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Celiac disease is a disorder of the small intestine which adversely affects the immune system of a person. Approximately 1% of Americans are affected by this disease, which translates into nearly 3 million people. Nearly 97% of the people who have celiac disease are aware of this condition and are actively taking steps to live with it with as little discomfort as possible. Before discussing the various symptoms and methods of aggravating and bettering this condition, it is important to note that there is an important genetic component associated with celiac disease. In much the same way that other traits of people are genetic (such as hair or eye color), there is DNA within the genes that are associated with this condition. This genetic element of celiac disease is one of the most important factors in whether or not people will contract it, although there are also other ways in…
Celiac disease is considered to be one of the most common inflammatory diseases of the bowel. It is caused by a dietary source and occurs in those individuals who are genetically predisposed to be intolerant to gluten. In Celiac disease, the patient is intolerant to a protein that in called gluten, and is commonly found in wheat, barley and oat products. If a patient with celiac disease ingests a gluten containing substance, then he or she immediately has an immune system response that damages the first layer of the small intestine and causes interference with the absorption of nutrients from other foods. To be more specific, there inflammatory response causes damage to the tiny, fingerlike protrusions within the small bowel called villi. The villi function to absorb foods into the bloodstream and when damaged can cause problems for the patient.
The actual prevalence of celiac disease has been shown to…
A Beginner's Guide to Celiac Disease
An informational guide to help you and your family cope with Celiac Disease from a medical and psychological perspective.
For more information or to find a specialist in your area, please phone us at:
The Center for Celiac Information is Dedicated to:
Proactively disseminate educational materials on celiac disease for individuals, their families, and other interested parties.
To service as a vehicle for providing support and networking opportunities.
To provide the most current medical, dietary and legal information about the condition.
To act as a conduit for public and private funding and foundational efforts.
To collect information and ideas from patients and care givers that allows for the best and most up-to-date information available for celiac patients around the world.
The Medical Perspective
Celiac Disease is characterized by:
An autoimmune disorder of the small intestine.
Characterized by pain and discomfort in…
National Digestive Diseases Information Clearing House. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/celiac/
WebMS: Celiac Disease Health Center. http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/celiac-disease/celiac-disease
What is Celiac Disease? Gluten Free Recipes. http://www.celiac.com/
Celiac disease is "an inflammatory condition of the small intestine precipitated by the ingestion of wheat in individuals with certain genetic makeups"
From this definition of the disease, we already can see what the two major factors in celiac disease occurrence are: environmental factors (ingestion of wheat, which has gluten) and the genetic factor (a certain genetic predisposition for the disease).
The intolerance to glutton manifests itself in symptoms such as diarrhea, "blistering, burning, itchy rash on the extensor surfaces of the body (dermatitis herpetiformis)"
, bone weakness or tetany.
We have agreed that genetics definitely represent one of the causing factors of celiac disease. According to our primary article, investigation in this sense was performed both on twins and on family relatives. As such, "the concordance rate for celiac disease in monozygotic twins is estimated to be 75%"
, which makes us believe that, at least statistically speaking, genetics…
1. Semrad, E. Carol. Celiac Disease and Gluten Sensitivity. 2000, Columbia University Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases. On the Internet at http://cpmcnet.columbia.edu/dept/gi/celiac.html
2. Papadopoulos, Wijmenga, Konin; Interplay between genetics and the environemtn in the development of celiac disease: perspectives for a healthy life. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. November 2001. Volume 108.Number 9. Pp. 1261-1266. On the Internet at http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/picrender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez& action=stream& blobtype=pdf& artid=209453
3. Alessio Fasano, MD, et. al., Arch Intern Med. 2003;163:286-292
Semrad, E. Carol. Celiac Disease and Gluten Sensitivity. 2000, Columbia University Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases. On the Internet at http://cpmcnet.columbia.edu/dept/gi/celiac.html
The association among celiac disease and these other diseases may be hereditary. The diseases include things like diabetes, autoimmune liver disease, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune thyroid disease, Addison's disease, which is a circumstance in which the glands that make vital hormones are harmed and Sjogren's syndrome, which is a circumstance in which the glands that make tears and saliva are damaged (Celiac Disease, 2008).
