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Censorship: Is it ever Permissible to Restrain Speech?
"Censorship." The word is such a powerful one that to many Americans the idea of any type of censorship seems to be the worst human rights violation imaginable. After all, if speech is controlled, how can people express differing political views and bring about desired social change? This viewpoint of the primary importance of free speech in a free society is a very American approach to the concept of censorship. However, as the internet has made it possible for people to cross country and boundaries with simply the click of a mouse, more and more people are becoming aware that American ideals of free speech are hardly universal. In other countries, some human rights are seen as even more important than the freedom of speech. This paper will explore the concept of free speech as it exists in America, limitations on free…
Allen, Jennifer and George Norris. "International Comparisons of Approaches to Hate Speech."
Race, Racism, and the Law. 1-5. 2011. Web. 14 Nov. 2012.
Freedom Forum. "Limits of Freedom of Speech." Education for Freedom. N.p. 2012. Web.
14 Nov. 2012.
Censorship -- Pro
The First Amendment has been part of the Bill of Rights since the creation of the Constitution in 1789. It was created to ensure that people would be able to express their ideas, whether they be political or religious, without fear of repercussion from the government. The Amendment would create a country where people could practice their own religion without fear of persecution like their ancestors did in England. The Amendment has protected the country from descending into various forms of censorship. Members of the press can publish information and opinions about political leaders and others without being stifled should their opinion make someone in the political arena look bad. However, there is also a darker side to the First Amendment. The right to peaceful assembly and freedom of speech has been used to ensure that books about pedophilia and child molestation can be published even if…
Manson, Marilyn. "Columbine: Whose Fault is it?" The Conscious Reader. 12th edition.
Longman. 2011. Print.
Taylor, Charles. "The Morality Police." The Conscious Reader. 12th edition. Longman. 2011.
Censorship on the Internet
Kaul, V. (2012). "he pros and cons of new media and media freedom." Journal of Mass Communication and Journalism, Vol. 2, Issue 5.
In his research study, author-researcher Kaul discussed the implications of using the Internet technology in launching what is called the new media, both in the context of journalistic/press freedom and freedom of expression of the civil society in general. More specifically, the author provided a comparison of the "old" (traditional) versus "new" (Internet/online) media, considering both as tools for freedom of expression, albeit the latter is more accessible. However, the article also discussed how the rise of the new media has not 'revolutionized' press freedom in some countries (namely, countries in South Asia and South Africa). What Kaul emphasized is the proliferation of new media as a replacement of old media, but without the expected improvement in press freedom. Instead, what occurred is…
The rise of the Internet as an influential and central source of information globally has even permeated countries such as China, wherein Internet content is highly regulated by the government. In the analysis conducted by Hom et al., the authors acknowledged that the Internet technology has spurred governments like the Chinese government to take radical actions to censor online content in the country, while at the same time, other countries, including developed ones in the North American and European regions, are confronting issues of "global governance" online. Thus, while the authors call for "relaxed control" of the Chinese government of online content as a form of recognizing human rights (the right to freedom of expression and right to information), they also recognize the need for governance of online content across all countries in the world taking advantage of and benefiting from Internet technology.
Karhula, P. (2011). "What is the effect of WikiLeaks for freedom of information?" International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA).
Karhula centered his discussion on the issue of WikiLeaks as a case for analyzing freedom of expression and right to information using the online platform. In discussing the specifics of the WikiLeaks incident, Karhula argued that the WikiLeaks case is compelling in that it begs the question of whether information leakage about government conspiracies, inappropriate conduct, and even corruption would be best "leaked" or accessed through a public, online forum. The author questions if the WikiLeaks case actually contributes to the "kind of transparency which would support democracy and civil society." It is possible that while it gave online users the information it needed about specific political and economic issues of the world, it could also pose as a propaganda mechanism that seeks to discredit governments and public officials from various governments all over the world. At present, the WikiLeaks case remains a compelling case for governments and civil societies to scrutinize and rethink about the way information is regulated and proliferated online.
Censorship in Music
Censorship Under the Guise of Protecting the Children
Rock and Roll Culture
Hip Hop Culture
Is Censorship in Music Viable and Does it Make a Difference?
There have been many attempts by society control music. Governmental statutes, agency regulations, business controls and parents have all tried to censor the music. Sometimes they have succeeded and sometimes they have not. The examination of various aspects of rock and rap music censorship involves general societal reactions to new and alien music, racism, governmental responses, media outlets such as Rolling Stone magazine and the New York Times, and the music industry itself. Each of these serve as gatekeepers, veritable controllers of the music and lyrics that make their way out into our collective consciousness.
Rock and roll has become a prime target for the censorship campaigns of a wide range of special interest lobbies, including religious, political, economic, and musical.…
Clockwork Orange in Central Park" 1989, U.S. News & World Report, 8 May, p. 10.
Bar Protest Songs from Europe GI's" 1965, Variety, Aug., p. 1.
Berry, C. & Wolin, D. 1985, "Comment, Regulating Rock Lyrics: A New Wave of Censorship?" Harvard Journal on Legislation, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 606.
Betz, C. 1986, The Story of Rock, Oxford University Press, New York.
Censorship: An Overview and Analysis of Lord of the Flies
Censorship involves suppression of intellectual freedom and free speech based on the notion that a work, piece of art or literary masterpiece violates some social or moral order. Lord of the Flies is an example of a literary work that has been censored and that has caused controversy in society for many reasons over time. Lord of the Flies like many other works including Huckleberry Finn has been banned in many states, libraries and cities throughout time at one point or another for a variety of reasons. The causes of censorship and the reasons for censorship in Lord of the Flies in particular are discussed below.
Overview of Censorship
Censorship has been defined as many things, including restrictive, abrasive and simply wrong. Many people in the United States feel that censorship restricts their right to free speech as guaranteed by…
Abraham, Henry J. "Censorship." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences.
1968 ed. ALA Office for Intellectual Freedom Data
Abula. "Bulletin 43 over censored books in the U.S.A." 1996. American Library
Association. 4, November 2004: http://home.nvg.org/~aga/bulletin43.html
Looks at the history of the U.S.A. And the stand they have taken for long on the issue of censorship and the general intention of censorship from the historical times.
Gives details on censorship and examples where it has been used and created wide controversy. The body also gives the response by the government and the responsible agencies to issues to do with censorship. It also gives the responsibility of the government is ensuring censorship is instilled to protect citizens such as the children.
Wraps up the hitherto arguments and points to the children as the central figures that should be considered when maters to do with censorship are being discussed.
The United States of America is known the world over as a democratic country where every citizen is guaranteed of freedom of speech. There have been emotive debates regarding whether censorship laws should be institutionalized in a country…
However, proponents of this school of thought have failed to realize that some children have a way of walking around the rules set out for them by their parents. They also assume that parents will always be around their kids to facilitate the blocking and the parental controls. With the advent of electronic gadgets these children, without censorship laws in place, will stray into the internet and access pornographic material. Opponents of censorship have vilified the government for assuming that they don't have capacity to choose what they want to watch and hear. They have even pointed at the provisions of the First Amendment to the constitution that guarantees the citizens the freedom of speech arguing that censorship constricts creative expression. They have; however, failed to appreciate that the rights that we enjoy come with responsibilities. It is very possible that one can entertain without being obscene.
It is not in order for a television channel to air live incidences of terrorist attacks. What could be happening in this computer era had it not been for Child Online Protection Act (1998). Minors could now be accessing be harmful material online. With censorship, libraries and schools have been obligated to install antipornography filters on computers to protect minors from inappropriate content. Children can no longer access obscene art and literature courtesy of censorship laws. Without censorship our society's social and moral fabric would be in dilemma.
Censorship in Canada
An Analysis of the Arguments for and against the Censorship of Pornography
The issue of censorship in Canada is one that, as in the U.S. And the U.K., has inspired a significant amount of debate. There are many facets to this debate, which range from the rights of free speech to the harmful effects of obscenity in the public forum. One of the biggest targets of censorship is pornography. This paper will examine the arguments for and against the censorship of pornography from a Canadian legal perspective, and it will also provide a brief comparison of Canadian law to U.S. And U.K. laws.
