Censorship Essays (Examples)

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Global Media

Words: 1874 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45318100

Censorship and Freedom of the Press

In 2009, Frank ainimarama, the self-appointed Prime Minister of Fiji said that freedom of speech causes trouble and is to blame for his country's political turmoil (AC News, 2009). This is only a small portion of controversial remarks and actions made by ainimarama surrounding the announcement made by President Iloilo stating the abrogation of Fiji's constitution, the dismissal of the judiciary, and the deferral of democratic elections until 2014 (Puppet show, 2009). Iloilo's decision, given its relationship to ainimarama's interim regime, which took power in a coup in 2006, being declared illegal by ruling of the Court of Appeals demanding that a neutral leader replace ainimarama immediately with dissolution of the existing government and elections to commence as soon as possible (Puppet show).

ainimarama expressed his grievance towards this decision by the Court and did not hesitate to ignore it as he showed up…… [Read More]

Bibliography

ABC News. (2009). Retrieved from  http://abcnews.go.com/ 

Alley, R. (2010). Fiji Under Bainimarama. Journal of Pacific History, 45(1), 145-153. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.

Dikotter, Frank. (1996, Winter). Culture, race, and nation: The formulation of national identity in 20th century China. International Affairs, 49(2), 592.

Evans, M. (2011). Exacerbating social cleavages: The media's role in Israel's religious-secular conflict. Middle East Journal, 65(2), 235-251.
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Farenheit 451 Is the Story

Words: 560 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97282770

This action of doing one
thing and feeling another is a perfect statement regarding how censorship
can thrive in a community. In Farenheit 451 the citizens allowed the
government the freedom to burn books, they did this by not speaking out at
the initiation of such actions. Faber tells Montag "I said nothing. I'm
one of the innocents who could have spoken up and out when no one would
listen to the 'guilty', but I did not speak and thus became 'guilty'
myself" (Bradbury 82). hen good citizens quail in the face of attempted
censorship, then censorship will thrive. ithout the knowledge blocked by
the censors, the citizenry will flounder under the thumb of oppression.
The characters in the book who meet Montag after his escape from the city
know this is true. Granger, one of the leaders of the group tells Montag,
"All we want to do is keep…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Ron. "Movie Censorship and American Culture", Journal of American
Culture, 30.3 (2005): 349 - 350
Bradbury, Ray. Farenheit 451. New York: The Random House Publishing Group,
1953
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Depression and Censoring the American

Words: 1444 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39783071

The vey cux of the agument comes to the cental point of censoship -- who must be potected and why must they be potected? Ideas, political, social, o othewise, may be the most dangeous fom of liteatue eve. Fo instance, in 19th centuy autocatic egimes, the ideas of Kal Max, even Voltaie, Locke, and Jeffeson wee seen to be subvesive because they challenged the ode of things, the idea that the monachy should ule by divine ight, and that cetain people had, by manifest destiny, the ight to be moe equal than othes. So, too, do images and vebiage change ove time egading public acceptance. At the tun of the centuy bathing suits coveed almost 90% of the human body, and a day at the beach would've been fa diffeent had some of today's skimpy G-stings o bikinis shown up. Similaly, sexual activity was hinted at fom the ealy days…… [Read More]

references homo-eroticism in a coming of age drama; another might see critiques of the War on Terror subversive, while still another might find literary value in the works of art by someone like Robert Mapplethorpe. Thus, in order to maintain a free and just society in which ideas are strong commodities we must take the notion that an educated populace is an informed populace. Our focus should be on educating children and youth so that, when appropriate, they can make decisions about what is right, wrong -- how to vet source material, and above all, what ideas they might want to accept and which to reject. This documentary should be shown in the classroom for, much like the movie Saving Private Ryan, it brings the real story of history into the lives of people without over glorifying the issue. War and conflict are not pretty, not neat, and people do not die as they do in a John Wayne western. Of course, certain material is age dependent, but it is important to note that in Middle and High school, students appreciate the truth more than half-truths and old adages about history that are simply not factual.
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Internet Site

Words: 1022 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67975442

censorship of the Internet, especially of pornographic materials, is a topic that can be easily resolved is being naive. This is a complicated issue with enough gray areas to be thoroughly debated and to demand that comprehensive information from both sides be studied. Freedom of speech has always been a thorny subject, and it becomes no easier when considering the Internet that can be accessed by individuals of all ages and backgrounds from around the world.

Most of the websites dealing with this topic are slanted in one way or another based on the political, religious or moral stance of the URL's authors. It is refreshing, then, when a writer takes a stab at equally presenting arguments for and against online pornographic censorship. The website "Pornography and the Internet in the United States" (http://www.slais.ubc.ca/courses/libr500/fall1999/www_presentations/c_hogg/print.htm) was written by Charles Hogg as part of an assignment for Library Studies 500: Foundations of…… [Read More]

Bibliography and Checklist."

Website visited 22/4/03.

