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cells require a layer to separate the inside of the cell from the outside world. Cells have a semi-permiable membrane which controls what can and cannot enter the cell. In animal cells, as well as some others, this membrane is all that separates the cell from its surroundings. Plant cells, and many single-celled organisms such as bacteria have a rigid cell wall beyond the membrane that provides structure. (Buck) Cell membranes act as the cell's gatekeeper, but are not especially rigid or strong. Cell walls can limit the entry of certain types of molecules, but they do not provide the fine-grained traffic control function of the membrane. Cell walls, however are rigid and strong.
Cell membranes are semi-permeable; they only allow certain molecules to enter and exit. Some molecules, such as water can pass through the membrane through osmosis or diffusion. This process does not require any energy to be…… [Read More]
All living things are complex organisms that are made up of cells. Some are made up of a single cell while others comprise of numerous cells working together. Cells are the basic functional and structural units of living organisms and are known to be the building blocks of life. In humans it is from a group of cells that tissues are made and from tissues that organs are made which enable beings to live.
Cells obtain food and oxygen through their membranes and each membrane has a specific area which can serve contents of only a given volume. Any increase in volume of the cell requires that the area of the membrane increases. Basically, when cells grow the membrane becomes insufficient in aiding the movement of substances in and out and thus to maintain a favourable surface area to volume ratio, cell division must take place. Furthermore, cell…… [Read More]
Only if the cell can take in nourishment and excrete waste can the other components of the cell like the mitochondria engage in their essential tasks. hen a cell can take in nourishment and excrete wastes, this is the surest first sign of independent life
The problem is that the Cell-u-life Corporation wants an artificial cell that can do more than nourish itself. It wants a cell that can take the place of living stem cells and reproduce, and it is not certain of aerogels can do this. Thus another possibility is trying to create lipid-like structures to make cell membranes in the lab from fat cells in the body that do not come from human sources such as embryos but can reproduce like fat cells.
Team receives grant to study artificial cell membranes."(24 Aug 2005). Stanford News:
Press Release. Retrieved 3 Jun 2007 at h ttp://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2005/august24/aerogel-082405.html… [Read More]
With our progressing knowledge in molecular biology and the increasing understanding of the various signaling pathways there is no question of doubt that in the near future the prognosis for OSCC would be considerably improved. As with any other disease, prevention is better than cure. Avoiding the well-known risk factors, a well-balanced nutritional plan and regular dental health checkups are the most effective means of preventing Oral cancers.
1) Michael King, Kourt Chatelain & Dustin Farris et.al, 'Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma proliferative Phenotype is modulated by Proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for Oral Cancer', MC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2007, 7:22, 19 June 2007 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/22
2) M. Chidzonga, L. Mahomva, 'Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, maxillary antrum and lip in a Zimbabwean population: A descriptive epidemiological study, Oral Oncology, 2006, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 184-189
3) National Cancer Institute, 'Oral Cavity', Accessed Jan 15th…… [Read More]
Cell is important because it is the building block of the body. It is a replicating organism that has proteins and cytoplasm and nucleic acids inside a membrane Alberts (2002). Cells are in everything from humans to plants, though each representation of life has its own particular cells. Cells are very small and impossible to see with a microscopic lens. That is why the cell was not actually noticed until such technology came along in the 17th century. Indeed, the name cell, which means small room in Latin, comes from the discoverer of the cell, who thought they looked like the small rooms that monks in the medieval era used to live in, which were called cells (Karp, 2009). Essentially, all living organisms are made up of cells and if there were no cells there would be no life. So the cell is very important.
What do cells do? That…… [Read More]
Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell:
There are two types of cells found, that originate from a common ancestor - The prokaryotes and eukaryotes. While Prokaryotes are organisms without a cell nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles and are mostly unicellular, but some exceptions are found. In contrast Eukaryotes have their cells have complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. The principal membrane bound structure is the nucleus. All animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes. (Diffen, 2013) Prokaryotes were the only form of life on Earth until the more complex eukaryotes evolved from them.
Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells:
The distinctions between these two types of cells create the differences in organisms Thus the groups of organisms that belong basically to the prokaryotes are non-membranous and in contrast the eukaryotes contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not. Though this is the basic difference, the…… [Read More]
Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells
Cells can be divided into two categories: prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are significantly smaller than eukaryotic cells. This size difference is due to the many contents inside a eukaryotic cell that prokaryotic cells do not have. To begin with, prokaryotic cells are always going to be unicellular, while eukaryotic cells can also be unicellular but are many times multicellular (Murray & Baron, 2007). Prokaryotic cells do not have any membrane-bound organelles inside them, such as the nucleus, mitochondria, or lysosome as eukaryotic cells do. The DNA of eukaryotic cells is linear and is contained within the nucleus, while DNA in prokaryotic cells is circular and is contained within the nuclear body, a non-membrane surrounded structure (Murray & Baron, 2007). The number of ribosomes inside a prokaryotic cell is a lot less than those contained in a eukaryotic cell. Prokaryotic ribosomes are about 70s while…… [Read More]
Different Fuel Cell Technologies
U.S Department of Energy (2010) provides the description of different fuel cell technologies. The fuel cell technologies are differentiated according to their efficiency, operating temperatures, costs and application. The classifications are based on 6 major groups:
Alkaline fuel cell (AFC),
Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC),
Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC),
Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC),
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC);
Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC).