A orking Definition
Before condemning or even censoring pornography, one must have a definition of it. Perhaps the most famous modern definition of pornography comes from the American court case Jacobellis v. Ohio, in which Justice Stewart stated, "I can't define pornography, but I…
Casavant, Lyne; Robertson, James. "The Evolution of Pornography Law in Canada."
Parliament of Canada. 2007. Web. 12 Oct 2011.
Currie, Dawn. "Censorship and Pornography in Canada." Canadian Review of Social
Policy, 26, 1990. Print.
In short, individuals in favor of an increase in government control over censorship recognize that they must necessarily walk a fine line between their aims and violating American's freedoms of expression. However, they stress the dual responsibility of our government: to both uphold our rights and our moral codes. Kimball concludes, "Society had an interest in protecting free speech and free circulation of ideas. It also has an interest in protecting the moral sensibility of its citizens, especially the young. Freedom without morality degenerates into the servitude of libertinage." (Roleff 21). Still, it is difficult to make a case as to why the government in particular should be the entity that makes the ultimate moral decisions of society, when they have explicitly limited themselves from such pronouncements within the Constitution.
An opposing viewpoint has been put forward writer Paul Masters who insists, "Today, the charge down that path [towards governmental…
Phillips, Peter. (2004). Censored 2004: Media Democracy in Action. New York: Seven Stories.
Roleff, Tamara L. (2002). Censorship: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven.
The banning of books, or literary censorship, is nothing new in the. The idea is that there are certain books, works of art, speeches, or entertainment that, through political, religious, or moral means, offend the sensibilities of the general populace and therefore should be removed from public circulation. This can be adopted on a national, regional, or state level; for instance a certain book may be banned from a local library but not be on a censored list for the state or country. In fact, almost every country, at one time or another in its history, placed some sort of restriction on what may or may not be published, printed, or distributed. There are a variety of reasons for this -- materials are often banned due to the perception of obscenity -- sexuality, race, drugs, social standing, or critiques of the government. Governments often ban certain books because they…
"Book Censorship." March 2009. Lehigh University Celebrates the First. October 2010 .
Day, N. Censorship, or Freedom of Expression? New York: 21st Century Books, 2001.
Scheilfer, M. "Bible Possession Once Banned." April 2002. Hol.com. October 2010 .
Steffens, B. Censorship. New York: Lucent, 2004.
This is about the nature of being. This is what life is all about. I try to read as widely as I possibly can." (L'Engle)
Nancy-Lou Patterson notices that A rinkle in Time is, in its structure and meaning, a Christian fantasy:
In LEngle's works, as in the works of other Christian fantasists, the narrative gains its dynamism from the creative and attractive powers of the good characters. There is a dialectic in Christian literature in which the meeting of good and evil results in more and better good. The plot is always precisely this, that the corruption of the good created world by the forces of antibeing proves to be a felix culpa, a happy fault, whereby the action of God brings a new good, a new creation, even out of evil." (Bloom, 73)
This was the most powerful reason that led to the banishing of the book, because…
Bloom, Harold, ed. Women Writers of Children's Literature. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 1998
Foerstel, Herbert N. Banned in the U.S.A.: A Reference Guide to Book Censorship in Schools and Public Libraries. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002
L'Engle, Madeleine. A Wrinkle in Time. New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 1962
Special Message from Madeleine L'Engle. http://www.powells.com/biblio/0440498058
One of the few resistant young people, a girl named Clarisse, sums up society as follows: "People don't talk about anything…nobody says anything different from anyone else" (31). Most individuals are so drugged into believing that momentary pleasures are all that matter, they cannot feel compassion any more: "Time to think? If you're not driving a hundred miles per hour, at a clip where you can't think of anything else but the danger, then you're playing some game or sitting in some room where you can't argue with the four wall televisor. hy? The televisor is 'real.' It is immediate, it has dimension. It tells you what to think and blasts it in. It must be right. It seems so right. It rushes you on so quickly to its own conclusions your mind hasn't time to protest, 'hat nonsense!" (84).
The surveillance of the society in Fahrenheit 451 is complete:…
Bradbury, Ray. Fahrenheit 451. New York: Ballantine Books, 1987.
Of course, this case highlights the tension inherent in any public support for art, because Giuliani's contention was that "you don't have a right to government subsidy for desecrating somebody else's religion" (Barry & Vogel 560). By singling out the potential offensive that religious people might take, Giuliani reveals the truth that any official support for art is inherently problematic, because art exists to challenge the very ideological structures which hold up the official state.
Despite nominal movements toward a separation of church and state, Christian ideology still holds an unhealthy sway over American politics, so it is only natural that the mayor of the United States' largest city would find a work that challenges Christianity offensive, because that is similarly a challenge to the political order which has served to perpetuate and protect Christian ideology. Thus, while no one can claim a right to public funding for the arts,…
Barry, Dan, and Carol Vogel. "Giuliani vows to cut subsidy over "sick" art." New York
Times [New York] 23 Sep 1999, n. pag. Print.
Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray. London: 1891.
Then, the second right being infringed by censorship is that of proper information. It is however true that the students can find the information on all media channels; but it is also true that a respectable high school newspaper has the obligation of presenting the facts as they are. "Indeed, it wasn't only student journalists who were hurt [...]; it also was their readers, particularly students who might have limited exposure to newspapers or magazines at home. y showing them how an investigative story or a lively opinion section can add to their understanding of the school they attend, an ambitious, uncensored student newspaper teaches principles that are essential to a free society: the importance of skepticism, criticism and empiricism; the necessity of checks on authority; the centrality of open debate to democratic culture" (Just, 2008)
The third right being violated by abusive censorship is that of a proper education…
Another avenue of Internet censorship is the censoring of pornography, which is most often done in the name of 'protecting the children' (Dvorak, 2005). Legislators and concerned lobbying groups around the world, but especially in the United States, have taken it upon themselves to foist their own morals and dogmas on the swatch of the Internet by limiting the access individuals have to pornographic material. But the claims that this can be done to protect minors is ludicrous at best. Currently, children begin using the Internet in the West at young ages and have access to information never before imagined. No filter, no legislation, no amount of censorship will have the effect of utterly shielding these children from pornography. Socially, the more effective tactic would be to simply talk with children and correctly parent them according to the value (or lack thereof, as the case may be) of pornography. Censoring…
Dvorak, J.C. (2005, December 27). Net censorship and democracy's fall. PC Magazine, 24(23), p. 63.
Media oppression hits cyberspace. (2003, December). Women in Action, 3, pp. 65-67.
Quirk, M. (2006, May). The web police. The Atlantic Monthly, 297(4), pp. 50-51.
Censorship in the U.S. media
Increasing competition for survival and pressures for making profit led the media to resort to lower quality content which seems harmful to the society, which necessitated the authorities to censor the media.
Censorship refers to the regulation of speech and other types of human expression, sometimes with reference to the government regulations. It normally prevails upon the actions that take place in public settings and normally relates to repression of them by culminating their expression. he censorship extends from particular words to complete concepts and the purported aim of censorship is to normalize or develop the society over which government has regulation. he origin of censorship is seen in England with introduction of the copyright laws that entailed the crown the authority of license publishing. It forbade printing without government sanction. It is sometimes referred to as prior restraint when a court or other governmental…
The overwhelming public protest against crime and horror and the sexual allusions appearing in comics during 1950s led most of the major comic book publishers of America to form an Association that enforces censorship to their own comics. The Comic Code Authority, so formed forbids representation of gore, sexuality and excessive violence. It prohibits the disrespectful presentation or ridicule of the authority figures. It bans the scenes of ghouls, vampires, werewolves or zombies. It also prohibits the advertisements of liquor, tobacco, nude pin-ups, knives, fireworks, postcards and also the toilet items of questionable nature. (Comics Code Authority)
Since 1997, the TV Parental Guidelines system was introduced by the Federal Communications Commissions as a result of public outcry against the increasingly use of explicit sexual material and graphic violence and application of scatology in the television programs. The rating TV-Y indicates the contents to be suitable for young children and not intended to frighten the young children. The rating TV-Y7 indicates the contents not appropriate for children below 7 years. The rating TV-G is certifies the content to be suitable for all audiences. The TV-PG indicates the unsuitability of the contents for younger children, however entails the parents to watch with them. The rating is supplemented by one or more sub-ratings according to the content such as: - "V for moderate violence, S for mild sexual situations, L for mild questionable language, D for mild suggestive dialogue." (Television rating system) The next rating TV-14 necessitates parental guidance for children under the age of 14 years. This rating also includes sub-ratings of V, S, L and D. The rating TV-MA indicates the content suitable to mature audiences. (Television rating system)
The Entertainment Software Rating Board -- ESRB has been constituted during 1994 by the Entertainment Software Association, as a self-regulatory organization that is responsible for application and enforcement of advertising procedures, rating and online privacy principles for video games and computer use in the U.S.
