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Disease Control and Prevention
CDC, in basic terms, "is one of the major operating components of the Department of Health and Human Services" (CDC, 2014). The agency's mission, as it points out on its website is to serve "as the national focus for developing and applying disease prevention and control, environmental health, health promotion and health education activities designed to improve the health of the people of the United States" (CDC, 2014).
The History of Public Health in elation to CDC
CDC is organized as a center for communicable diseases, cementing its role in the fight against a variety of health issues facing the country. The agency is recognized as a U.S. Public Health Service branch.
The agency assumes all the responsibilities of the Public Health Service Plague Laboratory in San Francisco.
CDC is ushered into the global public health scene for its role in the Enterobacteriaceae taxonomy. One year…… [Read More]
3. BMR stands for basal metabolic rate. It generally refers to the body's metabolism at stasis: while doing nothing. The BMR is the basic energy level needed to sustain life. A person's basal metabolic rate usually decreases with age. The best way to increase the BMR is to exercise regularly. Eating less does not raise the BMR but rather, usually lowers it. Therefore, exercise is in many ways more important than eating less if a person hopes to lose weight. A higher body fat percentage is also correlated with a lower basal metabolic rate. Therefore, individuals with a lot of muscle mass tend to have higher basal metabolic rates than individuals who do not because muscles are metabolically more active than fat. Fat is burned off when muscles are used, during intensive exercise when the intake of calories is less than the expenditure of energy.
Centers for Disease…… [Read More]
The statistics in the article show that vaccination levels during 2003 were substantially below the objective set for 2010. Various factors may play a role in this phenomenon, including vaccine supply delays and shortages (MMWR, 2005, p. 8).
The article suggests a variety of strategies to help meet the goals set by Healthy People 2010. The benefits of meeting this goal particularly relate to more hours at work and thus greater productivity and a growth in economy, fewer disruptions in essential services, as well as fewer deaths and other complications related to influenza (MMWR, 2005, p. 12). The benefits to the country then relate to the general well-being of the population and its economy.
Beato, Christina. (2003). Healthy People 2010: Progress Review Focus Area 14: Immunization and Infectious Diseases. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/otheract/hpdata2010/focusareas/fa14-immun.htm
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). Prevention and control of influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization…… [Read More]
3 Strategies of CDC
As mentioned in the introduction, the Centers for Disease Control and prevention has developed and implemented six sets of strategies as follows:
Health Impact Focus - the alignment of CDC's employees, objectives, strategies, investments and performances in order to maximize the CDC's beneficial effects upon public health
Customer Centricity - Like any other corporation, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is focused on offering those products and services required and needed by the population in order to improve and preserve their health
Public Health esearch - the CDC funds and conducts numerous researches aimed at identifying new treatments and any other issues which would positively affect the public health
Leadership - the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention possesses the best skilled and qualified employees, guided by the most committed managers and supported by strategic partners, all to improve the health system within the United…… [Read More]
Communicable Disease: Measles
Although measles has been almost completely eradicated from the Americas, dozens of cases still occur each year in the United States due in large part to transmissions of the disease from travelers returning from abroad. Because it is highly contagious, outbreaks of measles must be addressed as quickly as possible. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to describe a communicable disease outbreak of measles, and the epidemiological indicators associated with the disease. An analysis of the epidemiological data on the outbreak is followed by a discussion of the route of transmission of the disease causing the outbreak and how the attack could affect the community. Finally, an explanation concerning the appropriate protocol for reporting a possible outbreak is followed by an assessment of a community health nurse's role in modifying care of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases when the…… [Read More]
Communicable Disease: Influenza
Description of the Disease
Influenza or "the flu" is a common illness in the winter months, all throughout the United States and many other countries. Both birds and all mammals can contract influenza (Brankston, et al., 2007). In recent years there have been scares regarding "bird flu" and "swine flu," both of which are simply different strains of influenza. The cause of the flu is an NA virus in the family Orthomyxoviridae (Eccles, 2005). Once people contract the flu, they present with common symptoms such as chills, fever, a runny nose, muscle pains, a sore throat, and a headache. The headache is quite often severe, and flu sufferers may also have weakness, fatigue, severe bouts of coughing, and a general feeling of overall discomfort. People with the flu can also become nauseated and vomit, although that is more typical in children and not nearly as common in…… [Read More]
The disease commonly known as "Elephantitis" is actually scientifically termed Elephantiasis. It is a disease of the skin that is caused by a number of crucial factors which, when working in conjunction with one another, cause human tissue to thicken and swell. This paper will examine Elephantiasis, provide a background of the disease, and describe current methods of treatment.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Elephantiasis cannot occur without the help of a small parasite, which may be passed into the blood stream through contact with mosquito carriers. Such parasites which assist in the onset of Elephantiasis are B. timori, uchereria bancrofti, and Brugia malayi ("Lymphatic Filariasis"). Yet, while these parasites help in the onset of the disease, they are not the sole cause. On the contrary, Elephantiasis requires a number of factors before it can actually develop. First, it requires the introduction of the parasite…… [Read More]
Pelvic inflammatoy disease, a citical poblem
Occuence o ecuence of pelvic inflammatoy disease o PID has been linked to STIs such as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. Patient education and simplified guidelines ae needed to develop accuate diagnosis. In ode fo changes to take place, moe eseach must be done to undestand the complex natue of the disease and the most effective and cost effective method of teatment.
