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Digital forensics can be a useful tool when applied in the correct manner. The recent case of Casey Anthony and her murder trial demonstrated the role that digital forensics may play in the setting of justice. The purpose of this essay is to describe the role that the digital evidence played within the not-guilty verdict of Casey Anthony nearly over two years ago. This essay will address the problems with this approach and also provide recommendations on how to improve on the practice.
Casey Anthony was brought to trial for the murder of her baby daughter Caylee whose body was found in the woods near the Anthony residence. It appeared that Ms. Anthony was a dispassionate parent who sought refuge in the party lifestyle and drugs and alcohol. Prosecutors were very confident that they could convince the jury that she was responsible for the death of her daughter.…
Bello, M. & Welch, W. (2011). How the Casey Anthony Case Came Apart. USA Today, 6 July 2011. Retrieved from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2011-07-05-Casey - Anthony-Caylee-Anthony-acquittal-murder-case-Florida_n.htm
Digital Detective (2011). Digital Evidence Discrepancies, Casey Anthony Trial. Digital Forensic Data Recovery and Analysis, 11 July 2011.
The problem with mitochondrial DNA is that it is inherited only from the maternal side of the family. The hair could have belonged to Anthony, to the victim, to Anthony's brother, or to any of the female ancestors in the maternal side of the family. Because the state could not establish that the victim was the source of this hair, the fact that it could establish that the hair was from a cadaver was not enough to prove that Anthony committed a murder. This is no surprise. The forensics community commonly recognizes that, "in general, the significance of an mtDNA sequence match is dependent on the case in question, and the type of mtDNA involved. In only a restricted set of circumstances can mtDNA matching be considered definitive evidence of identification" (Holland & Parsons, 1999).
The other evidence that the defense questioned was whether scientific tests could determine that decomposition…
Holland, M.M., & Parsons, T.J. (1999). Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis- validation and use for forensic casework. Forensic Sci Rev (11), 22-50.
Vass, A. (2001). Beyond the grave: understanding human decomposition. Microbiology Today,
Casey Anthony Trial
The murder trial Florida vs. Casey Marie Anthony turned into a national sensation because of the alleged attempt by 25-year-old Casey Anthony to cover up the murder of her own 2-year-old daughter, Caylee Anthony (Alvarez, 2011). On July 5, 2011, after nearly six weeks of courtroom testimony and just 11 hours of deliberation, the jury found Casey Anthony not guilty. The prosecution's failure to convince the jury of her guilt was widely perceived to be the result of the circumstantial nature of the evidence presented at trial.
Casey Anthony had initially blamed the disappearance of her daughter on a kidnapping by a babysitter called Zenaida Herndandez-Gonzalez (Lohr, n.d.), but a series of lies, a month-long delay before contacting the police, a nonexistent babysitter with that name, and reports of partying since her daughter went missing, helped the prosecution cast Casey as a mother capable killing her own…
Alvarez, Lizette. (2011, July 5). Casey Anthony not guilty in slaying of daughter. New York Times. Retrieved 23 Jan. 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/06/us/06casey.html?ref=caseyanthony
Colarossi, Anthony. (2011, Dec. 29). Casey Anthony case consumed Orlando, nation in 2011. Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved 23 Jan. 2012 from http://www.orlandosentinel.com/news/local/caylee-anthony/os-casey-anthony-year-in-review-20111229,0,4151585.story
Fein, Naomi. (2011, July 8). On the Casey Anderson verdict, from an O.J. Simpson insider. SideBarforPlaintiffs.NaomiFein.net. Retrieved 23 Jan. 2012 from http://sidebarforplaintiffs.naomifein.net/?p=3594
Lohr, David. (n.d.). Timeline of Events: Casey Anthony: Caylee Anthony. June 1 to June 14. Investigation.Discovery.com. Retrieved 23 Jan. 2012 from http://investigation.discovery.com/blogs/criminal-report/casey_anthony_full_coverage/timeline/june9-june14/june9-june14.html
To achieve these objectives, she murdered her daughter and created a story about how she was kidnapped. The situational choice theory states that crimes will occur based on individual choices and motivating factors. When this is applied to Anthony's situation, it is clear that murdering her daughter was a choice that she made. This is because she was motivated to have her personal freedom. ("eview of Basic Criminological Theory") (Jensen 284 -- 288) ("Casey Anthony")
What category of theory is least effective for explaining this young woman? Why?
