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Carl Jung's Theory:
Carl Gustav Jung is a well-known pioneer of analytical psychology who was born in 1875 in Kesswil, Switzerland and the only child of a Swiss clergyman. His early family life played a critical role in shaping his theory as the huge focus placed on religion by his family contributed to the spiritual aspects of his theory. This is despite of his statement that he was bored by this heavy emphasis on religion during his youth. Through the various writings he found and personal experiences, Carl Jung was a young man intrigued by spirituality and the occult. Moreover, this psychologist was struck by several aspects of spiritualistic phenomena such as anecdotes, occurrences, symbols, and repetitious themes.
Jung's Personality Type Theory:
The personality type theory of Carl Jung basically entails several concepts like introversion, extroversion, and eight orientations. In his work, Jung developed eight distinct personality types which are…… [Read More]
Several days ago another friend of mine spoke about how he dreamed about him being a Chinese peasant in charge of a farm. He planted seeds into the ground and felt that the seeds were created by his soul rather than being ordinary seeds. He then saw several farm animals furiously coming toward him and wanting to harm him.
This friend's family emigrated from China at the beginning of the twentieth century and his great-grandfather actually was a farmer. He came here with his wife because he was pressed by financial problems and felt that emigrating would provide the opportunity to increase his earnings. The fact that my friend dreamt about being in China in spite of the fact that he never visited the country and knows very little about it contributes to confirming Jung's theory concerning how the collective unconscious can influence people's dreams.
My friend was provided with…… [Read More]
No one with the faintest glimmering of mythology could possibly fail to see the startling parallels between the unconscious fantasies brought to light by the psychoanalytic school and mythological ideas." (Jung, par 316).
The Theory of Psychoanalysis is presented in an organized fashion that is clear and concise. Jung addresses his points in a logical order. Jung's order of presentation was dependent upon that of Freud and his closely followed the presentation format used in Freud's work. Jung's primary work was based on the ability to categorize certain phenomenon and human behaviors. His ability to categorize things was also apparent in his writing style. Jung tends to address certain groups of things based on their categorization. This is a key strength of Jung's writing.
Jung's the Theory of Psychoanalysis fails by modern standards as an evidence-based piece of research. His arguments are based on generalizations that were collected…… [Read More]
The self, then, does not stem from individual experience but rather from what has been called "early psychosomatic unity" (Urban 2008).
The existence of these many archetypes -- the shadow, the anima/animus, the mother, etc. -- in all people is evidence for Jung's concept of the collective unconscious. These universal archetypes do not come from individual experiences or conscious awareness. Instead, they are entirely unconscious and present in all people, regardless of background, culture, or life experience. It is the unification of these archetypes in our own awareness that allows us to develop a sense of self.
Jung's theories about personality types have found their way into a popular and widely used personality "test": the Myers-riggs Type Indicator. This assessment was crafted based on Jung's personality theories. It begins with the assumption that "much seemingly random variation in behavior is actually quite orderly and consistent, being due to basic…… [Read More]
One of the most common uses of employment tests is in the area of employment. Many employers use personality tests as a means to assess potential job candidates for their suitability, honesty, and loyalty to a future employer. Individual experience and interpretation can skew answers in such as manner as to render these tests unreliable. For instance, a person who is naturally unassertive might view the actions of an assertive person as aggressive, hostile, or angry. Likewise, an assertive person might see the actions of an unassertive person as weakness.
Previously, it was mentioned that seldom do people fall cleanly into one particular personality type of another. Yet, Jung's personality traits have found their way into a number of assessments and tools that are used in numerous situations. Many employers have begun to use personality tests, based on Jung's theories to decide if a candidate is right for a job.…… [Read More]
The patient's behaviors are not however, atypical in relation to his experiences. He is just one of many individuals who find themselves immersed in alienation because they cannot live up to the high expectations placed on them by society, and in turn, by themselves. These childhood drives to reach "the highest truths and values" (Palmer, 1999) are often thwarted by personal failures. When one's role in life does not match up with who or what he is told he is supposed to be, escapism through drugs, dissociation, and detachment from interpersonal relationships are common coping tools.
Jung purports that although dissociation "is most clearly observable in psychopathology, fundamentally it is a normal phenomenon" (Jung, 1991, p. 121). He adds that the products of dissociation "behave like independent beings" (p. 121). These products may appear in personified form - although Jung adds that these personifications appear particularly as archetypal figures. The…… [Read More]
Synchronicity -- Carl Jung
Synchronicity is a term that C.G. Jung (Carl Jung) used to describe the simultaneous occurrence of two events that become connected because they bring about a "meaningful coincidence" (Jung, 1951, p. 90). Examples of synchronicity will be presented in this paper. Jung is the internationally respected Swiss psychiatrist who founded the school of analytical psychiatry and authored a number of books, including: Dreams; Red Book; Psychological Types; The Undiscovered Self; Psychology and Alchemy; Answer to Job; Mysterium Coniunctionis; and Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle. The book Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle will be the primary source for this paper; also, this paper will also use Chapter 5 from the book Jung on Synchronicity and the Paranormal as well.
hat is Synchronicity?