A www.unc.edu/cit/guides/irg-49.html.
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Mayhem the Ancient Romans Had

Words: 2362 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7113851



On the other hand, parents are not the only ones who should feel responsible for the caliber of popular entertainment. At some point, the media industry must look inward and decide what kind of role it can or will take in the society. Because the media will be concerned primarily with the bottom line, we must, however, forgive any industry that chooses consciously to air and market violent media. When that media is aimed directly at children, though, a line has been crossed. The entertainment industry can and should be self-regulated regarding the promotion of violent video games, films, and television shows. Based on the fact that media violence potentially contributes to the public health issues that Bok addresses in Mayhem: increased fearfulness in the society; increased appetite for more media violence; desensitization to violence; and increased levels of aggression, the media industry and parents alike need to shoulder some…… [Read More]

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Banning Books in High School

Words: 1726 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77933013

Banning Books in High School

Book Banning and Censorship

Social groups, including religious organizations, parents, and school administration among others, make decisions daily about what material will become a part of the regular school curriculum and what material will be excluded. Many decisions are made based on the educational value of text books and other learning material. However, many decisions are unfortunately made without educational potential in mind, but rather on the basis of what is considered to be profane or proper based on the opinions of certain people that feel they have the moral authority to make such decisions. American schools have always been built on the principle that children must be protected from that which is inappropriate for them to see, hear, or experience. "American schools have been pressured to restrict or deny students access to books or periodicals deemed objectionable by some individual or group on moral,…… [Read More]

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FOX News in Today's World

Words: 1754 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41051300

As with all other issues in media, it is up to the viewer of the information to decide which network to believe, and which network to trust as a source of unbiased, factual information. Since Fox News is undoubtedly the choice of a majority of viewers in the United States, it is obvious that those viewers have already made their choice.

eferences

Ackerman, S. (2001). The most biased name in news. Extra, 5, 25-29.

Cameron, C. Fox News special report: Israeli spying on the U.S. etrieved Dec. 10, 2004. Web site: http://free.freespeech.org/americanstateterrorism/9-11/FoxNewsIsraeliSpying.html.

Carter, B. (2004, April 23). Pentagon ban on pictures of dead troops is broken. The New York Times, p A4.

Fox News. (2004). Fox News home page. etrieved Dec. 10, 2004 from Fox News. Web site: http://www.foxnews.com.

Gordon, C. (2002, Jan. 30). Fox News covers more than biased angle. Kansas State collegian, p. D4.

Martin, E. (2004, April…… [Read More]

References

Ackerman, S. (2001). The most biased name in news. Extra, 5, 25-29.

Cameron, C. Fox News special report: Israeli spying on the U.S. Retrieved Dec. 10, 2004. Web site: http://free.freespeech.org/americanstateterrorism/9-11/FoxNewsIsraeliSpying.html.

Carter, B. (2004, April 23). Pentagon ban on pictures of dead troops is broken. The New York Times, p A4.

Fox News. (2004). Fox News home page. Retrieved Dec. 10, 2004 from Fox News. Web site:  http://www.foxnews.com .
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First Amendment and Broadcasting Content

Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62802435

First Amendment rights are not absolute, particularly in regards to advertising. For example, there has been a great deal of pressure to regulate advertising directed at children that promotes unhealthy junk food. "There is a legal test for judging whether commercial speech qualifies for protection under the First Amendment. Called the Central Hudson test, it says that such speech must be truthful and not 'actually or inherently misleading'" and it has been argued that much of commercial advertising targeting children takes advantage of a credulous consumer's inability to tell the difference between truth and fiction (Bittman, 2012, par.11). In this instance, however, the objections raised to our new advertising campaign are not targeted at children. Rather, the concern is merely that children may see inappropriate material, even if it is not intended that they purchase the product.

In the past, the U.S. Supreme Court has allowed censorship of certain types…… [Read More]

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David Hajdu's History of a Comic Book Moral Panic

Words: 1287 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96084724

Hajdu, the Ten-Cent Plague

"Since I have written about comic books, I have heard from quite a number of young adults who told me that their childhood emotional masturbation problem was started or aggravated by comic books."[footnoteRef:0] This is an actual quotation from Dr. Fredric Wertham's notorious mid-1950s attack on the comic book industry, Seduction of the Innocent, and it demonstrates the extent to which Wertham ignited a "moral panic" about comic books, and ultimately caused an entire industry to cave to public pressure and change the content and artwork of comics for more than a generation. Does anyone nowadays -- sixty years after Wertham got Congress to take an interest in the censorship of comic books -- still believe that masturbation is a serious moral plague? Does anyone believe that comic books seduce and corrupt the innocent? In an era where any child who can spell can have access…… [Read More]

Bibliography

David Hajdu, The Ten-Cent Plague. New York: Farrar Straus, 2008.

Louis Menand, "The Horror: Congress Investigates The Comics." The New Yorker, March 31, 2008.

Fredric Wertham, MD. Seduction of the Innocent. Introduction by James E. Rebman.