Many books at the time were examined to determine whether they had pro-communist content and if so there was a movement to remove those books from the shelves (Tenney, 1947).
At stake here were much more far-reaching intellectual freedom issues than just the proposed suppression of provocative textbooks. Fueled by citizens' complaints, the Tenney Committee proceeded to introduce several bills "designed to prevent the teaching of controversial subjects... And to increase the legislative control over the selection of textbooks and educational policies." Among them was SB 1026, which would have revamped the school social studies curriculum by prohibiting the introduction of any kind of "propaganda" in the classroom. For the first time, California's long-standing tradition of an educational system independent of politics was seriously threatened. ecognizing this, the Southern and Mount Shasta Districts, representing well over half the membership of CLA, quickly passed and sent to the legislature a resolution…
Bradbury, Ray. Fahrenheit 451
Del Rey; Reissue edition (August 12, 1987)
Brubaker, Stanley. In praise of censorship. (government and the arts)
Public Interest; 1/1/1994;
One of the most publicized debates or controversial issues in the recent past is whether information on the Internet should be censored. The controversy associated with the issue is centered on whether the censorship is necessary towards the maintenance of a specific ethical standard in the society. Controversies regarding Internet censorship have also been fueled by the development and enactment of certain legislation that seeks to censor information on the orld ide eb. hile there is no single resolution that everyone agrees to, Internet censorship is a topic that is being confronted and dealt with through various initiatives. Notably, proponents and opponents of censorship of information on the Internet continue raise several logical reasons to support their arguments. Generally, there is a genuine need for censorship of information on the Internet, especially with regards to illegal and unsuitable content.
Background of the Issue
According to Qazi, censorship of…
Cafferty, Jack. "Should the U.S. Government Censor the Internet?" Online Posting. CNN - Cafferty File. Cable News Network, 18 Jan. 2012. Web. 11 Oct. 2014. .
The article examines whether the U.S. government should censor the Internet. The evaluation is based on the development of some legislation in the recent past, especially the Stop Online Privacy Act (SOPA) and the Privacy IP Act (PIPA).
Jyotsna, Kapil, and Aayush. "Internet Censorship." Indian Journal of Advances in Computer & Information Engineering 1.1 (2013): 6-9. Print.
The article discusses how Internet censorship is an issue that has always been characterized by huge controversies. It addresses the disadvantages of Internet censorship and creates awareness of the fact that Internet is not a single entity owned by an organization but an open platform of information sharing. equally by all.
History of Censorship in U.S. Media
Censorship is the official prohibition or restriction of any type of expression that is believed to threaten the political, social, or moral order, and may be imposed by local or national governmental authority, by a religious body, or even by a powerful private group (Censorship pp). These bans or restrictions may be applied to the mails, speech, the press, the theater, dance, art, literature, photography, the cinema, radio, television or computer networks (Censorship pp). Censorship may be either preventive or punitive, depending of whether it is exercised before or after the public expression (Censorship pp). Censorship has been in use since antiquity and has been especially practiced under autocratic and heavily centralized governments, from the Roman Empire to the totalitarian states of the twentieth century (Censorship pp). Censorship has existed in the Untied States since colonial times, with its emphasis, through time, shifting from…
Banned Films. Retrieved October 12, 2005 from:
Bill of Rights in Action. Retrieved October 12, 2005 from:
Another reason is to be sought in the people's desire for freedom of expression. Fifty and even 40 years ago the standards according to which society judged the individual and labeled him were a lot more severe than nowadays. Revolutions have taken place through important modifications in people's mentality. They have also been supported by the technological developments and the various discoveries, ranging from the fertility pill to the automobiles or the possibility to undergo sex change operations. Today most people have the impression that they are the rulers of their own world and that they want to be able to say anything they wish in whatever circumstance without having to "pay" for it.
However, looking at what happens in the media, it is safe to say that various contradictions exist. Pornography has become part of the mainstream culture, all the media are trying to impose beauty ideals and life…
Music and Censorship (Question 2)
The most "dangerous" aspect of art, or at least the aspect of art most threatening to entrenched power, is the way in which art is able to point out how all meaning is socially constructed, and that there is nothing inherent to reality constituting borders or boundaries of human thought or action. In order to see how this is the case, one need only look as far as the reaction garnered by the publication of political cartoons featuring an image of Muhammad, the central prophetic figure in one of the human species' three main fictional accounts of reality.
In his play The Pillowman, Martin McDonough notes that "some art is shit and some art is dangerous," and the cartoons published in the Danish newspaper Politiken featuring images of Muhammad turned out to be both, although the latter aspect of them is perhaps the more important…
BBC. (2010, February 26). Danish paper apologises for printing muhammad cartoon. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8539831.stm
McDonagh, M. (2003). The pillowman. Dramatists Play Service, Inc.
Moore, M. (2006, February 2).Offending cartoons reprinted. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp -
Censorship, the Internet, and Schools
Describe two implications for schools from the CIPA policy rulings, and two reasons for opposition to the policy
The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) was legislated in the year 2000, obliging public schools and libraries to set up specific technology that restricts internet access to graphic depictions that are indecent, child pornography, or detrimental to minors (Finsness, 2008). One of the implications of these policy rules is that it infringes on intellectual freedom. This is in the sense that it goes against the First Amendment, as intellectual freedom is the right of every person to seek as well as receive information from all perspectives devoid of limitation. Secondly, there is the implication of impacting the capability of students to gain access to information they require for school (Finsness, 2008). Being in a fast-paced technological area and with students having to attain such skills for writing…
Batch, K. R. (2014). Fencing Out Knowledge: Impacts of the Children's Internet Protection Act 10 Years Later. American Library Association, Policy Brief No. 5.
Finsness, L. S. (2008). The implications of internet filters in secondary schools (Doctoral dissertation, UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA).
Flowers, B. F., & Rakes, G. C. (2000). Analyses of Acceptable Use Policies Regarding the Internet in Selected K -- 12 Schools. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32(3), 351-365.
Hu, Q. (2004). To Censor or Not to Censor at the School Library. State University of New York.
Internet Censorship in China, South Africa and the est
Internet censorship in China, South Africa and other countries is something that prohibits real discussion from taking place regarding issues that affect the public. For instance, in China, certain key word searches are automatically filtered out so that users cannot find the information they are seeking. hile Internet censorship may be good from one perspective (in terms of stemming the flow of child pornography, curbing false information, or putting a nation's interests first), it can be viewed as bad from another perspective (in terms of cutting down on the opportunity to inform sides of a dialogue, promoting free exchange of ideas, or discussing why one form of pornography is allowed but not another). This paper will show why Internet censorship can be interpreted in both positive and negative ways depending on the perspective that one adopts (whether one is pro-Statist or…
Bitso, Constance. "Internet Censorship In South Africa: A Brief Expose Of Negative and Positive Trends." South African Journal of Libraries and Information Science 80.1 (2014): 41-51. Academia Search Complete.
Carr, Madeline. "Internet Freedom, Human Rights and Power." Australian Journal of International Affairs 67.5 (2013): 621-637. Academia Search Complete.
Casavant, L., Robertson, J. "The Evolution of Pornography Law in Canada."
Parliament of Canada, 2015.