Alkaline fuel cell (AFC)
The AFC generates electrical power using alkaline electrolyte KOH (potassium hydroxide) in water-based solution. The presence of hydroxyl ions within the electrolyte allows a circuit to extract electric energy. The illustration in Fig 2 reveals an alkaline fuel cell. As being revealed in Fig 2, two hydrogen gas molecules combines with 4 hydroxyl ions have a negative charge to release 4 electrons and 4 water molecules. The equation 4 reveals the reaction of oxidation that takes…… [Read More]
Intrinsically Photosensitive etinal Ganglion Cell
ecent studies on biological anatomy of the eye discovered an additional photoreceptor within the mammalian eye. The cells discovered mediate the primary non-image visual activities with the vision system. The functioning of these cells aids in various significant processes including the regulation of the papillary reflex activity in response to light, as well as, the circadian photo entrainment. These cells, called the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells respond to more than the absolute light. The ipGCs have a unique feature of activity, as they differ from the usual photoreceptor cells of cones and rods. The rods and cones mediate on the vision of images by signaling the contrasts in light after adaptation. Interestingly, the ipGCs also do adapt to light contrast. The cells show sensitivity to flash of light, as is the case with other photoreceptors. The factor of action of the intrinsically photosensitive ganglion…… [Read More]
On average, male skeletons are larger than female skeletons, but just as some women are larger than some males, this distinction does not hold firm in all instances. Female pelvic regions tend to be wider than male pelvic regions, an evolutionary feature that has made childbirth easier. Female bones tend to be thinner and less dense than male bones, and thus the female skeleton tends to be lighter than male skeletons.
The skull is one of the most notable sites of difference between male and female skeletons. The teeth of males tend to be larger, and above their eye sockets men tend to have a more visible brow ridge while women often have none. The male skull tends to have a squarer (as opposed to a pointed) chin and is more angular in its demarcations than the female skull. Women's nose openings are more apt to be pointed, rather than…… [Read More]
Fuel Cells in Green Engineering
The energy tomorrow is beginning to be available today. Fuel cells, which just a very few years ago were a pipe dream, are becoming g a reality, and they are used in areas ranging from space exploration to toy motivation (Joy). The promise of the fuel cell can be seen in the fact that they use the most abundant source of energy on the planet, Hydrogen atoms (Birch). They are also being seen as the energy savior because they emit a common, non-toxic waste which can also be utilized as a saving grace around the globe, water (Joy; Patturaja). A fuel that uses the most abundant element on the planet and emits clean, pure water does seem like science fiction, but there are already being used with it as a motive force.
The space shuttle has always been powered by hydrogen fuel cells (Joy). Although…… [Read More]
Fuel Cell Technology
There are over 600 million motor vehicles in the world today. If present trends continue, the number of cars on Earth will double in the next 30 years." ("Cars Emit")
As the demand for energy increase and resources, such as fossil fuel, decrease alternative must be sought. Of these alternatives, hydrogen fuel cell technology, in automotive applications, has significant benefits and is now technologically feasible. Given this knowledge, it is imperative that we begin to set up the infrastructure necessary to utilize this technology.
I have studied this topic over the last three years, and the advancement of the technology has become increasingly exciting. hat was once a dream is now a reality.
I'm going to provide you first with an overview of how fuel cells work and then describe for you the benefits of the use of fuel cells, including why hydrogen is the best choice.…… [Read More]
Design Project -- A&P Lab
Ammonia (NH3) is produced by cells located throughout the body; most of the production occurring in the intestines, liver, and the kidney, where it is used to produce urea. Ammonia is particularly toxic to brain cells, and high levels of blood ammonia can also lead to organ failure. The imaginary organelle referred to as a hydrosome functions in a manner that decreases the blood ammonia levels in people, thereby circumventing the need for medications such as to treatment to prevent hepatic encephalopathy and conditions associated with a failing liver. The hydrosome functions similarly to a primary lysosome, also containing a highly acidic interior with lytic enzymes called hydrolases. However, the waste disposal that the hydrosome conducts serves to convert ammonia to a water-soluble waste that is then excreted by the kidneys.
About this Organelle
I came up with the idea for this organelle…… [Read More]
Promotes better plant growth by improving the value of fertilizer. Helps prevent plant burning from over use of fertilizers by trapping and slowly releasing valuable nutrients when and as the plants need them.
Improves the cation exchange capacity of soil resulting in less fertilizer requirements.
Natural zeolites make an excellent soil amendment, and are environmentally friendly for landfill dump sites (with the exception of zeolite that has been used as a molecular sieve or filter medium for the removal of radioactive waste or the removal of heavy chemical toxins deemed hazardous by government regulations.)
educes nutrient and fertilizer loss through heavy rains, leaching and irrigation, resulting in less environmental damage through water runoff.
The water retention capability of zeolites allows less irrigation applications.
Zeolite is used to reduce offensive odors, especially ammonia from sewage, animal manure and waste water situations.
This retained valuable nitrogen improves the quality of the resulting…… [Read More]
Washing and Use of Testosterone:
The Action of Hand Soap Bacteria:
Hand washing is an important practice for body hygiene because of its seeming effectiveness in preventing the transmission of bacteria. Actually, it is believed that hand washing helps to lessen the risk of bacterial infection through removing and destroying bacterial cells. Generally, the use of hand soap while complying with the good washing practices help an individual to destroy bacteria in the hands, which in turn decreases the spread of diseases or illnesses. The need to wash hands using hand soap is attributed to the accumulation of bacteria on the surface of a person's hands because of numerous opportunities brought by day-to-day activities. For instance, a person encounters bacteria every time he/she touches another individual, touches raw meat, and handles money. The bacteria can get into the individual's hands and under his/her fingernails and spread if he/she touches any…… [Read More]
When watching a scary movie alone at night, this system is likely to become engaged due to the perception of a threat; sudden noises are likely to cause an involuntary flight reaction that, of course, subsides after a moment.