This pape delves into the isk factos, diagnosis pocesses, teatment, elevant psychological issues, public health implications, patient and family education, and appopiate efeal to specialty by eviewing liteatue petinent to PID. The esults of the liteatue eview show vey little in the past was done in egads to eseaching symptoms of PID and teatment efficacy. New eseach shows lowe abdominal pain as a main indicato of PID as well as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. The data also elaboates on the isks…… [Read More]
Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:
narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…… [Read More]
The risk of a pandemic disease spreading throughout the globe is higher than it has ever been in the history of the world. The massive population boom and rapid travel methods have combined to demonstrate that germs and diseases are potential weapons against the health and welfare of the population. To help remedy this cause, technology has shown us that, with its proper implementation, it can have a great benefit to those who are designated to protect the population from such threats.
The purpose of this essay is to highlight the importance of surveillance in the fight against such communicable disease outbreaks. To accomplish this task, this essay will detail the benefits and limitations of the surveillance system HealthMap. This essay will discuss how this particular piece of technology contributes to minimizing and eliminating potential threats.
The HealthMap system is recognized by the Centers for Disease Control…… [Read More]
(De Leon, 2010)
Finally, in recent years there has been a call for more stringent regulatory measured to be put in place in order to prevent this category of disease. Many experts refer to outdated laws and policies that are not successful in detecting and prevent problems along the entire food production process (Jessen). They also refer to restricted and inadequate legal tools to check the spread of the diseases. There is therefore a need not only to update present legislation but also for organizations and individuals to be become more aware of the need to prevent this type of disease from occurring.
De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. etrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html
Definition of Foodborne disease. etrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). etrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf
Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. etrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFEDnTPpuZO8D2blQ
Foodborne Illness.…… [Read More]
Sexually transmitted disease [...] Chlamydia, a disease that can lead to female infertility if not treated, and as a health care worker how would you approach the problem. Chlamydia is a very common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that can lead to many problems, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which is a leading cause of infertility in women, and it is caused by sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea or Chlamydia. Chlamydia is treatable, but it is hard to detect, and so sometimes goes untreated and leads to much more serious health concerns. Chlamydia is also one of the biggest health issues in STDs, because so many people get it each year, and so many people do not know they have it.
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease that causes inflammation and adhesions in the vagina. It can be detected with a penile swab or a urine sample, and it is…… [Read More]
This can lead to social isolation, disapproval and prejudice, and shame and feelings of immorality (2008).
Arreola et al. (2009) state that LGBM are one of the groups that participate in some of the riskiest sexual behaviors among gay and bisexual men. This prevalence of risky behavior among gay and bisexual men is higher in instances where the men have been sexually abused as a child; it is even higher among LGBM (2009). Unprotected anal intercourse was significantly related to a history of childhood sexual abuse in a study conducted by Carballo-Dieguez and Dolezal (2005) (Morales 2009). In another study of adult men who sleep with men, there was a significantly higher portion of LGBM who reported sexual abuse before age 13 years (22%) than did non-Latino men who sleep with men (11%). Furthermore, studies have shown that childhood sexual abuse can significantly predict negative health outcomes including HIV /…… [Read More]
A way to better distribute the information that is being taught in the classrooms is also through the community so that the changes are also effecting the parents to the students, as a change on their part as well would be helpful in the battle against obesity. It would be useful to initially target pamphlets, an informational booth or table at grocery stores, where the foundation of the problem lies. It would be effective if information is given before families go grocery shopping so they are more conscious of the items that they are purchasing. Furthermore, information should also be initially presented on TVs, in newspapers and magazines and other mediums that would likely be used in the more low-key and sedentary setting in order to galvanize individuals to get outside. Once outside, in order to sustain the physical activity, it would be nice to have water and juice at…… [Read More]
Women and AIDS in New York City:
Hidden Cases, Hidden Problems
Ask most people what group of people you think of when you think of AIDS, and most people will name gay men. While it's undeniable that the AIDS epidemic was first noticed among gay men, AIDS has become an equal opportunity illness, and currently women represent the fastest growing sector of people with HIV / AIDS in the United States. This fact is true in New York City as well.
The growth in the rate of HIV / AIDS among women in New York City is a growing concern for a variety of reasons. Worse than the increase in infection among women is the death rate. Although overall, the death rate from AIDS has dropped significantly, the death rate for women with AIDS is significantly higher than that of men.
How widespread is the problem?
A look at recent…… [Read More]
Herpes: An Insidious Disease of Modern Times
Herpes is considered one of the most insidious and pervasive viral diseases to affect the world population today. Conservative studies suggest that as many as 39% of men and nearly 1/2 of all women are expected to contract herpes in the U.S. alone by the year 2025 (Wetstein, 2002). Already nearly 1 in 5 people will have some form of herpes by the time they reach adolescence or early adulthood (Herpes, 2004).
In light of such dire statistics and information, it is important to examine the disease and its implications for the future. esearchers and scientists are working diligently to uncover new avenues for treatment of this incurable disease, and studies are underway for uncovering potential and promising vaccines to halt the spread of this increasingly common problem affecting millions.
