Carl Jung Essays (Examples)

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Carl Yung Personality Iceberg Theory

Words: 910 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10456624

Carl Jung Personality/Iceberg Theory

Introduction to Carl Jung

Carl Jung grew up during the late nineteenth century in Switzerland in a Protestant Victorian culture. It was this culture that had such an impact on the values held by American individuals during that timeframe. Jung's father was a pastor and Jung, following medical school completion in the early part of the 1900s became a psychiatrist as well as a disciple of Sigmund Freud. (, paraphrased)

Summary of Jung's Personality/Iceberg Theory

The work of Sally Palmer Thomason (1992) states that the human psyche "could be compared to a giant iceberg -- the conscious mind is like the small exposed tip that is seen above the waterline; the far greater part, the unconscious mind, lies unseen, hidden beneath the surface." (Thomason, 1992) The work of Briggs Myer and Myers entitled "Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type" states that Jung wrote the theory of type…… [Read More]

References

Boeree, C. George (2006) Personality Theories. Retrieved from:  http://www.social-psychology.de/do/pt_jung.pdf 

Briggs Myers, I. And Myers, PB (1995) (Gifts Differing Understanding Personality Type). Nicholas Brealey Publishing 1995. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=yb_Vwmf1G6QC&dq=carl+jung+personality+test&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Thomason, Sally (1992) The living spirit of the crone: turning aging inside out. Theology and the Sciences. Fortress Press 2006. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=b3lOtWoob9EC&dq=Carl+Jung+Personality+Iceberg+Theory&source=gbs_navlinks_s
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Freud and Jung on Dreams

Words: 332 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29772522



As in other areas of psychology, Carl Jung agreed with Feud on many of the basics of dream interpretation. He began to see Freud's views as overly simplistic, however, and believed that there were deeper collective archetypes that made themselves known through dreams, and which represented basic elements of the human character as ways of dealing with unconscious issues. Also of great importance to Jung, according to Hall, was the context of the dream, especially when it came to dangerous elements: "It is important to look beyond the mere presence of physical danger to the dream-ego and make some assessment of its meaning within the dream" (Hall, 49). This is similar to Freudian interpretation in its seeking of a mechanism of meaning, rather than interpreting dreams as being purely symbolic in content, but Jung developed this much further.

orks Cited

Sigmund Freud. The Interpretation of Dreams. New York: Avon, 1980.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sigmund Freud. The Interpretation of Dreams. New York: Avon, 1980.

James Albert Hall. Jungian Dream Interpretation. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1983.
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Beyond the Contributions of Sigmund

Words: 1406 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93836076

Traveling worldwide, ogers participated in negotiating sessions involving disputes between Protestants and Catholics, religious, racial, and ethnic differences in South Africa, racial disputes in the United States, and consumers and health care professionals in several jurisdictions. He was widely recognized as being successful at resolving serious differences in most of these difference scenarios.

Carl ogers was born and raised in the United States but Carl Jung was born and raised in Switzerland. While ogers was an extroverted, personable individual, Carl Jung was a highly introverted individual who preferred a solitary life. By his own admission, Jung was happiest when he was left alone with his thoughts (Wehr, 2001).

Jung academic background was founded in the field of medicine. While attending medical school, Jung developed an interest in spirituality and it was this interest that eventually led to his becoming interested in psychiatry as a specialty. As part of his graduation…… [Read More]

References

Jung, C.G. (1968). Man and His Symbols. New York: Dell.

Kirschenbaum, H. (2008). Life and Work of Carl Rogers. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

Rogers, C. (1979). The Foundations of the Person-Centered Approach. La Jolla, CA: Centrre for Studies of the Person.

Wehr, G. (2001). Jung: A Biography. Boston: Shambhala.
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Exploring the Self Cultures History or Religion Through Myth

Words: 1308 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32028544

Myth

Exploring Self, Culture, History, eligion

Exploring the Self, Cultures, History, or eligion through Myth

Mythology (general)

PO Box, 60453,

LIVINGSTONE

Dear Lee,

How are you my little friend and how is everyone at your home? I hope all doing good. Pass my greetings to them.

I received your letter and was happy to know that you have been promoted to 4 rth and the final year of your college. Wow! You'll graduate after a year. Lee! You mentioned in your letter that you have chosen Mythology (general) as your elective subject and that you are facing some difficulties in it. I went through the attached course outline; there I found out that you will be exploring self, cultures, history, or religion through myth. Also there was a list of theories that you will be presenting throughout this course.

I have collected some data regarding the first theory "Carl Jung's…… [Read More]

References

Boeree, C.G. (2006). Personality Theories. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from    http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/jung.html   .

Carl-jung.net. Concept of Collective Unconscious at Jung. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from  http://www.carl-jung.net/collective_unconscious.html .

Integration Training. Inner Voices: Embracing all the Parts of Our Personality. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from  http://integrationtraining.co.uk/blog/2011/01/inner-voices-embracing-all-parts-of-personality.html .

Jung, C.G. (1970). The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
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Worlds of Phaedo and the

Words: 4337 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48423269

It is only through occult understanding that the forms and the archetypal images and symbols can be interpreted.

Here we see that the term unconsciousness is very similar to the Platonic ideals and forms. Another aspect that will form part of the theoretical perspective of this study is the concept of transformation. In order to understand the occult and its relationship to the forms, a process of transformation has to take place. In Platonic terms this transformation is a radical change in life, morality and ethics; while for Jung it is transformation in terms of the deeper understanding of the relation of the unconscious to the conscious mind.

Transformation also has related occult meaning and symbols such as fire. Fire is an age-old indication of change of perception and consciousness. This also refers to Jungian concepts such as the shadow. There are many other points of reference and similarity between…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Archetypes as Defined by Carl Jung) October 9, 2004. http://www.acs.appstate.edu/~davisct/nt/jung.html#shadow

Arnzen. M. "The Return of the Uncanny." 1977. University of Oregon. March 17, 2004. http://paradoxa.com/excerpts/3-3intro.htm

Boeree, G. Carl Jung. October 11, 2004. http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/jung.html

Christian Churches of God) Mysticism Chapter 1 Spreading the Babylonian Mysteries (No. B7_1). October 9, 2004. http://www.holocaustrevealed.org/english/s/B7_1.html
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Therapeutic Methods Models

Words: 1255 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24517630

Timeline

Sigmund Freud (1856-1949)

Sigmund Freud is the undisputed father of psychoanalysis. Should this statement seem to contradict assertions regarding the age-old status of psychology, it must be clarified that Freud was the first theorist to formalize the process of analysis, a practice that is not used in all modalities of psychology today. Analysis, specifically the psychoanalysis so often parodied in the cartoon of the tormented patient lying on the couch before the bearded quasi-Freudian father figure of the therapist, presupposes in its theoretical structure the existence of an subconscious element to the human mind, in other words, that how humans think they immediately perceive the world is not all that there is to human consciousness.

Freud used techniques such as free association to elicit reasons for his patient's behaviors. Freud began his treatment upon hysterics. He grew to believe that unresolved childhood traumas rather than physiological causes were at…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Pavlov, Ivan. (2003) Lectures and translations.   http://www.ivanpavlov.com   last modified: April 14, 2003. Retrieved on September 19, 2004 at
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Jungian Analysis of Eternal Sunshine

Words: 2108 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72744861

The events of the film show that despite having Joel consciously removed from her mind, the unconscious need for him remains. This explains why Clementine ends up with Joel even after they both erase each other. The story of Joel shows the same process. In Joel's case, his collective unconscious also draws him to Clementine. His problem occurs when he finds that Clementine has erased him. He then makes a conscious decision to erase her, with this decision mainly driven by anger and a desire for revenge. However, even as he erases Clementine his unconscious seems to alert him to the fact that this isn't a relationship he should let go of. This explains why Joel begins to fight the process, as his unconscious mind struggles to save his relationship with Clementine and prevent it from being erased. ith the way the technique is presented, it seems that there is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind. Dir. Michel Gondry. Focus Features, 2004.

Jung, C.G. The Portable Jung. New York: Penguin, 1976.

Litt, S. "Carl Jung on Human Relations." Retrieved 18 May, 2005. PositiveHealth.com. URL: http://www.positivehealth.com/permit/Articles/Regular/litt60.htm

Seamon, J.G., & Kenrick, D.T. Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1994.
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Psychology of Religion

Words: 540 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76800587

problem of evil and suffering has been an issue since the beginning of time. Carl Jung has written passionately and eloquently about the possibility and impossibility of transcending this problem.

According to Jung's reasons for this problem was that God was a schmuck towards Job (and by extension to all innocents who suffer from 'acts of God') due to His not being fully conscious. A strange theory since, it would seem that by definition God is Omniscient.

However, God, in Jung's model, contains all opposites and paradoxes, which includes choosing not to consult his own self.

If he had done so, he could have seen that Job would have been faithful to the end and not needed to take Satan's "bet."

The devil is still able to waltz into heaven in the book of Job and complain about how rotten mankind is. So, it is clear according to Jung, that…… [Read More]

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Axia College Material TV Character

Words: 787 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15734838

The Jungian model uses rationality and spirituality in place of Freudian sexuality as the main determiners of personality. Jung also believed that personality continued to evolve until at least middle-age; far later then the pubescent cementing of personality that Freud described. In today's world, Jungian types (with the additional differentiation between perceiving and judging) are used much more often than Freudian models.