What are some possible treatments for this condition?
A person has to stick to a lifetime diet that is gluten-free. This permits the intestinal villi to get better. One must get rid of foods, drinks, and drugs that contain wheat, barley, rye, and maybe oats. They have to read food and drug labels cautiously in order to find hidden sources of these grains. With instruction and preparation, one can attain the objective of healing. A person must not start a gluten-free diet before being diagnosed. This will…
Celiac Disease. (2008). Retrieved October 15, 2010, from National Digestive Disease
Information Clearinghouse Web site:
Celiac disease -- sprue. (2010). Retrieved October 15, 2010, from Google Health Web site:
diseases in the world are suffered by all children. Babies and adults alike have to endure them at some or other point of their life. Furthermore, those whose immune systems are poor or weak have a greater tendency to contract diseases such as the common cold, infant diaper rash, earaches, stomach aches and diarrhea (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015)
The common cold shows the following symptoms: a sore throat, runny nose, headache, and watery eyes. Up till now, no precise medication exists to 'cure' the common cold. Normally, this viral illness wanes by itself after a period of 5-6 days. However, in the event that symptoms continue for an unusually long time, the patient must stay alert, as severe cases of common cold may result in pneumonia, sinusitis, ear infection, asthma attack, and bronchitis (Justadd, 2015). A study indicates that several individuals suffer each winter from sinusitis, impacting…
ADAM. (2015). Earache. Medical Encyclopedia. Medline Plus. U.S. Medical Library. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003046.htm
Alan, M., Lake, M.D.(1999). Chronic Abdominal Pain in Childhood: Diagnosis and Management. American Academy of Family Physicians. Retrieved from http://googleweblight.com/?lite_url=http://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0401/p1823.html&ei=KmJxS8Wk&lc=en-IN&s=1&m=992&ts=1439382771&sig=APONPFkf1k48Ut_Q5SluR0akIscNP1e-gg
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2015). Overview of Infectious Diseases. USA. Retrieved from https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/infections/Pages/Overview-of-Infectious-Diseases.aspx
Benaroch, R. (2015).Your Baby's Diaper Rash. WebMD, LLC.
The patient is an 18-year-old of the Filipino-American origin. He has no known family history of ulcerative colitis or chronic illnesses similar to colitis. He is a high school senior student.
The patient complains of diarrhoea 3-4 times a month although it has been on and off for one year. There is no known allergy that the patient experiences.
He experienced rectal bleeding, rectal pain and often had an urgent need to empty his bowels. His diarrhoea had bloodstains with mucus at least once a month. This led to few red blood cells due to the low level of iron, which resulted from the bloody stool. He had belly pains, which he described as cramping and his belly felt sore if touched. He experienced constipation, but it was less frequent than diarrhoea. He had no signs of vomiting or nausea, but he…
Baumgart, D. (2012). Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: From epidemiology and immunobiology to a rational diagnostic and therapeutic approach. New York: Springer.
Bayless, T.M., & Hanauer, S.B. (2010). Advanced therapy of inflammatory bowel disease: Volume 1. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.
Hanauer, S.B., & Marteau, P. (2001). Ulcerative colitis: Focus on topical treatment. Paris: J.
patient is a 35-year-old (male?), he was diagnosed with diabetes twenty five years ago at the age of ten years old, he claims that this is hereditary in his family. He has one sister who has Type 2 diabetes and a brother who has type 1 diabetes. He manages his diabetes and other illnesses from home and through a medical clinic; for most of his life he has known he has diabetes and manages to regulate it through insulin shots, glucose tablets as well as through the right nutrition, however he claims that this is difficult and there are most days where he experiences draw backs. Many complications have arisen from his diabetes. This patient was selected because of the certain case he has in regards to his diabetes and other complications which had developed from it. His treatment and management also includes an extensive study. At the young age…
The research thus concludes the essence of having quality and effective legislation addressing the aspects of overall oral health of the people.