Although ook III in Plato's The Republic is titled 'The Arts in Education', it has come to be known as the author's censorship treatise. In order to provide an 'ideal' education for the state's guardians, or rulers, and to ensure social and moral welfare of the citizens, Plato argues that art and literature should be censored. y controlling the creative output of artists, poets, and writer; and by amending or deleting their previous work, the state would ensure that, "some tales are to be told, and others are not to be told to our disciples from their youth upward, if we mean them to honor the gods and their parents, and to value friendship with one another" (p66). While agreeing with Plato's commitment to improving education, and with his belief in upholding social and moral values, this paper disagrees with the control and censorship of art, literature, or…
Plato. The Republic. With an English translation by Paul Shorey. Cambridge, Mass.:
Harvard University Press, 1935-1937.
MUSIC AND CENSORSHIP the FIRST AMENDMENT U.S. Constitution: Congress make law respecting establishment religion, prohibiting free exercise thereof; abridging freedom speech, press; people peaceably assemble, petition Government a redress grievances.
Photography as art: Walter Benjamin on photography
The invention of photography was initially viewed as a challenge to conventional forms of art because it could more perfectly replicate the surface of reality than any human brushstroke. However, artists were able to meet this challenge through using the human imagination and decentralizing the emphasis on replication. But Walter Benjamin argued that photography still posed a very profound and troubling challenge to art. Before, when people gazed at art, they were gazing at something recognizably 'other' that could not be reproduced and was an object with its own integrity. In contrast, a photograph can always be reproduced in its entirety and thus exists as a commodity. People long for some originality in…
Parents who are predisposed to limit children's exposure to violence will do so as a matter of course. Parents who don't feel that way, will not. Therefore, if parents can't be relied upon to police their children, then society must- because what social order wants to have violence-overloaded children heaving their criminal behavior upon it?
In the mid-1950's a Senate sub-committee began to investigate the "sources of the moral rot at the core of an otherwise flourishing postwar America," (Knox, 4). This committee looked at the comic book industry, movies, and particularly at television. While these efforts did little to nothing to curb interest in subjects considered to be anti-American, or "immoral," it does show the depth of time and effort that has been spent on this issue - at every level. However, over the course of time, television has become more liberal rather than less. So, in response, the…
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2007). Children and TV Violence. Online. Internet. Avail:
http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_and_tv_violence.Acc : 12 Oct, 2007.
Duncan, P. (2006). Attractions to Violence and the Limits of Education. The Journal of Aesthetic Education. 40:4; 21-38.
Hornaday, a. (Aug 6, 2006) Parents Fret About Children's Entertainment. The Washington Post. Sunday Arts, N01.
ideals of pornography and how many writers are discussing the new bill about to be passed by the Senate to allow for civil prosecution of those who publish said material, and from those who have been abused through what they believe is a result of pornography. Discussing the views of rving as he places his ideals to the front and argues against such bills in the name of freedom.
Bibliography cites sources
Pornography and censorship: how to blame the third person from a man's crimes
Pornography has been around for centuries, ever since man and woman has been able to fully enjoy the opposite and indeed in many ways the same sex, yet this form of pornography has through out the centuries been given different names, for instance art and literature (Stevenson 2001 and Bailey 2000).
Pornography enters man's most intimate regions and fantasies, as they bring forth a plethora…
Irving and refs as provided by student re
Stevenson J.H (2001) the history of Pornography [online] accessed at http://www.tranquileye.com/historyofporn/
Strossen, N (1995) Defending Pornography: Free Speech, Sex and the Fight for Women's Rights [online] accessed at http://forms.aclu.org/Store/Store.cfm?ID=78&c=3
Censorship and Freedom of the Press
In 2009, Frank ainimarama, the self-appointed Prime Minister of Fiji said that freedom of speech causes trouble and is to blame for his country's political turmoil (AC News, 2009). This is only a small portion of controversial remarks and actions made by ainimarama surrounding the announcement made by President Iloilo stating the abrogation of Fiji's constitution, the dismissal of the judiciary, and the deferral of democratic elections until 2014 (Puppet show, 2009). Iloilo's decision, given its relationship to ainimarama's interim regime, which took power in a coup in 2006, being declared illegal by ruling of the Court of Appeals demanding that a neutral leader replace ainimarama immediately with dissolution of the existing government and elections to commence as soon as possible (Puppet show).
ainimarama expressed his grievance towards this decision by the Court and did not hesitate to ignore it as he showed up…
ABC News. (2009). Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/
Alley, R. (2010). Fiji Under Bainimarama. Journal of Pacific History, 45(1), 145-153. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.
Dikotter, Frank. (1996, Winter). Culture, race, and nation: The formulation of national identity in 20th century China. International Affairs, 49(2), 592.
Evans, M. (2011). Exacerbating social cleavages: The media's role in Israel's religious-secular conflict. Middle East Journal, 65(2), 235-251.
This action of doing one
thing and feeling another is a perfect statement regarding how censorship
can thrive in a community. In Farenheit 451 the citizens allowed the
government the freedom to burn books, they did this by not speaking out at
the initiation of such actions. Faber tells Montag "I said nothing. I'm
one of the innocents who could have spoken up and out when no one would
listen to the 'guilty', but I did not speak and thus became 'guilty'
myself" (Bradbury 82). hen good citizens quail in the face of attempted
censorship, then censorship will thrive. ithout the knowledge blocked by
the censors, the citizenry will flounder under the thumb of oppression.
The characters in the book who meet Montag after his escape from the city
know this is true. Granger, one of the leaders of the group tells Montag,
"All we want to do is keep…
Anderson, Ron. "Movie Censorship and American Culture", Journal of American
Culture, 30.3 (2005): 349 - 350
Bradbury, Ray. Farenheit 451. New York: The Random House Publishing Group,
The vey cux of the agument comes to the cental point of censoship -- who must be potected and why must they be potected? Ideas, political, social, o othewise, may be the most dangeous fom of liteatue eve. Fo instance, in 19th centuy autocatic egimes, the ideas of Kal Max, even Voltaie, Locke, and Jeffeson wee seen to be subvesive because they challenged the ode of things, the idea that the monachy should ule by divine ight, and that cetain people had, by manifest destiny, the ight to be moe equal than othes. So, too, do images and vebiage change ove time egading public acceptance. At the tun of the centuy bathing suits coveed almost 90% of the human body, and a day at the beach would've been fa diffeent had some of today's skimpy G-stings o bikinis shown up. Similaly, sexual activity was hinted at fom the ealy days…
references homo-eroticism in a coming of age drama; another might see critiques of the War on Terror subversive, while still another might find literary value in the works of art by someone like Robert Mapplethorpe. Thus, in order to maintain a free and just society in which ideas are strong commodities we must take the notion that an educated populace is an informed populace. Our focus should be on educating children and youth so that, when appropriate, they can make decisions about what is right, wrong -- how to vet source material, and above all, what ideas they might want to accept and which to reject. This documentary should be shown in the classroom for, much like the movie Saving Private Ryan, it brings the real story of history into the lives of people without over glorifying the issue. War and conflict are not pretty, not neat, and people do not die as they do in a John Wayne western. Of course, certain material is age dependent, but it is important to note that in Middle and High school, students appreciate the truth more than half-truths and old adages about history that are simply not factual.
censorship of the Internet, especially of pornographic materials, is a topic that can be easily resolved is being naive. This is a complicated issue with enough gray areas to be thoroughly debated and to demand that comprehensive information from both sides be studied. Freedom of speech has always been a thorny subject, and it becomes no easier when considering the Internet that can be accessed by individuals of all ages and backgrounds from around the world.
Most of the websites dealing with this topic are slanted in one way or another based on the political, religious or moral stance of the URL's authors. It is refreshing, then, when a writer takes a stab at equally presenting arguments for and against online pornographic censorship. The website "Pornography and the Internet in the United States" (http://www.slais.ubc.ca/courses/libr500/fall1999/www_presentations/c_hogg/print.htm) was written by Charles Hogg as part of an assignment for Library Studies 500: Foundations of…
Bibliography and Checklist."
Website visited 22/4/03.