There are many different forms of therapy that have been introduced in recent…… [Read More]
Children with AIDS
The Centers for Disease Control estimate there were 217 children with HIV below the age of 13, in 2010 in the 46 states. The report indicates that seventy-five percent of these were infected prenatal. By the end of 2009, approximately 10,834 people diagnosed with HIV at the age of 13 and below, were living with confidential, long-term name-based HIV reporting. Of the prenatal infections, 63% were from the African/Black community, 22% were Latino/Hispanics, and 13% were whites. The CDC estimates that the number of new children infected will increase by 30%. This is because the number of women giving birth in the U.S., with HIV increase at a rate of 30% in 2006. New York has the highest number of children with AIDS in any area of the U.S., as half of the children diagnosed with HIV / AIDS in the country reside in the…… [Read More]
STDs: A MAJO CONTEMPOAY PUBLIC HEALTH CONCEN
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Given the advances in medicine and public health over the past several decades, most people might assume that the incidence and prevalence of sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) is declining; however, the scientific evidence suggests otherwise. ecent estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States suggest that 20 million new STD infections occur every year and cost the U.S. health care system close to $16 billion dollars annually (CDC, 2013). This is up from 12 million STD infections and $10 billion dollars annually during the mid-1990s (Zenilman, 2004). In 2011, reports of chlamydia incidence set another annual record, double from what it was just 10 years ago (CDC, 2011). To better understand the health threats facing Americans when they engage in sexual activity this report will review what is known about the most common STDs infecting…… [Read More]
Moreover, the increase in firearm-related homicide within this age group occurred among all race-sex groups (Fatal). Rates of suicide by firearm were especially high among the elderly in the United States, and increases occurred in all race-sex groups except African-American females, for whom the number of suicides were too small to produce stable rates (Fatal).
The CDC report cautions that the surveillance data in this report are intended to familiarize public health practitioners, researchers, and policymakers concerning the problem of firearm-related deaths in the United States (Fatal). And although these data help to characterize the magnitude of the problem and identify groups at risk, there are still gaps in knowledge, thus current surveillance efforts need to be expanded to include information about nonfatal injuries (Fatal). Moreover, there needs to be a greater understanding of the causes of firearm deaths to identify modifiable individual and societal risk factors, thus, further research…… [Read More]
"Studies have shown that guns are needed for the safety of the people and there is a need to repeal Gun Control for all guns."
Semiautomatic weapons have been brought out by a student of suburban high school and fired resulting in fatal injuries to his classmates and teachers and several others. The consequence is that a pre-teen boy was sentenced for life under the charge of murdering a 6-year-old girl. One teenager breaks out a pistol and gun and another fired at the girl. The news became so widespread that the respective horrors have initiated to coalesce, making our sense of hope and security as individuals and as a society becomes irresistible. The school yard insults that once resulted in a confrontation to deal with have extended to the children literally proceeding for their guns. In the past it was a matter of grave concern for some…… [Read More]
ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm, through the National Guideline Clearinghouse at http://www.guideline.gov.
Evidence-based findings concerning chlamydia screening and treatment of PID contained in the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature.
The additional resources cited at Appendix a will also be consulted.
3. Identify a specific group of people that are being affected by the disease/condition. The screening guidelines published by the USPSTF recommend that the following specific groups of women should be routinely screened, whether or not they are pregnant, if they:
Are sexually active and aged 25 or younger;
Have more than one sexual partner, regardless of age;
Have had an STD in the past, regardless of age; and Do not use condoms consistently and correctly, regardless of age (Screening for Chlamydial infection) a. Explain any unhealthy behaviors that may be contributing to the disease/condition. Some of the unhealthy behaviors that may contribute to the incidence of PID include (1) having multiple sex partners and…… [Read More]
Likewise, younger adults tend to consume alcohol in patterns more conducive to the development of heart disease than older adults.
Unfortunately, all indications are that these differences between heart disease rates is only likely to increase in the next generation, owing to the current obesity epidemic among American children. Ultimately, many of these risk factors are under our control, but it appears that various elements of American social culture currently militate against making more responsible choices on the part of many contemporary young adults.
American Heart Association (2007) Risk Factors and Coronary Heart Disease. Retrieved November 20, 2007 from the AHA Homepage, at http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4726
Edelson, E. (2007) Heart Death Rates orsening for Middle-Aged Adults;
U.S. News & orld Report; Nov. 19 / 07.
Retrieved November 20, 2007 from USNews.com website, at http://health.usnews.com/usnews/health/healthday/071119/heart-death-rates-worsening-for-middle-aged-adults.htm
Gibbs, N, (2007) One Day in America; Time Magazine
Nov. 26 / 07 (Vol. 170 No.…… [Read More]
Hence, while ratifying the U.S. Constitution, the Virginia convention passed a resolution specifying: "That the people have a right to keep and bear arms; that a well-regulated militia, composed of the body of the people trained to arms, is the proper, natural, and safe defense of a free state;"
It is, therefore, clear that the central issue that led to the adoption of the Second Amendment, as part of the Bill of Rights -- ratified in 1791, was the concern that the powers granted in the U.S. Constitution to the Congress over the militia and a national army may be used to abrogate state sovereignty and power, rather than a desire to recognize the right for bearing arms by individual citizens. Nowhere in the background and history of the introduction of the Second Amendment in the U.S. Constitution do we find the issue of personal use of weapons, for purposes…… [Read More]
Lyme Disease and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
This text will concern itself with Lyme disease and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In so doing, it will not only give the description and epidemiology of the concerns, but also the etiology and prevention strategies. Further, diagnosis as well as treatment options and prognosis will be highlighted.