Additionally, the Canadian Dental Association also relates several issues of the overall body health to the oral health of the individual. In view of the article on the relation "oral health -- good life," the article gives information on the essence of good oral health, indicating some of the illnesses of ill oral health (Chattopadhyay, 2011). In this article, the relation between the ill oral health and the overall health of the body is that the mouth is the ingress to the body. Therefore, an individual with ill oral health is at the highest risk of having infection that affects the whole body system severely. According to this article, it emphasizes the need for dentists-patient relation as the dentists is the only person with the skill, expertise and…
Chattopadhyay, a. (2011). Oral health epidemiology: Principles and practice. Sudbury, Mass:
Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Ramseier, C.A., & Suvan, J.E. (2010). Health behavior change in the dental practice. Ames,
Cross-Cultural Perceptions of Religious and Ideological Movements: The Effects of Nationality and Ideological Preference
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Irritable Bowel Syndrome is a very common illness. Research shows that the large bowel or colon is the site of a lot of various beneficial bacteria. Also, may many may be aware that a good colon gives a lot of detail on the way the colon and its bacteria work in unison in order to provide our bodies with particular health profits. On the other hand, the colon is the site for numerous of the symptoms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome patients. Because this organ is where all fiber and other food leftovers arrive, it would seem rational that some parts of food we eat could play a part in the signs of IBS, which for the majority, are a reflection of an excessively complex colon that is sensitive. As stated by the International…
Anand, Bhupinder. Irritable Bowel Syndrome. 8 June 2013. http://www.emedicinehealth.com/irritable_bowel_syndrome/page10_em.htm . 29 September 2014.
Cunha, John P. MedicineNet.com. 7 May 2012. http://www.medicinenet.com/irritable_bowel_syndrome_ibs/page6.htm . 29 September 2014.
Vorous, Heather Van. "The First Year: IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) -- An Essential Guide for the Newly Diagnosed." New York City: Da Capo Press; 2005 edition, 2001. 1-242.
Zuckerman, M.J., Nguyen, G., Ho, H., Nguyen, L., & Gregory, G.G. "A survey of irritable bowel syndrome in vietnam using the rome criteria." Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 51.5 (2009): 946-51.
Clinical Test for Celiac Disease
The sensitivity of a clinical test designed to discriminate between individuals with or without celiac disease would be based on its ability to correctly identify patients with the disease (Lalkhen & McClusky, 2008). In the example provided, 200 patients known to have celiac disease and 200 controls known not to have the disease were used to test the efficacy of the new clinical test. The results are as follows:
True positives = 190/200 = 0.95 or 95%
False positives = 50/200 = 0.25 or 25%
True negatives = 150/200 = 0.75 or 75%
False negatives = 10/200 = 0.05 or 5%
Sensitivity is determined by dividing true positives by the sum of true positives and false negatives (Lalkhen & McClusky, 2008), or in this example [190/(190+10)] = 0.95 or 95%.
The specificity of a clinical test describes its ability to exclude individuals from false positive…
Celiac Disease Foundation. (n.d.). Poorly responsive celiac disease. Retrieved from http://celiac.org/celiac-disease/poorly-responsive-celiac-disease/.
Lalkhen, A.G., & McCluskey, A. (2008). Clinical tests: Sensitivity and specificity. Continuing Education in Anesthesia, Critical Care & Pain, 8(6), 221-3.
In addition to the therapeutic armamentarium, CAM reported to have a great role to treat interstitial cystitis (IC). It is multimodal and individualized and includes various treatment methods including: Neuromodulation, dietary modification, acupuncture, surgical methods, medications etc. The objective of this literature review is to discuss the possible causes of the IC, diagnosis, prevalence, the symptoms, and CAM treatment options.
Interstitial cystitis (IC) also called as painful bladder syndrome is an inflammatory disease of the bladder wall with typical ulceration of the urothelium. The interstitial cystitis (IC) is generally regarded as an elusive disease picture with inadequate therapeutic options. Critical to improving the prospects for therapy is the early diagnosis of the disease, which may involve only a careful history taking and clinical examination. CAM suggests multimodal treatment strategies in the early stage of disease (Abrams, Cardozo, & Fall, 2002).
Due to definition similarity, IC is often referred…
Ahrams, P., Cardozo, L., & Fall, M. (2002). The standardization of terminology of lower urinary tract function: Report from the Standardization Sub-Committee of the International Continence Society [Electronic version]. Neurourology & • Urodynamics, 21(2), 167-178.