On the other hand, parents are not the only ones who should feel responsible for the caliber of popular entertainment. At some point, the media industry must look inward and decide what kind of role it can or will take in the society. Because the media will be concerned primarily with the bottom line, we must, however, forgive any industry that chooses consciously to air and market violent media. When that media is aimed directly at children, though, a line has been crossed. The entertainment industry can and should be self-regulated regarding the promotion of violent video games, films, and television shows. Based on the fact that media violence potentially contributes to the public health issues that Bok addresses in Mayhem: increased fearfulness in the society; increased appetite for more media violence; desensitization to violence; and increased levels of aggression, the media industry and parents alike need to shoulder some…
Banning Books in High School
Book Banning and Censorship
Social groups, including religious organizations, parents, and school administration among others, make decisions daily about what material will become a part of the regular school curriculum and what material will be excluded. Many decisions are made based on the educational value of text books and other learning material. However, many decisions are unfortunately made without educational potential in mind, but rather on the basis of what is considered to be profane or proper based on the opinions of certain people that feel they have the moral authority to make such decisions. American schools have always been built on the principle that children must be protected from that which is inappropriate for them to see, hear, or experience. "American schools have been pressured to restrict or deny students access to books or periodicals deemed objectionable by some individual or group on moral,…
As with all other issues in media, it is up to the viewer of the information to decide which network to believe, and which network to trust as a source of unbiased, factual information. Since Fox News is undoubtedly the choice of a majority of viewers in the United States, it is obvious that those viewers have already made their choice.
Ackerman, S. (2001). The most biased name in news. Extra, 5, 25-29.
Cameron, C. Fox News special report: Israeli spying on the U.S. etrieved Dec. 10, 2004. Web site: http://free.freespeech.org/americanstateterrorism/9-11/FoxNewsIsraeliSpying.html.
Carter, B. (2004, April 23). Pentagon ban on pictures of dead troops is broken. The New York Times, p A4.
Fox News. (2004). Fox News home page. etrieved Dec. 10, 2004 from Fox News. Web site: http://www.foxnews.com.
Gordon, C. (2002, Jan. 30). Fox News covers more than biased angle. Kansas State collegian, p. D4.
Martin, E. (2004, April…
Ackerman, S. (2001). The most biased name in news. Extra, 5, 25-29.
Cameron, C. Fox News special report: Israeli spying on the U.S. Retrieved Dec. 10, 2004. Web site: http://free.freespeech.org/americanstateterrorism/9-11/FoxNewsIsraeliSpying.html.
Carter, B. (2004, April 23). Pentagon ban on pictures of dead troops is broken. The New York Times, p A4.
Fox News. (2004). Fox News home page. Retrieved Dec. 10, 2004 from Fox News. Web site: http://www.foxnews.com .
First Amendment rights are not absolute, particularly in regards to advertising. For example, there has been a great deal of pressure to regulate advertising directed at children that promotes unhealthy junk food. "There is a legal test for judging whether commercial speech qualifies for protection under the First Amendment. Called the Central Hudson test, it says that such speech must be truthful and not 'actually or inherently misleading'" and it has been argued that much of commercial advertising targeting children takes advantage of a credulous consumer's inability to tell the difference between truth and fiction (Bittman, 2012, par.11). In this instance, however, the objections raised to our new advertising campaign are not targeted at children. Rather, the concern is merely that children may see inappropriate material, even if it is not intended that they purchase the product.
In the past, the U.S. Supreme Court has allowed censorship of certain types…
This is also reflected in the view that there is a lot of difference between a high school senior and a college freshman. egarding the world of student journalism, the U.S. Court of Appeals has also agreed with this view. This is reflected in the campus newspaper theft which was not taking place till the beginning of the 1990s. This is now a regular source of trouble for college student media. (Trends in College Media)
At the same time, this has not reflected in the quality of college newspaper, and some of them are of excellent quality. Let us look at some college newspapers for this purpose. One of them, namely the Boston College Chronicle has worked on the recently concluded papal conclave and also tried to inform the audience about what the world can hope from the new Pope. Certainly this information when they appear in a college magazine…
Censorship of College Student Newspapers. Administrative Censorship of the College Press. Retrieved at http://www.collegefreedom.org/report5.htm . Accessed on 28 April, 2005
CSU, Northridge Newspaper Silenced. 11 May, 1989. Retrieved at http://www.totse.com/en/conspiracy/institutional_analysis/papcensr.html . Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Davisson, John. GSEU Strikers Return to the Classroom. 25 April, 2005. Retrieved from www.columbiaspectator.com/- 32k Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Glaser, Dale; Collins, King. Review of Eagle and the Controversy of 1996-1997. Retrieved from www.greenmac.com/eagle/Updates/Up2.html. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Leni Riefenstahl. The writer explores the topic of Riefenstahl and her unethical art. The writer examines the catastrophic consequences and her lack of integrity that lead to horror for millions. There were nine sources used to complete this paper.
Leni Riefenstahl: Her Unethical Art and The Catastrophic Consequences
The reign of Adolf Hitler is one that history will never forget. Under his terrorist reign of terror millions of people died. Those who did not die suffered from the loss of loved ones, loss of privacy and loss of financial stability. It was a time in which the world was introduced to the dangerous side of charismatic politics. While there were many who were fooled in the beginning by Hitler's manipulation tactics they soon learned his true motivations and spent the rest of their lives working to unseat the inhumane dictator. There is one person however, who admired him from the…
JANE SUMNER / Staff Critic, The Riefenstahl riddle: At age 100, famed Germanfilmmaker Leni Riefenstahl still stirs an enigmatic cocktail of emotions., The Dallas Morning News, 08-18-2002, pp 1C.
John Anderson, Leni Riefenstahl, Film's Queen of Denial., Newsday, 03-16-1994, pp 65.
Author not available, THE WONDERFUL HORRIBLE LIFE OF LENI RIEFENSTAHL; DIE MACHT DER BILDER., Magill's Survey of Cinema, 06-15-1995.
In 1995, Infinity Broadcasting agreed to settle FCC claims against Stern in a $1.7 million dollar settlement. By 2004, according to the Center for Public Integrity, the FCC had levied over $3.95 million in fines against indecency on the radio, and half of that total was levied against Stern and Infinity. Still further, the FCC has issued over $1.9 million in fines to shows syndicating the Stern program (Dunbar, 2004).
Perhaps Stern's most notable infraction was the 2004 fines, totaling $495,000 against 18 Clear Channel stations airing a single program of the Howard Stern Show. The fines were the first on record by the FCC citing more than one infraction of FCC regulations during a single show. Clear Channel Communications had pulled the Stern show from six stations in February of that year, after complaints of a show involving sexual descriptions and racist remarks. The sexual content cited in the…
Associated Press. (2004, June 30). Howard Stern announces nine new markets. USA Today, 18.
Dauidson, S. (1999). Censoring rock and rap music. Westport, C.T.: Greenwood Press.
Dunbar, M. (2004, April 9). Indecency on the air: shock-radio jock Howard Stern remains 'King of All Fines'. Well Connected. Retrieved April 29, 2005 from Center for Public Integrity. Web site: http://www.publicintegrity.org/telecom/report.aspx?aid=239&sid=200 .
Foerstel, H. (1997). Free expression and censorship in America: an encyclopedia. Westport, C.T.: Greenwood Press.
Palmer C. Hayden and Laura Wheeler Waring were two of the painters of the Harlem Renaissance, and they focused on painting stylized portraits of prominent African-Americans and scenes of black life from a variety of perspectives.
The dynamism of the machine age is exhibited not only in the engineered workings of inventions like automobiles and early airplanes, but also in the Futuristic paintings of the period. There is a blend of very strong geometry and straight lines that combine to create larger images of fluidity and movement that almost seems impossible when the smaller constituent elements of the painting are focused on. It is as though magic and passion are meeting science and cool logic, which is a way of describing things like the combustion engine as well. This period was a time when the world seemed to be moving in two directions, at once looking forward to the…
Pianist directed by oman Polanski. Specifically, it will imagine every part of "The Pianist" that was violent or contained swear words was simply removed from the film. Censorship in film has always been a contentious issue, and with the advent of Clean Flix, the situation has come to a head. While it is certainly a person's right to view entertainment that they do not feel is offensive, for a company to "clean" offensive content is simply alteration of the work, plain and simple. This alteration changes the meaning of the work, and alters the integrity and very foundation of many films. Clean Flix may provide a valuable service, but it is at the cost of the film and what it stands for.