Another great personality theorist was Carl Rogers. Rogers took a vast departure from both Feud and Jung in his basic approach to psychology and especially when it came to personality. Rather than ever seeing personality as a finished product, Rogers believed that the innate purpose of a human individual was fulfillment of our genetic capabilities through the completion of positive works, a drive that he called the actualizing tendency. Personality is born through the relationship of an individual's self-concept with their inborn potential -- the closer the two…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Processes

Words: 1376 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69227851

Cognitive Processes

God has created every person with different nature and interests that builds ones personality. The idea of studying different personalities was proposed in 1920s by some of the famous scholars and scientists. Carl Jung was the first scholar who described the Psychological Types. He categorized people as extroverted and introverted. People with extroverted personality are more oriented towards external world and goes through new experiences whereas the introvert personalities are more oriented towards internal worlds and memories. Later on, Jung identified other differences in the personalities and named them functions which are now called as Cognitive Processes.

Types of Cognitive Processes

The extroverts and introverts deal with the world in their own style. According to Jung there are four main styles that are sensing, intuition, thinking and feeling. Jung categorized these four types under two main headings perception and judgment.

Perception -- (Sensation and Intuition)

Judgment -- (Thinking…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barrett, L., Sorensen, R. & Hartung, T. (1985). Personality Type Factors of Faculty and Students Implications for Agricultural College Teaching. NACTA, 1-5.

Berens, L.V. & Nardi, D. (2004). Understanding Yourself and Others: An Introduction to the Personality Type Code. Telos Publications.

Boeree, G. (2006). Personality Theories. C. George Boeree, 1-17

Henden, G. (2004). Intuition and its Role in Strategic Thinking. Sandvika: Nordberg Hurtigtrykk.
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Personality Development Most Personality Theories

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77661972

shame and doubt; initiative vs. guilt; industry vs. inferiority; identity vs. role confusion; intimacy vs. isolation; generativity vs. stagnation; and ego integrity vs. despair. Like Piaget, Erikson's theory also explains the factors that influence personality development albeit through a framework of psychosocial factors. Thus, this theory too is immensely valuable as it enables parents and teachers to help a child successfully negotiate each psychosocial crisis and thereby develop a healthy sense of self.

Piaget and Erikson's work is valuable but is limited since the focus is on explaining the process through which personality develops. Thus, both theories stop short of explaining final personality outcomes and their functioning. For this reason, I agree with Carl Jung's personality theory more than any other since it offers an explanation of how the individual psyche works, by itself, and in terms of its relation to the universe. In fact, I find that Jung's personality…… [Read More]

References

AllPsych. (2004, March 21). Personality Development. Psychology 101. Retrieved Nov. 10, 2004: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/development.html
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Self the Concept of Self

Words: 3256 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26574282

The key to flexibility of motivation is intrinsically conflicting motivational structures. The self as defined by Jung is the core or central component that keeps these opposing forces operating as an integrated whole. To what closing stages does this process manage? It was formed by evolution and so survival is the architect but it is survival not just of the next generation but into an unclear future. The self as described by Jung is the psychic image of this limitless potential for prospect development. For itself it focuses on the various dimensions of human functioning that put in to survival including ingenuity in all its forms.

Sensing the self as something irrational, as an impalpable existent, to which the ego is neither opposed nor subject, but simply attached, and about which it spins very much as the earth does round the sun, accordingly the goal of individuation is reached. The…… [Read More]

References

Cavell, M. (1993). The Psychoanalytic Mind: From Freud to Philosophy. Cambridge, MA:

Deigh, J. (1996). The Sources of Moral Agency: Essays in Moral Psychology and Freudian

Theory. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press,

Geller, L. (1984). Another look at self-actualization. Journal of humanistic psychology, 24:100
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Film Psych Analyzing the Sopranos Through the

Words: 1133 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8894263

Film Psych

Analyzing the Sopranos through the eyes of Carl Jung

Unconscious Eyes

The award-winning HBO television series, The Sopranos, is one that can be analyzed by people everywhere. Each time a new episode airs, it has more symbolism than the last. The various storylines, plots, and characters are divulged in a way that creates a certain tension among the audience; and week after week, people feel compelled to come back for more.

So why is it that people feel bound to their television sets each fall when a new season of The Sopranos commences? Most people in America will answer this way: "It's great drama." But there must be a driving force behind the drama, a technique that the writers, directors, and producers use to hold America's interest. Carl G. Jung, author of Man and His Symbols, might have a few ideas regarding this.

In Man and His Symbols,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Estes, Clarissa Pinkola. Women Who Run With the Wolves: Myths and Stories of the Wild Woman Archetype. New York: Ballantine Books, 1992.

Jung, Carl G. Man and His Symbols. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company Inc., 1964.
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Ann Casement's 1998 The Qualitative

Words: 975 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19507279



In the prologue to Jung's (1965) book, Memories, dreams, reflections, he states that life, to him, is like a plant that lives on its rhizome. The real life of the plant is not seen but hidden, rather, in the rhizome.

The part that appears above ground lasts only a single summer. Then it withers away -- an ephemeral apparition. When we think of the unending growth and decay of life and civilizations, we cannot escape the impression of absolute nullity. Yet I have never lost a sense of something that lives and endures underneath the eternal flux. What we see is the blossom, which passes. The rhizome remains.

Jung (1965) goes on to explain that his book about his life has been based on the rhizome of his life -- the interior happenings as opposed to the exciting events of his life -- like traveling -- because it is the…… [Read More]

References:

Casement, Ann. (1998). Post-Jungian today: key papers in contemporary analytical psychology. Routledge.

Dunne, Claire. (2002). Carl Jung: wounded healer of the soul. Continuum International Publishing Group.

Edinger, Edward. (1992). Ego and archetype. Shambhala.

Jung, Carl. (1965). Memories, dreams, reflections. Vintage Book Edition.
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Psychodynamic Counselors Facilitate Change In Order to

Words: 2851 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3925431

psychodynamic counselors facilitate change?

In order to understand how psychodynamic counselors facilitate change through a therapeutic relationship with their client, it is worth discussing what psychodynamic therapy is, how it is used, how it originated, and who some of its most notable founders were. Towards the end of this document, in the description of how psychodynamic therapy is used, descriptions of recent psychodynamic therapy sessions that the author undertook in a triad setting will be described.

The mind, personality, and psyche are terms that refer to the interrelationships of a person's mental, emotional, or what could be termed psychological characteristics. Another way to think of this is that the psyche, mind, and personality are the forces that drive a person to think what they do, to act out how they choose, the way a person relates to themselves and how they relate to the world around them particularly the role…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Bowlby, John 1999, Attachment and Loss: Vol I, 2nd Ed. Basic Books, New York.

"Depth Psychology" Stepping Stones: bringing depth psychology to everyday life [online] viewed March 23, 2011, www.depthpsychologytoday.com.

Gay, P 1989, The Freud Reader, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York.

Hall, CS 1954, A Primer in Freudian Psychology. Meridian Books, New York.
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Myth for Freud Myth Was

Words: 566 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58103654

Levi-Strauss also suggested that myth offered the "illusion" of being able to "understand the universe," which suggests a psychological purpose to myth creation (cited by Bierlein, p. 262).

Freud believed that myths shared a language with dreams, and were ultimately the "products of repressed individual childhood memories played out in conscious language," (Bierlein, p. 282). Unlike Jung, Freud did not believe that myths were "the products of any myth-producing area of the unconscious universal to all human beings," (Bierlein 282). Instead Freud explained the phenomenon of parallel myths in terms of a shared human psychological experience; human beings share the same neuroses. Parallel myths occur because all human beings share similar biological, psychological, and social experiences.

Jung, on the other hand, conceived of a collective unconscious that was shared by all human beings. Dreams and myths are "definitely related," according to Jung, but are not "the products of individual memories,"…… [Read More]

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Intra-Psychic Viewpoint

Words: 992 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89005565

Freud, Jung and tar Wars

The tar Wars movies, especially the first three, are clearly a type of myth written to demonstrate archetypal personalities. The characters are driven by their behavior, so what they do and why they take the actions they take can be used to analyze their characters in terms of Jungian and Freudian theories.

In the Empire trikes Back, many of the characters are acting out of great personal need or personal striving, and many of them fit fairly well into Jung's theory or archetype personalities.

The "elf" is the highest form a personality can take, well integrated and centered. To become a self-actualized elf is Luke kywalker's goal and the final achievement of his mentor, Obi-Wan Kenobe. In an interesting twist, Darth Vader also sees himself that way. He believes self-actualization can be either good or evil, and finds evil more powerful and rewarding.

Most viewers…… [Read More]

Sources

Boeree, C. George. " Carl Jung." BioWeb. Accessed via the Internet November 3, 2002.  http://www.studiocleo.com/librarie/jung/boeree1main.html 

British Psychological Society (BPS).

2001. "Freudian Therapy." Freud: the Id, Ego, and Superego. Published on the Internet by PsycheNet-UK. Accessed via the Internet November 3, 2002. http://www.psychnet-uk.com/psychotherapy/psychotherapy_freudian.htm.

Lukas, George. The Empire Strikes Back. Produced by LucasFilm. ISBN 0-7939-6098-3
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Underworld Journeys and Depression the

Words: 2926 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52470896

Melancholia sat in, as the loss I felt became less and less related to my body. I began to court death first symbolically and then literally. Freud would have noted the presence of the death wish in addition to describing the symptoms of "melancholia," or depression. Symptoms include "a profoundly painful dejection, cessation of interest in the outside world, loss of the capacity to love, inhibition of all activity," as well as self-loathing (Freud 1947, p. 39). The symptoms of depression are skin to the symptoms of mourning the loss of a loved one, with the key difference being that in mourning the reason for the despair is clearer and within the conscious realm.

