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Disease Control and Prevention Cdc

Words: 357 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38467204



3. BMR stands for basal metabolic rate. It generally refers to the body's metabolism at stasis: while doing nothing. The BMR is the basic energy level needed to sustain life. A person's basal metabolic rate usually decreases with age. The best way to increase the BMR is to exercise regularly. Eating less does not raise the BMR but rather, usually lowers it. Therefore, exercise is in many ways more important than eating less if a person hopes to lose weight. A higher body fat percentage is also correlated with a lower basal metabolic rate. Therefore, individuals with a lot of muscle mass tend to have higher basal metabolic rates than individuals who do not because muscles are metabolically more active than fat. Fat is burned off when muscles are used, during intensive exercise when the intake of calories is less than the expenditure of energy.

orks Cited

Centers for Disease…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Obesity and Overweight: Health Consequences." Retrieved Feb 23, 2008 at  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Prevention and Control of Influenza

Words: 391 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66589917

The statistics in the article show that vaccination levels during 2003 were substantially below the objective set for 2010. Various factors may play a role in this phenomenon, including vaccine supply delays and shortages (MMWR, 2005, p. 8).

The article suggests a variety of strategies to help meet the goals set by Healthy People 2010. The benefits of meeting this goal particularly relate to more hours at work and thus greater productivity and a growth in economy, fewer disruptions in essential services, as well as fewer deaths and other complications related to influenza (MMWR, 2005, p. 12). The benefits to the country then relate to the general well-being of the population and its economy.

ources

Beato, Christina. (2003). Healthy People 2010: Progress Review Focus Area 14: Immunization and Infectious Diseases. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/otheract/hpdata2010/focusareas/fa14-immun.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). Prevention and control of influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization…… [Read More]

Sources

Beato, Christina. (2003). Healthy People 2010: Progress Review Focus Area 14: Immunization and Infectious Diseases.  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Management Analysis of the Center

Words: 2560 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9980047

3 Strategies of CDC

As mentioned in the introduction, the Centers for Disease Control and prevention has developed and implemented six sets of strategies as follows:

Health Impact Focus - the alignment of CDC's employees, objectives, strategies, investments and performances in order to maximize the CDC's beneficial effects upon public health

Customer Centricity - Like any other corporation, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is focused on offering those products and services required and needed by the population in order to improve and preserve their health

Public Health esearch - the CDC funds and conducts numerous researches aimed at identifying new treatments and any other issues which would positively affect the public health

Leadership - the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention possesses the best skilled and qualified employees, guided by the most committed managers and supported by strategic partners, all to improve the health system within the United…… [Read More]

References

Etheridge, E.W., 1994, Sentinel for Health: A History of the Centers for Disease Control, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Volume 24, Number 4

Friede, a. And O'Carroll, P.O., 1996, CDC and ATSDR Electronic Information Resources for Health Officers, Journal of Environmental Health, Volume 59

1994, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Emerging Infectious Disease Threats, Population and Development Review, Number 13

1999, CDC on Infectious Diseases in the United States: 1990-1999, Population and Development Review, Volume 25, Number 3
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Communicable Disease Measles Although Measles Has Been

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84094096

Communicable Disease: Measles

Although measles has been almost completely eradicated from the Americas, dozens of cases still occur each year in the United States due in large part to transmissions of the disease from travelers returning from abroad. Because it is highly contagious, outbreaks of measles must be addressed as quickly as possible. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to describe a communicable disease outbreak of measles, and the epidemiological indicators associated with the disease. An analysis of the epidemiological data on the outbreak is followed by a discussion of the route of transmission of the disease causing the outbreak and how the attack could affect the community. Finally, an explanation concerning the appropriate protocol for reporting a possible outbreak is followed by an assessment of a community health nurse's role in modifying care of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases when the…… [Read More]

References

Diekmann, O., Heesterbeek, H. & Britton, T. (2013). Mathematical tools for understanding infectious diseases dynamics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Johnson, T.D. (2011, September). Measles cases abroad linked to increase of disease in U.S. The

Nation's Health, 41(7), 1-3.