In the book Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle, Jung takes time to explain what "acausal" means. One dictionary simply explains that "acausal" means something has…… [Read More]
Carl Jung's archetypes and the collective unconscious
This is a mythology concept based on the Freud's personal unconscious. Freud was in a quest to understand the reason behind some behaviors that were expressed by some individuals. He sought to understand what made the behaviors so automated and happened spontaneously. This prompted him to delve into the mind of people and try to understand that secret driving force within the mind. Freud proposed that there was the personal interpretation of aspects like dreams and images. He also insinuated that these aspects meant different things to different individuals hence the impossibility of having a common interpretation of individual dreams.
However, Jung postulated that these aspects do not only have the personal interpretation but also the collective meaning attached to them. For instance, there are dreams one could have for instance of the grandmother. According to Freud, there is that interpretation of…… [Read More]
, 2003). This coupled with the ability to identify how previous trauma, recognized or not, impacts the stressors inherent in the aging process. This is particularly difficult in the age of managed care when assessments and interventions are geared toward brief treatment for presenting problems. However, being able to ask the right questions regarding veteran status as well as identify trauma that was experienced and how the individual has re-integrated into society may provide invaluable information for the treatment process. It is important to keep in mind that a veteran often presents him/herself to the social worker due to other sociological stressors (Sherwood et al., 2003). However, identifying veteran and trauma status cam insure that appropriate interventions and services are implemented.
Sherwood et al. (2003) point out particular steps that social workers can take in order to assess the level of trauma that a veteran is experiencing including evaluating how…… [Read More]
Carl Jung Personality/Iceberg Theory
Introduction to Carl Jung
Carl Jung grew up during the late nineteenth century in Switzerland in a Protestant Victorian culture. It was this culture that had such an impact on the values held by American individuals during that timeframe. Jung's father was a pastor and Jung, following medical school completion in the early part of the 1900s became a psychiatrist as well as a disciple of Sigmund Freud. (, paraphrased)
Summary of Jung's Personality/Iceberg Theory
The work of Sally Palmer Thomason (1992) states that the human psyche "could be compared to a giant iceberg -- the conscious mind is like the small exposed tip that is seen above the waterline; the far greater part, the unconscious mind, lies unseen, hidden beneath the surface." (Thomason, 1992) The work of Briggs Myer and Myers entitled "Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type" states that Jung wrote the theory of type…… [Read More]
As in other areas of psychology, Carl Jung agreed with Feud on many of the basics of dream interpretation. He began to see Freud's views as overly simplistic, however, and believed that there were deeper collective archetypes that made themselves known through dreams, and which represented basic elements of the human character as ways of dealing with unconscious issues. Also of great importance to Jung, according to Hall, was the context of the dream, especially when it came to dangerous elements: "It is important to look beyond the mere presence of physical danger to the dream-ego and make some assessment of its meaning within the dream" (Hall, 49). This is similar to Freudian interpretation in its seeking of a mechanism of meaning, rather than interpreting dreams as being purely symbolic in content, but Jung developed this much further.
Sigmund Freud. The Interpretation of Dreams. New York: Avon, 1980.…… [Read More]
Traveling worldwide, ogers participated in negotiating sessions involving disputes between Protestants and Catholics, religious, racial, and ethnic differences in South Africa, racial disputes in the United States, and consumers and health care professionals in several jurisdictions. He was widely recognized as being successful at resolving serious differences in most of these difference scenarios.
Carl ogers was born and raised in the United States but Carl Jung was born and raised in Switzerland. While ogers was an extroverted, personable individual, Carl Jung was a highly introverted individual who preferred a solitary life. By his own admission, Jung was happiest when he was left alone with his thoughts (Wehr, 2001).
Jung academic background was founded in the field of medicine. While attending medical school, Jung developed an interest in spirituality and it was this interest that eventually led to his becoming interested in psychiatry as a specialty. As part of his graduation…… [Read More]
Exploring Self, Culture, History, eligion
Exploring the Self, Cultures, History, or eligion through Myth
PO Box, 60453,
How are you my little friend and how is everyone at your home? I hope all doing good. Pass my greetings to them.
I received your letter and was happy to know that you have been promoted to 4 rth and the final year of your college. Wow! You'll graduate after a year. Lee! You mentioned in your letter that you have chosen Mythology (general) as your elective subject and that you are facing some difficulties in it. I went through the attached course outline; there I found out that you will be exploring self, cultures, history, or religion through myth. Also there was a list of theories that you will be presenting throughout this course.
I have collected some data regarding the first theory "Carl Jung's…… [Read More]
Sigmund Freud (1856-1949)
Sigmund Freud is the undisputed father of psychoanalysis. Should this statement seem to contradict assertions regarding the age-old status of psychology, it must be clarified that Freud was the first theorist to formalize the process of analysis, a practice that is not used in all modalities of psychology today. Analysis, specifically the psychoanalysis so often parodied in the cartoon of the tormented patient lying on the couch before the bearded quasi-Freudian father figure of the therapist, presupposes in its theoretical structure the existence of an subconscious element to the human mind, in other words, that how humans think they immediately perceive the world is not all that there is to human consciousness.
Freud used techniques such as free association to elicit reasons for his patient's behaviors. Freud began his treatment upon hysterics. He grew to believe that unresolved childhood traumas rather than physiological causes were at…… [Read More]
It is only through occult understanding that the forms and the archetypal images and symbols can be interpreted.
Here we see that the term unconsciousness is very similar to the Platonic ideals and forms. Another aspect that will form part of the theoretical perspective of this study is the concept of transformation. In order to understand the occult and its relationship to the forms, a process of transformation has to take place. In Platonic terms this transformation is a radical change in life, morality and ethics; while for Jung it is transformation in terms of the deeper understanding of the relation of the unconscious to the conscious mind.