The theory that is least effective in explaining Anthony's activities is the neo-classical approach. The reason why is because this theory is focused on understanding the importance and dynamics of character development. It will then examine how this will affect the person's ability to make rational decisions. In the case of Anthony, her character did not have any kind of impact in…
Casey Anthony. Investigation Discovery, 2011. Web. 6 Mar. 2012
Review of Basic Criminological Theory, 2012.
Jensen, Vicky. Women Criminals. Staten Island: Greenwood, 2012. Print.
MLA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
People of the State of California v. Conrad obert Murray
The involuntary manslaughter trial of Michael Jackson's personal doctor, Conrad Murray, was in the news seemingly every day for months. Even though the trial has concluded and the world knows that Dr. Murray was found guilty, it is important to look at the court proceedings and how the evidence led the jury to that verdict. Dr. Murray administered a powerful drug called propofol - an anesthesia drug that is only supposed to be used in closely monitored hospital settings - to Michael Jackson to help him sleep.
The argument by the prosecution was that Dr. Murray did this even though he knew the dangers, and that he administered too much of the drug to Jackson, resulting in a fatal overdose. At that point, Murray did not act quickly enough in calling the paramedics and did not do enough to save…
Kepner v. United States, 195 U.S. 100 (1904).
Neubauer, D.W. & Fradella, H.F. (2010). America's courts and the criminal justice system, 10th ed. New York: Wadsworth.
People v. Broussard, 76 Cal.App.3d 193, 197 (1977).
Media in the Courtroom
High profile court cases, especially murder trials and celebrity cases are more likely to attract the national media than ordinary cases that usually of no interest beyond the local level. These are also the kinds of cases when the issue of TV cameras in the courtroom is most significant, and when judges have to give serious thought to handing down gag orders that block all public discussion of the case for the duration of the trial. In this era of Internet, Facebook, 24-hour cable news and YouTube, any events or statements in the court can easily become 'viral' and be seen instantly by millions of people around the world. For most of the 20th Century, recording devices and movie and TV cameras were not allowed in the courts, but only reports from the print media and drawings by sketch artists. This technology existed for many decades…
Ferguson, R. 2011. "Cameras in the Courtroom." The American Spectator.
Mesereau, T.A. 2011. "Effectively Handling High-Profile and Celebrity Cases." Los Angeles Lawyer, Survival Guide for New Attorneys in California, Fall 2011 Issue
Menendez Brothers Case
The Menendez murder case happened more than a quarter century ago but it is still one of the more notorious murder cases in the United States. It was the case of two men that were barely adults and how they shot and killed their parents. There are so many themes that could be looked at when assessing this case including affluence, child abuse, murder motives and the proper way to do a jury or judge-ran trial when so many of these factors exist. While there are many other notorious trials out there, the Menendez case is probably only eclipsed by the O.J. Simpson case in terms of how notorious and theme-laden it was (Blacno, J, 2015; CBS News, 2015; Time, 2015).
The case was a curious one. Indeed, Erik and Lyle Menendez had returned home around the same time that their parents had returned home from going…
Blanco, J. (2015). Lyle & Erik Menendez | Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers.
Murderpedia.org. Retrieved 26 April 2015, from http://murderpedia.org/male.M/m/menendez-brothers.htm
CBS News. (2015). Erik and Lyle Menendez murdered their parents 25 years ago in their Beverly Hills, California mansion. Cbsnews.com. Retrieved 26 April 2015,
Furthermore, the media has been known to slant certain criminal trials in particular directions. For example, the Casey Anthony trial of just a few years ago, some argue, was slanted in such a manner that the entire nation thought she was guilty. The jury, however, found her not guilty. Given the portrayal of this woman in the media, an entire nation thought that justice had not been served. Jurors were ridiculed and even threatened. An entire uproar had occurred. By allowing court proceedings to be covered by the media, there's a lack of authenticity which is surrendered for recording everything on television.