The only means to discover the reason for melancholia is to explore the unconscious realm. My descent into a dark state of mind parallels the stories of Eurydice and Persephone who both longed to remain submerged…… [Read More]

References

Downing, C. (2006). Looking back at Orpheus. Chapter 10. Gleanings. New York: Universe, 238-267

Downing, C. (2006. Journeys to the underworld. Chapter 13 Gleanings. New York: Universe, 129-44

Freud, S. (1947). Mourning and melancholia.

Jung, C. (1963). Confrontation with the unconscious. Chapter 6. Memories Dreams, Reflections.
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Clinical Psychology

Words: 60005 Length: 200 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12402637

Deam Content as a Theapeutic Appoach: Ego Gatification vs. Repessed Feelings

An Abstact of a Dissetation

This study sets out to detemine how deams can be used in a theapeutic envionment to discuss feelings fom a deam, and how the theapist should engage the patient to discuss them to eveal the elevance of those feelings, in thei pesent, waking life. It also discusses the meaning of epetitious deams, how medication affects the content of a deame's deams, and if theapists actually "guide" thei clients in what to say. This "guidance" might be the theapist "suggesting" to thei clients that they had suffeed some type of ealy childhood tauma, when in fact, thee wee no taumas in thei ealy childhoods. The oigin of psychiaty is not, as it would have people believe, medicine, theapy o any othe even faintly scientific endeavo. Its oiginal pupose was not even to cue mental affliction.…… [Read More]

references. This may be related to the large decrease in familiar settings in the post-medication dreams. Although Domhoff (1996) does not list a high percentage of elements from the past as an indicator of psychopathology, he does mention that people suffering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a type of anxiety disorder, tend to have dreams in which distressing events are relived again and again. It may be that other anxiety disorders invoke a similar response in which the dreamer has a tendency to dwell on past events, which merits further research.

A final observation is that the results of this study provide support for Hartmann's (1984) biological model of the effects of drugs on dreams. An early study which focused mainly on long-term sleep patterns found little change in dream content associated with psychotropic drug administration (Hartmann & Cravens, 1974), but a later study conducted in Hartmann's laboratory indicated that increased levels of dopamine resulted in more vivid, nightmarish dreams (Hartmann, Russ, Oldfield, Falke, & Skoff, 1980). Based on his own research and the literature on drugs and nightmares, Hartmann (1984) proposed that drugs that increase the neurotransmitters dopamine or acetylcholine, or decrease norepinephrine or serotonin, produce nightmares and more vivid and bizarre dreams.

Drugs that have the opposite effects would decrease the incidence of disturbing dreams. The dreamer in this study was taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, which served to increase the effects of serotonin. According to the biological model, with the onset of medication the dreamer should have experienced a decrease in nightmares, or, in Hall and Van de Castle's terms, lower aggression, negative emotions, and other unpleasant factors. This was, in fact, the case.

The emphasis on statistically significant differences without regard to effect sizes slowed progress in the study of dream content by creating unnecessary polarities and focusing energy on methodological arguments. The introduction of effect sizes into the study of dream content makes it possible to suggest that the controversy over home and laboratory collected dream reports never should have happened. The emphasis in dream content studies henceforth should be on effect sizes and large samples. Then future dream researchers could focus on testing new ideas using dream reports collected either at home or in the sleep laboratory.

Summary
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Inanna the Myth of Innana

Words: 2975 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37594152

This mythical structure has a long history in terms of mythical and visionary experience in all cultures of the world. One could also refer to the earliest Shamanic forms of religion and the myth of the dismembered Shaman who is also the transformed healer of others. In these myths the journey to the underworld, and the process of the destruction of the old self or ego does not result in final death but in transformation and greater insight into reality.

Therefore, taking the above brief sketch of the significance of this mythical structure into account we can apply it to a Jungian analysis of the ego.

When Inanna descends to the Underworld she divests herself of her previous life and this is symbolized by the way that she throws off the accouterments and symbols of her previous existence. When she enters the realm of the dead she can only do…… [Read More]

References

Ewen Robert B. ( 1998) An Introduction to Theories of Personality. 5th ed. Mahwah, NJ:

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Henderson, J.L., & Oakes, M. (1963). The Wisdom of the Serpent: The Myths of Death, Rebirth and Resurrection. New York: George Braziller. Retrieved April 5, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24109155

Inanna. Retrieved from http://www.linsdomain.com/gods&goddesses/inanna.htm
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Expression of Jungian Archetypes in

Words: 2717 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81342297

The Oedipus complex suggests that every son wants to marry his mother and kill his father -- and that is precisely what Claudius does. "Sex and the life instincts in general are, of course, represented somewhere in Jung's system. They are a part of an archetype called the shadow. It derives from our prehuman, animal past, when our concerns were limited to survival and reproduction, and when we weren't self-conscious" (Boeree 1997). Hamlet's intellect and rationality are suppressed by his philosophical knowledge, as exemplified in his desire to return to ittenberg at the beginning of the play. Claudius, in contrast to Hamlet, takes what he wants. Before he learns of Claudius' crime by the ghost, Hamlet does not seek bloody revenge, or construct a plot like Claudius may have done -- he merely mourns that his mother has remarried and been 'stained.' Thus, Claudius' skillful wielding of power, his open…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boeree, George C. 1997. "Carl Jung." Updated 2006. 12 Apr 2008.    http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/jung.html   

Pettifor, Eric. "Major Archetypes and the Process of Individuation." Personality and Consciousness. 1995. 12 Apr 2008. http://pandc.ca/?cat=car_jung&page=major_archetypes_and_individuation

Shakespeare, William. "Hamlet." The Shakespeare Homepage. 12 Apr 2008. http://shakespeare.mit.edu/hamlet
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Psychoanalysis it Is Sigmund Freud

Words: 3164 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36111100

(Hobdell; Fordham, 1998)

Freud also contributed to sociology and closely linked the works with psychoanalysis. The consideration that Freud's work is about individuals has alienated sociologists from considering the work as a sociological Inquiry. While the psychoanalysis was progressing and gaining ground in Europe and America, Sociologists were being influenced by the theories that related to socialization. This was more related to the gender roles in children, and about sexuality. The social group life was also analyzed with the backdrop of psychoanalysis but not in the direct way. (Bocock, 2002)

The theory of infantile sexuality was published in 1905 although Freud has talked of it earlier. It became the basis of psychoanalytic investigations. The letters he wrote to Fliess from 1896 shows the ideas shaping up it was in 1905 that infantile sexuality as a concept was published. The biogenetic laws and the theory of infantile sexuality shaped later speculations…… [Read More]

References

Bakan, David. (1958) "Sigmund Freud and the Jewish Mystical Tradition" D. Van Nostrand:

Princeton, NJ.

Bocock, Robert. (2002) "Sigmund Freud"

Routledge: New York.
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Tibetan Buddhism

Words: 2586 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51461964

Tibetan uddhism's doctrine that human consciousness has a primordial oneness with the universe and is eternal is perhaps best understood through a comparison with Western thought on the subject. The study of human consciousness by Western civilization has been dominated by scientific materialism. As a result, although major breakthroughs have occurred in understanding mind and body phenomena, the tendency has been to reduce the mind to no more than biological processes in the brain.

This conceptual framework of human consciousness is supported by the theory of evolution, which maintains that human emotions and behavioral traits are necessary for survival in the outer physical universe.

Viewed from this context, the assumption that human consciousness ceases at the moment of death seems fairly logical. Tibetan uddhism, however, has a very different view of the origins, nature, and role of consciousness in the natural world.

In stark contrast to Western beliefs, Tibetan uddhism…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Becker, C.B. Breaking the Circle: Death and the Afterlife in Buddhism. Carbondale, IL:

Southern Illinois University Press, 1993.

Collingwood, R.G. The Idea of Nature. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1945.

Gyatso, T. "The Key to the Middle Way: A Treatise on the Realization of Emptiness." In The
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Spiritual Practices Beyond Religion

Words: 2101 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93560343

Spiritual Practices Beyond eligion

Spirituality in Modern Psychology

Spirituality has previously held a very limited role within psychological and counseling strategies within the context of the Western world. In psychology, more traditional methods revolve around more scientific methods. Thus, spirituality has often been overlooked within the mental health genre as a way to bring greater capabilities to patients. However, as more alternative strategies begin to further intrude onto traditional Western medicines, spirituality is becoming a new and innovative strategy for psychologists and counselors to adapt to their already established strategy methods.

The mythology of spirituality impacts different people in very different ways. It helps shape how we view spirituality, but also how we attain our own sense of spirituality. According to the research, "mythology is the oldest path to the sacred," (Elkins 1998 p 191). As human beings, mythology was our first understanding of the spiritual realm, and the practice…… [Read More]

References

Chandler, Cynthia K.; Holden, Janice Miner; & Kolander, Cheryl A. (2001). Counseling for spiritual wellness: Theory and practice. Journal of Counseling and Development, 71. 168-186. Web.  http://wellness.unl.edu/wellness_documents/counseling_for_spiritual_wellness_theory_practice.pdf 

Elkins, David N. (1998). Beyond Religion: A Personal Program for Building a Spiritual Life Outside the Walls of Traditional Religion. Quest Books.

Murphy, Michael; Donovan, Steven; & Taylor, Eugene. (2011). The physical and psychological effects of meditation: A review of contemporary research. Wisdom Practices. Web.  http://media.wisdompractices.org/uploads/files/Meditation_Intro.pdf 

Peck, M. Scott. (2002). The Road Less Traveled: A New Psychology of Love, Traditional Values, and Spiritual Growth. Simon & Schuster.
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Humanitarian Traits Through Spirituality in

Words: 1780 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38165569

Spirituality is not a set of rules and it cannot be understood as an object or even an objective but instead spirituality is a state of being and the essence of the true nature of mankind when receiving positive spiritual energy and guidance and then taking those and applying them to daily live and implementing the accompanying principles, ethics and morals into the processes in forming and directing the culture and society.

ibliography

erry, Thomas in Hill, ernice. Money and the Spiritual Warrior. Jung: Reflections on Psychology, Culture and Life. 10 May 2009. Online available at: http://www.cgjungpage.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=769&Itemid=40

C.G. Jung. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1969.