Knorr, R.S., Condon, S.K. Dwyer, F.M. & Hoffman, D.F. (2004, October). Tracking pediatric asthma: The Massachusetts experience using school health records. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(14), 1424-1427.
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Communicable Disease

Words: 1456 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 85009674

Communicable Disease: Influenza

Description of the Disease

Influenza or "the flu" is a common illness in the winter months, all throughout the United States and many other countries. Both birds and all mammals can contract influenza (Brankston, et al., 2007). In recent years there have been scares regarding "bird flu" and "swine flu," both of which are simply different strains of influenza. The cause of the flu is an NA virus in the family Orthomyxoviridae (Eccles, 2005). Once people contract the flu, they present with common symptoms such as chills, fever, a runny nose, muscle pains, a sore throat, and a headache. The headache is quite often severe, and flu sufferers may also have weakness, fatigue, severe bouts of coughing, and a general feeling of overall discomfort. People with the flu can also become nauseated and vomit, although that is more typical in children and not nearly as common in…… [Read More]

References

Ballinger, M.N. & Standiford, T.J. (2010). Postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia: Host defenses gone awry. Journal of Interferon Cytokine Research, 30(9): 643 -- 52.

Brankston, G., Gitterman, L., Hirji, Z., Lemieux, C., & Gardam, M. (2007). Transmission of influenza A in human beings. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 7(4): 257 -- 65.

Eccles, R. (2005). Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 5(11): 718 -- 25.

Harper, S.A., Fukuda, K., Uyeki, T.M., Cox, N.J., & Bridges, C.B. (2005). Prevention and control of influenza. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recommendation Report, 54(RR -- 8): 1 -- 40.
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Elephantiasis the Disease Commonly Known as Elephantitis

Words: 859 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93322995

Elephantiasis

The disease commonly known as "Elephantitis" is actually scientifically termed Elephantiasis. It is a disease of the skin that is caused by a number of crucial factors which, when working in conjunction with one another, cause human tissue to thicken and swell. This paper will examine Elephantiasis, provide a background of the disease, and describe current methods of treatment.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Elephantiasis cannot occur without the help of a small parasite, which may be passed into the blood stream through contact with mosquito carriers. Such parasites which assist in the onset of Elephantiasis are B. timori, uchereria bancrofti, and Brugia malayi ("Lymphatic Filariasis"). Yet, while these parasites help in the onset of the disease, they are not the sole cause. On the contrary, Elephantiasis requires a number of factors before it can actually develop. First, it requires the introduction of the parasite…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hajdu, Steven. "A Note from History: Elephantiasis." Annals of Clinical & Laboratory

Science, vol. 32, no. 2 (2002): 207-209. Web.

"Lymphatic Filariasis." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Web. 6

June 2013. <  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Words: 2543 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51889587

Pelvic inflammatoy disease, a citical poblem

Occuence o ecuence of pelvic inflammatoy disease o PID has been linked to STIs such as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. Patient education and simplified guidelines ae needed to develop accuate diagnosis. In ode fo changes to take place, moe eseach must be done to undestand the complex natue of the disease and the most effective and cost effective method of teatment.

This pape delves into the isk factos, diagnosis pocesses, teatment, elevant psychological issues, public health implications, patient and family education, and appopiate efeal to specialty by eviewing liteatue petinent to PID. The esults of the liteatue eview show vey little in the past was done in egads to eseaching symptoms of PID and teatment efficacy. New eseach shows lowe abdominal pain as a main indicato of PID as well as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. The data also elaboates on the isks…… [Read More]

references for fertility in women with pelvic inflammatory disease. Fertility and Sterility, 81(5), 1344-1350.

Sweet, R.L. (2011). Treatment of Acute Pelvic Inftammatory Disease. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2011(561909), 1-13.

Tepper, N.K., Steenland, M.W., Gaffield, M.E., Marchbanks, P.A., & Curtis, K.M. (2013). Retention of intrauterine devices in women who acquire pelvic inflammatory disease: a systematic review. Contraception, 5(87), 655-60. Retrieved from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23040135
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Communicable Disease Epidemiology Has Been

Words: 2112 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 97185279

Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).

Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:

narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).

The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…… [Read More]

References

ABCs of Aids Prevention - Presentation Transcript. (2009). Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Slideshare Web site:  http://www.slideshare.net/drsujnanendra/ab-cs-of-aids-prevention 

CDC Responds to HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Web site:  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Preventing Disease

Words: 757 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16905925

Health Map

The risk of a pandemic disease spreading throughout the globe is higher than it has ever been in the history of the world. The massive population boom and rapid travel methods have combined to demonstrate that germs and diseases are potential weapons against the health and welfare of the population. To help remedy this cause, technology has shown us that, with its proper implementation, it can have a great benefit to those who are designated to protect the population from such threats.