1. Lyme Disease
Description and Etiology
Described as an illness that is often debilitating, Lyme disease, as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention- CDC (2018) points out, “is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks.” It is important to note that in addition to the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, blacklegged ticks are capable of transmitting what are commonly referred to as coinfections, i.e. a variety of other disease-causing parasites as well as viruses and bacteria. Those living in wooded areas have a high likelihood…… [Read More]
In this instance, what started out as a religious ceremony among villages went very wrong and could have caused deaths; hence, the authors' points are potentially helpful in the future when outbreaks like this occur.
hat are the Benefits of Botulinum Toxin?
hile it is widely known that there are dangers associated with botulinum toxin, and with botulism, Ashley Henshaw writes in Symptom Find that there are a "…variety of medical and cosmetic procedures" that are helpful for humans. In the 1950s, research began into potential positive uses for the botulinum toxin, and in the 1970s, Henshaw writes, the toxin was used with success on humans "…to temporarily paralyze specific muscle impulses" (Henshaw, 2012, p. 2). Some of the cosmetic uses include: a) certain eye conditions (like crossed eyes and "uncontrollable blinking") can be treated by "injecting botulinum toxin"; b) "upper motor neuron syndrome" (when certain muscles are not able…… [Read More]
In conclusion, atkins draws an important link between teen childbearing and poverty, which takes this discussion past morals and values and moves it into socioeconomic territory. Half of all mothers currently on welfare assistance "were teenagers when they had their first child," atkins writes. Also, a) less than a third of teen mothers "ever finish high school"; b) the children born to teenage mothers "are twice as likely to raise their children in poverty"; c) the children of teen mothers "...are more likely to do poorly in school, more likely to drop out of school, and less likely to attend college"; and d) girls whose mothers were teenagers at the time of their birth are "...22% more likely to become mothers as teens themselves," thus completing the cycle and perpetuating the problem into future generations.
An article by Jennifer a. Hurley ("Promoting the Use of Birth Control Reduces Teen Pregnancy")…… [Read More]
Definition of the Problem (Gun Control)
In America as well as other parts of the world, the role played by guns in committing violent acts, and what must be done in this regard, is a hotly debated topic. However, some facts are incontestable. Over 31,000 individuals sustained gunshot injuries in the year 2010, in America. As these victims are mostly youths, gun violence can be considered as one among the primary reasons for premature deaths in the U.S. Apart from mortal wounds, there were, in the same year, approximately 337,960 non-fatal acts of violence perpetrated with the use of guns; emergency departments of American hospitals received 73,505 cases of nonfatal wounds made by guns. The economic and social costs associated with gun violence are also huge, in the U.S. (Webster, 2013)
However, ironically, in spite of gun violence's colossal impact, a majority of public discussions in regard to…… [Read More]
Engineering controls should be the first choice for dealing with noise pollution issues in the workplace, and this is NIOSH policy - they have three categories that all involve engineering and all three are ranked higher than administrative controls and PPE (NIOSH, 2015). Engineering solutions would include designing noise buffers around particular pieces of equipment, whereas administrative controls would reflect things like supplying protective equipment or scheduling people to reduce their exposure to unsafe noise levels. There are two reasons for this. First, an engineering solution is a one-time fix that hopefully will solve the problem, so that it no longer needs to be dealt with. Second, an engineering solution deals with the problem by reducing the amount of noise, where an administrative solution merely works around the problem, but the problem still persists.
There are some instances where it is onerous to use engineering controls first. In…… [Read More]
HG (Hyperemesis gravidarum) is a complicated pregnancy disease characterized by the intractable vomiting, nausea and dehydration. The HG is estimated affecting between 0.5 and 2% of pregnant women. However, malnutrition as well as other serious complications may lead to electrolyte or fluid imbalance. The HG is a rare pregnancy complication because vomiting and nausea during pregnancy exist among many pregnant women. Thus, it is often very difficult to distinguish between HG condition and common form of vomiting and nausea that most pregnant women experience.
Objective of this study is to prepare an analysis of the HG (hyperemesis gravidarum). The study provides the root causes of the disease to enhance a greater understanding of the strategy to address the problem.
oot Causes of Hyperemesis Gravidarum
Numerous theories have been put forward for the causes of the HG. The health theory suggests that the root cause of the HG is the combination…… [Read More]
There are eight Millennium Development Goals (MDG) that the 193 members of the United Nations agreed upon many years ago. How do these goals apply to the United States, and how have the MDGs impacted the global disease issues?
Poverty in the United States and orldwide
The MDGs report from the United Nations (2015) asserts that "extreme poverty has declined significantly" in the past 20 years; about half of the world's developing population lived on less than $1.25 a day in 1990 but by 2015 only 14% are living on $1.25. The actual numbers globally show that 1.9 billion people were living in extreme poverty in 1990 but in 2015 that number has shrunk to 836 million (UN Overview). In the U.S. in 2014 there were an estimated 46.7 people living in poverty and 15.5 (21.1%) children less than 18 years of age were in poverty (not "extreme poverty"…… [Read More]
Montefiore Medical Center (MMC): A Case Study
This study reviews a Harvard Business School case on Montefoire Care Centers. The Balanced Scorecard is chosen for the strategic management initiative at Montefoire and the reasons and results of such a choice is reviewed in this case study.