Hill, ernice. Money and the Spiritual Warrior. Jung: Reflections on Psychology, Culture and Life. 10 May 2009. Online available at: http://www.cgjungpage.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=769&Itemid=40

Kevin Phillips, Wealth and Democracy: A Political History of the American Rich, roadway ooks, 2002, see also: Public…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berry, Thomas in Hill, Bernice. Money and the Spiritual Warrior. Jung: Reflections on Psychology, Culture and Life. 10 May 2009. Online available at: http://www.cgjungpage.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=769&Itemid=40

C.G. Jung. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1969.

Hill, Bernice. Money and the Spiritual Warrior. Jung: Reflections on Psychology, Culture and Life. 10 May 2009. Online available at: http://www.cgjungpage.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=769&Itemid=40

Kevin Phillips, Wealth and Democracy: A Political History of the American Rich, Broadway Books, 2002, see also: Public Citizen News, Nov-Dec. 2002, pg. 7 and New York Times Review of Books, 7/18/02,
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How Have Psychologists Revisited Freud's Theory of Repression

Words: 2910 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90202356

Freud's Theory Of Repression

Freud is popularly known as the father of psychoanalysis and the idea of psychological repression of memories and urges, even though he was neither the first psychoanalyst or even the first to posit the existence of repression. His justifiable fame comes both from the way he popularized psychoanalysis, and from his further development of its theories. He is commonly attributed with creating the theory of the conscious and subconscious, of the many sexual complexes and drives which run our lives and our subconscious, and with the idea that things which are not socially acceptable will be hidden away within the subconscious. Freud called this process of burying the unacceptable aspects of life away into the subconscious regression, which he was to eventually succinctly defined thus: "the essence of repression lies simply in the function of rejecting and keeping something out of consciousness." (Rieff, 147) It is…… [Read More]

Bibliography." August 8, 2004. http://www.usd.edu/~tgannon/jungbio.html

Matson, Floyd. "Humanistic theory: the third revolution in psychology" The Humanist, March/April 1971. August 8,. 2004 http://web.isp.cz/jcrane/IB/Humcrit.html

Slater, Lauren. "Why Is Repression Possibly Better Than Your Therapist?" New York Times, 23 Feb 2003. August 8, 2004. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/23/magazine/23REPRESSION.htm

Rieff, P. (Ed.) Freud: General Psychological Theory. New York: Collier, 1963

Webster, Richard. Excerpts from Why Freud was Wrong: Sin, Science and Psychoanalysis (1995). August 8, 2004. http://www.richardwebster.com
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Human Development

Words: 1594 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63871949

Life Period

I have chosen midlife as my study since it is the period which is the most fascinating and on which too many conflicting and ambiguous statements are brought to bear. This may be due to the fact that the middle years contains too little regularity and too much diversity therefore many of the models that I have seen differ too in the age range given to the mid life years. To elaborate: Whilst most models define midlife as beginning at 40 and ending at 60, a ten-year range exists at either end with some theorists actually considering midlife as beginning at 30 and ending at 75 (Lachman, 2004). Given too the differences in people, magnified by socio-historical and geographical elements, people are bound to indicate differences in their mid -- life period. It is for this reason possibly that Erickson's findings sound so quaint to many western ears,…… [Read More]

Sources

Caspi A. (1987). Personality in the life course. J.Personal. Soc. Psychol. 5, 31203 -- 13

Erikson E. (1963). Childhood and Society. New York: Norton.

Jung C.G. (1971). The Portable Jung. New York: Viking.

Lachman, M.E. (2004). Development in Midlife. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 305-331.
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Collision of Meaningful Coincidences the Theory That

Words: 1812 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50940228

Collision of Meaningful Coincidences

The theory that attracted me to my ideas about this paper is Jae's theory of openness, which posits that the more open a person is in the process of communication, the more creative that person will be when it comes to solving problems. Much of life, as we know, is about learning to solve certain problems that arise. Hence, according to this theory, the key to finding answers to things that puzzle us and stand in our way is learning openness in communication that leads to creativity and problem solving.

Communication Creates a Collision of Meaningful Coincidences

A couple summers ago (in 2010) I was driving to San Diego on Interstate 8 with a couple friends for a holiday away from my home in Houston, Texas, and the odometer in the 8-year-old Ford was 88,880. I remember that because one of my friends asked how many…… [Read More]

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Precis on the Book Myth Literature and the African World by Wole Soyinka

Words: 2403 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6890626

Multiculturalism

Myth, Literature, and the African World

The book Myth, Literature, and the African World, was published in 1976, twenty years before the author, Wole Soyinka, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.

In his Preface, he clearly wants to convey that African academia has created a kind of "intellectual bondage and self-betrayal" by not facing up to truths about the fact that African literature must not be merely "an appendage of English literature." This was written twenty-eight years ago, of course, and because the instructions ask that "only this reference" be used, one cannot know if indeed African universities now have a section for "Comparative Literature" -- which would presumably allow for the inclusion of literature about Africa, by Africans. And that literature would, hopefully, be reflective of what African cultures were like during the continent was dominated by European colonial powers -- something that Soyinka clearly would like…… [Read More]

Reference

Soyinka, Wole. Myth, Literature and the African World. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press, 1976.

. Wole Soyinka, Myth, Literature and the African World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976), ix.
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Humanistic and Transpersonal Psychologies Existential-Humanistic

Words: 1357 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69311945



Both Existential and Transpersonal psychologies have this in common, a respect for and utilization of Eastern techniques to reach a state of stress-free maintenance of human psychological health.

But the differences lie in their origins. While Transpersonal psychologies are related to the Eastern or Western indigenous epistemologies, Existential-Humanistic psychologies have a Freudian origin, coming through Freud and his descendents. While Transpersonal psychology is considered to be a "fourth force" in psychology, psychoanalysis, behaviorism and humanistic psychologies are outside of the "transegoic" elements, ignoring insights from the world's contemplative traditions in both Eastern and Western religions. Labeled "Western," Existential and Humanistic psychologies are focused mainly on prepersonal and personal aspects of the psyche.

Existential and humanistic psychologies are based on the writings not only of Freud, but Kierkegaard, Nietzche, Heidigger, Sartre, Camus and other European intellectuals who had experienced European wars and chaos during the twentieth century. Important to them were…… [Read More]

References

Cortright, B. (1997). Psychotherapy and spirit: Theory and practice in transpersonal psychology. New York: State University of New York Press.

Daniels, M. (2005). Shadow, self, spirit: Essays in transpersonal psychology. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.

May, R. (1969) Love and Will, New York: W.W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Sartre, J.P. (1956). Being and nothingness (H. E. Barnes, Trans.). New York: Washington Square Press.
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Slips if IT's Not One

Words: 5007 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43071533

(apaport 1942: 149)

It is important here to have some framework with which to discuss parapraxes

Aitchison, as a psycholinguist blends both the disciplines of psychology and linguistics to give a more balanced view overall. She proposes first two broad definitions for type of parapraxis. (1998: 244) the first is when a wrong item or word is unintentionally chosen, these are generally referred to as slips of the tongue and an example would be, "Did you remember to buy some toothache?" eplacing the word toothpaste, which was intended, with toothache, which was unintended. She also refers to these more properly as slips of the brain. Secondly there is a classification of errors that are due to the faulty assemblages of the language within the statement. The word choice is usually correct but the grammatical assemblage of the statement is not. Here is an example she uses of this:, "Someone's been…… [Read More]

References

Aitchison, Jean. 1998. The Articulate Mammal: An Introduction to Psycholinguistics. London: Routledge.

Bear, Gordon. 1992. 'A Freudian Slip?.' Teaching of Psychology 19:174-175.

Coles, Robert (2000) Darwin, freud, and adam phillips. Raritan 19 (4), p1

De Chumaceiro, Cora L. D'az. 1997. 'Serendipity and Its Analogues in Runco's Problem Finding, Problem Solving, and Creativity.' Creativity Research Journal 10:87-89.
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Management of Stress and Tension

Words: 6513 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7116024

Management of Stress and Tension

Goals-- What do you wish to complete?

The answer to attain a postgraduate degree can develop into a very long journey. For me, the contending aspects of time and financial resources constantly appeared to present problems and control the situation. In truth, it would be considerably much easier to provide every single argument present against returning to institution at this time. One can say that numerous considerable life-changing occasions experienced just recently would be cause or motive enough to put off the commencement of the Master's of Business Administration (MBA) program. Concerns associated with household loss and task modification can be made use of as proof in support of delay. Financial pressures can likewise exist yet an additional motive that the moment in time, endeavor, and cost needed for an MBA would not be a required use of resources. Nonetheless, regardless of every one of…… [Read More]

References

Center for Applications of Psychological Type, Inc.. (2011). What are archetypes. Retrieved from http://www.capt.org/discover-your-archetypes/about-archetypes.htm

Cohen, B. (2001, April 21). Average Salary for First Year Accountants. Retrieved from eHow Money: http://www.ehow.com/info_8271661_average-salary-firstyear-accountants.html

Curtis, J. (2009). Life change stress test. WebMD. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/hw-popup/life-change-stress-test

Hansen, R.S. (n.d.). The Master of Business Administration: Is the MBA Worth the Time, Effort, and Cost? Retrieved from Quint Careers: http://www.quintcareers.com/MBA_degree.html
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Philosophy of Evil

Words: 1124 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86100702

Evil Problems

The role of evil is generally misunderstood in the human approach to life. The fear of committing evil lies paramount within all facets of society. The purpose of this essay is to argue that to solve the problem of evil, humanity must begin to embrace the benefits and solutions to problems that evil provides. This essay will first define the concept of evil and discuss the problem in a philosophic manner that can help transmute evil ideas into more productive energies that can be used for growth and evolution

Defining Evil

The power of words carry emotional value that create energetic fields that permeate in the environment. Some words carry great power and instantly polarize the conditioned mind into an immediate and often irrational emotional reaction. "Evil" carries with it spiritual, moral and ethical values and energy that suggest the word's meaning has super power on and over…… [Read More]

References

Boase, E. (2008). Constructing meaning in the face of suffering: Theodicy in lamentations. Vetus Testamentum, 58(4-5), 4-5.