Temporal summation in a nerve cell occurs when the length of time over which successive activation potentials occur is sufficiently long enough to allow for the potentials to continue to the point where they begin to overlap. When this occurs, a new activation starts to begin before the climax of the preceding action potential has been reached. This action potential essentially ends prematurely, or summates, as it begins the rise into the next action potential, which ends up being larger in magnitude than the constituent action potentials. Summation of active potential in muscle fibers allows for similarly larger action potentials, which can increase the strength of the fiber contractions.
9)…… [Read More]
For instance when patients who have lost plenty of blood are brought in a hospital ER room, the clinical officers may actually administer the wrong solutions to patients as they attempt to save their lives Stoker ()
. The volume of the IV fluid to be administered should always be followed with precaution and be based on medical directions of the hospital's protocol as well as the patient's response to the fluid being administered. Another precaution is that all IV fluid bags should always be well labeled since the labels provide important information that is needed during administration of the fluids.
hen administered to the wrong and in appropriate IV fluid solutions, a patient's health may be put at severe risk and other fatalities. This may result to legal and disciplinary action to the medical practitioner. Thus, an IV fluid bag should always be read correctly as they also have…… [Read More]
Nature and nature psychology explains the behavior of man and the origin of individual differences and their personalities. Nature and nature theories explain the origin of individual differences and type development of personality. In the history of developmental psychology, heredity- environment issue has been identified as the central touchstone of theoretical differences between nature and nurture. Darwin's theory of evolution has impact on notions of human origin and their abilities. In this theory the environment does the selecting on organisms and not vice versa; natural selection dictates that organisms will survive best in the environments they find themselves. Nature- nurture discussions imply that Darwin's evolutionary theory is nature driven, while it contains an interaction of both nature and nurture. Galton (a psychologist) uses twins in his studies to differentiate between nature and nurture. The study shows that twins had little variation on their similarities despite exposure to different environments.…… [Read More]
physical properties diffusion structure function epithelia epithelial cells digestive circulatory systems animals larger end larger. In answer, surface area volume ratios (SA/V) ratios change organisms larger effect (s) change imposes structure function organisms.
Epithelia: Solving the SA/V (surface-to-area volume) problem
"Epithelium is one of the four primary tissues of the body. It consists of cells usually arranged in sheets or tubules that are attached to the underlying basement membrane" (Epithelia, 2012, SUNY). One of the problems for the epithelium is that as a cell grows larger, the cell's volume increases at an exponentially faster rate than the cell's overall surface area. This could place a limit on the cell's size, since it limits the speed substances coming into the cell can diffuse throughout the entity (Moffatt 1998). However, a number of mechanisms have evolved to cope with the SA/V (surface-to-area volume) problem besides simply 'staying small.'
One solution is the…… [Read More]
Fantastic Voyage Through the Body
The man is eating a hamburger and French fries while drinking a root beer. He is mechanically separating the food into smaller units, and then he is swallowing it. For this exercise, it is important to realize that there are four different types of material that will be absorbed by the body and that they are all absorbed differently. These are fiber from the leafy greens on the hamburger, fats from the hamburger and French fries, proteins from the hamburger, and carbohydrates in many forms which make up the bulk of the meal. They start off in a common area, but they end up going through different processes to either leave or remain in the body.
The first part of the journey is taken by all of the nutrition types. The man bites off a chunk of burger or fires, or drinks a swallow of…… [Read More]
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…… [Read More]
Transcription is a process that genetic information on the DNA copies into NA and the DNA acts as the template for the new molecules of NA. Transcription process begins with the DNA double helix unwinding as the hydrogen bonds holding the opposing bases breaks and the DNA strands are uncoupled. The process occurs within the cytoplasm of a prokaryote and in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Transcription process consists of three steps; initiation, elongation, termination, and are regulated by transcription factors that include protein products of the genes. The protein products regulate at postranscriptional levels every time.
Initiation of transcription begins with enzyme NA polymerase that identifies and attaches to DNA at the promoter and transcription of the DNA template starts. An initiation complex forms by association of 50 proteins different from each other required by NA polymerase II. NA polymerase synthesizes polynucleotides of NA from the template of DNA.…… [Read More]
Corynebacterium diphtheria. The answered . The pdf file attached referenced. The paper written format a scientific paper a microbiology . These textbooks great sources reference: Willey, J.
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a bacterium that is pathogenic and is the leading cause of diphtheria. Due to the resemblance in their shape and sizes, bacteria and archaea were earlier classified as one but on discovery of their metabolic and biochemical differences, it was determined that they had different evolution histories. The bacillus falls under the nonlipophilic fermentative bacteria in classification. Structurally, it possesses cell membranes formed from a combination of the hydroxyl group and fatty acids. Unlike the bacteria, the archaea has linkages that contain ether bonds (Willey, 2003). The cell wall of C.diphtheriae is made up of peptidoglycan bonds which is a great variance from that of the archaea which contains no such bonds. Another major cutting edge factor that classifies C.diphtheriae…… [Read More]
S. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine (Connor 2000). An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants. Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys. ut current laws restrict the use of stems cells on embryos less than 14 days old and for correcting fertility, reproduction or congenital disorders. The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person (Connor). Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system (Travis 2002). Two new studies bolstered this…… [Read More]
The Golgi receives new proteins and lipids from the ER, finishes them up, addresses them and sends them to their final destination. In this way, the Golgi could be the postal service of the city. Lysosomes get rid of unusable waste within the cell and recycles those materials that can be reused, making it the recycling and garbage center of the city. Mitochondria are where ATP, the main energy molecule, is made. It could be considered the city's power plant. Then we have the cell's cytoskeleton, which gives the cell its shape, strength and its ability to move. It can be looked at as the roadways and bridges of the city. ("Chemical Composition of the Body," 2005)
Cells do not act alone and have help from things like enzymes to complete their job. Enzymes are proteins make chemical reactions within cells occur faster ("Chemical Composition of the Body," 2005). ithout…… [Read More]
In conclusion, although the anthrax bacterium is relatively low on the list of possible contaminants, future research on this potentially fatal disease should continue, particularly when considering the ever-growing threat from terrorist actions and the possibility that as the world population increases, the presence of the anthrax bacterium will also increase, due to the growth of farming, land clearing and many agricultural activities aimed at increasing the world's food supply through planting in soils already containing Bacillus cereus, not to mention the possibility of this and other types of the anthrax bacterium mutating into unknown strains which could create pandemic outbreaks.