Transformation also has related occult meaning and symbols such as fire. Fire is an age-old indication of change of perception and consciousness. This also refers to Jungian concepts such as the shadow. There are many other points of reference and similarity between…… [Read More]
The events of the film show that despite having Joel consciously removed from her mind, the unconscious need for him remains. This explains why Clementine ends up with Joel even after they both erase each other. The story of Joel shows the same process. In Joel's case, his collective unconscious also draws him to Clementine. His problem occurs when he finds that Clementine has erased him. He then makes a conscious decision to erase her, with this decision mainly driven by anger and a desire for revenge. However, even as he erases Clementine his unconscious seems to alert him to the fact that this isn't a relationship he should let go of. This explains why Joel begins to fight the process, as his unconscious mind struggles to save his relationship with Clementine and prevent it from being erased. ith the way the technique is presented, it seems that there is…… [Read More]
problem of evil and suffering has been an issue since the beginning of time. Carl Jung has written passionately and eloquently about the possibility and impossibility of transcending this problem.
According to Jung's reasons for this problem was that God was a schmuck towards Job (and by extension to all innocents who suffer from 'acts of God') due to His not being fully conscious. A strange theory since, it would seem that by definition God is Omniscient.
However, God, in Jung's model, contains all opposites and paradoxes, which includes choosing not to consult his own self.
If he had done so, he could have seen that Job would have been faithful to the end and not needed to take Satan's "bet."
The devil is still able to waltz into heaven in the book of Job and complain about how rotten mankind is. So, it is clear according to Jung, that…… [Read More]
The Jungian model uses rationality and spirituality in place of Freudian sexuality as the main determiners of personality. Jung also believed that personality continued to evolve until at least middle-age; far later then the pubescent cementing of personality that Freud described. In today's world, Jungian types (with the additional differentiation between perceiving and judging) are used much more often than Freudian models.
Another great personality theorist was Carl Rogers. Rogers took a vast departure from both Feud and Jung in his basic approach to psychology and especially when it came to personality. Rather than ever seeing personality as a finished product, Rogers believed that the innate purpose of a human individual was fulfillment of our genetic capabilities through the completion of positive works, a drive that he called the actualizing tendency. Personality is born through the relationship of an individual's self-concept with their inborn potential -- the closer the two…… [Read More]
God has created every person with different nature and interests that builds ones personality. The idea of studying different personalities was proposed in 1920s by some of the famous scholars and scientists. Carl Jung was the first scholar who described the Psychological Types. He categorized people as extroverted and introverted. People with extroverted personality are more oriented towards external world and goes through new experiences whereas the introvert personalities are more oriented towards internal worlds and memories. Later on, Jung identified other differences in the personalities and named them functions which are now called as Cognitive Processes.
Types of Cognitive Processes
The extroverts and introverts deal with the world in their own style. According to Jung there are four main styles that are sensing, intuition, thinking and feeling. Jung categorized these four types under two main headings perception and judgment.
Perception -- (Sensation and Intuition)
Judgment -- (Thinking…… [Read More]
The key to flexibility of motivation is intrinsically conflicting motivational structures. The self as defined by Jung is the core or central component that keeps these opposing forces operating as an integrated whole. To what closing stages does this process manage? It was formed by evolution and so survival is the architect but it is survival not just of the next generation but into an unclear future. The self as described by Jung is the psychic image of this limitless potential for prospect development. For itself it focuses on the various dimensions of human functioning that put in to survival including ingenuity in all its forms.
Sensing the self as something irrational, as an impalpable existent, to which the ego is neither opposed nor subject, but simply attached, and about which it spins very much as the earth does round the sun, accordingly the goal of individuation is reached. The…… [Read More]
Analyzing the Sopranos through the eyes of Carl Jung
The award-winning HBO television series, The Sopranos, is one that can be analyzed by people everywhere. Each time a new episode airs, it has more symbolism than the last. The various storylines, plots, and characters are divulged in a way that creates a certain tension among the audience; and week after week, people feel compelled to come back for more.
So why is it that people feel bound to their television sets each fall when a new season of The Sopranos commences? Most people in America will answer this way: "It's great drama." But there must be a driving force behind the drama, a technique that the writers, directors, and producers use to hold America's interest. Carl G. Jung, author of Man and His Symbols, might have a few ideas regarding this.
In Man and His Symbols,…… [Read More]
In the prologue to Jung's (1965) book, Memories, dreams, reflections, he states that life, to him, is like a plant that lives on its rhizome. The real life of the plant is not seen but hidden, rather, in the rhizome.
The part that appears above ground lasts only a single summer. Then it withers away -- an ephemeral apparition. When we think of the unending growth and decay of life and civilizations, we cannot escape the impression of absolute nullity. Yet I have never lost a sense of something that lives and endures underneath the eternal flux. What we see is the blossom, which passes. The rhizome remains.
Jung (1965) goes on to explain that his book about his life has been based on the rhizome of his life -- the interior happenings as opposed to the exciting events of his life -- like traveling -- because it is the…… [Read More]
psychodynamic counselors facilitate change?
In order to understand how psychodynamic counselors facilitate change through a therapeutic relationship with their client, it is worth discussing what psychodynamic therapy is, how it is used, how it originated, and who some of its most notable founders were. Towards the end of this document, in the description of how psychodynamic therapy is used, descriptions of recent psychodynamic therapy sessions that the author undertook in a triad setting will be described.