De Wijze, S. (2002). Defining Evil: Insights from the Problem of" Dirty Hands." The Monist, 210-238.

Jung, C.G., & Stein, M. (1977). Jung on evil. Jung, 436.

The Merriam-Webster Dictionary (nd). "Evil." Viewed 7 Dec 2014. Retrieved from  http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/evil
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Comparison of Humanistic Theory With Other Similar Theories

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Humanistic Theory and Its Position Among Other Counseling Theories

Humanistic Theory

The obvious limitations associated with the Psychodynamic theories led to the adoption of the humanistic approach as a response to these limitations, especially in Psychoanalysis. People like Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers felt that the psychodynamic theories that were still in existence were unable to address certain important issues such as the nature of healthy growth and the meaning of behavior adequately. Nevertheless, the outcome was not just a new variation in the theory of psychodynamic, but rather, a new approach.

The Founders of the Accepted Theories

Carl Rogers

Carl Rogers wasn't just one of the several theorists who founded the Humanistic Approach, but possibly the most important therapist that lived in the 20th century. Several surveys, which include a number of surveys carried out after the death of Carl Rogers, discovered that several other therapists named Rogers as…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (U.S.). (1999). Brief Humanistic and Existential Therapies. In S.A. (U.S.), Brief Intervention and Brief Therapies For Substance Abuse. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (U.S.).

Cater, J. (2011). Combining Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Interviewing. La Jolla, CA.

McLeod, s.(2007).Humanism. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org-humanistic.html.

Chong, C.L., Ng, A.M., Ching, J.Y., Beh, J.H., & Lim, P.P. (2015). A Critical Comparison of t he Psychoanalytic and Humanistic Theory. New Hampshire: Southern New Hampshire University.
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Sigmund Freud's Theories

Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17587217



The major criticisms of Freud's Theory thought that it was difficult to test and there was too much emphasis on Biology.

Humanistic Theory- was developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow and emphasizes the internal experiences such as feelings and thoughts and the individual's feelings of worth. It believes that humans are naturally good and have a positive drive towards their own self-fulfilment. Rogers was most interested in the interaction between mental health, self-concept and self-esteem. Maslow believed that every person has an in-born drive to develop all their talents and capacities and calls this self-actualization. The critics of this theory felt that it is naive to assume that all people are good and think it takes a narrow view of personality.

Social-Cognitive Theory- by Albert Bandura believes that personality comes from the person's history of interaction with the environment. He believes that self-efficacy comes from having a strong belief…… [Read More]

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Black Elk Speaks Being the Life Story

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lack Elk Speaks: being the life story of a holy man of the Oglala Sioux

This book is about the life and development of an Indian medicine man, lack Elk. From a historical perspective the life of lack Elk is significant as he was present at the famous he attle of the Little ig Horn and he survived the Wounded Knee Massacre1890. lack Elk is also an important figure as he represents the Sioux people as a holy man or medicine man. The cultural as well as the spiritual aspects of the story of lack Elk also provides the modern reader with insight into the culture of the American Indian.

This book also has a message for the modern person living in a world such as ours, where war, poverty and other problems such as climate change have caused humanity to look at other cultures and views of life for…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Black Elk Speaks: being the life story of a holy man of the Oglala Sioux. Web. 7 Nov.

2011. ( http://www.humanresonance.org/black_elk.pdf).
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Understanding Contemporary Society

Words: 3180 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39445820

Sociology

elationship Between Individual & Society: Understanding Contemporary Society

The human being, by his nature, is a social creature. This nature drives him to live as a member of society, in which he interacts with others to satisfy his needs and instincts. No person can manage to satisfy his needs on his own; rather, he requires specific relationships with other human beings in order to satisfy them. The nature of these relationships is determined by the system which is implemented in the society. However, every system, in order to produce a progressive society, has to balance between the needs of the individual and the needs of the society. If the individual's needs are ignored, then he will live in misery. Also, if the society's needs are ignored, then the society will not function properly as the environment in which the individual's strive to satisfy their needs. (LBA, 2010)

The relationship…… [Read More]

References:

Blake, NCPsyA, M. (2012). Individuation. Web, Available from:  http://www.marthablake.com/individuation1.html . 2012 November 14.

Furlong, A., & Cartmel, F. (2006). Young people and social change. Mcgraw-Hill International: Poland, 35 -- 53.

Health Knowledge. (2012). The Sociological Perspective: Society. Web, Available from:  http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/medical-sociology-policy-economics/4a-concepts-health-illness/section1 . 2012 November 14.

Jeffs, T., & Smith, M.K. (2002). Individualization and youth work. Youth and Policy, 76, 39 -65.
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Creative Process Incubation Is One

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59321846

Sublimation refers to this channeling of emotional intensity into creative work: to transform basic psychological or sexual urges into sublime revelations.

2. The collective unconscious is a term most commonly associated with the work of Carl Jung, a student of Freud's. Jung posited the existence of a grand database of human thought to which all persons have access. The idea that there is "nothing new under the sun" reflects the widespread belief in a collective unconscious. Common dreams, shared imagery, and similarity among world religions are extensions of the collective unconscious. The collective unconscious also serves as a wellspring of images, thoughts, sounds, and ideas that artists, musicians, and creative thinkers draw from during the creative process.

3. Archetypes are in fact part of the collective unconscious. Universal symbols or proto-ideas like "mother" or "father" are archetypal. Archetypes are what Plato referred to as the Forms. Jung deepened the theory…… [Read More]

References

Nash, J.F. (1994). "Autobiography." NobelPrize.org. Retrieved Aug 1, 2008 at http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/1994/nash-autobio.html

Watts, T. (1997). "Sublimation." Retrieved Aug 1, 2008 at http://www.hypnosense.com/Sublimation.htm
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Collective Cultural Shadow and Confrontation

Words: 4409 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19694367

10)."

Just as in the U.S. economy, where individuals have been economically left behind, such will be, and is, the case in the emerging global economy (p. 10). Ayres says that the impression, or the turning of society's blind eye towards the chaos of the economically disenfranchised, tends to cause the more affluent amongst us to believe that the term "global" means everybody will be a part of the emerging global economics, and this will produce an economic benefit that will be enjoyed by everyone (p. 10). That is not accurate, and, moreover, those people who presume to take a comfort in the economic globalization are not just turning a blind eye to the disenfranchised, but may find their selves vulnerable in a way that serves to be their light, much like Hank's in Monster's Ball. On this point Ayres says:

There is a popular impression, among the affluent and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000388341

Ayres, Ed. "The Expanding Shadow Economy." World Watch July-Aug. 1996: 10+. Questia. 3 Mar. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000388341.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105966243

Boin, Arjen. Crafting Public Institutions: Leadership in Two Prison Systems. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2001. Questia. 3 Mar. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105966245.
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Histrionic Personality Disorder Hpd Is

Words: 1891 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90364721



The research on HPD causes is clearly linked to personality theory, and can help to understand each theory. By first examining causation research, and then by locating personality theory which supports the research, it was easy to see the validity of personality theories, and how they can be used in real world research. The research also tied in to course material by again forcing real world situations to be applied to theoretical perspectives.

As research surrounding the causes of HPD is undertaken, more is learned about factors that affect those with HPD. If a definite cause, or a list of possible causes, can be discovered through such research, treatment options specifically designed to address those causes can be developed, resulting in a higher possibility of success. This type of research is vital if those with histrionic personality disorder are to ever be fully cured. Therapy without certain cause can reduce…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association. (2000). Desk reference to the diagnostic criteria from DSM-IV-TR.

Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., pg. 293.

Aston-Jones, G.D. (2002). Chapter 4. In K.L. Davis (Ed.), Neuropsychopharmacology: The fifth generation of progress (pp. 133-167). Nashville, TN: American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.

Britton R. (2004, Sept). Narcissistic disorders in clinical practice. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 49(4), 477-490.
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Middle Adulthood

Words: 2762 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78168062

MSW student

Definition of Middle Adulthood

When people are in their middle adulthood that means they are in the middle part of their lives. These include the people from the ages of 40 to 64, however a lot of researchers also use an age much lower to that i.e. 30. Some other studies do not measure the middle adulthood from the age that they reach, but from the tasks and opportunities that they have achieved. Looking overall into the middle adulthood, the people in that age have settled down, have a family, are under responsibilities of their children, and other people in the community; their career as well is settled down and they are having a comfortable family life. After the definition of middle adulthood is made clear, the researchers state that it is important that the society creates some roles for these people that they have to fulfill in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baltes, P., Lindenberger, U., & Staudinger, U. (n.d.). Life Span Theory in Developmental Psychology. 569-664. Retrieved from: http://library.mpib-berlin.mpg.de/ft/pb/PB_Life_2006.pdf

Hutchison, E. (2008). Dimensions of Human Behaviour: Person and Environment. New York: SAGE.