Laurel, NY: Main Road Books Reprints, 2004.
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Status of a Newspaper The

Words: 2627 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15608122

This is also reflected in the view that there is a lot of difference between a high school senior and a college freshman. egarding the world of student journalism, the U.S. Court of Appeals has also agreed with this view. This is reflected in the campus newspaper theft which was not taking place till the beginning of the 1990s. This is now a regular source of trouble for college student media. (Trends in College Media)

At the same time, this has not reflected in the quality of college newspaper, and some of them are of excellent quality. Let us look at some college newspapers for this purpose. One of them, namely the Boston College Chronicle has worked on the recently concluded papal conclave and also tried to inform the audience about what the world can hope from the new Pope. Certainly this information when they appear in a college magazine…… [Read More]

References

Censorship of College Student Newspapers. Administrative Censorship of the College Press. Retrieved at http://www.collegefreedom.org/report5.htm. Accessed on 28 April, 2005

CSU, Northridge Newspaper Silenced. 11 May, 1989. Retrieved at http://www.totse.com/en/conspiracy/institutional_analysis/papcensr.html. Accessed on 28 April, 2005

Davisson, John. GSEU Strikers Return to the Classroom. 25 April, 2005. Retrieved from www.columbiaspectator.com/- 32k Accessed on 28 April, 2005

Glaser, Dale; Collins, King. Review of Eagle and the Controversy of 1996-1997. Retrieved from www.greenmac.com/eagle/Updates/Up2.html. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
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Leni Riefenstahl Ethics

Words: 2111 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14726905

Leni Riefenstahl. The writer explores the topic of Riefenstahl and her unethical art. The writer examines the catastrophic consequences and her lack of integrity that lead to horror for millions. There were nine sources used to complete this paper.

Leni Riefenstahl: Her Unethical Art and The Catastrophic Consequences

The reign of Adolf Hitler is one that history will never forget. Under his terrorist reign of terror millions of people died. Those who did not die suffered from the loss of loved ones, loss of privacy and loss of financial stability. It was a time in which the world was introduced to the dangerous side of charismatic politics. While there were many who were fooled in the beginning by Hitler's manipulation tactics they soon learned his true motivations and spent the rest of their lives working to unseat the inhumane dictator. There is one person however, who admired him from the…… [Read More]

JANE SUMNER / Staff Critic, The Riefenstahl riddle: At age 100, famed Germanfilmmaker Leni Riefenstahl still stirs an enigmatic cocktail of emotions., The Dallas Morning News, 08-18-2002, pp 1C.

John Anderson, Leni Riefenstahl, Film's Queen of Denial., Newsday, 03-16-1994, pp 65.

Author not available, THE WONDERFUL HORRIBLE LIFE OF LENI RIEFENSTAHL; DIE MACHT DER BILDER., Magill's Survey of Cinema, 06-15-1995.
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Howard Stern

Words: 1415 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30777752



In 1995, Infinity Broadcasting agreed to settle FCC claims against Stern in a $1.7 million dollar settlement. By 2004, according to the Center for Public Integrity, the FCC had levied over $3.95 million in fines against indecency on the radio, and half of that total was levied against Stern and Infinity. Still further, the FCC has issued over $1.9 million in fines to shows syndicating the Stern program (Dunbar, 2004).

Perhaps Stern's most notable infraction was the 2004 fines, totaling $495,000 against 18 Clear Channel stations airing a single program of the Howard Stern Show. The fines were the first on record by the FCC citing more than one infraction of FCC regulations during a single show. Clear Channel Communications had pulled the Stern show from six stations in February of that year, after complaints of a show involving sexual descriptions and racist remarks. The sexual content cited in the…… [Read More]

References

Associated Press. (2004, June 30). Howard Stern announces nine new markets. USA Today, 18.

Dauidson, S. (1999). Censoring rock and rap music. Westport, C.T.: Greenwood Press.

Dunbar, M. (2004, April 9). Indecency on the air: shock-radio jock Howard Stern remains 'King of All Fines'. Well Connected. Retrieved April 29, 2005 from Center for Public Integrity. Web site: http://www.publicintegrity.org/telecom/report.aspx?aid=239&sid=200.

Foerstel, H. (1997). Free expression and censorship in America: an encyclopedia. Westport, C.T.: Greenwood Press.
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Art Qs the United States

Words: 566 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47628352

Palmer C. Hayden and Laura Wheeler Waring were two of the painters of the Harlem Renaissance, and they focused on painting stylized portraits of prominent African-Americans and scenes of black life from a variety of perspectives.

4)

The dynamism of the machine age is exhibited not only in the engineered workings of inventions like automobiles and early airplanes, but also in the Futuristic paintings of the period. There is a blend of very strong geometry and straight lines that combine to create larger images of fluidity and movement that almost seems impossible when the smaller constituent elements of the painting are focused on. It is as though magic and passion are meeting science and cool logic, which is a way of describing things like the combustion engine as well. This period was a time when the world seemed to be moving in two directions, at once looking forward to the…… [Read More]

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Pianist Directed by Roman Polanski Specifically it

Words: 1081 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79595246

Pianist directed by oman Polanski. Specifically, it will imagine every part of "The Pianist" that was violent or contained swear words was simply removed from the film. Censorship in film has always been a contentious issue, and with the advent of Clean Flix, the situation has come to a head. While it is certainly a person's right to view entertainment that they do not feel is offensive, for a company to "clean" offensive content is simply alteration of the work, plain and simple. This alteration changes the meaning of the work, and alters the integrity and very foundation of many films. Clean Flix may provide a valuable service, but it is at the cost of the film and what it stands for.