The objective of this study is to answer the question of what were the underlying reasons for the development of a new strategy at Montefiore Medical centre (MMC)? Secondly this study will answer as to how could the strategic direction chosen by MMC be described and what factors likely influenced the chosen direction? This study will compare and contrast the old and the new organizational structures. With reference to the notions of synergy and responsiveness, this study will analyze the advantages and disadvantages or each of these and will explain what is meant by the term causal ambiguity. This work will take the Heart…… [Read More]
C. Mayor Adrian Fenty made HIV / AIDS the most important public health priority (Greenberg et al., 2009). Funding from the CDC allowed for a partnership between the D.C. Department of Health's HIV / AIDS Administration and the George Washington University School of Public Health and Healthy Services, which was responsible for the Epidemiology Annual eport for 2007 -- the first to be published for D.C. since 2002 (Greenberg et al., 2009). The Department of Health also initiated a routine HIV screening campaign to help provide testing resources and lower stigma, titled "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" (Greenberg et al., 2009).
Efforts to address the epidemic in D.C. included a combination of increased resource availability and educational services as offered by public health departments. The "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" campaign provided approximately 73,000 tests in 2008, which was a 70% testing increase from…… [Read More]
Hispanics Living in Alabama
The United States has a large number of minority groups and the largest among them are the Hispanic population. According to the latest census, the Hispanic population in Alabama now number 75,830. The census authorities in U.S. had coined the term 'Hispanic' to denote specifically the people from 22 countries in Latin America, and living in the United States. The growth of population in this community has been very high during the last ten years - a growth of 247 per cent. They constitute a large consumer market worth $685 million annually, and contribute $251 million to the state and local authorities in taxes. It is obvious that the large growth is due to the classic reasons for migration - poverty. They had an expectation of a new and better life in the United States when they first set foot on U.S. soil.
Of all industries…… [Read More]
acial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (EACH 2010 Program)
The health objectives for the United States for the 21st century have been described in The Federal Initiative to Eliminate acial and Ethnic Health Disparities and Healthy People 2010. The national interest in the areas of racial and ethnic disparities has been renewed with the public health initiatives with the leadership for the discussion being taken by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The overall health of the nation has improved a lot, but the members of the minority groups in the ethnic and racial areas have not been benefited. This includes the African-Americans, Alaska Natives, American Indians, Asian-Americans, Hispanic-Americans and Pacific Islanders.
This segment of our population is more likely to have poor health and premature deaths than the white Americans. During 1992 to 1998, the deaths from breast cancer have come down noticeably, but there are more…… [Read More]
It has also been suggested that low-level viral replication associated with SV may be a driver in chronic inflammation in some sufferers of chronic lung disease, although this is so far uncertain (Openshaw, 2005). It is estimated that infants who develop a wheeze as a result of SV contraction develop a recurring wheeze in around two thirds of all cases. It is also estimated that around half of these children will develop some form of asthma (Lehtinen et al., 2007). It is unclear why there are some who experience delayed onset of SV, although both immune 'imprinting' and viral persistence have been implicated (Openshaw and Tregoning, 2005).
The condition is diagnosed through rapid antigen-detection tests. It is difficult to diagnose SV in adults as the tests are insensitive in persons other than children, and practitioners rarely request tests for SV in adults. This means that it is difficult to…… [Read More]
NEDSS: What do you think would be three hurdles to successful implementation (at CDC and in the state of Mississippi)?
"The National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) is a secure online framework that allows healthcare professionals and government agencies to communicate about disease patterns and coordinate national response to outbreaks…. The CDC mandates that hospitals, clinics and state health agencies all adopt NEDSS standards so that the speed, accuracy, standardization and viability of data about diseases are improved" (National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS, 2012, Tech Target). The goal of NEDSS is seamless integration and coordination between state and federal authorities when combatting sudden epidemics (such as H1N1) or long-standing chronic diseases that must be addressed over time, such as obesity.
One problem with implementing such a system "is the delay experienced from incident awareness, through laboratory testing and ultimately to public health investigation" (Tracking silent killers, 2012, Center for…… [Read More]
Healthcare -- otavirus
According to the World Health Organization, otavirus is "the most common cause of severe diarrheal disease in infants and young children globally." (2013, p.1) There are approximately 527,000 that die each year due to otavirus and it is stated that "more than 85% of these deaths occur in Africa, Asia, and other low-income countries with more than two million annually hospitalized due to dehydration that is of a pronounced nature. It is reported as well by the World Health Organization that of the 43 countries that participated in the Global Surveillance Network for otavirus in 2009, "36% of hospitalizations for diarrhea among children aged… [Read More]
The symptoms and signs of chronic schistosomiasis are mostly the body's reaction to the eggs retained in the tissues. S. mansoni or S. japonicum can cause mucosal ulcerations, bloody diarrhea, focal fibrosis, strictures, fistulas and papillomatuous growths. Ulcerations in the bladder by S. haematobium may bring on dysuria, hematuria, frequent urination, and chronic cystitis. Secondary bacterial infections in the genitor-urinary tract may also develop. S. mansoni can induce persistent Salmonella septicemia. S. haematorium may cause genital disease or infertility. Their eggs can cause fibrosis and cirrhosis, portal or pulmonary hypertension in the liver or transverse myelitis and seizure in the central nervous system (Pearson).
Diagnosis and Treatment
Schistosomiasis is diagnosed through a urine or stool test for parasites (DHPE, 2010;
DPDx, 2010). The Centers for Disease and Control uses a blood test on a sample taken 6-
8 weeks after exposure. It can be cured with praziquantel taken for 1…… [Read More]
Human life could not exist without their basic needs being met. Humans need water, air, food, adequate space, and shelter to survive. However, humans need these things to be clean and safe. Today, emphasis is on protecting the environment. Many times focus is on protecting a certain plant or animal species, but protecting the environment does not stop there. Many things can threaten the human environment and endanger human ability to survive. This essay will explore the need to protect the environment so that it can sustain human life.