Hutchison, E. (2011). Dimensions of Human Behaviour: the changing life course. New Delhi: SAGE.
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Personality Interview One of the

Words: 1413 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61550377

Echo finally died of old age, and the raw emotion from the park rangers and zoologists just brought tears. Similarly, he thinks that now that he is older he can sift through the "B.S. In advertising and media hype," and enjoys such cynical, but rather realistic, portrays of modern society in Mad Men, Weeds, and Breaking Bad.

As far as personality development, Tom believes that children get a pretty good grounding from their parents and early school experiences. Concepts like empathy, morality, situational ethics, and reliability are built when one is young. However, that being said, Tom does not see himself as a rule follower like his parents. Both believed that if something said x in the rules, then x it was. They both also believed that a person should get a job and stay with that job until retirement. Tom has already had two careers, and estimates he will…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

"41 Questions -- 1 Personality." (2010). 41q.com Cited in:

http://www.41q.com/

Capraro, RAM 2002, 'Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability', Educational

And Pyschological Measurement, vol 62, no. 3, pp. 560-302.
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Psychoanalysis From a Psychoanalytic Perspective

Words: 962 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93994351



Humanistic

Humanistic psychology is primarily associated with existentialism and the belief in the innate goodness of all human beings. The concept of transpersonal psychology falls within this category, as it emphasizes personal experiences that transcend the typical human experiences, and enter a spiritual dimension. Transpersonal psychology shares the humanistic goal of "self-actualization" put forth by Abraham Maslow (1970). From Maslow's perspective, self-actualization is achieved when one has progressed through developmental stages that increase personal enlightenment and individuality with each step. Therefore, Lamanda would become self-actualized after progressing through the hierarchy that begins with basic needs such as shelter and sustenance, progresses through needs of safety, belonging and esteem, and ultimately ends up with reaching her full potential in both her career and her social life.

Carl Jung has also influenced the development of transpersonal psychology, not only because he coined the term "transpersonal" when referring to consciousness, but also because…… [Read More]

References

Aronoff, J. & J.P. Wilson (1985) Personality in the social process, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Erikson E. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.

Goldstein, E.G. (1995). Ego psychology and social work practice. 2d ed. New York: Free Press.

Kohlberg, L. (1971). From is to ought. In T. Mischel (ed.), Cognitive development and epistemology. New York: Academic, pp. 151-165
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REM Sleep and Dreaming Last

Words: 1525 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72929698

However, things have advanced. ith better technology, we can monitor the brain's activity while in REM. Certainly, one thing is certain: with out sleep there is no life. ithout sleep, body temperature, eating, infection prevention, and basic brain functioning suffer.

In terms of survival, where do dreams fit in? Researchers argue that the continuation of a complex brain process such as REM sleep indicates serves an important function for the survival of mammalian and avian species. Certainly, it was a very valuable step along the evolutionary ladder and led to survival. As the brain grew more complex, it needed downtime to process new information. Like any computer, especially a complex one, the human brain requires maintenance. Besides simple "down time," it also requires reprogramming every 24 hours. Just like our network computers take necessary updates and downloads, the brain needs a reprogramming session every 24 hours to recharge itself and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Animals have complex dreams, mit researcher proves. (2001, January 21). Retrieved

from http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2001/dreaming.html

Aserinsky, E; Kleitman, N. (September 1953). "Regularly occurring periods of eye motility and concomitant phenomena, during sleep." Science 118 (3062): 273 -- 274.

Gokce, Gokalp. (1999). Sleep and dreams. Retrieved from  http://www.csun.edu/~vcpsy00h/students/dreams.htm
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Personality Tests Can Pose Problematic

Words: 349 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59296708



The Jungian personality inventories are to some degree 'Westernized' one could argue, in the sense that they were originally developed by the psychoanalyst Carl Jung, around Western archetypes of personality. The MMPI also makes use of such tests in its more extensive survey, but more flexible use of the Jung system has yielded less dogmatic career recommendation and personality type instruments. After answering a series of questions, the tester receives a certain personality 'typing,' based upon whether he or she is primarily extroverted or introverted, sensing or intuitive, thinking or feeling, judging or perceiving. The tester can use this typology as a guide, not a diagnosis set in stone, on his or her path to achieve clearer self-understanding.

eferences

Jungian psychological typology. (2009). Personality tests. etrieved October 20, 2009 at http://www.mypersonality.info/personality-types/… [Read More]

References

Jungian psychological typology. (2009). Personality tests. Retrieved October 20, 2009 at  http://www.mypersonality.info/personality-types/
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Personal Statement of Purpose for

Words: 990 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5110625

Other essential traits include a commitment to work cooperatively with others and the ability to communicate effectively both orally and in writing."

We were also told that speech-language pathologists ought to exhibit:

sensitivity and concern for the problems of other people; warmth, caring and empathy for people; the need to help others realize their potential; the ability to accept new ideas; and the willingness to do research and to contribute new information.

Did this sound like me? I certainly think so, otherwise the aforementioned "deeper forces of nature" probably wouldn't have assured me that I was pursuing not only a fulfilling journey, but also the correct one, too.

Looking back, I realize that I reached a turning point in my education when I was able to participate in clinical observations. I observed patients with voice disorders. I observed patients who stammered and stuttered. I observed patients with foreign accents so…… [Read More]

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Preferences in Learning Between American

Words: 23082 Length: 65 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88878710

The trainer will then focus on the steps to be taken to develop new skills. For example, if the trainer wants to talk about motivating, leading, negotiating, selling or speaking, it is best to start with what the learners do well before showing some chart on Maslow's theory, Posner's leadership practices, or selling skills from some standard package that has been develop elsewhere. Many foreign trainers make grave errors because they do not consider the values and beliefs of the trainee's culture. Training must make a fit with the culture of those being trained, including the material being taught, as well as the methods being used (Schermerhorn, 1994).

Abu-Doleh (1996) reports that Al-Faleh (1987), in his study of the culture influences on management development, asserts that "a country's culture has a great influence on the individual and managerial climate, on organizational behaviour, and ultimately on the types of management development…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Processes the Development of

Words: 1624 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46665013

As a conclusion, the authors suggest a functional architecture of cognitive emotional control. The review ends with suggestions for future study, including a consideration of cultural differences and their effect on the individual's ability to control emotion in a cognitive way.

Since the study is a review, the research methodology involves an overview of recent studies in the field of cognitive emotional control. The researchers appear to have made thorough work of this purpose, while also offering insight and into potential future applications of such research. Furthermore, their synthesis of research information is logical and relevant to the questions posed at the beginning of the document.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is always fascinating to consider the different ways and preference types in how individuals might view and experience the world around them. Having an understanding of cognitive types is particularly useful in fields like education and leadership. Such an understanding…… [Read More]

References

Felder, R.M. And Brent, R. (2005). Understanding Student Differences. Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 94, No. 1. Retrieved from:  http://eprints.me.psu.ac.th/ILS/info/Understanding_Differences.pdf 

Kay, W.K., Francis, L.J., and Robbins, M. (2011). A distinctive leadership for a distinctive network of churches? Psychological type theory and the apostolic networks. University of Warwick. Retrieved from:  http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/41317/1/WRAP_Francis_Psychological_type_and_Apostolic_networks_final_version.pdf 

Nardi, D. (2007). The 8 Jungian Cognitive Processes. Retrieved from:  http://www.keys2cognition.com/cgjung.htm 

Ochsner, K.N. And Gross, J.J. (2005, May). The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 5. Retrieved from: http://icdl.com/graduate/Portal/IMH212/documents/ochsner-gross.pdf
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Self and Social Psychology Social Psychology Is

Words: 2462 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40851888

Self and Social Psychology

Social psychology is a relatively new field of study in modern science. Its focus is on the identity of the "Self" -- the sense of individuality: the component parts that make up who one "is" and the meaning of the "whole" Self. This paper acts as a referenced for individuals unfamiliar with the general principles of social psychology. It aims to provide the reader with a basic overview of the field and to define key principles often used by social psychologists.

Discovering the Self

Self-Concept, Awareness, and Self-Schemas

Discovering the Self in social psychology can seem as simple as posing the question, "Who am I?" (Myers, 2010, p. 13). But answering the question is where the discovery of Self really begins. One's sense of identity, sense of self, sense of gender, race, categorical social grouping all factor into the answer. "Who am I?" raises the issue…… [Read More]

Reference List

Aronson, E., Wilson, T., Akert, R. (2012). Social Psychology. NY: Pearson.

Hewitt, J.P. (2009). Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University

Press.

Jung, C. (1921). Psychological Types. Zurich: Rascher Verlag.
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Child Outcomes Based on Family Composition

Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80008094

child can be influenced by many factors. Some of these include: race, social class and family composition. Each of these factors can directly affect how the child will grow into society and fill their role. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate how these factors may affect a child. Although race and social class are highly important factors, this review will focus on the outcome of a child based on family composition.

Family composition includes many factors in it of itself. The number of children in a family, the birth order of the child in question, and the range of ages of the children in the family are all variables to be taken into consideration. Jung was one of the first to study birth order and its effects on a child. According to Adler, "Carl Jung, was one of the first theorists to suggest that birth order influences personality. He…… [Read More]

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Managing People Module 5 Managing Developing Teams

Words: 3535 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15505660

Managing People. Module 5 Managing developing teams Module 6 Managing Performance. Develop a -page scenario a work team familiar. Describe work team organisational context operates. Include appendix.