Furthermore, allowing court proceedings to be televised cheapens the process of justice, by making it a form of entertainment for the masses. This is simply unacceptable. It negates the entire reason that the judicial process was created: the judicial system was developed in order to employ a level…
Debate.org. (2013). Should criminal trials be televised? Retrieved from Debate.org: http://www.debate.org/opinions/should-criminal-trials-be-televised
risk in terms of privacy than our medical records...do you agree? Or, are your financial records more at risk, especially given events in the news lately. Which is greater in your mind (yes, you have to pick one)? Why?
Although keeping your medical records private is important, I believe that it is more important to keep your financial records private. Identity theft is one of the most prolific crimes of the modern era. As soon as someone has your information, they can hack into your bank account and take all your money or apply for credit cards in your name, leaving you broke. It is also very difficult to prove identity theft.
Drug testing in Sports; Drug testing in the construction industry; Drug testing for retail employees; Random drug testing for all employees; what principles can you pull about the pros and cons of drug testing from these different situations?…
I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.
Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can…
David, M. (2012). Social psychology. (11 ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Even if the decision might not be popular, wrote the court, "from the very beginning, our state and national constitutions and laws have laid great emphasis on procedural and substantive safeguards designed to assure fair trials before impartial tribunals in which every defendant stands equal before the law," and because these procedures are often very complicated to understand, "this noble ideal cannot be realized if the poor man charged with crime has to face his accusers without a lawyer to assist him," when he or she is striving to make a credible defense before a judge or jury. ("Gideon v. ainwright," 1963)
Justice, and the work of the nine men (today, eight men and one women) on the court, is not always about the will of the majority of the American people, it is often about the rights of the individual. A case that demonstrates this principle even more vehemently…
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka." 347 U.S. 483. 1954. [5 Dec 2006] http://brownvboard.org/research/opinions/347us483.htm
Gideon v. Wainwright." 1963. Source: 372 U.S. 335 (1963). [5 Dec 2006] http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/democrac/67.htm
Lewis, Anthony. Gideon's Trumpet. New York: Vintage Reissue, 1988.
This is why computer evidence -- such as the email itself -- cannot outweigh the underlying crime. What is being investigated is a threat against human life.
While investigating this threatening email and Westfall (the main suspect), it is important for the investigator to heed the law; suspects still have all the legal rights and protections afforded them per the United States Constitution (eyes & Brittson 2007). "eading emails, intercepting communication, searching and copying computer data may land you in hot water if you do not have the proper permissions, or authority to do so" (2007). All investigations including computer crimes must follow certain forensic procedures in order for evidence to be admissible as well as to avoid civil and criminal liability. The Fourth Amendment, Electronic Communications Privacy Act (18 U.S.C. § 2501 et seq.), Electronic Communications Privacy Act (18 U.S.C. § 2701 et seq.), Pen egister and Trap and…
1. Bryant, Robin P. (2008). Investigating Digital Crime. Wiley; 1st edition.
2. Casey, Ecoghan. (2004). Digital Evidence and Computer Crime. Academic Press; 2nd edition.
3. GeoBytes. (2010). "IP Address Locator Tool." GeoBytes. Retrieved on July 2, 2010,
from the Web site: http://www.geobytes.com/IpLocator.htm
Fundamentally, hygiene factors are required to make sure a worker is not dissatisfied. Motivation factors are desired to motivate a worker to higher performance. Herzberg also further classified peoples actions and how and why they do them, for instance, if one performs a work related action because they have to then that is ranked as movement, but if one performs a work related action because they want to then that is ranked as motivation (Scheid, 2010).
The principles of Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene theory have been applied to a wide variety of factors influencing worker satisfaction. These factors comprise: working circumstances, quality of supervision, salary, status, security, company, job, company policies and interpersonal associations (Two Factor Theory -- Herzberg, Frederick, 2011). In the application of Motivation-Hygiene theory to this study of employee attendance and satisfaction, the factor that will be looked at is that of onsite childcare programs.