Artistic integrity versus "offensive" content. It is a difficult question for both sides to discuss, and whatever changes are made to a film; they constitute some kind of…
The Pianist. Dir. Roman Polanski. Perf. Adrien Brody, Emilia Fox, and Thomas Kretschmann. Universal Studios, 2002.
As a result, the invited audience was essentially being asked to play the role of the person who is shocked by such a discovery -- and insofar as they knew they were being invited by Mendieta, and probably had basic knowledge of the crime that occurred, they were also being invited to imagine that the victim of such a crime might well have been Mendieta or any other female student on campus. This is interesting insofar as it relates to an observation made by Kwon about Mendieta's early work from this period: Kwon notes that "Mendieta's use of her/the body almost always approached erasure or negation: her 'body' consistently disappeared. This is striking given that most feminist artists during the 1970s vied for visibility and self-affirming expression through figurative, literal, sometimes 'in-your-face' presence. It is curious that Mendieta traced her absence instead."[footnoteRef:5] In "Rape Scene" this is paradoxically true: the…
Bowers, Nancy. "Spring Break Killer: Murder of Sarah Ann Ottens, 1973." IowaUnsolvedMurders.com, March 2010. Web. Retrieved 24 April 2014 at: http://www.iowaunsolvedmurders.com/beyond-1965-selected-unsolved-iowa-murders/spring-break-killer-murder-of-sarah-ann-ottens-1973/
Butler, Cornelia and Mark, Lisa Gabrielle. WACK!: Art and the Feminist Revolution. Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Art and MIT Press, 2007. Print.
Chau, Monica, Feldman, Hannah J.L., Kabat, Jennifer, and Kruse, Hannah. The Subject of Rape: June 23-August 29, 1993. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1993. Print.
Deutsche, Rosalyn. "Breaking Ground: Barbara Kruger's Spatial Practice." In Kruger, Barbara. Thinking of You. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000. 77-84. Print.
In recognition that these t-shirts might be found to be objectionable to many young women, who are among our best customers, we contacted Heather Arnet, Executive Director of the omen & Girls Foundation, and offered to discuss the issue with them. e recognize that the shirts in question, while meant to be humorous, might be troubling to some." Despite, or perhaps, one could argue, because of, the controversy generated by the sexually explicit t-shirts, on November 15, 2005, CEO Mike Jeffries stated that the company had enjoyed record third quarter profits. "These strong results reflect the broad momentum and successful differentiation of our brands, confirming our entire organization's dedication to building dominant iconic brands. e are uniquely positioned as the top of mind premium provider of sportswear with brands that appeal to a broad spectrum of customers in the pre-teen through post-collegiate demographic. This is a position we have worked…
Abercrombie & Fitch Issues Joint Statement with Women & Girls Foundation of Southwest Pennsylvania." Press Release. Abercrombie & Fitch. 4 Nov 2005.
27 Mar 2008. http://www.abercrombie.com/anf/lifestyles/html/investorrelations.html
Abercrombie & Fitch Reports Third Quarter Results."(4 Nov 2005). Press Release.
Abercrombie & Fitch. 15 Nov 2005. 27 Mar 2008 at http://www.abercrombie.com/anf/lifestyles/html/investorrelations.html
Furthermore, he taught his son that society is not always right in what they believe. With that, racism is wrong because everyone is a human being and deserves equal rights. Even though America has racism in today's modern society, there are more people like Scout's father who honestly believes in diversity (120 Banned Books: Censorship Histories of World Literature).
Don't attack something if it hasn't harmed you: This lesson is taught to Jem and Scout by Atticus when he teaches them about the mockingbird. He says that the mockingbird is innocent and only sings for you. It is therefore wrong to kill it. The examples of the mockingbird within the novel are Tom and Boo. Tom was attacked by the entire white society in Maycomb County. These attacks and accusations destroyed his innocent, respectable life. Arthur "Boo" adley was also an innocent victim to the taunts and of the people…
To Kill a Mockingbird. 1998. 13 March 2008. http://www.bellmore-merrick.k12.ny.us/mockingbird.html
Bloom, Harold. "To Kill a Mockingbird" (Bloom's Guides). 2004. Chelsea House Publishers, U.S.
Felty, Darren. Novels for students. 13 March 2008. http://www.answers.com/topic/to-kill-a-mockingbird-novel-7
Sova, Dawn. 120 Banned Books: Censorship Histories of World Literature. 2005. Checksmarks Books.
Language and Culture
In many, if not all, instances culture is not beneficial to its subscribers. Inherent within a culture is language. Language itself is very fluid and flexible and can elicit many emotions and feelings within a person or larger group of people. The purpose of this essay is to investigate the social influences of language by describing several issues that deal with interpersonal communication and more specifically the use of language to manipulate, hypnotize and ultimately inspire others. The essay will investigate the issues of jokes, speech laws, and specified slur-words to illuminate the qualities that language brings to society.
Humor is a gift that should be enjoyed by all. Laughing makes us feel good and provides a deeper psychological function. Lickerman (2011) agreed when she wrote "perhaps laughter could be most properly considered as a weapon against suffering and despair. If we can joke about a disappointing…
American Civil Liberties Union (1994). Hate Speech on Campus. December 31, 1994. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/free-speech/hate-speech-campus
Floyd, K. (2011). Interpersonal Communication 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, Oct 10, 2011.
Lickerman, A. (2011). Why We Laugh. Psychology Today, 23 Jan 2011. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/happiness-in-world/201101/why-we-laugh
Facebook is still banned in China, which took initiatives in 2009 to quell any sort of protest or governmental opposition sparked by social media sites like Facebook. Facebook is not the only Western site to be banned in China. Moreover, it has essentially a lookalike Chinese competitor known as Renren, which is a social media site that operates just like Facebook but complies with the Chinese government’s regulations with regard to the filtering of content posted on the site (Darwell, 2012). China’s government is very concerned about regulating content published on the Internet since this is such an impactful platform for communicating and spreading information in the Digital Age. For a government that wants total control of every aspect of the country’s life, allowing Facebook to have the freedom to come in and allow users to post whatever content they want without regulating or filtering it would be like allowing…
Education - eading
The Adventures of Captain Underpants by Dav Pilkey is a series of children's novels about two fourth graders, George Beard and Harold Hutchins, and the aptly named superhero they accidentally create by hypnotizing their principal, Mr. Krupp. These books are appropriate for child who are age 7 and up. The American Library Association has put the series at no. 8 on its list of most challenged books last year; the list includes books that received the most formal complaints filed with libraries or schools requesting that the books be removed because of inappropriateness. According to the ALA, the complaints filed against the Captain Underpants books cited the series' anti-family content, unsuitability for the age group, and violent content. Captain Underpants series has been banned in some schools for insensitivity and being unsuited to age group, as well as encouraging children to disobey authority (Beerman, 2006).…
Aasi, R. (2011). Banned Books Week 2011: Olive's Ocean. Retrieved from http://booksinthespotlight.blogspot.com/2011/09/banned-books-week-2011-olives-ocean.html
Banned Books. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0768756.html
Banned Book Week. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.marshall.edu/LIBRARY/bannedbooks/books/lifeisfunny.asp
Banned/Challenged Books Goal: "Junie B. Jones. (2011). Retrieved from http://blogs.roanoke.com/backcover/2011/04/top-100-bannedchallenged-books-goal-junie-b-jones/
First Amendment and Television
The subject of television and censorship has long been an issue of heated debates across the country.
The First Amendment to the United States Constitution states:
"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances" (U.S. pp).
On June 8, 1789 James Madison introduced his version of the speech and press clauses in the House of Representatives, stating, "The people shall not be deprived or abridged of their right to speak, to write, or to publish their sentiments; and the freedom of the press, as one of the great bulwarks of liberty, shall be inviolable" (Freedom pp). The special committee rewrote the language somewhat, adding other provisions from Madison's draft,…
U.S. Constitution: First Amendment
Freedom of Expression: Speech and Press.