The mind, personality, and psyche are terms that refer to the interrelationships of a person's mental, emotional, or what could be termed psychological characteristics. Another way to think of this is that the psyche, mind, and personality are the forces that drive a person to think what they do, to act out how they choose, the way a person relates to themselves and how they relate to the world around them particularly the role…… [Read More]
Levi-Strauss also suggested that myth offered the "illusion" of being able to "understand the universe," which suggests a psychological purpose to myth creation (cited by Bierlein, p. 262).
Freud believed that myths shared a language with dreams, and were ultimately the "products of repressed individual childhood memories played out in conscious language," (Bierlein, p. 282). Unlike Jung, Freud did not believe that myths were "the products of any myth-producing area of the unconscious universal to all human beings," (Bierlein 282). Instead Freud explained the phenomenon of parallel myths in terms of a shared human psychological experience; human beings share the same neuroses. Parallel myths occur because all human beings share similar biological, psychological, and social experiences.
Jung, on the other hand, conceived of a collective unconscious that was shared by all human beings. Dreams and myths are "definitely related," according to Jung, but are not "the products of individual memories,"…… [Read More]
Freud, Jung and tar Wars
The tar Wars movies, especially the first three, are clearly a type of myth written to demonstrate archetypal personalities. The characters are driven by their behavior, so what they do and why they take the actions they take can be used to analyze their characters in terms of Jungian and Freudian theories.
In the Empire trikes Back, many of the characters are acting out of great personal need or personal striving, and many of them fit fairly well into Jung's theory or archetype personalities.
The "elf" is the highest form a personality can take, well integrated and centered. To become a self-actualized elf is Luke kywalker's goal and the final achievement of his mentor, Obi-Wan Kenobe. In an interesting twist, Darth Vader also sees himself that way. He believes self-actualization can be either good or evil, and finds evil more powerful and rewarding.
Most viewers…… [Read More]
Melancholia sat in, as the loss I felt became less and less related to my body. I began to court death first symbolically and then literally. Freud would have noted the presence of the death wish in addition to describing the symptoms of "melancholia," or depression. Symptoms include "a profoundly painful dejection, cessation of interest in the outside world, loss of the capacity to love, inhibition of all activity," as well as self-loathing (Freud 1947, p. 39). The symptoms of depression are skin to the symptoms of mourning the loss of a loved one, with the key difference being that in mourning the reason for the despair is clearer and within the conscious realm.
The only means to discover the reason for melancholia is to explore the unconscious realm. My descent into a dark state of mind parallels the stories of Eurydice and Persephone who both longed to remain submerged…… [Read More]
This mythical structure has a long history in terms of mythical and visionary experience in all cultures of the world. One could also refer to the earliest Shamanic forms of religion and the myth of the dismembered Shaman who is also the transformed healer of others. In these myths the journey to the underworld, and the process of the destruction of the old self or ego does not result in final death but in transformation and greater insight into reality.
Therefore, taking the above brief sketch of the significance of this mythical structure into account we can apply it to a Jungian analysis of the ego.
When Inanna descends to the Underworld she divests herself of her previous life and this is symbolized by the way that she throws off the accouterments and symbols of her previous existence. When she enters the realm of the dead she can only do…… [Read More]
The Oedipus complex suggests that every son wants to marry his mother and kill his father -- and that is precisely what Claudius does. "Sex and the life instincts in general are, of course, represented somewhere in Jung's system. They are a part of an archetype called the shadow. It derives from our prehuman, animal past, when our concerns were limited to survival and reproduction, and when we weren't self-conscious" (Boeree 1997). Hamlet's intellect and rationality are suppressed by his philosophical knowledge, as exemplified in his desire to return to ittenberg at the beginning of the play. Claudius, in contrast to Hamlet, takes what he wants. Before he learns of Claudius' crime by the ghost, Hamlet does not seek bloody revenge, or construct a plot like Claudius may have done -- he merely mourns that his mother has remarried and been 'stained.' Thus, Claudius' skillful wielding of power, his open…… [Read More]
Tibetan uddhism's doctrine that human consciousness has a primordial oneness with the universe and is eternal is perhaps best understood through a comparison with Western thought on the subject. The study of human consciousness by Western civilization has been dominated by scientific materialism. As a result, although major breakthroughs have occurred in understanding mind and body phenomena, the tendency has been to reduce the mind to no more than biological processes in the brain.
This conceptual framework of human consciousness is supported by the theory of evolution, which maintains that human emotions and behavioral traits are necessary for survival in the outer physical universe.
Viewed from this context, the assumption that human consciousness ceases at the moment of death seems fairly logical. Tibetan uddhism, however, has a very different view of the origins, nature, and role of consciousness in the natural world.
In stark contrast to Western beliefs, Tibetan uddhism…… [Read More]
Spiritual Practices Beyond eligion
Spirituality in Modern Psychology
Spirituality has previously held a very limited role within psychological and counseling strategies within the context of the Western world. In psychology, more traditional methods revolve around more scientific methods. Thus, spirituality has often been overlooked within the mental health genre as a way to bring greater capabilities to patients. However, as more alternative strategies begin to further intrude onto traditional Western medicines, spirituality is becoming a new and innovative strategy for psychologists and counselors to adapt to their already established strategy methods.