Humans face many threats to their environment that can have a significant impact on its ability to sustain life, or to maintain the quality of life for people within it. Waste Management is an essential part of maintaining an environment that is safe for humans. Humans must be protected from biological agents that can harm or kill them. Controlling…… [Read More]
The following is a response to a major disaster in the Asian coastal country of Bangladesh. A major and destructive typhoon has recently hit the country and there are significant problems. The result of this typhoon has seem massive death, destruction and population displacement, and to worsen the situation, data indicates that cases of a diarrheal disease consistent with cholera have been reported.
This essay will highlight the priorities of work that need to be addressed in order to respond to the cholera outbreak that appears imminent. This response will recommend certain actions that need to be implemented and which agencies to seek assistance from to help in making the plan work. Pre-deployment preparations for those flocking to the disaster will also be discussed to give a more descriptive form to the problem.
Impacts of Cholera Outbreaks
It is important and preliminary to understand the problems and risks associated…… [Read More]
Anthrax: An Attack on the United States
Anthrax is an acute disease that is caused by a bacteria known as bacillus anthracis. Anthrax most commonly occurs in lower-level vertebrates both wild and domestic, such as cows, goats, sheep, and camels. However, anthrax infection can also occur in humans when they are exposed to animals that are infected, or to tissue from these animals ("Anthrax," 2003). The anthrax infection in humans can take three forms: cutaneous, inhalation, or gastrointestinal. This paper examines the signs and symptoms of anthrax, as well as looks at the circumstances of the most current outbreak of anthrax in the United States.
Anthrax is not very common in the United States, at least not anymore. Anthrax is primarily a disease of agricultural countries where contact with and exposure to animals is a common, daily occurrence. When anthrax infects a human being, it is normally through contact with…… [Read More]
Epidemiological considerations anthracis originates in soil in a lot of regions of this world in which we live. Environmental aspects (for example plentiful precipitation subsequent to a phase of water dearth) might improve spore mass in soil, even though the precise impact of such features remains badly understood (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002).
The organism by and large subsists in the endospore shape in environment; germination of spores exterior to an animal congregation might take place when the subsequent situations are encountered (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002):
elative humidity >95%
Presence of sufficient nutrients
Temperature amid 8°C and 45°C
PH amid 5 and 9 (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002)
Endospores are opposed to heat, drying, gamma radiation, ultraviolet light, and various antiseptics. Spores can continue in soil for decades, as exemplified by organic combat researches all through World War II on the Scottish island of Gruinard. All through 1943, as well as 1944,…… [Read More]
This is particularly the case in sub-Saharan Africa where clinicians have often come to rely on signs and symptoms alone to make diagnoses." (Nicoll, Walraven, Kigadye, Klokke, 1995)
The laboratory environment is critical to administering testing to determine population rates of HIV / AIDS throughout nations and perhaps continents where the lacking of resources facilitates a substandard environment for care. In the case of the African nation of Mozambique, which perhaps can be understood as a case indicative of the environmental assessment one would find throughout Africa and therefore, can be labelled to be a median statistical nation. A nation representing the median would indicate that half of the population nations that are categorized as resourced deficient, half would be above Mozambique in terms of resource allocation and half would fall below.
esearch into the quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case-reporting system in Mozambique was conducted by (Chilundo,…… [Read More]
Due to the apparently low level of contagion, the need for public awareness is not urgent, but it is still necessary. Warnings to stay away from the convention area and to report to a local hospital if symptoms developed after being in the area or in contact with someone who had been at the convention should be issued (CDC 2009).
The known details of the attack, however, should not be released, as it is likely to create panic and bolster the terrorists' optimism. Federal assistance should be immediately sought, not necessarily for control of the spread of the disease but for the investigation and apprehension of suspects. All available resources should be called in as soon as possible in order to counter the attack. As far as treatment of the attack goes, mass prophylaxis of all convention attendees and those who have come into contact with infected individuals should be…… [Read More]
80s and the 90s, an unknown but virulent cattle disease, called "Mad Cow," destroyed 180,000 livestock in the United Kingdom and some other European countries and plunged other major cattle-producing nations - including the United States - into global panic (Freudenrich 2004). Health experts assured the public that humans were not prone to it. Nonetheless, its symptoms resemble those of an already existing and similarly deadly human nervous condition called Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), believed to afflict only those 50 years old and older. CJD was then linked to Mad Cow, but believed to be limited to the older population. In the mid 90s, however, several ritish young people, died of a new variety of disease with similar symptoms to both Mad Cow's and CJD's, this time plaguing the young (nvCJD). In all those troubled years, contaminated ritish cattle were exported to as many as countries, including the U.S.A., as animal…… [Read More]
HIV / AIDS on African-American Community in U.S.
Certain diseases occur more frequently within certain communities or ethnic groups. In part, this can be connected to genetics, heritage, environment, or the habits of a given cultural or ethnic group. This phenomenon is no different with HIV / AIDS, an illness which has been aggravated in the African-American community. HIV stands for the human immunodeficiency virus, a virus which can eventually turn into AIDS, also known as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV / AIDS is believed to have come from a chimpanzee in West Africa: "They believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus (called simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV) most likely was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood. Studies show that HIV may have jumped from apes to humans as far back as…… [Read More]
This indicates that transmission signs should be identified from a combination of symptoms and living scenario.
