of population and per capita output, and…… [Read More]
The energy it stores (?180 Wh kg?1) at an average voltage of 3.8 V is only a factor of 5 higher than that stored by the much older lead -- acid batteries. This may seem poor in the light of Moore's law in electronics (according to which memory capacity doubles every 18 months), but it still took a revolution in materials science to achieve it. Billions of lithium-ion cells are produced for portable electronics, but this is not sustainable as cobalt must be obtained from natural resources (it makes up 20 parts per million of Earth's crust). (Armand & Tarascon, 2008, p. 653).
Fu investigated the lithium-ion conductivities of glasses and glass-ceramics in the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 system. Fu's samples revealed high conductivity, albeit when Abrahams and Hadzifejzovic similarly investigated the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 glass and glass-ceramic systems, their findings revealed "a maximum room temperature conductivity of 3.98 x 10-6 S/cm in their crystallized…… [Read More]