Artistic integrity versus "offensive" content. It is a difficult question for both sides to discuss, and whatever changes are made to a film; they constitute some kind of…… [Read More]

References

The Pianist. Dir. Roman Polanski. Perf. Adrien Brody, Emilia Fox, and Thomas Kretschmann. Universal Studios, 2002.
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Ana Mendieta Rape Scene

Words: 3145 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54958669

As a result, the invited audience was essentially being asked to play the role of the person who is shocked by such a discovery -- and insofar as they knew they were being invited by Mendieta, and probably had basic knowledge of the crime that occurred, they were also being invited to imagine that the victim of such a crime might well have been Mendieta or any other female student on campus. This is interesting insofar as it relates to an observation made by Kwon about Mendieta's early work from this period: Kwon notes that "Mendieta's use of her/the body almost always approached erasure or negation: her 'body' consistently disappeared. This is striking given that most feminist artists during the 1970s vied for visibility and self-affirming expression through figurative, literal, sometimes 'in-your-face' presence. It is curious that Mendieta traced her absence instead."[footnoteRef:5] In "Rape Scene" this is paradoxically true: the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bowers, Nancy. "Spring Break Killer: Murder of Sarah Ann Ottens, 1973." IowaUnsolvedMurders.com, March 2010. Web. Retrieved 24 April 2014 at:  http://www.iowaunsolvedmurders.com/beyond-1965-selected-unsolved-iowa-murders/spring-break-killer-murder-of-sarah-ann-ottens-1973/ 

Butler, Cornelia and Mark, Lisa Gabrielle. WACK!: Art and the Feminist Revolution. Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Art and MIT Press, 2007. Print.

Chau, Monica, Feldman, Hannah J.L., Kabat, Jennifer, and Kruse, Hannah. The Subject of Rape: June 23-August 29, 1993. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1993. Print.

Deutsche, Rosalyn. "Breaking Ground: Barbara Kruger's Spatial Practice." In Kruger, Barbara. Thinking of You. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000. 77-84. Print.
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Ethics for Entrepreneurs Abercrombie &

Words: 778 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58593652

In recognition that these t-shirts might be found to be objectionable to many young women, who are among our best customers, we contacted Heather Arnet, Executive Director of the omen & Girls Foundation, and offered to discuss the issue with them. e recognize that the shirts in question, while meant to be humorous, might be troubling to some." Despite, or perhaps, one could argue, because of, the controversy generated by the sexually explicit t-shirts, on November 15, 2005, CEO Mike Jeffries stated that the company had enjoyed record third quarter profits. "These strong results reflect the broad momentum and successful differentiation of our brands, confirming our entire organization's dedication to building dominant iconic brands. e are uniquely positioned as the top of mind premium provider of sportswear with brands that appeal to a broad spectrum of customers in the pre-teen through post-collegiate demographic. This is a position we have worked…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abercrombie & Fitch Issues Joint Statement with Women & Girls Foundation of Southwest Pennsylvania." Press Release. Abercrombie & Fitch. 4 Nov 2005.

27 Mar 2008. http://www.abercrombie.com/anf/lifestyles/html/investorrelations.html

Abercrombie & Fitch Reports Third Quarter Results."(4 Nov 2005). Press Release.

Abercrombie & Fitch. 15 Nov 2005. 27 Mar 2008 at http://www.abercrombie.com/anf/lifestyles/html/investorrelations.html
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Growing Number of Diverse Groups

Words: 1140 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 349625

Furthermore, he taught his son that society is not always right in what they believe. With that, racism is wrong because everyone is a human being and deserves equal rights. Even though America has racism in today's modern society, there are more people like Scout's father who honestly believes in diversity (120 Banned Books: Censorship Histories of World Literature).

Don't attack something if it hasn't harmed you: This lesson is taught to Jem and Scout by Atticus when he teaches them about the mockingbird. He says that the mockingbird is innocent and only sings for you. It is therefore wrong to kill it. The examples of the mockingbird within the novel are Tom and Boo. Tom was attacked by the entire white society in Maycomb County. These attacks and accusations destroyed his innocent, respectable life. Arthur "Boo" adley was also an innocent victim to the taunts and of the people…… [Read More]

References

To Kill a Mockingbird. 1998. 13 March 2008. http://www.bellmore-merrick.k12.ny.us/mockingbird.html

Bloom, Harold. "To Kill a Mockingbird" (Bloom's Guides). 2004. Chelsea House Publishers, U.S.

Felty, Darren. Novels for students. 13 March 2008.  http://www.answers.com/topic/to-kill-a-mockingbird-novel-7 

Sova, Dawn. 120 Banned Books: Censorship Histories of World Literature. 2005. Checksmarks Books.
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Language and Culture in Many if Not

Words: 846 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76264782

Language and Culture

In many, if not all, instances culture is not beneficial to its subscribers. Inherent within a culture is language. Language itself is very fluid and flexible and can elicit many emotions and feelings within a person or larger group of people. The purpose of this essay is to investigate the social influences of language by describing several issues that deal with interpersonal communication and more specifically the use of language to manipulate, hypnotize and ultimately inspire others. The essay will investigate the issues of jokes, speech laws, and specified slur-words to illuminate the qualities that language brings to society.