Managing and developing teams and managing for performance when creating a new corporate software training manual

Team scenario

The Bruce Tuckman model of team development

Managing people:

Managing and developing teams and managing for performance when creating a new corporate software training manual

In my past place of employment (which will be known as company X), the members of the IT staff and members of other departments were forced to collaborate on a joint effort to create a corporate manual to explain the company's new computer operating system to all employees. Proper safety Internet 'hygiene;' dealing with the operating system on a daily basis, and orienting workers to the various new applications were all to be described. In other words, effective communication was…… [Read More]

References

Bacal, R (1999). Performance management. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Chapman, A. (2013). Bruce Tuckman. Business Balls. Retrieved:

  http://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming.htm  

Cleland, D.I. (1996). Strategic management of teams. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
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Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches to Personality Psychodynamic

Words: 1656 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20697898

Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches to Personality

Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches

Personality can be defined as the unique characteristics that various individuals possess. These characteristics differentiate individuals from others. In other words, personality can also be defined as a unique system of feelings, thoughts and behaviors that prevail over time and that is evident in various situations. Different psychologists have determined different approaches to study personality. Some psychologists try to examine various aspects of personality that an individual possesses, whereas, others try to understand why there are differences in the personalities of various individuals. (Morris et al., 2010)

Listed below are the two different approaches to personality;

Psychodynamic Approach

Psychodynamic theories establish the thought that our personality is an outcome of inner psychological forces which are not under the control of our conscious mind. Psychodynamic approach basically studies the energy of our unconscious mind and it also explores how this energy…… [Read More]

References

Morris, C. And Maisto, A. (2010). Understanding Psychology . Oxford: Orford University Press. pp.45-65. http://ftp.cleary.edu [Accessed: 11 Jun 2013].

Unknown. (2008). Theoretical Perspectives on Human Behavior. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishers. pp.53-65. http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/36524_PE_Chapter2.pdf [Accessed: 11 Jun 2013].

Unknown. (2005). Personality. Thousand Oaks: Cluj-Napoca: University of Medicine and Pharmacy. pp.1-5.  http://psychiatry-psychology.ro/file/Stiintele%20Comportamentului%20ENG/Lecture6_Personality.pdf  [Accessed: 11 Jun 2013].
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Godot Archetype Man and Everyman

Words: 1410 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90364113

Many archetypal Seers are physically blind, as is Pozzo in the second act, and at the same time Pozzo is more able to see the world beyond the stage and the present moment than are Estragon and Vladimir. Again, however, Beckett breaks the mold of the traditional Seer by making Pozzo almost villainous, especially in his treatment of Lucky, and by refraining form having him dispense any real and direct lessons. In a play and a world where such lessons cannot exist, it would be impossible for this character to fully measure up to the archetype of the Seer.

Lucky himself is also an archetype, that of the slave. The archetypal slave is not the somewhat romanticized figure of injustice striving towards freedom, but rather a peon that is not only reigned to but even defensive of its fate, not fully realizing -- or realizing and consciously rejecting -- the…… [Read More]

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Sigmund Freud to the Science

Words: 2064 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65632482

In this regard, Demorest concludes that, "Together these and other theorists have provided accounts of what it means to be a person that all fit within the psychodynamic paradigm, a perspective that holds a vision of people as at their core driven by dynamic forces in their unconscious minds" (2005, p. 3).

Freud's influence on psychoanalytic thought, though, required some time to take hold and many of his methods were rejected outright by the contemporary medical establishment, particularly in the United States. For example, following Freud's only trip to North America in 1909, one psychiatrist believed that, "Many patients were psychotically disturbed and deemed to be beyond the reach of Freud's intellectual 'talk therapy'" (Beam, 2001, p. 94). Not only did others think that Freud's methods were not appropriate for some patients, Freud himself acknowledged their limitations. In fact, Beam points out as well that, "Freud himself thought most schizophrenics…… [Read More]

References

Beam, A. (2001). Gracefully insane: The rise and fall of America's premier mental hospital.

New York: Public Affairs.

Cherry, K. (2010). Freud's patients and therapy. About.com: Psychology. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/sigmundfreud/ig/Sigmund-Freud-Photobiography/Freud-s-Patients-and-Therapy.htm.

Demorest, A. (2005). Psychology's grand theorists: How personal experiences shaped professional ideas. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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Learning Styles in Essence Learning

Words: 1697 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4604283



Choosing the most effective style that relates to one's individual personality is very useful in terms of increasing one's learning strengths. I have personally found that in reality most people combine a number of learning styles in developing their unique approach to learning. From my perspective I have found that a combination of both imaginative and analytical learning styles best suits my needs. The emphasis in my approach is however on the imaginative style as I am more comfortable with a learning style that explores various sources and views of reality in a discursive and open-ended way. At the same time the more considered and careful analytical approach is also useful in that it tends to 'ground' one in reality.

eferences

Durbin G. (2002) Interactive Learning in Museums of Art and Design.

etrieved February 23, 2009, at http://74.125.95.132/search?q=cache:2V3DNJpxFKkJ:www.vam.ac.uk/files/file_upload/5752_file.pdf+%22dynamic+learning+style%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=10&gl=za&client=firefox-a

Exploring Psychology. Learning Styles. etrieved February 23, 2009, at http://www.dushkin.com/connectext/psy/ch06/learnsty.mhtml www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000308203

Guild,…… [Read More]

References

Durbin G. (2002) Interactive Learning in Museums of Art and Design.

Retrieved February 23, 2009, at http://74.125.95.132/search?q=cache:2V3DNJpxFKkJ:www.vam.ac.uk/files/file_upload/5752_file.pdf+%22dynamic+learning+style%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=10&gl=za&client=firefox-a

Exploring Psychology. Learning Styles. Retrieved February 23, 2009, at http://www.dushkin.com/connectext/psy/ch06/learnsty.mhtml www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000308203

Guild, P. (1994, January). Making Sense of Learing Styles. School Administrator, 51, 8. Retrieved February 26, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000308203 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002522655
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Evolution of Psychology Rationality the

Words: 2796 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12933369

Nonetheless, this does not make philosophy any less important in the field.

Philosophy today can be seen as a manifestation of the workings of the human mind, while psychology studies the mind itself. Philosophy is therefore a very important aspect in helping the psychologist understand the human mind. Philosophy is indeed responsible for the birth of psychology as a discipline in itself, as mentioned.

While the early philosophers, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, are responsible for many of the ideas in both philosophy and psychology today, the 17th century philosopher ene Descartes is known as the "father of modern philosophy" (Consciousness 9). All these philosophers made a specific point of studying what it means to be human and conscious.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung built upon the work of all the above philosophers in order to develop his theories of the conscious and the…… [Read More]

References

Consciousness: Section PS13D

Holism, Reductionism and Four Theories: John B. Watson; B.F. Skinner; Jean Piaget; Gestalt Psychology

Nature vs. Nurture: Psychology 4012 Recitation Section T54B, Fall 2008.

Psychological Assumptions of the Cognitive Revolution: Psychology 4012 Recitation Section T54E, Fall 2008.
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Learning Teams What Effective Strategies

Words: 906 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43420856



A group with many extroverts may cause the introverts to withdraw despite the fact the introverts have needed skills and input for the group. Being more self-aware about the different group types can help the group overcome such obstacles ("Information about personality types," 2006, BSM Consulting).

hat are types of conflict management tools?

First of all, when discussing a dispute, choose a neutral, private environment. Allow everyone to express their point-of-view, as they see it. Clarify before discussing the issue at stake. Agree on what the difference is. Explore potential alternatives and compromises. Focus on similarities as well as differences. Make issues, not personality the focus. Have a clear idea of what concrete, definable, and achievable outcomes should result from the discussion. Put in controls to implement those decisions (Heathfield 2008).

Having a mediator can make conflict resolution easier. Also, having certain standard operating procedures to deal with a conflict,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chapman, Allan. (2008). "Tuckman: Forming-storming-norming-performing."

Businessballs. Retrieved 28 Apr 2008 at   http://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming.htm  

Chapman, Allan. (2008). "Motivational theory." Businessballs. Retrieved 28 Apr 2008 at  http://www.businessballs.com/motivation.htm 

Heathfield, Susan. (2008). "Personal courage and conflict resolution at work." About.com. Retrieved 28 Apr 2008 at http://humanresources.about.com/cs/conflictresolves/a/conflictcourage_2.htm
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Personal Theory as a Therapist

Words: 2660 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18302286

From the basis of psychoanalysis and existential therapy, I will then listen for any problems relating to attitudes that can be driven by repressed emotions. I will use dialogue in order to gain an understanding of how the clients see their problems, and what they think is needed to help.

In the dialogue session, I will provide the client with my own insight on how I believe the best progress will be made in future therapy, and also on how long I estimate such therapy to take. I will however emphasize that I will not terminate therapy if the clients feel in any way that they will not benefit from such termination. Dialogue and collaboration means that I should be able to modify my approach according to input from my clients. If a client for example disagrees with an approach I am using, we will discuss various options of changing…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders. Person-centered Therapy. http://www.minddisorders.com/Ob-Ps/Person-centered-therapy.html

Hoffman, Louis. 2004. Existential Psychotherapy. http://www.existential-therapy.com/General_Overview.htm

Psychological Schools of Thought. Psychoanalytical Psychology. http://www.webrenovators.com/psych/PsychoanalyticalPsychology.htm

Yontef, Gary. Gestalt Therapy: An Introduction.  http://www.gestalt.org/yontef.htm
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Management Development Process Has Been

Words: 4207 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23880192

Previously the element of interest and personal motivation were found missing, the technical capabilities of the employees have never been a matter of debate, however the personal and mental capacities and limitations are either ignored or not respected which resulted in the poor performance of the organization. Apparently, the rise in the demands pertaining to the particpation of the employees and the industrial democracy has also distorted the professional environment. Such all complains were lately resolved and answered through the unique approach of the organization, the organization has understood the significance of the employees, and had realized that their performance is not based upon their professional capabilities, but rather it is the function of the mental capability of the employee related to the friendly and conducive environment offered to the employees occasionally. The need of the employees that focus upon peaceful, conducive and liberal environment has been ensured, which required…… [Read More]

References

Hamel, G. Leading the Revolution. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. 2000. Pp. 123-124.