The symptoms of Hantavirus will undergo a set of phases with the increase in severity of the condition. Both in cases where the condition is fatal and in cases where convalescence does occur, the disease will take roughly a month to run its course. This course will include a transition from symptoms that resemble a strain of the influenza virus to more debilitating symptoms attacking lung, heart and kidney function. According to the research provided by Duchin et al. (1994), also offered in the wake of the Southwestern U.S. outbreak, "the most common prodromal symptoms were fever and myalgia (100%), cough or dyspnea (76%), gastrointestinal symptoms (76%), and headache (71%). The most common physical findings were tachypnea (100%), tachycardia (94%), and hypotension (50%)." (Duchin, 949) These findings would be gathered through autopsies of…… [Read More]
Worldwide, the distribution pattern of WNV is mainly found in the northern, eastern and southern regions of Africa, parts of Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia. On a global scale, mortality rate of diseases caused by WNV human infection could range from 2.4% to as high as 47% (Bourne, 2011). In the United States, CDC reports its latest (2011) data showing that there have been a total of 432 WNV infections reported as of October 2011. Sixty-seven percent of this reported human infections are neuroinvasive cases (encephalitis / meningitis), while about 5% resulted to death. Across states, California has the most number of cases of WNV human infection at 87 cases (20%), followed by Mississippi as far second (46 cases, or 11% of total reported cases). The prevalence of WNV human infection in these states reflects the virus' characteristic as thriving in tropical / temperate regions. CDC has not…… [Read More]
The most common cause is blockage of an artery, usually by a piece of atherosclerotic plaque in one of the brain's main arteries that ahs broken off and gotten stuck "downstream." TIA are also caused by blood clots that originate in the heart, travel to the brain, and become lodged in a small artery there. By definition, the symptoms of a TIA last less than 24 hours, in contrast to the symptoms of a stroke, which last longer -- and are often permanent. (Komaroff, 2006, p. 88)
An individual may have one or more experiences with a TIA, though they may have none, prior to the actual stroke vent, often leading up to it, within a year or more of the stroke event. If these symptoms are noted, and even if they go away an individual should still seek care to begin treatment for medical stroke prevention. Individuals should also…… [Read More]
Prevention methods, combined with education have been shown to effectively prevent malaria and this is good because, the infrastructure of poor nations is often inadequate to care for those who do fall ill. Many malaria treatment medications are very expensive, where legitimate (non-counterfeit) remedies can be found. In many of these nations the problem is perpetuated by counterfeit drugs, which sap family resources and do little if anything to remediate symptoms. In fact the presence of these drugs may even worsen the problem by creating drug resistant strains, as many counterfeit medications have been shown to contain only minute amounts of the anti-malarial pharmaceuticals and therefore expose the parasites to amounts that simply allow them to adapt, rather than eradicating them in the human body.
According to the Kaiser foundation, researchers claim that the wave of counterfeit anti-malarial drugs has reached industrial levels, meaning that the drugs are being produced…… [Read More]
Nursing Case Study
Managing a possible Case of Gastroenteritis: A Nursing Case Study
The effective delivery of optimal nursing care requires a comprehensive treatment plan that addresses both the patient's symptoms and the security of the immediate environment. This report presents a case study of appropriate evidence-based nursing practices in treating an elderly female patient presenting with abdominal discomfort in a residential care setting.
The client presents with new onset faecal incontinence, diarrhoea and increasing abdominal discomfort and cramps. These symptoms suggest a possible gastrointestinal disturbance (Crisp & Taylor, 2009) and present a number of possible diagnoses. While the client's nursing care plan indicates that she is normally continent, her confidential disclosure to the nurse suggests that her symptoms may be more prolonged. Another relevant client characteristic is her advanced age of 85 years.
The client's proximity to the dirty utility room in the aged care facility and the report…… [Read More]
Behavioral risk for HIV infection among gay and bisexual men in the United States
According to reports published by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), they state that by the year 2004, more than nine hundred and forty thousand individuals in the United States of America had been diagnosed with AIDS, majority of who were gay men and African-Americans. This report including others have brought the issue of HIV infection in gay and bisexual men into sharp focus and more in particular the behavioral risks that the group exposes themselves to, which have contributed to the sharp increase in HIV infection amongst members of this group. This research intends to focus of this behavioral risk and preventive measures that have been established to prevent HIV infection in gay and bisexual men in the United States.
Another recent research conducted by Centre for Disease Control and Prevention…… [Read More]
eart Failure in African-Americans
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are among the top killers in the world population and number one in the U.S. eart failure is the number one killer in the U.S. And stroke, number three. The African-American Population has even higher numbers that fall victims to these killers. The main factors that lead to heart failure and stroke are: "high blood pressure, high cholesterol, cigarette smoking, diabetes, poor diet and physical inactivity," with their natural consequences: "overweight and obesity" (http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=21).
Although heart diseases are the number one cause of death in the U.S. today, they are also among the most preventable diseases. An unprecedented opportunity to prevent heart disease and stroke exists today in the United States. "We know what causes these conditions and how to prevent them, largely because of the decades of research supported by NI, the American eart Association, and others" (http://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/action_plan/pdfs/action_plan_full.pdf ). The African-American Population…… [Read More]
These diseases may be aggravated or deteriorated because of indulgence in sexual life as well. In severe cases, indulgence in sexual life even may cause vital crises such as cerebral bleeding and myocardiac infarction. Accordingly, sexual life should be moderated during the daily health care and rehabilitation. In severe cases, sexual life should be stopped for the time being (Syphilis, n.d.).