"Anthrax." CDC. Internet. 2008. etrieved November 9, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/anthrax_gi.html.
"Anthrax." World Health Organization. Internet. 2009. etrieved November 9, 2009
"Einstein Scientists Move Closer to a Safer Anthrax Vaccine." Science News. Internet. September 4, 2009. etrieved November 9, 2009 from http://esciencenews.com/articles/
Glanze, Walter D., Ed.…… [Read More]
Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes or eukaryote is the organism that makes up the microbial world. Prokaryotes are deficient of internal unit membranes and are self-sufficient cells or organisms. The best-known prokaryotic organisms are the bacteria. The cell membrane in prokaryotes makes up the cell's primary osmotic barrier and consists of a phsopholipids unit membrane. The ribosome carries out translation and protein synthesis and is present in the cytoplasm. Normally, the nuclear regions consist of circular, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid.
Plasmids, the accessory self-replicating genetic structure is present in many prokaryotes with extra not necessary cell functions like encoding proteins to inactivate antibiotics. On the other hand, the eukaryotic cells have a nuclear membrane, well-defined chromosomes, mitochondria, a sector device, an endoplasmic reticulum and digestive system with many cell types. The prokaryotes are deficient of structural multiplicity and consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organism, which is well-known among eukaryotes…… [Read More]
Osmoregulation is the process, by which the body adjusts to a change in an environment of different water volume and amount of solutes in a cells and body fluid of organisms including vertebrates. Vertebrates are animals, which have a backbone, and can be warm either blooded or cold blooded. The body of such organisms adjusts in order to maintain the body balance both inside and outside their bodies in mild and harsh environments ranging from seawater, fresh water, and terrestrial habitats to very hostile environments. Endocrine glands found in such organisms play a major role in constant and persistent regulation of body balance, which secretes hormones directly into the blood whenever the body witnesses any environmental change (Bentley 45).
Endocrine glands present in vertebrates play a major role in controlling the level of water and salt in vertebrate's bodies. Hormones produced in vertebrates play a major role…… [Read More]
Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes
Water is very important for life. Indeed, the processes of life, both external and internal even, at the cellular and the molecular level, are governed by water. Without water, most living organisms suffer from what is known as water stress.
This water stress can be due to the loss of water or dehydration. Desiccation is a special case of dehydration where drying takes place in air. Alternatively, another form of water stress is due to the excessive accumulation of salts. This is relatedly called osmotic stress. Osmosis seeks to reduce this accumulation by moving fluids across a concentration gradient. While most living beings cannot survive without water, lesser species belonging to the eukarya group -- that includes both bacteria and a more primitive organism archaea show remarkable tolerance to water stress.
Responses to water stress takes place at a supracellular level as well as a cellular…… [Read More]
In one laboratory experiment, bacteria exposed to high levels of pathogenic bacteria over several hundred generations eventually adapted "their progeny became dependent on having the formerly pathogenic bacteria in food vacuoles...(Jeon, 1991)" (Armstrong) There are several ways in which bacteria may subsume other bacteria, including ingesting them and maintaining them in food vacuoles as in the Jeon experiment, or they may become infected by bacteria that are acting as parasites. Mitochondria, for example, could have been parasitic and fed off the host at the same time that they proved useful to it. Chloroplasts, because they are significantly self-supporting, are more likely to have been introduced as food. This theory continues to suggest that after many generations of true symbiosis, the mitochondria and chloroplasts lost their independence.
If the endosymbiosis theory was correct, there are many things which should hypothetically prove true in experimentation. For example, it should be evidenced that…… [Read More]
Size and Temperature on Diffusion
In this experiment is expected that after 30 minutes, the diameter of the diffused dye ring will increase in size when placed at 37°C.
Janus Green at room temperature
Janus Green at 37°C
Potassium Permanganate at room temperature
Potassium Permanganate at 37°C
Measurement of diffusion of Janus Green and Potassium Permanganate at different temperatures.
Consistent with the expectations, potassium permanganate molecules spread further, 1.0 cm at room temperature and 1.1 at 37°C. This was longer compared to those of Janus Green that spread 0.3 cm at room temperature and 0.5cm at 37°C. It is evident that both molecules spread further at 37°C than at room temperature.