Keely, L. Strategic Choices. Dublin Group presentation materials, unpublished. 1999.

Mahler, W., & Drotter, S. The Succession Planning Handbook for the Chief Executive, Midland Park, NJ: Mahler Publishing Co. 1986.

McKinsey and Co. The War for Talent Survey, New York, NY: McKinsey and Co. publication. 1997.
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Hero as a Model of

Words: 782 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95207241



Revenge, too, is prominent in all of these works: Beowulf must destroy the monster our of revenge for the havoc on the Kingdom; the Greeks must avenge the kidnapping of Helen and the slights against their lands; the Knight, the Miller and the ife of Bath all must seek revenge for perceived wrongs. Poems like Canterbury Tales, Beowulf, and the Iliad and Odyssey, especially as oral tradition, frame the journey of the hero through trials and tribulations to, eventually success. The saving of society, though, is often met with grave personal sacrifice, sometimes of tangible wealth, more often of loved ones, or, in the case of Beowulf, the ultimate sacrifice -- giving up one's own life in the service of society.

Yet in each of the tales there is at least one, and frankly many more, characters that have a fatal personality flaw that causes not only consternation, but increases…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bittarello, M.B. "Recrafiting the Past: The Complex Relationship Between Myth and Ritual." Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies 10.2 (2008): 214-19.

Cambpell, J. The Hero With a Thousand Faces. New York: New World Library, 2008.

Campbell, J. And B. Moyers. The Power of Myth. New York: Anchor Books, 1991.

Voytilla, S. Myth and the Movies. New York: Michael Wiese Productions, 1999.
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Clinical Psychology as a Distinct Pursuit and

Words: 1554 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52515054

clinical psychology as a distinct pursuit and profession emerged in the late nineteenth century. However, a "climate of ideas receptive to the development of clinical psychology" emerged as early as the late 18th century (eisman, 1976, p. vii). Clinical psychology perspectives reflected trends in Enlightenment thinking and the rise of the scientific method as a primary means of investigating reality. Enlightenment issues like individualism underlie much of clinical psychology. The evolution of the professional field indicates the important role of both scientific research and methodology including statistical analysis. Imbuing psychology with the scientific method allowed clinical psychology to emerge as a credible profession dedicated to the explication and healing of mental health issues. Clinical psychology is one of many approaches to psychology and mental health. Psychiatry, counseling psychology, and social work all share elements in common with clinical psychology even though all are distinct professions.

eisman (1976) defines clinical psych…… [Read More]

References

Albee, G.W. (2000). The Boulder Model's fatal flaw. American Psychologist 55(2): 247-248.

Benjamin, L.T. (2005). A History of Clinical Psychology as a Profession in America. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 1(1-30)

"Brief Institutional History of Clinical and Health Psychology," (n.d.). Chapter Two in Curriculum in Clinical and Health Psychology. Retrieved online:  http://www.cop.es/English/docs/brief.htm 

Fazakas-DeHoog, L. (n.d.). History of clinical psychology. Retrieved online: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=clinical%20psychology%20history&source=web&cd=7&ved=0CFoQFjAG&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.laurafazakas.com%2Fpdf%2Fpsych_260b_chap-02_history_of_clinical_2007-2008.pdf&ei=qvjGTun9BM-ctwe_0OytDA&usg=AFQjCNEEyhpcURpsU11hKeTwPKMV-Cketw
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Interrupted Life and Letters From Westerbork Throughout

Words: 1410 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37500155

Interrupted Life and Letters from Westerbork

Throughout my academic career, I avoided dealing with the monumental human tragedy known as the Holocaust. History classes required that I read sterile, chronicled information, learn names and dates, and understand the causes and results. History classes have never required that I read a first-hand account of the horrors of a Jewish woman in this inhuman and appalling era and reflect upon it.

As I read, there were moments that I had to put the book aside and get my mind on something else. It is inconceivable that such suffering and carnage was accepted, supported, or denied by the people of the world. I was sometimes nauseous and sometimes tearful. However, along with the misery and bloodshed of the Holocaust, Etty Hillesum is able to convey a joy in living, appreciation for the moment, and love of humanity in her book An Interrupted Life…… [Read More]

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History of the 1920's

Words: 1472 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72964786

history of the 1920's, a colorful era of tycoons, gangsters, bohemians and inventors. Areas covered include the arts, news and politics, science and humanities, business and industry, society fads and sports. The bibliography includes fives sources, with five quotations from secondary sources, and footnotes.

The 1920's are commonly referred to as the 'Roaring Twenties', an appropriate title for a decade that did indeed roar out of the Victorian Era. Gone were the corsets and up went the skirt hems as flapper girls bared their legs and speakeasies with bathtub gin dominated the nightlife.

Tycoons became America's royalties while bohemian lifestyles bore the twentieth century's most influential era of art and literature. Inventions brought us into the modern age of convenience and history making events.

The twenties began with a serious but short-lived post-war recession, following World War 1.

Yet, by the mid-twenties, business and industry had created legends that have…… [Read More]

Bryer, Jackson R. Edited. F. Scott Fitzgerald: Novels and Stories 1920-1922.

Library of America. September 2000.

http://classiclit.about.com/library/weekly/aa100100a.htm. (accessed 02-14-2002).
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Spirituality for Palliative Care Patients

Words: 1927 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17662541

It brought continuity to the process of dying, and a way to deal with critical issues in a way everyone could understand. it's holistic because it takes the process of dying, coordinates the patient's care, and brings resolution to things often left unstated. It allows the patient to have a degree of control. And it evaporates some of the high-tech coldness that can come between caregivers and patients."

The most significant area of spirituality and palliative care still unaddressed by researchers seem to be those identified by Cohen and Koenig: "the religious and spiritual needs of people of different religions, the positive and negative effects of religion and spirituality in palliative and end-of-life care, and the contributions that religious and spiritual institutions as well as health care professionals can make to such endeavors" (Cohen and Koenig

Conclusion

Currently, there is a widely held belief that spirituality is a valuable part…… [Read More]

References

Bogin, Rabbi S. (2000) Spiritual issues of palliative care. Nursing Homes, December. Retrieved 13 March 2005 from www.findarticles.com.

Burnside, G. (1998) New paths in end-of-life care. Health Progress, May/Jun. Retrieved 13 March 2005 from www.findarticles.com.

Cohen, a.B. And H.G. Koenig. (2002) Spirituality in palliative care. Geriatric Times 3(6). Retrieved 13 March 2005 from www.findarticles.com.

Cole, B.V. (2001) Nursing care at the end of life. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care 37(3). Retrieved 13 March 2005 from www.questia.com.
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Rachel Year-Old Jewish Girl Rachel

Words: 2848 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49760978

All veteran therapists know that religious differences are the main causes for incongruity and sadness. (Dating and Marrying Nonmembers) Hence achel needs to understand that it is not a wise decision to marry a person of a different race.

Depression:

In a love life, when parents object and when the partner is not understandable the person in question would face enormous depression. So what is meant by depression? The loss of an essential life aim without accusing anybody is depression. This loss disturbs our behavior, our temper or personal feelings, our talent, our outlook or inspiration, and our physical functioning and health. The outcomes of depression are "behavioral extremes, poor memory, confusion, loneliness, lack of care, going away from home, disobedient, violence gripped with guiltiness and fear about doing mistakes, about being reckless, crying, suicidal pressures." (History and Gender factors in Depression)

Over 18 million Americans are miserable. Of these…… [Read More]

References

Ambord, Teresa. 2004. "Teen Dating: Is it Love or Infatuation?" 28 May. Retrieved at http://www.preferredconsumer.com/front_page/publish/Teens_Dating_Love_Infatutation.html. Accessed on 14 April 2005

Biblical Answers for Depressed Teens!" retrieved at http://www.wolfeborobible.com/depression.html. Accessed on 14 April 2005

Chandrasekher, Lily. "Forbidden Love: Dating Outside Your Race or Ethnicity" retrieved at http://www.sxetc.org/index.php?topic=Stories&sub_topic=Love+and+Relationships&content_id=1430Accessed on 14 April 2005

Child and Adolescent Depression: Diagnosis and Treatment" retrieved at  http://www.baltimorepsych.com/cadepress.htm . Accessed on 14 April 2005
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Abstract Expressionism Sought to Represent the Pre-Cultural Pre-Lingual Discuss

Words: 2330 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66622574

Pollack and othko

The 1930s art world enjoyed several different creative styles. The Social ealists painted works that normally depicted a social message and, with Edward Hopper, even oppression. The egionalists also felt a need to show the trials of daily life. However, others began to see things in greater abstraction. Hans Hoffman was interested in expressive abstract art, and the American Abstract Artists favored a more mathematical perspective1. By the 1940s, the younger artists wanted to break away from earlier methods and pursue a method to show reality in a more unpredictable and immediate fashion. Jackson Pollack and Mark othko exemplified this new style. As othko said in a letter to the editor of the New York Times in 1943: "We are for flat forms becaue they destroy illusions and reveal truth."

This new artwork technique sprang from a non-realist language, searching for "power of color, internal luminosity and…… [Read More]

References Cited

Anfam, David. Abstract Expressionism (World of Art). New York: Thames & Hudson, 1990

Baigell, Matthew. Story of American Painting. New York: Praeger, 1971.

Craven, David. Abstract Expressionism as Critical Critique. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Diehl, Gaston. The Moderns. New York: Crown, 1970.