The mythology of spirituality impacts different people in very different ways. It helps shape how we view spirituality, but also how we attain our own sense of spirituality. According to the research, "mythology is the oldest path to the sacred," (Elkins 1998 p 191). As human beings, mythology was our first understanding of the spiritual realm, and the practice…… [Read More]
Spirituality is not a set of rules and it cannot be understood as an object or even an objective but instead spirituality is a state of being and the essence of the true nature of mankind when receiving positive spiritual energy and guidance and then taking those and applying them to daily live and implementing the accompanying principles, ethics and morals into the processes in forming and directing the culture and society.
erry, Thomas in Hill, ernice. Money and the Spiritual Warrior. Jung: Reflections on Psychology, Culture and Life. 10 May 2009. Online available at: http://www.cgjungpage.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=769&Itemid=40
C.G. Jung. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1969.
Hill, ernice. Money and the Spiritual Warrior. Jung: Reflections on Psychology, Culture and Life. 10 May 2009. Online available at: http://www.cgjungpage.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=769&Itemid=40
Kevin Phillips, Wealth and Democracy: A Political History of the American Rich, roadway ooks, 2002, see also: Public…… [Read More]
Freud's Theory Of Repression
Freud is popularly known as the father of psychoanalysis and the idea of psychological repression of memories and urges, even though he was neither the first psychoanalyst or even the first to posit the existence of repression. His justifiable fame comes both from the way he popularized psychoanalysis, and from his further development of its theories. He is commonly attributed with creating the theory of the conscious and subconscious, of the many sexual complexes and drives which run our lives and our subconscious, and with the idea that things which are not socially acceptable will be hidden away within the subconscious. Freud called this process of burying the unacceptable aspects of life away into the subconscious regression, which he was to eventually succinctly defined thus: "the essence of repression lies simply in the function of rejecting and keeping something out of consciousness." (Rieff, 147) It is…… [Read More]
I have chosen midlife as my study since it is the period which is the most fascinating and on which too many conflicting and ambiguous statements are brought to bear. This may be due to the fact that the middle years contains too little regularity and too much diversity therefore many of the models that I have seen differ too in the age range given to the mid life years. To elaborate: Whilst most models define midlife as beginning at 40 and ending at 60, a ten-year range exists at either end with some theorists actually considering midlife as beginning at 30 and ending at 75 (Lachman, 2004). Given too the differences in people, magnified by socio-historical and geographical elements, people are bound to indicate differences in their mid -- life period. It is for this reason possibly that Erickson's findings sound so quaint to many western ears,…… [Read More]
Collision of Meaningful Coincidences
The theory that attracted me to my ideas about this paper is Jae's theory of openness, which posits that the more open a person is in the process of communication, the more creative that person will be when it comes to solving problems. Much of life, as we know, is about learning to solve certain problems that arise. Hence, according to this theory, the key to finding answers to things that puzzle us and stand in our way is learning openness in communication that leads to creativity and problem solving.
Communication Creates a Collision of Meaningful Coincidences
A couple summers ago (in 2010) I was driving to San Diego on Interstate 8 with a couple friends for a holiday away from my home in Houston, Texas, and the odometer in the 8-year-old Ford was 88,880. I remember that because one of my friends asked how many…… [Read More]
Myth, Literature, and the African World
The book Myth, Literature, and the African World, was published in 1976, twenty years before the author, Wole Soyinka, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.
In his Preface, he clearly wants to convey that African academia has created a kind of "intellectual bondage and self-betrayal" by not facing up to truths about the fact that African literature must not be merely "an appendage of English literature." This was written twenty-eight years ago, of course, and because the instructions ask that "only this reference" be used, one cannot know if indeed African universities now have a section for "Comparative Literature" -- which would presumably allow for the inclusion of literature about Africa, by Africans. And that literature would, hopefully, be reflective of what African cultures were like during the continent was dominated by European colonial powers -- something that Soyinka clearly would like…… [Read More]
Both Existential and Transpersonal psychologies have this in common, a respect for and utilization of Eastern techniques to reach a state of stress-free maintenance of human psychological health.
But the differences lie in their origins. While Transpersonal psychologies are related to the Eastern or Western indigenous epistemologies, Existential-Humanistic psychologies have a Freudian origin, coming through Freud and his descendents. While Transpersonal psychology is considered to be a "fourth force" in psychology, psychoanalysis, behaviorism and humanistic psychologies are outside of the "transegoic" elements, ignoring insights from the world's contemplative traditions in both Eastern and Western religions. Labeled "Western," Existential and Humanistic psychologies are focused mainly on prepersonal and personal aspects of the psyche.
Existential and humanistic psychologies are based on the writings not only of Freud, but Kierkegaard, Nietzche, Heidigger, Sartre, Camus and other European intellectuals who had experienced European wars and chaos during the twentieth century. Important to them were…… [Read More]
(apaport 1942: 149)
It is important here to have some framework with which to discuss parapraxes
Aitchison, as a psycholinguist blends both the disciplines of psychology and linguistics to give a more balanced view overall. She proposes first two broad definitions for type of parapraxis. (1998: 244) the first is when a wrong item or word is unintentionally chosen, these are generally referred to as slips of the tongue and an example would be, "Did you remember to buy some toothache?" eplacing the word toothpaste, which was intended, with toothache, which was unintended. She also refers to these more properly as slips of the brain. Secondly there is a classification of errors that are due to the faulty assemblages of the language within the statement. The word choice is usually correct but the grammatical assemblage of the statement is not. Here is an example she uses of this:, "Someone's been…… [Read More]
Management of Stress and Tension
Goals-- What do you wish to complete?