Effect of solute concentration on osmosis
Bag Contents (10ml)
Beaker Contents (200ml)
Total Mass Change
10% sucrose dH2O
Figure…… [Read More]
prokaryotes consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organisms. A procaryotic cell has five essential structural components: a genome (DNA), ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, and some sort of surface layer which may or may not be an inherent part of the wall (1). Functional aspects of procaryotic cells are related directly to the structure and organization of the macromolecules in their cell make-up, i.e., DNA, RNA, phospholipids, proteins and polysaccharides. Diversity within the primary structure of these molecules accounts for the diversity that exists among procaryotes (1). Identifiable groups of prokaryotes are assembled based on easily observed phenotypic characteristics such as Gram stain, morphology (rods, cocci, etc.), motility, structural features (e.g. spores, filaments, sheaths, appendages, etc.), and on distinguishing physiological features (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, anaerobiasis, methanogenesis, lithotrophy, etc.). Prokaryotes are commonly known as bacteria, and it is estimated that bacteria have been around for at least 3.5 billion years…… [Read More]
Role of Secondary (Hormone) Messengers in the Process of Metabolism in Cellular Communication
As the primary unit of human living, cells have multi-function tasks that need to be accomplished spontaneously within the body, especially if the body needs to accomplish many tasks and activities at the same time. That is why cells have an elaborate form of communication, which is primarily chemical and biological in nature. The biochemical cellular communication in cells coordinates all tasks that are essential for the survival of the human body. These tasks include cell communication for motion and active transport of substances within the body; biosynthesis, or the production of chemical substances as a result of the biological activities of the cell; cell reproduction, growth, and death; and signal amplification, which is one of the primary phases in the process of cellular communication.
The signal amplification phase, apart from acting as an 'intermediary' phase towards…… [Read More]
Origin of Eukaryotes
Theory of Endosymbiosis
The evolution of eukaryotes has no fossil record. However, from the study of modern organisms, biologists deduced their theory that eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes through the endosymbiosis process. The state of one species living inside another species, known as the host, is called endosymbiosis.
Eukaryotes evolved from the Archaea domain of prokaryotes, whereby prokaryotic cell have engulfed aerobic bacteria instead of engulfing other prokaryotes. Membrane infolding is the first process that occurs in the development of eukaryotic cell. Around the nucleus, nuclear envelope is formed due to the inward folding of the plasma membrane. Later, attached to the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum is produced. The development process of mitochondria and chloroplasts completes the formation of eukaryotic cell.
Some of the researched evidences of biologists on the evolution of eukaryotes from prokaryotes are as follows. (Origin of Eukaryotes. (http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/acteria/symbiosis.html)
oth use RNA and DNA are…… [Read More]
They cause the cell membrane to depolarize by allowing the influx of sodium ions into the cell. However due to the size and hydrophobic nature of the channel protein, it has not been fully resolved by x-ray crystallography.
The secondary and some of the tertiary structures can only be deduced from the primary amino acid sequence. Voltage gated sodium channels consist of an ?-subunit responsible for selectivity and voltage gating (Errington, Stohr and Lees; Sands, Grottesi and Sansom). However some sodium channels also have one or two smaller subunits called ?-1 and ?-2. The protein has 4 homologous domains containing multiple potential ?-helical transmembrane segments. The segments are connected by non-conserved, hydrophilic intervening segments. The fourth transmembrane segment (S4) of each domain is highly positively charged, and thought to be a voltage sensor.
Errington, a.C., T. Stohr, and G. Lees. "Voltage Gated Ion Channels: Targets for Anticonvulsant Drugs." Curr…… [Read More]
Diffusion and Osmosis Experiment Lab eport
The core purpose of the first experiment conducted in the lab was to study the principle of diffusion. The experiment aimed at analyzing the movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration towards lower concentration. Potassium permanganate crystals were dissolved in water to observe the process of diffusion. The observations and results attained from the experiment indicated the movement of molecules which occurred due to molecular collisions, taking place more frequently in areas of higher concentration.
Molecules present in a liquid or a gas move about constantly in random directions. During their movement, they bump into each other and bounce this way and that way. This random movement ultimately results in the uniform or even distribution of molecules. The tendency of molecules to spread out evenly throughout the space occupied by them is referred as diffusion. The process of diffusion does not require…… [Read More]
Pharmacokinetics explains the process by which a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated from the body. These processes are dependent on the amount of the drug administered, the method of administration (which affects the rate of absorption, biotransformation, and even excretion), and how the drug binds in the tissues. In essence, a drug's ability to transverse the cellular membranes depends on its solubility and molecular size and shape. The passive diffusion of the drug across cellular membranes depends on its lipid solubility as well as concentration gradients outside and inside the cellular membrane and the pH differences across the membrane. Active transport of the drug occurs when the drug is actually moved by components of the membrane. This can allow a drug move against concentration and electrochemical gradients but it requires energy, can be selective, and can be inhibited by similar molecules. The absorption rate is influenced…… [Read More]
Obesity cause Diabetes Type 2?
From the time people came into existence; they have witnessed changes in virtually every aspect of life including the global environment, food production, health concerns, demographic growth, and so forth. Nevertheless, the capacity to adapt to the changes has facilitated the inhabitants to survive and have an improved lifestyle. However, as the globe penetrated into the twenty-first century, the standard of living of numerous people has altered to a great extent due to the technological advancements and innovations. People are now in a race where everyone wants to win success, prosperity, and affluence because of which they have neglected or overlooked the aspect of their health (Stern & Kazaks, 2009). Therefore, health has become an escalating and emerging concern in this epoch across the world.
However, when taking health issues under consideration, obesity has been observed as one of the epidemics that have been witnessed…… [Read More]
Once in the cells, the glucose is burned in order to create heat and adenosine triphosyphate, (ATP) which is a molecule that stores and releases energy as required by the cell.
The metabolism of glucose into energy happens either in combination with oxygen which is called aerobic metabolism or without it which is called anaerobic metabolism. The oxygen used comes from the mitochondria. Red blood cells do not have mitochondria, so they convert glucose into energy without the use of oxygen, unlike some other cells.