Humor is a gift that should be enjoyed by all. Laughing makes us feel good and provides a deeper psychological function. Lickerman (2011) agreed when she wrote "perhaps laughter could be most properly considered as a weapon against suffering and despair. If we can joke about a disappointing…… [Read More]

References

American Civil Liberties Union (1994). Hate Speech on Campus. December 31, 1994. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/free-speech/hate-speech-campus

Floyd, K. (2011). Interpersonal Communication 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, Oct 10, 2011.

Lickerman, A. (2011). Why We Laugh. Psychology Today, 23 Jan 2011. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/happiness-in-world/201101/why-we-laugh
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Why Facebook is Banned in China

Words: 694 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78566315

Facebook is still banned in China, which took initiatives in 2009 to quell any sort of protest or governmental opposition sparked by social media sites like Facebook. Facebook is not the only Western site to be banned in China. Moreover, it has essentially a lookalike Chinese competitor known as Renren, which is a social media site that operates just like Facebook but complies with the Chinese government’s regulations with regard to the filtering of content posted on the site (Darwell, 2012). China’s government is very concerned about regulating content published on the Internet since this is such an impactful platform for communicating and spreading information in the Digital Age. For a government that wants total control of every aspect of the country’s life, allowing Facebook to have the freedom to come in and allow users to post whatever content they want without regulating or filtering it would be like allowing…… [Read More]

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Censored Books

Words: 1656 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35251154

Education - eading

Censored Books

The Adventures of Captain Underpants by Dav Pilkey is a series of children's novels about two fourth graders, George Beard and Harold Hutchins, and the aptly named superhero they accidentally create by hypnotizing their principal, Mr. Krupp. These books are appropriate for child who are age 7 and up. The American Library Association has put the series at no. 8 on its list of most challenged books last year; the list includes books that received the most formal complaints filed with libraries or schools requesting that the books be removed because of inappropriateness. According to the ALA, the complaints filed against the Captain Underpants books cited the series' anti-family content, unsuitability for the age group, and violent content. Captain Underpants series has been banned in some schools for insensitivity and being unsuited to age group, as well as encouraging children to disobey authority (Beerman, 2006).…… [Read More]

References

Aasi, R. (2011). Banned Books Week 2011: Olive's Ocean. Retrieved from http://booksinthespotlight.blogspot.com/2011/09/banned-books-week-2011-olives-ocean.html

Banned Books. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0768756.html

Banned Book Week. (2005). Retrieved from  http://www.marshall.edu/LIBRARY/bannedbooks/books/lifeisfunny.asp 

Banned/Challenged Books Goal: "Junie B. Jones. (2011). Retrieved from http://blogs.roanoke.com/backcover/2011/04/top-100-bannedchallenged-books-goal-junie-b-jones/
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1st Amendment

Words: 1321 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62419650

First Amendment and Television

The subject of television and censorship has long been an issue of heated debates across the country.

The First Amendment to the United States Constitution states:

"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances" (U.S. pp).

On June 8, 1789 James Madison introduced his version of the speech and press clauses in the House of Representatives, stating, "The people shall not be deprived or abridged of their right to speak, to write, or to publish their sentiments; and the freedom of the press, as one of the great bulwarks of liberty, shall be inviolable" (Freedom pp). The special committee rewrote the language somewhat, adding other provisions from Madison's draft,…… [Read More]

Work Cited

U.S. Constitution: First Amendment

http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data/constitution/amendment01/

Freedom of Expression: Speech and Press.

http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data/constitution/amendment01/06.html#1
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Iranian Cinema After Revolution

Words: 1872 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51236311

Iranian Cinema After the evolution

An introduction to Iran:

Iran or Persia as it was previously known was founded more than 4,000 years ago and is thus one of the oldest surviving nations of the world. Iran had been primarily ruled by series of dynasties including such illustrious families as the Achaemenids (500-330 B.C.), the Sassanians (A.D. 226-650), and the Safavides (1500-1722). Iranian dynasties have been synonymous with victories and land acquisition but at the present Iran has s 1,648,195 square kilometers of Middle Eastern territory under its command. It is situated close to former ussia and two former Soviet republics (Azerbaijan and Tajikistan) are its close neighbors. Some other prominent neighbors include the Caspian Sea in the north, Turkey and Iraq in the west, and Afghanistan and Pakistan in the east. And in the south it has the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman as its neighbors. The…… [Read More]

References

1. Akrami J. ( 1987). "Persian cinema and politics in Iran." In J. DH Downing (Ed.), Film and politics in the Third World . New York: Praeger.

2. Akrami J. (1990). "Feature film in Persia." In Encyclopedia Iranica. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda.

3. Asadi A. & Mehrdad H. (1975). Nagsheh rasaneh-ha dar poshtibani toseaeh farhanghi [The role of media in support of cultural development]. Tehran: Iran Communication and Development Institute.