Utilizing this theory in…
Child Care & Parent Productivity: Making the Business Case. (2004). Retrieved from http://government.cce.cornell.edu/doc/pdf/ChildCareParentProductivity.pdf
Employee Survey Use & Design. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.employmentblawg.com/2008/employee-survey-use-design/
Evans, Joel R. And Mathur, Anil. (2005). The value of online surveys. Retrieved from http://shlee.myweb.uga.edu/onlinesurvey/valueofonlinesurveys.pdf
Russell, Matthew. (2007). Strengths and Weaknesses of Research Designs. Retrieved from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/286816/strengths_and_weaknesses_of_research_pg2.html?cat=3
Jean Piage is a luminary as far as cognitive development theory goes. This is because of his contributions in his intellectual development theory. According to Piaget, intellectual development is a continuation of innate biological processes. He emphasizes that children go through four sequential processes of development. These four stages also occur with sub stages within them.
The sensory motor stage: 0 to 2 years; intuitive stage: 2 to 7 years; concrete operations stage: 7 to 11 years; and the formal operations stage: 11 to 15 years (Simatwa, 366).
hat "Active Construction of Knowledge and Understanding" Means
A person's way of understanding occurs in five ways that are related. These are referred to as cognition domains. These ways include understanding as a representation, understanding as connectivity between knowledge types, understanding that forms active knowledge construction and understanding as cognition situation. Understanding as a representation refers to owning internalized ideas,…
Aleven, Vincent and Koeginger, Kenneth. "An Effective Metacognitive Strategy: Learning by Doing and Explaining with A Computer-Based Cognitive Tutor." Cognitive Science, 26 (2002): 147-179. Print.
Casey, Betty, Jones, Rebecca, and Hare, Todd. "The Adolescent Brain." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124 (2008): 111-126. Print.
Hill, Patrick and Lapsley, Daniel. "Egocentrism." Education.com, http://www.education.com/reference/article/egocentrism/ . Accessed 23 August 2016.
Hurst, Melissa. "Differences between Piaget and Vygotsky's Cognitive Development Theories." Study.com, http://study.com/academy/lesson/differences-between-piaget-vygotskys - cognitive-development-theories.html. Accessed 23 August 2016.
Conference votes are not chiseled in marble; they are subject to change after the justices read their colleagues' draft opinions. And read them they do, thoroughly and carefully. They write thoughtful (in both senses of the word) memos about these opinions. All this, of course, confirms what earlier studies have reported.
hat Courts, Judges, and Politics makes clear is that changes in outcome between conference vote and final decision are far from unusual. Equally impressive are the justices' conscientious (though not always successful) efforts to reach decisions by consensus rather than simple majority.
Though they are too few to prove, in a variety of cases, some justices have more collegial impact than others; Sandra Day O'Connor and Anthony Kennedy are frequent players, for instance, while Antonin Scalia is not.
But the most striking pattern is the absence of pattern; collegial consultation does not consistently move the Court to the…
Murphy, W., Pritchett, H, & Epstein, L. Courts, Judges, and Politics, 5th Edition. McGraw-Hill,
FIBA orld Championship
History of the FIBA
Factors for Success
Data Driven Approaches
2013 Rankings 15
The FIBA has become the premier international basketball league in the world. Over the course of the last few generations the tournaments have been increasing their viewership and fan base. The level of competition in this league has also increased. Since 1989 the league has opened the doors to NBA players which not only increased the league's competitiveness but elevated the popularity of it as well. There are many different approaches to trying to discern which teams will be successful in the league. This analysis will look at statistical approaches as well as cultural approaches to provide insights into what constitutes a successful team in the FIBA.
History of the FIBA
The International Basketball Federation (French: Federation Internationale de Basketball), more commonly known by the French acronym FIBA, is an…
Canada, G. Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun: A Personal History of Violence in America. Beacon Press, 2010.
Card, D. And G. Dahl. "Family Violence and Football: The Effect of Unexpected Emotional Cues on Violent Behavior." The Quarterly Journal of Economics (2011): 103-143.
Chiari, M. "FIBA Asia 2013: Top Stars to Watch in Basketball World Cup Qualifying Tournament." 3 August 2013. Bleacher Report. Online. 5 December 2013.
Debate.org. "Are the Yankees the best baseball team ever?" N.d. Debate.org. Online. 4 December 2013.