The answer to attain a postgraduate degree can develop into a very long journey. For me, the contending aspects of time and financial resources constantly appeared to present problems and control the situation. In truth, it would be considerably much easier to provide every single argument present against returning to institution at this time. One can say that numerous considerable life-changing occasions experienced just recently would be cause or motive enough to put off the commencement of the Master's of Business Administration (MBA) program. Concerns associated with household loss and task modification can be made use of as proof in support of delay. Financial pressures can likewise exist yet an additional motive that the moment in time, endeavor, and cost needed for an MBA would not be a required use of resources. Nonetheless, regardless of every one of…… [Read More]
The role of evil is generally misunderstood in the human approach to life. The fear of committing evil lies paramount within all facets of society. The purpose of this essay is to argue that to solve the problem of evil, humanity must begin to embrace the benefits and solutions to problems that evil provides. This essay will first define the concept of evil and discuss the problem in a philosophic manner that can help transmute evil ideas into more productive energies that can be used for growth and evolution
The power of words carry emotional value that create energetic fields that permeate in the environment. Some words carry great power and instantly polarize the conditioned mind into an immediate and often irrational emotional reaction. "Evil" carries with it spiritual, moral and ethical values and energy that suggest the word's meaning has super power on and over…… [Read More]
The major criticisms of Freud's Theory thought that it was difficult to test and there was too much emphasis on Biology.
Humanistic Theory- was developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow and emphasizes the internal experiences such as feelings and thoughts and the individual's feelings of worth. It believes that humans are naturally good and have a positive drive towards their own self-fulfilment. Rogers was most interested in the interaction between mental health, self-concept and self-esteem. Maslow believed that every person has an in-born drive to develop all their talents and capacities and calls this self-actualization. The critics of this theory felt that it is naive to assume that all people are good and think it takes a narrow view of personality.
Social-Cognitive Theory- by Albert Bandura believes that personality comes from the person's history of interaction with the environment. He believes that self-efficacy comes from having a strong belief…… [Read More]
lack Elk Speaks: being the life story of a holy man of the Oglala Sioux
This book is about the life and development of an Indian medicine man, lack Elk. From a historical perspective the life of lack Elk is significant as he was present at the famous he attle of the Little ig Horn and he survived the Wounded Knee Massacre1890. lack Elk is also an important figure as he represents the Sioux people as a holy man or medicine man. The cultural as well as the spiritual aspects of the story of lack Elk also provides the modern reader with insight into the culture of the American Indian.
This book also has a message for the modern person living in a world such as ours, where war, poverty and other problems such as climate change have caused humanity to look at other cultures and views of life for…… [Read More]
elationship Between Individual & Society: Understanding Contemporary Society
The human being, by his nature, is a social creature. This nature drives him to live as a member of society, in which he interacts with others to satisfy his needs and instincts. No person can manage to satisfy his needs on his own; rather, he requires specific relationships with other human beings in order to satisfy them. The nature of these relationships is determined by the system which is implemented in the society. However, every system, in order to produce a progressive society, has to balance between the needs of the individual and the needs of the society. If the individual's needs are ignored, then he will live in misery. Also, if the society's needs are ignored, then the society will not function properly as the environment in which the individual's strive to satisfy their needs. (LBA, 2010)
The relationship…… [Read More]
Sublimation refers to this channeling of emotional intensity into creative work: to transform basic psychological or sexual urges into sublime revelations.
2. The collective unconscious is a term most commonly associated with the work of Carl Jung, a student of Freud's. Jung posited the existence of a grand database of human thought to which all persons have access. The idea that there is "nothing new under the sun" reflects the widespread belief in a collective unconscious. Common dreams, shared imagery, and similarity among world religions are extensions of the collective unconscious. The collective unconscious also serves as a wellspring of images, thoughts, sounds, and ideas that artists, musicians, and creative thinkers draw from during the creative process.
3. Archetypes are in fact part of the collective unconscious. Universal symbols or proto-ideas like "mother" or "father" are archetypal. Archetypes are what Plato referred to as the Forms. Jung deepened the theory…… [Read More]
Just as in the U.S. economy, where individuals have been economically left behind, such will be, and is, the case in the emerging global economy (p. 10). Ayres says that the impression, or the turning of society's blind eye towards the chaos of the economically disenfranchised, tends to cause the more affluent amongst us to believe that the term "global" means everybody will be a part of the emerging global economics, and this will produce an economic benefit that will be enjoyed by everyone (p. 10). That is not accurate, and, moreover, those people who presume to take a comfort in the economic globalization are not just turning a blind eye to the disenfranchised, but may find their selves vulnerable in a way that serves to be their light, much like Hank's in Monster's Ball. On this point Ayres says:
There is a popular impression, among the affluent and…… [Read More]
The research on HPD causes is clearly linked to personality theory, and can help to understand each theory. By first examining causation research, and then by locating personality theory which supports the research, it was easy to see the validity of personality theories, and how they can be used in real world research. The research also tied in to course material by again forcing real world situations to be applied to theoretical perspectives.