There are several tests that can be used to for Syphilis. These include: Syphilis Serum Test, the venereal diseases research laboratory test (VDL test), unheated serum reagin test (US test), rapid plasma reagin card test (P test), and cardiophospholipid is used as an antigen to examine the anti-cardiophospholipid antibody in serum. This test is used for screening examination. In spirochete antigen test, such as fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test (FTA-ABS test), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test (TPHA), usually the diagnosis of syphilis can be confirmed by positive result in the spirochete…… [Read More]
Mold emediation in Wilkes-Barre, PA
Mold emediation in the Aftermath of Flooding in Wilkes-Barre, PA
Mold emediation in the Aftermath of Flooding in Wilkes-Barre, PA
Pennsylvania was hit hard in September, first by Hurricane Irene and then by the remnants of Tropical Storm Lee (Huber, 2011). Close to 100,000 residents living in areas that were inundated in 1972 due to Hurricane Agnes were ordered to evacuate on Thursday, September 8, 2011 (The Times Leader, 2011) and were not allowed to return until Saturday afternoon or later (Olson, 2011). Fortunately, the levees built in the aftermath of Hurricane Agnes did their job and a comparatively low number of 5,400 homes were exposed to floodwaters (Huber, 2011). However, those residents whose homes were flooded will be faced not only with physical damage to their property, but also the threat of significant exposure to mold-generated bioaerosols if their homes were exposed…… [Read More]
The focus of the article is upon the unique constitution and needs of the elderly, not upon herpes zoster or influenza as a national phenomenon particular to the United States. However, all of the studies it cites are based in the United States, and SV has been primarily studied as a phenomenon occurring in the U.S. The prevalence of nursing homes in the United States might also make the article more relevant to U.S. practitioners, and the regulatory and drug treatments it discusses are particular to North American, such as the FDA.
Supporting evidence: What scientific evidence does the author(s) present to support his or her claims?
The article's most conclusive evidence is found in its treatment of influenza. It notes that in the 40% to 60% of elderly patients in whom the influenza vaccine produces the desired immunity, an effective immune response can be mounted within 10 to 14…… [Read More]
26 Yet public health continued to mean, even more than in the Clinton administration, a technological approach to national defense. In the Bush administration, pharmaceutical protection became the centerpiece of biodefense policy. On December 13, 2002, convinced of the Dark Winter-type threat of smallpox, President Bush announced his nationwide smallpox inoculation program. Publicity about Iraq's potential biological arsenal, especially in the lead-up to the 2003 invasion, and the threat of bioterrorism had convinced many in the public to participate. The states and the CDC were ready to handle the logistics. In addition, civilian participation was voluntary, which reduced legal liability for those who administered the vaccine and for the government.
As might have been predicted, this smallpox vaccination campaign found it difficult to circumvent the well-known fears of vaccination as a source of bodily pollution and the mistrust engendered when vaccines appear a worse health risk than the forecast epidemic.…… [Read More]
Psychological stress may have been causing it, but the recurrence itself can, of course, result to more stress to the infected person. There have been numbers of studies that show that recurrences of genital herpes are related with psychological morbidity, and the extent of which seems to be directly related to the frequency of recurrences (Taboulet, et.al., 1999). This is just an expected outcome for any person who will be diagnosed with genital herpes will not only worry about how to cure or prevent the occurrence of another outbreak, but will also worry or think about how others might view him/her as an infected person. A person with the genital virus will be feared by the opposite sex in the same manner that the infected person will of course tend to shy away from getting into another intimate relationship. As it is pointed out, the virus will never leave the…… [Read More]
Epidemiology in Healthcare
The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the National Immunization Program (NIP) track the number of deaths that occur due to measles within the United States (Gindler et al., 2004). Both programs are run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); however, the data reporting systems for the two organizations are distinct. The NCHS reports deaths as either underlying-cause or multiple-cause mortality, but in the absence of measles confirmation by physical examination or laboratory results. By comparison, NIP reports de-identified information, but only confirmed cases. Gindler and colleagues (2004) compared the two reporting systems and the NIP system was found cable of reporting 71% of deaths due to measles, compared to 64% by NCHS. The death-to-case ratio (DC) varied from 2.05 to 2.83 per 1,000 reported cases among the three databases during the 1989 outbreak. During this period, the prior annual average of 3,000…… [Read More]
Norovirus Etiology, Epidemiology, And Prevention
Acute gastroenteritis (diarrhea) can be caused by viruses, bacteria, and parasites, but in the United States the most common cause is the norovirus (CDC, 2012b). The norovirus contributes to 800 deaths and 70,000 hospitalizations in the U.S. each year, but unless a person is elderly, very young, severely ill, or immunocompromised, most people suffer only minor symptoms. Since the estimated U.S. health care burden of norovirus infections around $2 billion annually (CDC, 2012a), this report will examine what is known about norovirus etiology and how these infections can be prevented.
Norovirus Etiology, Epidemiology, and Prevention
The norovirus belongs to the virus family Caliciviridae and contains a single-stranded NA genome encased within an envelope-free protein isocahedral capsid (Morillo and Timenetsky, 2011). Based on recent sequencing information, noroviruses can be grouped into five genogroups: G1, GII, GIII, GIV, and GV. Only GI, GII, and GIII infect…… [Read More]