4. Gaffary F. (1990). "History of cinema in Iran." In Encyclopedia Iranica. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda.
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Effects Mainstream Social Media Today's Children

Words: 1902 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10387507

Children and Media

Technology surrounds everything that children participate in nowadays. From using computers to watching television, the media influences children in just about every activity that they are a part of. The mainstream and social media have had a great impact on the behavior of children, as they are consistently exposed to numerous forms of the media at all times. As technology advances and children are more and more prone to watching television and participating in activities over the Internet, children will always be affected by how the media is presented to them. It can be difficult to shelter children from the growing media influence, however, the effects of this phenomenon on both the psychological and cognitive development of children need to be analyzed and considered (Christakis & Zimmerman, 2009).

Social life has been completely revolutionized due to the existence of the Internet and the development of social media.…… [Read More]

References:

Anderson, D.R. & Hanson, K.G. (2009). Children, media, and methodology. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1204-1219.

Bargh, J.A. & McKenna, K.Y.A. (2003). The internet and social life. Annual Review of Psychology. 55, 573-590.

Chau, C. (2010). YouTube as a participatory culture. New Directions for Youth Development. 2010(128), 65-74.

Christakis, D.A. & Zimmerman, F.J. (2009). Young Children and media: Limitations of current knowledge and future directions for research. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1177-1185.
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Reform of the United Nations

Words: 1125 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58986057

United Nations, the Unwanted Nobodies and this tells you much about its status in the world.

The UN has been implicated in a good deal of corruption and scandal. It has been said to be political, to be bigoted, to evidence cowardice and fail its responsibilities, to misappropriate its resources, and to misuse judgment. These have been only a few -- and the weakest -- of the accusations leveled against this not particularly effective institution.

The UN has failed, time and again, to intervene in major world crisis when it was most needed. ather than stand their ground with Egypt for instance during the six-day war, it deserted the region, and it demonstrated this same behavior time and again during the African genocides. Similarly, too, the UN showed its ineffectiveness during the crisis with Iraq, becoming a puppet in the hands of France and ussia who tried to use it…… [Read More]

References

americans-world.org . Americans and the World: a source of comprehensive information on U.S. public opinion  http://www.americans-world.org/digest/global_issues/un/un1.cfm 

Charter of the UN

http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter7.shtml

Kim R. Holmes, Assistant Secretary of State, "The Challenges Facing the United Nations Today: An American View," address to the Council on Foreign Relations, October 21, 2003, at www.cfr.org/publication.php?id=6451#.
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Operationalizing Constructs

Words: 970 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2179643

Operationalizing Constructs

Business

The subject of the paper is to evaluate the nature and quality of the processes used to develop conceptual definitions and measurable items in two articles that are examples of research. Each study has a specific model and method serving as framework within which to conduct the research and to analyze the data gathered. Conceptual definitions are not entirely spontaneous. The kernel of the idea upon which they are founded may be, but at every stage of research there are processes, including processes for development conceptual definitions. Conceptual definitions must be refine and clear both for the researcher and the reader. Furthermore, the measureable items and variables in any study should be clearly defined and there should be appropriate time taken to develop those items. Therefore to notice and evaluate such aspects in professionally conducted studies is relevant and useful. The paper concludes that while each study…… [Read More]

References:

Chen, J.S., Yen, H.J.R., Li, E.Y., & Ching, R.K.H. (2009). Measuring CRM effectiveness: Construct development, validation and application of a process-oriented model. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 20(3), 283 -- 299.

Detert, J.R., & Edmondson, A.C. (2011). Implicit Voice Theories: Taken-For-Granted Rules of Self-Censorship. Academy of Management Journal, 54(3), 461 -- 488.
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Front-Page War How Media Complicity

Words: 3781 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19321252

The British government has learned that Saddam Hussein recently sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa, (George W. Bush, State of the Union Address, Jan. 28, 2003) the claims were quickly picked up and repeated by the media. So were claims that Iraq had nuclear weapons. "We believe [Hussein] has, in fact, reconstituted nuclear weapons." (Dick Cheney, NBC's Meet the Press, March 16, 2003) Yet, after the search for chemical and nuclear weapons was eventually called off without any actual discover of such weapons, the media made startling little of the fact that Donald umsfeld said "I don't believe anyone that I know in the administration ever said that Iraq had nuclear weapons." (Senate appropriations subcommittee on defense hearing, May 14, 2003)

In fact, shortly thereafter "USA Today and the Los Angeles Times, echoed this fudging -- last year 'weapons,' this year 'programs' -- declaring that 'the jury's still out'…… [Read More]

Ridge, George. "Embedded: the media at war in Iraq." Military Review. January-February 2004. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0PBZ/is_1_84/ai_n6112518

Roberts, Paul Craig. "The Brownshirting of America." AntiWar.Com. 16 October 2004.  http://www.antiwar.com/roberts/?articleid=3798 

Scheer, Christopher; Scher, Robert; Chaudhry, Lakshmi. "Bush's Lies About Iraq." The Nation. 11 March 2004. http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml%3Fi=20040329&s=scheer
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Has the Internet Democratized Our Society