Glucose is also converted to energy inside muscle cells. These are probably the most important energy users. Muscle cells contain mitochondria so they can process glucose with oxygen. Even if the level of oxygen levels in the muscle-cell mitochondria fall too low, the cells can proceed to convert glucose into energy without oxygen. The down side is that making glucose into energy without oxygen produces…… [Read More]
" (Klotter, 2001) Additionally, salt functions as an extraction agent for excess acidity in the body which are in the form of "hydrogen ions, and oxidants from ATP production" from cells. (Klotter, 2001; paraphrased) Morris (2008) states that in order for the body to become adequately hydrated the individual should replace fluid lost by perspiration when exercising and should always drink water prior to consuming food. The ideal water intake for someone who exercises is stated to be as follows: "Drink 17 ounces of water 2 hours before the activity and weigh yourself right before you exercise. While you exercise, drink 6-10 oz. every 15-20 minutes." (Morris, 2008)
IV. SIGNS of DEHYDRATION
When the body is in a state of severe lack of water the body becomes dehydrated and this results in the "cell membranes become[ing] less permeable, hampering the flow of hormones and nutrients into the cell and preventing…… [Read More]
Therefore, Hexsel's study will not be included in this analysis for failure to meet the study protocol.
Another human study involved a case study of a single patient. This Brazilian study represented a case study and does not meet the protocol for inclusion in this analysis either (Rittes, 2001). As there have been no human studies in the United States to date, we must rely on studies published in other countries for our meta-analysis. A study conducted in Vienna by Karl Heinrich will be used as one of the studies to be analyzed. This was the only study that could be located involving an actual population of human subjects, as this type of research is prohibited in the U.S. At this time.
The sample population used by Heinrich consisted of 86 individuals who received a standardized series of treatments. This study suffered from significant flaws that make the results questionable.…… [Read More]
Shock is a condition of inadequate tissue perfusion, which results in decreased amount of oxygen in the vital tissues and organs (Metrng 2010, Klabunde 2010, Sarathy 2010, Spaniel et al. 2007). It reduces the rate of elimination of waste products of metabolism. Causes are heart attack, severe or sudden blood loss from injury or severe illness, blood poisoning from major infections, large decrease of body fluids, and exposure to extreme heat or cold for long duration. The American College of Surgeons classified shock into four, namely distributive, obstructive, cardiogenic, and hemorrhagic (Metrng, Klabunde, Sarathy & Spaniel et al.).
Hemorrhagic shock is a serious and life-threatening condition, which affects all body systems (Sarathy 2010). Cardiac output is reduced and depriving tissue of adequate oxygen. Hemorrhagic shock is further classified into four, according to the amount of blood lost. In Class I hemorrhage, there is a 15% or less blood…… [Read More]
Organic & Inorganic Molecules
Of course, many people focus on the organic molecules when people focus on life. There are four major types of organic molecules. Those are the carbohydrates, the proteins, the lipids and the nucleic acids. Carbohydrates are energy-rich, are part of cell respiration, they have a structure role in the cellulose/cell walls of plants and they serve as building blocks in the form of carbohydrate polysaccharides (which are themselves composed of simple sugars. Proteins are the enzymes, are also structural, are carrier molecules and…… [Read More]
One of the most common mental disorders linked to Alzheimer's is depression which according to Elwood Cohen manifests itself in three important ways. First, "There are higher rates of depression among Alzheimer's patients than among non-demented adults;" second, "Having a depressive episode is associated with an increased risk for developing Alzheimer's," and third, Depressive symptoms can be confused with dementia in older adults" (1999, 214).
In a recent study conducted by the Cardiovascular Health Initiative, based in Washington, D.C., more than one-third of 400 dementia patients and more than one-fifth of 300 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) had experienced symptoms of depression during a one-month period prior to the study. Similar results were reported by the Multi-Institutional esearch in Alzheimer's Genetic Epidemiology (MIAGE) which discovered that "In the year prior to a patient being diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, the same patient was almost five times more likely than their…… [Read More]
Norepinephrine, one of the monoamine neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, has been reported to be connected to several functions such as memory, cognition, consciousness, and emotion. It plays significant roles in the path physiology of depression. Norepinephrine transporter (NET) is responsible for the reuptake of norepinephrine into presynaptic nerves and is one of the main targets of antidepressants (Sekine, Arakawa, Ito, Okumura, Sasaki, Takahashi & Suhara, 2010). The norepinephrine system is important in: attention like alerting, focusing and orienting, appetitive behaviors, hedonic or pleasurable properties of natural and drug-related reinforcement and mood, arousal, and regulation of blood pressure (Biogenic Amine Neurotransmitters in the CNS, n.d.).
Serotonin is a hormone, also called 5-hydroxytryptamine, in the pineal gland, blood platelets, the digestive tract, and the brain. Serotonin acts both as a chemical messenger that transmits nerve signals between nerve cells and that which causes blood vessels to narrow.…… [Read More]
WHY DO THE JAPANESE LIVE LONGE?
NUTITIONAL BENEFITS OF SOY:
As an annual Asian legume (meaning that it grows in a pod), soy is one of the most amazing members of the bean family, due mostly to its significant health benefits. Many studies done by nutritionist worldwide have confirmed that a plant-based diet is the most healthful choice. Soybean and its extracts, such as soybean oil, provide high-quality protein that is equal to that found in poultry, milk and other animal-based foods. However, not all soyfoods are low in fat, but most of them are cholesterol-free. An added bonus is that soybean and its byproducts do not contain saturated fat unless it is added during the processing stage or is combined with other ingredients containing saturated fat.