Iranian Cinema After the evolution
An introduction to Iran:
Iran or Persia as it was previously known was founded more than 4,000 years ago and is thus one of the oldest surviving nations of the world. Iran had been primarily ruled by series of dynasties including such illustrious families as the Achaemenids (500-330 B.C.), the Sassanians (A.D. 226-650), and the Safavides (1500-1722). Iranian dynasties have been synonymous with victories and land acquisition but at the present Iran has s 1,648,195 square kilometers of Middle Eastern territory under its command. It is situated close to former ussia and two former Soviet republics (Azerbaijan and Tajikistan) are its close neighbors. Some other prominent neighbors include the Caspian Sea in the north, Turkey and Iraq in the west, and Afghanistan and Pakistan in the east. And in the south it has the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman as its neighbors. The…
1. Akrami J. ( 1987). "Persian cinema and politics in Iran." In J. DH Downing (Ed.), Film and politics in the Third World . New York: Praeger.
2. Akrami J. (1990). "Feature film in Persia." In Encyclopedia Iranica. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda.
3. Asadi A. & Mehrdad H. (1975). Nagsheh rasaneh-ha dar poshtibani toseaeh farhanghi [The role of media in support of cultural development]. Tehran: Iran Communication and Development Institute.
4. Gaffary F. (1990). "History of cinema in Iran." In Encyclopedia Iranica. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda.
Children and Media
Technology surrounds everything that children participate in nowadays. From using computers to watching television, the media influences children in just about every activity that they are a part of. The mainstream and social media have had a great impact on the behavior of children, as they are consistently exposed to numerous forms of the media at all times. As technology advances and children are more and more prone to watching television and participating in activities over the Internet, children will always be affected by how the media is presented to them. It can be difficult to shelter children from the growing media influence, however, the effects of this phenomenon on both the psychological and cognitive development of children need to be analyzed and considered (Christakis & Zimmerman, 2009).
Social life has been completely revolutionized due to the existence of the Internet and the development of social media.…
Anderson, D.R. & Hanson, K.G. (2009). Children, media, and methodology. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1204-1219.
Bargh, J.A. & McKenna, K.Y.A. (2003). The internet and social life. Annual Review of Psychology. 55, 573-590.
Chau, C. (2010). YouTube as a participatory culture. New Directions for Youth Development. 2010(128), 65-74.
Christakis, D.A. & Zimmerman, F.J. (2009). Young Children and media: Limitations of current knowledge and future directions for research. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1177-1185.
United Nations, the Unwanted Nobodies and this tells you much about its status in the world.
The UN has been implicated in a good deal of corruption and scandal. It has been said to be political, to be bigoted, to evidence cowardice and fail its responsibilities, to misappropriate its resources, and to misuse judgment. These have been only a few -- and the weakest -- of the accusations leveled against this not particularly effective institution.
The UN has failed, time and again, to intervene in major world crisis when it was most needed. ather than stand their ground with Egypt for instance during the six-day war, it deserted the region, and it demonstrated this same behavior time and again during the African genocides. Similarly, too, the UN showed its ineffectiveness during the crisis with Iraq, becoming a puppet in the hands of France and ussia who tried to use it…
americans-world.org . Americans and the World: a source of comprehensive information on U.S. public opinion http://www.americans-world.org/digest/global_issues/un/un1.cfm
Charter of the UN
Kim R. Holmes, Assistant Secretary of State, "The Challenges Facing the United Nations Today: An American View," address to the Council on Foreign Relations, October 21, 2003, at www.cfr.org/publication.php?id=6451#.
The subject of the paper is to evaluate the nature and quality of the processes used to develop conceptual definitions and measurable items in two articles that are examples of research. Each study has a specific model and method serving as framework within which to conduct the research and to analyze the data gathered. Conceptual definitions are not entirely spontaneous. The kernel of the idea upon which they are founded may be, but at every stage of research there are processes, including processes for development conceptual definitions. Conceptual definitions must be refine and clear both for the researcher and the reader. Furthermore, the measureable items and variables in any study should be clearly defined and there should be appropriate time taken to develop those items. Therefore to notice and evaluate such aspects in professionally conducted studies is relevant and useful. The paper concludes that while each study…
Chen, J.S., Yen, H.J.R., Li, E.Y., & Ching, R.K.H. (2009). Measuring CRM effectiveness: Construct development, validation and application of a process-oriented model. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 20(3), 283 -- 299.
Detert, J.R., & Edmondson, A.C. (2011). Implicit Voice Theories: Taken-For-Granted Rules of Self-Censorship. Academy of Management Journal, 54(3), 461 -- 488.
The British government has learned that Saddam Hussein recently sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa, (George W. Bush, State of the Union Address, Jan. 28, 2003) the claims were quickly picked up and repeated by the media. So were claims that Iraq had nuclear weapons. "We believe [Hussein] has, in fact, reconstituted nuclear weapons." (Dick Cheney, NBC's Meet the Press, March 16, 2003) Yet, after the search for chemical and nuclear weapons was eventually called off without any actual discover of such weapons, the media made startling little of the fact that Donald umsfeld said "I don't believe anyone that I know in the administration ever said that Iraq had nuclear weapons." (Senate appropriations subcommittee on defense hearing, May 14, 2003)
In fact, shortly thereafter "USA Today and the Los Angeles Times, echoed this fudging -- last year 'weapons,' this year 'programs' -- declaring that 'the jury's still out'…
Ridge, George. "Embedded: the media at war in Iraq." Military Review. January-February 2004. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0PBZ/is_1_84/ai_n6112518
Roberts, Paul Craig. "The Brownshirting of America." AntiWar.Com. 16 October 2004. http://www.antiwar.com/roberts/?articleid=3798
Scheer, Christopher; Scher, Robert; Chaudhry, Lakshmi. "Bush's Lies About Iraq." The Nation. 11 March 2004. http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml%3Fi=20040329&s=scheer
Internet and Democracy
In one sense, computers and the Internet are just a continuation of the communications revolution, starting with the printing press then continuing with the telegraph, telephone, motion pictures, radio and television. Could this be leading to a more fundamental change in history on the same level as the agricultural and industrial revolutions? This is a more problematic proposition. Of course, the idea of a post-industrial economy based on services and high technology dates back to the 1960s, although some visionaries had an inkling of it even in the 19th Century. Skills and education that were valuable in an industrial economy have become obsolete in the new system, although this has happened before in the history of capitalism. Society has changed relatively little from the era before the computer age, with only a few exceptions, such as the use of computers to speed up financial transactions and in…
Agre, P.E. And D. Schuler, (eds.). (1997) Reinventing Technology, Rediscovering Community: Critical Explorations of Computing as a Social Practice. Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Alavi, N. (2005). We Are Iran. Brooklyn, NY: Soft Skull Press, Inc.
Baase, S. (2009). A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues in Computing, 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall.
Barglow, R. (1994). The Crisis of the Self in the Age of Information: Computers, Dolphins and Dreams. Routledge.
This would have been a truly unethical action.
The second objection that can be brought to the sustained thesis is represented by the fact that censorship is a violation of several human rights. These rights include the right to freedom of speech, the right to self-expression and the right to be well informed. It might be argued that Google made a mistake and created a precedent, proving that totalitarian regime scan impose their rules even upon independent companies because these companies are more interested in obtaining financial profits rather than defending human rights and liberties.
This may be true to a certain limited extent. Supposing that Google had refused to implement its dot cn service. In this manner it would have made a statement regarding censorship and freedom. but, at the same time, it would have failed to serve the Chinese people in any way.
An action of this kind…
Martin, K.E. "Google, Inc., in China (condensed)." Business roundtable Institute for Corporate Ethics. 30 October 2008. http://www.darden.virginia.edu/corporate-ethics/pdf/BRI-1004.pdf
Mill, J.S. "Utilitarianism." Google Books online. 30 October 2008 http://books.google.it/books?hl=it&id=9PE1LARQNV8C&dq=utilitarianism&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=54SBhkL_2p&sig=jUOgPaHFZE0wtGFE9IPUjqiAE8Q&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result
Intellectual Freedom in Libraries
In today's academic world intellectual freedom is a very important issue. In this paper various factors which are affecting intellectual freedom have been discussed along with efforts that need to be made in order to make the access of information possible for all. The issues being faced mainly by the librarians regarding the protection of confidential information of the library users have also been discussed in this paper. Furthermore the paper focuses on the important roles that can be played by the librarians in guiding and educating the people regarding the proper use of information.