As research surrounding the causes of HPD is undertaken, more is learned about factors that affect those with HPD. If a definite cause, or a list of possible causes, can be discovered through such research, treatment options specifically designed to address those causes can be developed, resulting in a higher possibility of success. This type of research is vital if those with histrionic personality disorder are to ever be fully cured. Therapy without certain cause can reduce…… [Read More]
Definition of Middle Adulthood
When people are in their middle adulthood that means they are in the middle part of their lives. These include the people from the ages of 40 to 64, however a lot of researchers also use an age much lower to that i.e. 30. Some other studies do not measure the middle adulthood from the age that they reach, but from the tasks and opportunities that they have achieved. Looking overall into the middle adulthood, the people in that age have settled down, have a family, are under responsibilities of their children, and other people in the community; their career as well is settled down and they are having a comfortable family life. After the definition of middle adulthood is made clear, the researchers state that it is important that the society creates some roles for these people that they have to fulfill in…… [Read More]
Echo finally died of old age, and the raw emotion from the park rangers and zoologists just brought tears. Similarly, he thinks that now that he is older he can sift through the "B.S. In advertising and media hype," and enjoys such cynical, but rather realistic, portrays of modern society in Mad Men, Weeds, and Breaking Bad.
As far as personality development, Tom believes that children get a pretty good grounding from their parents and early school experiences. Concepts like empathy, morality, situational ethics, and reliability are built when one is young. However, that being said, Tom does not see himself as a rule follower like his parents. Both believed that if something said x in the rules, then x it was. They both also believed that a person should get a job and stay with that job until retirement. Tom has already had two careers, and estimates he will…… [Read More]
However, things have advanced. ith better technology, we can monitor the brain's activity while in REM. Certainly, one thing is certain: with out sleep there is no life. ithout sleep, body temperature, eating, infection prevention, and basic brain functioning suffer.
In terms of survival, where do dreams fit in? Researchers argue that the continuation of a complex brain process such as REM sleep indicates serves an important function for the survival of mammalian and avian species. Certainly, it was a very valuable step along the evolutionary ladder and led to survival. As the brain grew more complex, it needed downtime to process new information. Like any computer, especially a complex one, the human brain requires maintenance. Besides simple "down time," it also requires reprogramming every 24 hours. Just like our network computers take necessary updates and downloads, the brain needs a reprogramming session every 24 hours to recharge itself and…… [Read More]
The Jungian personality inventories are to some degree 'Westernized' one could argue, in the sense that they were originally developed by the psychoanalyst Carl Jung, around Western archetypes of personality. The MMPI also makes use of such tests in its more extensive survey, but more flexible use of the Jung system has yielded less dogmatic career recommendation and personality type instruments. After answering a series of questions, the tester receives a certain personality 'typing,' based upon whether he or she is primarily extroverted or introverted, sensing or intuitive, thinking or feeling, judging or perceiving. The tester can use this typology as a guide, not a diagnosis set in stone, on his or her path to achieve clearer self-understanding.
Jungian psychological typology. (2009). Personality tests. etrieved October 20, 2009 at http://www.mypersonality.info/personality-types/… [Read More]
Other essential traits include a commitment to work cooperatively with others and the ability to communicate effectively both orally and in writing."
We were also told that speech-language pathologists ought to exhibit:
sensitivity and concern for the problems of other people; warmth, caring and empathy for people; the need to help others realize their potential; the ability to accept new ideas; and the willingness to do research and to contribute new information.
Did this sound like me? I certainly think so, otherwise the aforementioned "deeper forces of nature" probably wouldn't have assured me that I was pursuing not only a fulfilling journey, but also the correct one, too.
Looking back, I realize that I reached a turning point in my education when I was able to participate in clinical observations. I observed patients with voice disorders. I observed patients who stammered and stuttered. I observed patients with foreign accents so…… [Read More]
The trainer will then focus on the steps to be taken to develop new skills. For example, if the trainer wants to talk about motivating, leading, negotiating, selling or speaking, it is best to start with what the learners do well before showing some chart on Maslow's theory, Posner's leadership practices, or selling skills from some standard package that has been develop elsewhere. Many foreign trainers make grave errors because they do not consider the values and beliefs of the trainee's culture. Training must make a fit with the culture of those being trained, including the material being taught, as well as the methods being used (Schermerhorn, 1994).
Abu-Doleh (1996) reports that Al-Faleh (1987), in his study of the culture influences on management development, asserts that "a country's culture has a great influence on the individual and managerial climate, on organizational behaviour, and ultimately on the types of management development…… [Read More]
As a conclusion, the authors suggest a functional architecture of cognitive emotional control. The review ends with suggestions for future study, including a consideration of cultural differences and their effect on the individual's ability to control emotion in a cognitive way.
Since the study is a review, the research methodology involves an overview of recent studies in the field of cognitive emotional control. The researchers appear to have made thorough work of this purpose, while also offering insight and into potential future applications of such research. Furthermore, their synthesis of research information is logical and relevant to the questions posed at the beginning of the document.
In conclusion, it is always fascinating to consider the different ways and preference types in how individuals might view and experience the world around them. Having an understanding of cognitive types is particularly useful in fields like education and leadership. Such an understanding…… [Read More]
Self and Social Psychology
Social psychology is a relatively new field of study in modern science. Its focus is on the identity of the "Self" -- the sense of individuality: the component parts that make up who one "is" and the meaning of the "whole" Self. This paper acts as a referenced for individuals unfamiliar with the general principles of social psychology. It aims to provide the reader with a basic overview of the field and to define key principles often used by social psychologists.