Astroza Eulufi, C, Velasco, P.A., Watson, A., & Guzman, K.S. (2008). Enterocistoplastia por cystitis intersticial: Resultados diferidos [Enterocystoplasty for interstitial cystits: Deferred results] (Electronic version]. Actas Urologicas Espanolas, .32(10), 1019-1023.
Elizawahri, A., Bissada, N.K., Herchorn, S., Aboul-Enein. H., Ghoneim, M., Bissada, M.A.Glazer. A.A. (2004). Urinary conduit formation using urinary diversion of intestinal augmentations: II. Does it have a role in patients with interstitial cystitis? The Journal of Urology, 171, 1559- 1562.
Fall, M., Oberpenning, F.. & Pecker, R. (2008). Treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis 2008: Can we make evidence-based decisions? European Urology, 54, 65-78.
When processed by a transglutaminase enzyme, it can interact with immunological cells and produce cytotoxic inflammation. In autism, it is believed that peptides from gluten and casein cross the intestinal microvillus barrier and enter the blood stream. They also cross the blood-brain barrier. In the brain, certain amino acid sequences of these peptides compete with natural peptides, which bind to opioid receptors. These receptors are G-protein receptors in cell membrane surfaces of neurons. inding to these receptors disturbs the neuronal function and ultimately leads to or contributes to autism (Department of Pediatrics Staff).
Limited Reliable Scientific Evidence
UK researchers investigated more than 30 scientific articles on the effectiveness of the gluten-free, casein-free diet on autistic children (astian, 2004). They found one, which provided reliable scientific evidence that the diet works. The particular study, however, was conducted on only 20 children aged 5-10 who had high levels of protein in their…
Atwood, K.C. (2003). Naturopathy: a critical appraisal. 5 (4) Medscape General
Medicine. Retrieved on June 23, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/465994
Bastian, H. (2010). Can a diet avoiding gluten and milk proteins reduce autism?
Medicine News Today: MediLexicon International Ltd. Retrieved on June 23,
The public commenting period is near the end of the promulgation process, after a bill has become law. The public comments are taken into account by the agency affected by the law when the agency is putting together its regulations to comply with and enforce the law. There is little that can be done to change the law at this point, other than to challenge it in the courts. However, earlier in the promulgation process, when a proposed regulatory change is still before Congress, it is possible to get invited to give testimony on the proposed change before a Congressional hearing, if a person is familiar with the subject at hand and intimately involved with it.
In order to set aside the regulatory changes, the court must determine that the change is arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, and/or otherwise not in accordance with federal law. Agencies must provide…
Administrative Procedure Act, Report of the House Judiciary Committee, No. 1989, 79th Congress. (1946). Federal Administrative Procedure Act. Retrieved March 7, 2012, from http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/Courses/study_aids/adlaw
Gluten in Drug Products. (2011). Federal Register Volume 76, Number 245. Retrieved March 7, 2012 from http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=FDA-2011-N-0842-0001
Pro and Cons of the Paleo Diet
It is widely accepted that some basic changes in lifestyle and diet that took place, following the Neolithic evolution, and mostly following the Industrial evolution and the Modern Era, are very recent, when weighed on an evolutionary time-measuring scale. This mismatch that exists between western lifestyles and diet, and our ancient physiology, triggers several modern day diseases such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, epithelial cell cancers, etc., which were rarely or never seen in ancient non-westernized populations. It has therefore been proposed that one way of reducing these degenerative chronic diseases is to copy the diets and lifestyles of the ancient men. This research seeks to add to these issues by carrying out the analysis of the benefits and disadvantages of the Paleo diet to the health of humans through the nutrients it contributes to the human body (Coerdain 2011).
Purpose and Scope…
Berardi, J. (Nov 17, 2014). The Pros and Cons of the Paleo Diet. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/john-berardi-phd/paleo-diet_b_5774200.html on 6 February 2016
Carrera-Bastos, P., Fontes-Villalba, M., O'Keefe, J.H., Lindeberg, S. & Cordain, L. (2001). The western diet and lifestyle and diseases of civilization. Research Reports in Clinical Cardiology. 2:15-35.