Because many forms of soy are low or modest in total fat, a person's overall diet will be inclined toward…… [Read More]
Medications include mood stabilizers, especially lithium, flaxseed oil, phospholipids, lecithin, antioxidants, folate, amino acids, multivitamins and minerals (Kidd 2004). Psychosocial measures include a change of lifestyle, a change in diet, the inclusion of dietary supplements, cognitive behavior therapy and therapeutic parenting (Kidd).
A plan that can be devised in treating or managing bipolar disorder can include traditional medications for symptoms, the new electroconvulsant therapy resistant cases, and preventive measures (Kidd 2004). The family must be educated on possible relapses through informational pamphlets, videos or their involvement in advocacy groups. Family physicians, psychiatrists and mental health professionals should be involved in the plan. Family members should be informed about and trained to recognize the warning signs of suicide. They should also be taught how to distinguish between the signs of mania and those of depression. Substance abuse should be discouraged or stopped. Even seemingly modest or "innocent" social drinking should be…… [Read More]
Found in both plant and animal products, such as olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, and in some plant foods such as avocado (Nutristrategy [N], 2005). Phospholipids are major components of the cell membrane. Phospholipids limit the passage of water-soluble compounds through the membrane, enabling the cell to keep its contents separate from the outside environment. Lastly, just wanted to give five ways that one can cut one's fat intake by watching what foods one consumes. Convert some of the foods one eats. Eat plenty of vegetables, increase the amount of whole grains, concentrate on the proper fats that one's body needs, eat healthy proteins, consume more low and nonfat dairy foods (Nelson, Lichtenstein, & Lindner, 2005). Hope this all helps in one's decision. Good luck, hope you make healthy choices, and let us talk if there are questions.
Encarta Encyclopedia (2005). Lipids. etrieved August 11,2005, at http://encantra.msn.com/encyclopedia_761566842/Lipids.html
Nelson,…… [Read More]
In year 1799 anesthetic properties of Nitric Oxide were discovered by Humphery Davy (1778-1829) he advised that the by using nitric oxide, pain and shock of the surgical procedure can be negated. Third person who continue with Morton and ells philosophy was Charles T. Jackson. The Fourth man who contributed to anesthetics was Thomas Mortan (Blatner, 2009). In the year 1848 James Simpson used chloroform in obstetric surgery, he used diethyl ether to anesthetize a women with a pelvic deformity for delivery (kodali, 2009) and in year 1853 John Snow did a successful induction of chloroform to her Majesty Queen Victoria at the time of Prince Leopold's Birth and also on Fenny Longfellow who wrote to her poet brother that this use of ether is certainly the greatest blessing of this era (Longfellow, 1956). In the year 1885-illiam Halsted introduced the nerve block. In 1891 Heinrich Quincke demonstrated the process…… [Read More]
Homeostasis, according to Nirmalan and Nirmalan (2017), is the propensity for living organisms to maintain relative stability in the internal environment. Homeostasis is made possible through the cooperation of several regulatory mechanisms and separate sub-systems which make up the normal physiology of a living organism (Nirmalan & Nirmalan, 2017). During critical illnesses internal or external stress can make an attempt at interfering with the self-regulation systems beyond what is considered as normal range in physiology. According to Palaparthi and Med (2017), the word homeostasis is derived from two Greek words i.e. ‘homeo’ (stands for similar) and ‘stasis’ (standing for stable). Homeostasis is the balance, equilibrium and the stability of the body or of the cell (Palaparthi & Med, 2017). Living organisms exhibit this character. The process of maintaining stability in the internal environment necessitates occasional internal adjustments as the environmental conditions continue to change outside and inside the…… [Read More]
These research findings were very significant because all the men who were studied in this were smokers. The researchers of this study admitted that vitamin E surely reduces the risk of prostate cancer. This study was used in a relatively low dose of 50 IU of the prostate but higher dose of 400 IU does have a greater benefit to the heart and prostate. (Challem, 37) Further a study published in the Journal Nutrition and Cancer 2000 states that natural vitamin E or d-alpha-tocopherol arrests the growth of the two types of prostate cancer cells and causes these cells to self-destruct. (Challem, 38)
However though vitamin E is a free-radical scavenger and is associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer, men with a history of bleeding problems or who take blood thinners should surely discuss the use of vitamin E with their doctor before consuming them. (Heaney; Ellsworth; Gill,…… [Read More]
At the molecular level, the mutation in the normal ApoA1 is because of a single amino acid substitution at the position 173, cysteine amino acid substitutes or replaces the arginine amino acid. Because of the presence of an extra cysteine, a cysteine bridge is formed that causes great changes in the protein structure. ApoA1 protein does not have a cysteine dimer but cysteine dimer is formed on Apo1 Milano that causes the protein to exist as a homo or a hetro dimer with ApoAII (Futterman and Lemberg 246). It has been reported that he enhanced cholesterol removal efficiency is not because of the presence of extra cysteine. Based on the replacement of arginine by a cysteine residue, the charge of the protein is shifter towards cathode. Because of the mutation, it has been reported that the removal of cholesterol from the inner arterial walls is accelerated and much higher. The…… [Read More]
Knowles stated "The richest resources for learning reside in the adult learners themselves" (p. 66). n instructional strategy like gaming may help to facilitate tapping into the adult learner's experience. Through collaboration during the play of a game, learners may discuss prior experiences to aid in discovery of the correct answer. Gaming activities also permit peer feedback to be given to students based on their previous experiences. The millennial student desires immediate feedback and integrates their experiences into their learning (Tapscott, 1998). gain, through group discussion and collaboration, learners share previous experiences with others to confirm or not the correct answer.