Discovering the Self
Self-Concept, Awareness, and Self-Schemas
Discovering the Self in social psychology can seem as simple as posing the question, "Who am I?" (Myers, 2010, p. 13). But answering the question is where the discovery of Self really begins. One's sense of identity, sense of self, sense of gender, race, categorical social grouping all factor into the answer. "Who am I?" raises the issue…… [Read More]
child can be influenced by many factors. Some of these include: race, social class and family composition. Each of these factors can directly affect how the child will grow into society and fill their role. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate how these factors may affect a child. Although race and social class are highly important factors, this review will focus on the outcome of a child based on family composition.
Family composition includes many factors in it of itself. The number of children in a family, the birth order of the child in question, and the range of ages of the children in the family are all variables to be taken into consideration. Jung was one of the first to study birth order and its effects on a child. According to Adler, "Carl Jung, was one of the first theorists to suggest that birth order influences personality. He…… [Read More]
Managing People. Module 5 Managing developing teams Module 6 Managing Performance. Develop a -page scenario a work team familiar. Describe work team organisational context operates. Include appendix.
Managing and developing teams and managing for performance when creating a new corporate software training manual
The Bruce Tuckman model of team development
Managing and developing teams and managing for performance when creating a new corporate software training manual
In my past place of employment (which will be known as company X), the members of the IT staff and members of other departments were forced to collaborate on a joint effort to create a corporate manual to explain the company's new computer operating system to all employees. Proper safety Internet 'hygiene;' dealing with the operating system on a daily basis, and orienting workers to the various new applications were all to be described. In other words, effective communication was…… [Read More]
Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches to Personality
Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches
Personality can be defined as the unique characteristics that various individuals possess. These characteristics differentiate individuals from others. In other words, personality can also be defined as a unique system of feelings, thoughts and behaviors that prevail over time and that is evident in various situations. Different psychologists have determined different approaches to study personality. Some psychologists try to examine various aspects of personality that an individual possesses, whereas, others try to understand why there are differences in the personalities of various individuals. (Morris et al., 2010)
Listed below are the two different approaches to personality;
Psychodynamic theories establish the thought that our personality is an outcome of inner psychological forces which are not under the control of our conscious mind. Psychodynamic approach basically studies the energy of our unconscious mind and it also explores how this energy…… [Read More]
Many archetypal Seers are physically blind, as is Pozzo in the second act, and at the same time Pozzo is more able to see the world beyond the stage and the present moment than are Estragon and Vladimir. Again, however, Beckett breaks the mold of the traditional Seer by making Pozzo almost villainous, especially in his treatment of Lucky, and by refraining form having him dispense any real and direct lessons. In a play and a world where such lessons cannot exist, it would be impossible for this character to fully measure up to the archetype of the Seer.
Lucky himself is also an archetype, that of the slave. The archetypal slave is not the somewhat romanticized figure of injustice striving towards freedom, but rather a peon that is not only reigned to but even defensive of its fate, not fully realizing -- or realizing and consciously rejecting -- the…… [Read More]
In this regard, Demorest concludes that, "Together these and other theorists have provided accounts of what it means to be a person that all fit within the psychodynamic paradigm, a perspective that holds a vision of people as at their core driven by dynamic forces in their unconscious minds" (2005, p. 3).
Freud's influence on psychoanalytic thought, though, required some time to take hold and many of his methods were rejected outright by the contemporary medical establishment, particularly in the United States. For example, following Freud's only trip to North America in 1909, one psychiatrist believed that, "Many patients were psychotically disturbed and deemed to be beyond the reach of Freud's intellectual 'talk therapy'" (Beam, 2001, p. 94). Not only did others think that Freud's methods were not appropriate for some patients, Freud himself acknowledged their limitations. In fact, Beam points out as well that, "Freud himself thought most schizophrenics…… [Read More]
Choosing the most effective style that relates to one's individual personality is very useful in terms of increasing one's learning strengths. I have personally found that in reality most people combine a number of learning styles in developing their unique approach to learning. From my perspective I have found that a combination of both imaginative and analytical learning styles best suits my needs. The emphasis in my approach is however on the imaginative style as I am more comfortable with a learning style that explores various sources and views of reality in a discursive and open-ended way. At the same time the more considered and careful analytical approach is also useful in that it tends to 'ground' one in reality.
Durbin G. (2002) Interactive Learning in Museums of Art and Design.
etrieved February 23, 2009, at http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:2V3DNJpxFKkJ:www.vam.ac.uk/files/file_upload/5752_file.pdf+%22dynamic+learning+style%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=10&gl=za&client=firefox-a
Exploring Psychology. Learning Styles. etrieved February 23, 2009, at http://www.dushkin.com/connectext/psy/ch06/learnsty.mhtml www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000308203
Guild,…… [Read More]
Nonetheless, this does not make philosophy any less important in the field.
Philosophy today can be seen as a manifestation of the workings of the human mind, while psychology studies the mind itself. Philosophy is therefore a very important aspect in helping the psychologist understand the human mind. Philosophy is indeed responsible for the birth of psychology as a discipline in itself, as mentioned.
While the early philosophers, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, are responsible for many of the ideas in both philosophy and psychology today, the 17th century philosopher ene Descartes is known as the "father of modern philosophy" (Consciousness 9). All these philosophers made a specific point of studying what it means to be human and conscious.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung built upon the work of all the above philosophers in order to develop his theories of the conscious and the…… [Read More]