Cerling, T.E., Manthi, F.K., Mbua, E.N., Leakey, L.N., Leakey, M.G., Leakey, R.E, Brown, F.H., ... & Woodi, B.A. (2013). Stable isotope-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins. Proc Natl Acad Sci .110 (26):10501-6.
Cordain L. (2011). The Paleo Diet Lose Weight and Get Healthy by Eating the Foods You Were Designed to Eat. Rev. ed. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
ole of Autoimmunity in Three Endocrine Disorders
A number of endocrine illnesses are immune mediated and can now be reliably predicted. Autoimmune disorders can occur in a person and people related to them. Families with history of autoimmunity, and has had antibody screening done, becomes aware of those that carry such risk. Knowing the prevalence of such disorders and the diseases associated with them can help in early diagnosis and prevent them from becoming more serious. Autoimmunity affects several glands in the body. Studies reveal that alleles are very important in the determination of tissue-specific targeting (Aaron W. Michels & George S. Eisenbarth, 2010).
The Process of Autoimmunity
Autoimmunity is necessary for the body to maintain its health by countering effects of external virulent and organic attacks. It involves regulatory networks that provide the body with immunity against infection. It has not yet been determined why instances arise where autoimmunity…
Aaron W. Michels, & George S. Eisenbarth. (2010). Immunologic Endocrine Disorders. Journal of Allergy, Clinical Immunology, 225-237.
Aleksandra Krzewska, & Iwona Ben-Skowronek. (2016). Effect of Associated Autoimmune Diseases on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Incidence and Metabolic Control in Children and Adolescents. Biomed Research International.
Heves Kirmizibekmez, Rahime Gul Yesiltepe Mutlu, Nafiye Demirkiran Urganci, & Ayse Oner. (2015). Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 2: A Rare Condition in Childhood. Kirmizibekmez H, Yesiltepe Mutlu RG, Demirkiran Urganci N, Oner A. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 2: A Rare Condition in Childhood. Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology. 2015;7(1):80-82. doi:10.4274/jcrpe.1394., 80-82.
Kohei KAKU. (2010). Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes and its Treatment Policy. Japan Medical Association Journal, 41-46.
1A) in the 18th and 19th centuries, food adulteration was common, and usually done for profit. Expensive ingredients were commonly diluted with filler material to lower cost, but there were no controls on these fillers and many were unsafe. Some additives were added to extend the shelf life of food, but in several cases these additives were harmful to consumers -- common preservatives included borax, formaldehyde and sulfuric acid.
1B) The poison squad was a team that tried foods with common additives. They were to find out what the effects of those additives on the human body are.
1C) The video highlights what food scientists are doing now to adulterate food in ways to make it more addictive, if not more appealing. The scientists look for ways to add low-cost ingredients that in theory are more appealing to the human palate so that people will eat more. This…
Hypothyroidism is a fairly common disorder that patients are diagnosed with and it can have wide ranging effects. While hyperthyroidism is when the thyroid is excreting too much into the bloodstream, hypothyroidism is the opposite. If untreated, the effects on the body are numerous and substantial with the most prominent affected area being the body's metabolism rate and quality. Even with these risks, there is absolutely treatment available for the disorder once it is identified with certainty. This report will cover, after a more detailed description of hypothyroidism, the pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods that are used to address the disorder.
As indicated in the introduction, the main effect that hypothyroidism has on the human body is a slower and more sluggish metabolism. However, to say it is just that is less than accurate. As described by WebMD, the thyroid is in charge on controlling how one's body uses energy from…
Corriher, S. (2013). How to Cure Hypothyroidism Naturally. Healthwyze.