Words: 3588 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40316197

Internet and Democracy

In one sense, computers and the Internet are just a continuation of the communications revolution, starting with the printing press then continuing with the telegraph, telephone, motion pictures, radio and television. Could this be leading to a more fundamental change in history on the same level as the agricultural and industrial revolutions? This is a more problematic proposition. Of course, the idea of a post-industrial economy based on services and high technology dates back to the 1960s, although some visionaries had an inkling of it even in the 19th Century. Skills and education that were valuable in an industrial economy have become obsolete in the new system, although this has happened before in the history of capitalism. Society has changed relatively little from the era before the computer age, with only a few exceptions, such as the use of computers to speed up financial transactions and in…… [Read More]

REFERENCE LIST

Agre, P.E. And D. Schuler, (eds.). (1997) Reinventing Technology, Rediscovering Community: Critical Explorations of Computing as a Social Practice. Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Alavi, N. (2005). We Are Iran. Brooklyn, NY: Soft Skull Press, Inc.

Baase, S. (2009). A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues in Computing, 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall.

Barglow, R. (1994). The Crisis of the Self in the Age of Information: Computers, Dolphins and Dreams. Routledge.
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Business and Professional Ethics Marketing Google

Words: 1897 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29608211

This would have been a truly unethical action.

The second objection that can be brought to the sustained thesis is represented by the fact that censorship is a violation of several human rights. These rights include the right to freedom of speech, the right to self-expression and the right to be well informed. It might be argued that Google made a mistake and created a precedent, proving that totalitarian regime scan impose their rules even upon independent companies because these companies are more interested in obtaining financial profits rather than defending human rights and liberties.

This may be true to a certain limited extent. Supposing that Google had refused to implement its dot cn service. In this manner it would have made a statement regarding censorship and freedom. but, at the same time, it would have failed to serve the Chinese people in any way.

An action of this kind…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Martin, K.E. "Google, Inc., in China (condensed)." Business roundtable Institute for Corporate Ethics. 30 October 2008. http://www.darden.virginia.edu/corporate-ethics/pdf/BRI-1004.pdf

Mill, J.S. "Utilitarianism." Google Books online. 30 October 2008 http://books.google.it/books?hl=it&id=9PE1LARQNV8C&dq=utilitarianism&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=54SBhkL_2p&sig=jUOgPaHFZE0wtGFE9IPUjqiAE8Q&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result
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Freedom and Intellectual Libraries

Words: 5372 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7243168

Intellectual Freedom in Libraries

In today's academic world intellectual freedom is a very important issue. In this paper various factors which are affecting intellectual freedom have been discussed along with efforts that need to be made in order to make the access of information possible for all. The issues being faced mainly by the librarians regarding the protection of confidential information of the library users have also been discussed in this paper. Furthermore the paper focuses on the important roles that can be played by the librarians in guiding and educating the people regarding the proper use of information.

Intellectual freedom is the liberty to express opinions in the academic world, the freedom of access to the information and the freedom of using that information (in a legal manner) without the fear of your confidential information being exploited. Intellectual freedom is very important for the academic growth of any society…… [Read More]

References

American Association of School Librarians. (2009). Empowering learners: Guidelines for school library media programs. Chicago: American Association of School Librarians.

American Library Association (ALA). (2007). Office for Intellectual Freedom: intellectual freedom and censorship Q & A. http://www.ala.org/ala/oif/basics/intellectual.htm

Arko-Cobbah, A. (2004). The role of libraries in student-centred learning: the case of students from the disadvantaged communities in South Africa. The International Information and Library Review 36(3):263 -- 271.

Arko-Cobbah, A. (2011). Intellectual Freedom and Academic Freedom: Some Challenges and Opportunities for Academic Libraries in Africa. Mousaion, 28 (2) 2011 pp. 76 -- 95
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How Google Succeeded in China

Words: 1822 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87840822

Business Management

PERSPECTIVE FROM AN INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATIONS Business

GOOGLE IN CHINA

In the early 21st century, a highly successful corporation called Google, Inc. decided to expand its business into China. The company first tried to circumvent China's heavy censorship, laws and regulations but China's ability to control the internet flow into and out of China all but defeated Google's attempts. After being thwarted by China, Google adjusted, began to comply with China and is now a successful business in China. However, Google's success in China may have cost the company its claim to the motto "Don't be evil."

Google Background

Google was founded in 1998 by two Stanford University students. Larry Page and Sergey Brin met the University in 1995, built a search engine by 1996 that discerned the importance of different webpages and incorporated in 1998 as Google, Inc. with the mantra of "Don't be evil" (Google, Inc.). Though…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boatright, John R. Ethics and the Conduct of Business, 7th Edition. Pearson Education, Inc.: Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2012.

Chandler, Clay. Inside the great firewall of China. 20 February 2006. Web. 8 May 2016.

Dow Jones & Company, Inc. Letter from the founders: "An Owner's Manual" for Google's Shareholders. 29 April 2004. Web. 8 May 2016.