By not tapping into the experience of adult learners, negative effects may result (Knowles, 2005). The adult learner identifies their experiences as who they are. In other words, their experiences help to define them as a person. dult learners, who perceive their experiences as being ignored or devalued, perceive…… [Read More]
role of hormones in the control of body fuel/energy mechanism has been appreciated for close to a century (Dzamko & Steinberg,2009). This concept was identified by the groundbreaking findings by the scientists, Banting et al. (1922) that the hormone, insulin could effectively restore euglycaemia. This paper seeks to give an in depth understanding of metabolism by definition and gives the various component of metabolism and finally the hormonal influence of metabolism. This paper looks into the various substrates that are influence the hormonal actions in fuel metabolism, circumstances under which they occur and the various pathways followed during these metabolisms (Becker, 2001). The intermediary compounds are also considered to the effect. In conclusion, the paper discuses the medical conditions that would arise once these hormones fail to act.
Metabolism is a biological process that takes place in living organisms throughout their lives, once metabolism stops the individuals automatically dies. A…… [Read More]
Hypokalemia occurs when the blood plasma level of potassium is too low (below 3.5 mcg). This is the most common electrolyte imbalance. It effects cardiac conduction and function.
Calcium is a cation that is stored in the bone, plasma and body cells. In plasma, it binds with albumin. It is well-known that calcium is necessary for healthy teeth and bones. However, it is also necessary for blood clotting, hormone secretion, maintaining the integrity of cell membranes, cardiac conduction, transmission of nerve impulses and muscle contraction. Calcium levels in the body are regulated by bone resorption.
Hypercalcemia occurs when calcium levels rise above 5 mcg in the plasma. One of the most common symptoms is cardiac arrhythmia. X-rays will show calcium loss in the bones when blood plasma levels are high. This is frequently a symptom of and underlying disease with excess bone resorption and the release of calcium. It…… [Read More]
Life Cycle of Chlamydia Trachomatis in the Human Body
Infection & Symptoms
Prevention of Chlamydia Infection
Chlamydia trachomatis, a bacterium, has a tendency to infect the columnar epithelium of the cervix, the urethra, and the rectum. Apart from genital areas the bacteria can affect and infect other areas of the body like the lungs and the eyes. This bacterium is one of the prime sources of most of the sexually transmitted diseases. There are practically no prior symptoms of infection by this bacterium (Breguet, 2007). However several complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy in women can occur if the infection if left untreated for a long time. Men can also develop disease complications like epididymitis and orchitis from this bacterium.
Treatment for the uncomplicated state of this infection is fairly simple and should include simple antibiotics like azithromycin or doxycycline.…… [Read More]
So far, we have accomplished stepping up one step, but this is only half of the process necessary for reaching something on a high shelf. The second step, of course, is reaching up with the arm to grasp the desired object. The beginning of the process is pretty much the same -- a nerve impulse originates in the brain (possibly in the motor cortex for this more complex and less-often performed task), and then travels along the spinal cord and periphery nerves to the proper muscles (pbs.org). Again, the neuromuscular junction is the site of chemical/electrical messaging between he nerve and the muscle fiber, and the same process activates the muscle tissue.
It is worthwhile to examine exactly what process takes place in the muscle tissue once activated that actually enables movement. muscles work by contracting; at the cellular level, the muscle fibers actually cling together and shorten when activated,…… [Read More]
People wok had to lose pounds fom thei abs, with the pesistence to make evey step geat and had objective to lose few pounds each time they execise. In fact, some of the encouagements ae not moe than umos. Scientists evealed tuths and oppotunities in the aticle, aiming to give eachable goals and simple methods to bun fat.
Accumulating body fat could be elated to pesonality inetness and high fatty food intake fo yeas, theefoe it is impotant that people incease thei awaeness to educe fatty components in thei diets fo egula basis, while at the same time incease active body movement fom daily activities and mild execises.
The aticle explained, while a numbe of people misundestood that cutting fat intake and aising execise fequency gow linea with body fat loss, in eality, half of the points may need second thought. Thee ae many factos contibuting to obesity.
Human develops…… [Read More]
Antimicrobial Agents in Household Use: Triclosan
Describe how Triclosan works on a molecular level. Explain how Triclosan differs from soap and bleach in its antimicrobial activity.
Triclosan blocks the active site of the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase enzyme (EN), this is the vital enzyme in the synthesis of fatty acid in bacteria (Levy et a, 1999). Blocking this active site by triclosan leads to the inhibition of the enzyme thus preventing the synthesis of the fatty acid by the bacteria, a process needed for building cell membranes and reproduction. Given the fact that this EN enzyme exists in humans, triclosan has been considered to be relatively friendly to humans. Due to its strong nature of inhibition, powerful antibacterial action can be achieved using only a small amount of triclosan.
Triclosan differs from soap and bleach in the mechanism of action. Levy et al. (1999) also clarify that whereas triclosan interferes…… [Read More]
Computer Vision Syndrome
According to the Computer Desktop Encyclopedia, Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) is "A variety of problems related to prolonged viewing of a computer screen. Short-term effects include dry eyes, blurred vision, eye fatigue and excessive tearing. Long-term effects include migraines, cataracts and visual epilepsy. Some solutions are to keep reflections and glare to a minimum and to provide a non-fluorescent, uniform light source. Special lamps are available that maintain the proper light around the monitor and generate light at much higher frequencies than regular light bulbs"
With the ever increasing amount of time consumers are spending in front of their computer screens, this disability is considered on of the fastest growing work related health problems in the country today. For many Americans, the problem cannot be left behind at the office. Individuals come home, to spend time surfing the web, corresponding via email, and pursuing various computer-based entertainment…… [Read More]