Mayo. (2016). Treatment - Hypothyroidism - Mayo Clinic. Mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 7 June
2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hypothyroidism/diagnosis-treatment/treatment/txc-20155362
MBG. (2011). 13 Ways to Treat Hypothyroidism Naturally. mindbodygreen. Retrieved 7 June
Wal-Mart, Mexico, and NAFTA
Was NAFTA the reason for Wal-Mart's success in Mexico or was it Wal-Mart's new competitive strategy? Wal-Mart's generic competitive strategy is clearly that of a 'low price' model in all nations where the retailer is located. It sells a seemingly infinite amount of goods and services in an undifferentiated fashion. The main reason that consumers go to Wal-Mart is because of its prices. Wal-Mart claims to offer one-stop shopping with the lowest prices a consumer can find in the area. Without offering such low prices, the store has little traction in the market, given that other retailers offer a more expansive product line of specific items, offer specific special deals, and offer greater prestige to the customer in terms of store name. NAFTA (The North American Free Trade Agreement) marked a watershed in Wal-Mart's relationship with Mexico. Today, Wal-Mart is the largest private employer in Mexico…
Zimbabwe did not sign the Kimberley Accords, an agreement used to introduce ethical mining practices to the diamond industry. Combined with his policy of land seizure, President Mugabe is using the nation's diamond supply to support his rule and hold onto his position of power within the nation, after decades of bloody rule.
Lieberman, Rachel. (2008, September 9). Majority stake in Williamson diamond mine acquired by Petra. Israeli Diamond News. Retrieved January 28, 2011 at http://www.israelidiamond.co.il/english/News.aspx?boneID=918&objID=4031
In Tanzania, one of the nation's largest diamond mines was acquired in 2008 by Petra, which is based in Jersey (United Kingdom). This adds Petra's global diamond portfolio. The exchange was for a cash interest of $10 million bestowed to the Tanzanian government, illustrating the willingness of the African nation to do business with corporations of former colonial powers of the region.
Jennifer Su, an Atlanta pediatrician who was not involved the study saying starting infants on solid foods before 4 months can lead to allergies and eczema. The study was more thorough in reporting benefits of prolonged breast feeding as a reduction in the risk of respiratory and ear infections, diarrhea, diabetes, obesity, and sudden infant death syndrome, diabetes, obesity, eczema, and celiac disease.
In trying to determine why mother's introduce solid foods early to infants the summary fairly accurately reports the study's findings that 90% of mothers report they thought their baby was old enough to start eating solid foods, 71% said there baby seemed to be hungry a lot of the time, and 55% believed their doctor or another health care professional said their baby should start eating solid foods. The study reported more detailed information including that 8.5% said my baby had a medical condition that might be…
added sugar, as distinguished from naturally-occurring sugars, are unhealthy; that consumers must read labels carefully; that limits for added sugar are manageable for people; and that natural sugars are not a free-for-all. What this means is that some products with high levels of naturally-occurring sugars, such as juices or dried fruit, can be unhealthy for different reasons. Of particular interest to me in this article was the way that the article presented its case. It is speaking to an audience that lack education on the subject, and maybe has trouble conceiving of how it could possible go a day on just 100 calories of added sugar. It's good to have these basic tips, though, to separate fact from fiction, as there is a lot of fiction in this world about diets.
The article by the FDA about gluten-free foods states that the FDA now officially set a gluten limit for…
FDA.gov (2015). Gluten free now means what it says. Food & Drug Administration Retrieved November 13, 2015 from http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm363069.htm?source=govdelivery&utm_medium=email&utm_source=govdelivery
Angiography;, Types Categories, , Signs & Symptoms, Treatment, Imaging Modality
An angiography involves the use of water-soluble X-ray contrast media by injecting it into blood streams in arteries or veins with the purpose of imaging blood vessels. The process is meant to observe normal or pathological conditions of the vessel organization. By seeing the lumen of blood vessels and organs, an angiography can provide information concerning conditions like luminal narrowing and aneurismal widening. Vessel access is essential and serious complications can appear if the substance is unable to pervade the veins and arteries, but this is rare and unlikely to occur. hile these are some of the conditions that are frequently detected through an angiography, it can also play an important role in analyzing sources of bleeding, tumors, and diverse malformations in veins and arteries.
The discovery of X-rays led to some of the first experiments with angiographies as…
Ford-Martin, P.A. (2002). Angiography. Retrieved November 14, 2013, from http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/angiography#1
Osborne, A.G. (1999). Diagnostic Cerebral Angiography. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Snellen, H.A., Dunning, A.J., & Arntzenius, A.C. (1981). History and perspectives of cardiology: catherization, angiography, surgery, and concepts of circular control. Leiden University Press.
Thomas, A.M.K. & Banerjee, A.K. (2013). The History of Radiology. Oxford University Press.