Google, Inc. Company overview. 2016. Web. 8 May 2016.
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Legitimacy of Banning Books in the Case

Words: 1006 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61931171

Legitimacy of Banning Books

In the case of Right to Read Defense Committee v. School Committee of Chelsea, 454 F. Supp. 703 (D. Mass. 1978), a citizen's group filed a civil rights suit, pursuant to 42 U.S.C.S. 1983, in opposition to the school committee and superintendent, relating to the committee's decision to eliminate an anthology from the high school library, based on the grievance of a parent to the language in one section of the collection.

The school committee determined upon a majority of votes to forbid from the high school library a collection of writings by young people which included a poem full of street language, while not obscene. The citizen's group brought suit against the committee and superintendent under 42 U.S.C.S.1983, looking for an order to put the collection back in the library based on the foundation that the committee violated the First Amendment rights of high school…… [Read More]

Works Cited

A Book Named "John Cleland's Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure" v. Attorney Gen. Of Mass.,

383 U.S. 413 (U.S. 1966).

Pro-censorship. (2006). Retrieved October 13, 2010, from Book Rags Web site:

http://www.bookrags.com/essay-2005/3/2/21229/85733
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Chinese Internet Culture Decades After the Reforms

Words: 1760 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51116937

Chinese Internet Culture

Decades after the reforms of Deng Xiaoping known as the "Four Modernizations," "a focus on development of agriculture, industry, science and technology and the military" (The University of Michigan. N.D.); China in 2011, grapples with the multiple dilemmas of internet information access, personal freedom, and government control over content. The rise of digital media, web access, and information availability over the past two decades has spread around the globe encompassing the world's second largest economy. As economic freedom continues to slowly evolve in China, so too does the call from its citizens for unfettered access to internet technology and content become more pervasive. The Chinese internet culture is particularly fascinating due to this inherent dichotomy between government control over content and individual demands for information access. How China's leadership confronts the challenges of information dissemination will be critical to China's long-term economic, social, and political future.

March…… [Read More]

References

Bristow, M. (June 8, 2010). China Defends Internet Censorship. BBC News. Retrieved January 4, 2011 from  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8727647.stm 

Carr, D. (March 28, 2010). Not Creating Content. Just Protecting it. The New York

Times. Retrieved January 4, 2011 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/29/business/media/29carr.html?_r=1&ref=sergeybrin

CNN: Larry King Live. (June 5, 2005). Encore Presentation: An Interview with Richard
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People Often Base Their Actions

Words: 2145 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36143547

This was because, for some stories, they were forced to use less professional correspondents to cover stories that were on a more national scale.

13. Among this list, newspapers and magazines are the most credible because they strive for objectivity and accuracy, at the same time as they possess the most amount of content. Television news programs are second only because they lack the same level of depth. The other sources should be highly questioned before using as a legitimate source. The internet possesses the best information among all of the rest, but must be evaluated on a site-by-site basis.

14. I have found two sources that indicate that controversial television ads negatively influence the behavior of children. However, there are also a handful of other resources arguing that the influence of ads upon individuals is relatively minute.

15. hetoric tends to vastly influence people's opinions and attitudes. However, statements…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, Craig L. et al. (2003). "The Influence of Media Violence on Youth." Psychological Science in the Public Influence, Vol. 4, No. 3, Dec. Page 81.

Ayeni, Dr. Olugbenga Christopher. (2004). "ABC, CNN, CBS, FOX, and NBC on the Frontlines." Global Media Journal.

Bushman, Brad J. And Craig A. Anderson. (2001). "Media Violence and the American Public." American Psychologist, June/July.

Damer, T. Edward. (2001). Attacking Faulty Reasoning. Belmont: Wadsworth.
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Offshore Cases and Google Problems Question 1

Words: 1924 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98236386

Offshore Cases and Google Problems

Question 1 "The Offshoring Debate in a Small Organization" by Benny Sisko

Many people imagine only enormous Fortune 500 companies as moving production and jobs overseas. However, in today's weakened economy, even smaller businesses are now opting for outsourcing more and more to keep costs low. Even smaller companies have to deal with complex issues that are normally thought to be dealt with by larger Fortune 500 companies. Yet, despite benefits, there are also high risks involved in outsourcing, risks that go far beyond the boundary of the single organization in questions.

There are a number of major benefits of outsourcing. Smaller companies can dabble in outsourcing, but often not so much in offshoring, which often requires higher initial costs despite the overall costs savings (Kumar & Salzer 2010). Essentially, outsourcing focuses on using lower labor costs to get production done in other countries where…… [Read More]

References

All Business. (2008), The Benefits of Outsourcing for Small Businesses, New York Times, Web,  http://www.nytimes.com/allbusiness/AB5221523_primary.html 

Buki, James. (2011), Top 6 Outsourcing Disadvantages, Operations & Technology, Web, http://operationstech.about.com/od/outsourcing/tp/OutSrcDisadv.htm

Helft, Miguel & Barboza, David. (2010). Google Shuts Down China Site in Dispute Over Censorship, New York Times, Web, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/23/technology/23google.html

Kumar, Pundari & Salzer, Otto. (2010), Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing and Offshoring to India, Salzer-#D Engineering, Web, http://www.salzer-3dengineering.eu/PDF/AdvantagesDisadvantagesOfOutsourcingToIndia.pdf