Intellectual freedom is the liberty to express opinions in the academic world, the freedom of access to the information and the freedom of using that information (in a legal manner) without the fear of your confidential information being exploited. Intellectual freedom is very important for the academic growth of any society…
American Association of School Librarians. (2009). Empowering learners: Guidelines for school library media programs. Chicago: American Association of School Librarians.
American Library Association (ALA). (2007). Office for Intellectual Freedom: intellectual freedom and censorship Q & A. http://www.ala.org/ala/oif/basics/intellectual.htm
Arko-Cobbah, A. (2004). The role of libraries in student-centred learning: the case of students from the disadvantaged communities in South Africa. The International Information and Library Review 36(3):263 -- 271.
Arko-Cobbah, A. (2011). Intellectual Freedom and Academic Freedom: Some Challenges and Opportunities for Academic Libraries in Africa. Mousaion, 28 (2) 2011 pp. 76 -- 95
PERSPECTIVE FROM AN INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATIONS Business
GOOGLE IN CHINA
In the early 21st century, a highly successful corporation called Google, Inc. decided to expand its business into China. The company first tried to circumvent China's heavy censorship, laws and regulations but China's ability to control the internet flow into and out of China all but defeated Google's attempts. After being thwarted by China, Google adjusted, began to comply with China and is now a successful business in China. However, Google's success in China may have cost the company its claim to the motto "Don't be evil."
Google was founded in 1998 by two Stanford University students. Larry Page and Sergey Brin met the University in 1995, built a search engine by 1996 that discerned the importance of different webpages and incorporated in 1998 as Google, Inc. with the mantra of "Don't be evil" (Google, Inc.). Though…
Boatright, John R. Ethics and the Conduct of Business, 7th Edition. Pearson Education, Inc.: Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2012.
Chandler, Clay. Inside the great firewall of China. 20 February 2006. Web. 8 May 2016.
Dow Jones & Company, Inc. Letter from the founders: "An Owner's Manual" for Google's Shareholders. 29 April 2004. Web. 8 May 2016.
Google, Inc. Company overview. 2016. Web. 8 May 2016.
Legitimacy of Banning Books
In the case of Right to Read Defense Committee v. School Committee of Chelsea, 454 F. Supp. 703 (D. Mass. 1978), a citizen's group filed a civil rights suit, pursuant to 42 U.S.C.S. 1983, in opposition to the school committee and superintendent, relating to the committee's decision to eliminate an anthology from the high school library, based on the grievance of a parent to the language in one section of the collection.
The school committee determined upon a majority of votes to forbid from the high school library a collection of writings by young people which included a poem full of street language, while not obscene. The citizen's group brought suit against the committee and superintendent under 42 U.S.C.S.1983, looking for an order to put the collection back in the library based on the foundation that the committee violated the First Amendment rights of high school…
A Book Named "John Cleland's Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure" v. Attorney Gen. Of Mass.,
383 U.S. 413 (U.S. 1966).
Pro-censorship. (2006). Retrieved October 13, 2010, from Book Rags Web site:
Chinese Internet Culture
Decades after the reforms of Deng Xiaoping known as the "Four Modernizations," "a focus on development of agriculture, industry, science and technology and the military" (The University of Michigan. N.D.); China in 2011, grapples with the multiple dilemmas of internet information access, personal freedom, and government control over content. The rise of digital media, web access, and information availability over the past two decades has spread around the globe encompassing the world's second largest economy. As economic freedom continues to slowly evolve in China, so too does the call from its citizens for unfettered access to internet technology and content become more pervasive. The Chinese internet culture is particularly fascinating due to this inherent dichotomy between government control over content and individual demands for information access. How China's leadership confronts the challenges of information dissemination will be critical to China's long-term economic, social, and political future.
Bristow, M. (June 8, 2010). China Defends Internet Censorship. BBC News. Retrieved January 4, 2011 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8727647.stm
Carr, D. (March 28, 2010). Not Creating Content. Just Protecting it. The New York
Times. Retrieved January 4, 2011 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/29/business/media/29carr.html?_r=1&ref=sergeybrin
CNN: Larry King Live. (June 5, 2005). Encore Presentation: An Interview with Richard
This was because, for some stories, they were forced to use less professional correspondents to cover stories that were on a more national scale.
13. Among this list, newspapers and magazines are the most credible because they strive for objectivity and accuracy, at the same time as they possess the most amount of content. Television news programs are second only because they lack the same level of depth. The other sources should be highly questioned before using as a legitimate source. The internet possesses the best information among all of the rest, but must be evaluated on a site-by-site basis.
14. I have found two sources that indicate that controversial television ads negatively influence the behavior of children. However, there are also a handful of other resources arguing that the influence of ads upon individuals is relatively minute.
15. hetoric tends to vastly influence people's opinions and attitudes. However, statements…
Anderson, Craig L. et al. (2003). "The Influence of Media Violence on Youth." Psychological Science in the Public Influence, Vol. 4, No. 3, Dec. Page 81.
Ayeni, Dr. Olugbenga Christopher. (2004). "ABC, CNN, CBS, FOX, and NBC on the Frontlines." Global Media Journal.
Bushman, Brad J. And Craig A. Anderson. (2001). "Media Violence and the American Public." American Psychologist, June/July.
Damer, T. Edward. (2001). Attacking Faulty Reasoning. Belmont: Wadsworth.
Offshore Cases and Google Problems
Question 1 "The Offshoring Debate in a Small Organization" by Benny Sisko
Many people imagine only enormous Fortune 500 companies as moving production and jobs overseas. However, in today's weakened economy, even smaller businesses are now opting for outsourcing more and more to keep costs low. Even smaller companies have to deal with complex issues that are normally thought to be dealt with by larger Fortune 500 companies. Yet, despite benefits, there are also high risks involved in outsourcing, risks that go far beyond the boundary of the single organization in questions.
There are a number of major benefits of outsourcing. Smaller companies can dabble in outsourcing, but often not so much in offshoring, which often requires higher initial costs despite the overall costs savings (Kumar & Salzer 2010). Essentially, outsourcing focuses on using lower labor costs to get production done in other countries where…
All Business. (2008), The Benefits of Outsourcing for Small Businesses, New York Times, Web, http://www.nytimes.com/allbusiness/AB5221523_primary.html
Buki, James. (2011), Top 6 Outsourcing Disadvantages, Operations & Technology, Web, http://operationstech.about.com/od/outsourcing/tp/OutSrcDisadv.htm
Helft, Miguel & Barboza, David. (2010). Google Shuts Down China Site in Dispute Over Censorship, New York Times, Web, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/23/technology/23google.html
Kumar, Pundari & Salzer, Otto. (2010), Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing and Offshoring to India, Salzer-#D Engineering, Web, http://www.salzer-3dengineering.eu/PDF/AdvantagesDisadvantagesOfOutsourcingToIndia.pdf
Internet has grown exponentially since its first introduction to the public. The precursor to the Internet was the ARPANET. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the Department of Defense (Carlitz and Zinga, 1997) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) were the primary creators of the ARPANET. Subsequently however, efforts from private entities and universities have helped develop the network infrastructure, as it exists today. "The goals of ARPA's 'Resource Sharing Computer Network' project were to develop the technology for and demonstrate the feasibility of a computer network while improving communication and collaboration between research centers with grants from ARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO)." (Press, 1996) J.C.R. Licklider of MIT undertook groundbreaking work in developing computer interactivity. Later, he implemented his vision though time-sharing systems-affordable interactive computing. The effort of the NSF also helped to distribute the features of this new networking capability to all major universities and research…
Ansari, Asim, Skander Essegaier, and Rajeev Kohli. "Internet Recommendation Systems." Journal of Marketing Research 37.3 (2000).
Bannan, Karen J. "Clean It Up." PC Magazine 20.16 (2001).
Beguette, Glenda, et al. Internet Content Filtering and Cipa Legislation. 2002. Available: http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/tsullivl/469Sp02/filtering.html. June 26, 2005.
Bell, Bernard W. "Filth, Filtering, and the First Amendment: Ruminations on Public Libraries' Use of Internet Filtering Software." Federal Communications Law Journal 53.2 (2001): 191-238.