The purpose of this essay is to highlight the importance of surveillance in the fight against such communicable disease outbreaks. To accomplish this task, this essay will detail the benefits and limitations of the surveillance system HealthMap. This essay will discuss how this particular piece of technology contributes to minimizing and eliminating potential threats.

HealthMap

The HealthMap system is recognized by the Centers for Disease Control…… [Read More]

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (nd). Appendix D; The HealthMap System. Viewed 17 Mar 2014. Retrieved from  http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2014/appendices/appendix-d-the-healthmap-system 

HealthMap.org. Viewed 17 Mar 2014. Retrieved from  http://healthmap.org/en/ 

Schlipkoter U, Flahault A. Communicable diseases: achievements and challenges for public health. Public Health Reviews 2010;32:90-119. Retrieved from  http://www.publichealthreviews.eu/show/f/33
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Foodborne Illness Foodborne Diseases and

Words: 1547 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84939334

(De Leon, 2010)

Finally, in recent years there has been a call for more stringent regulatory measured to be put in place in order to prevent this category of disease. Many experts refer to outdated laws and policies that are not successful in detecting and prevent problems along the entire food production process (Jessen). They also refer to restricted and inadequate legal tools to check the spread of the diseases. There is therefore a need not only to update present legislation but also for organizations and individuals to be become more aware of the need to prevent this type of disease from occurring.

eferences

De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. etrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html

Definition of Foodborne disease. etrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). etrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf

Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. etrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFEDnTPpuZO8D2blQ

Foodborne Illness.…… [Read More]

References

De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from  http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html 

Definition of Foodborne disease. Retrieved from  http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus  on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). Retrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf

Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. Retrieved from  http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCRFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFERDnTPpuZO8D2blQ 

Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from  http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/foodborneillness.html
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Sexually Transmitted Disease Chlamydia a Disease That

Words: 1048 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 198407

Sexually transmitted disease [...] Chlamydia, a disease that can lead to female infertility if not treated, and as a health care worker how would you approach the problem. Chlamydia is a very common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that can lead to many problems, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which is a leading cause of infertility in women, and it is caused by sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea or Chlamydia. Chlamydia is treatable, but it is hard to detect, and so sometimes goes untreated and leads to much more serious health concerns. Chlamydia is also one of the biggest health issues in STDs, because so many people get it each year, and so many people do not know they have it.

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease that causes inflammation and adhesions in the vagina. It can be detected with a penile swab or a urine sample, and it is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Author not Available. "An Introduction to Sexually Transmitted Infections." National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.org. July 1999. 25 July 2005.

<  http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/stdinfo.htm 

Nordenberg, Tamar. "Chlamydia's Quick Cure." FDA Consumer July 1999: 24.

Tomlins, Jacqueline. The Infertility Handbook: A Guide to Making Babies. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin, 2003.
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Randomized Control Trial for Lgbm

Words: 2399 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 95065033

This can lead to social isolation, disapproval and prejudice, and shame and feelings of immorality (2008).

Arreola et al. (2009) state that LGBM are one of the groups that participate in some of the riskiest sexual behaviors among gay and bisexual men. This prevalence of risky behavior among gay and bisexual men is higher in instances where the men have been sexually abused as a child; it is even higher among LGBM (2009). Unprotected anal intercourse was significantly related to a history of childhood sexual abuse in a study conducted by Carballo-Dieguez and Dolezal (2005) (Morales 2009). In another study of adult men who sleep with men, there was a significantly higher portion of LGBM who reported sexual abuse before age 13 years (22%) than did non-Latino men who sleep with men (11%). Furthermore, studies have shown that childhood sexual abuse can significantly predict negative health outcomes including HIV /…… [Read More]

References

Arreola, S.G., Neilands, T.B., & Diaz, R. (2009). "Childhood sexual abuse and the sociocultural context of sexual risk among adult Latino gay and bisexual men." American journal of public health,2(99).

Brooks, R.A., Etzel, M.A., Hinojos, E., Henry, C.L., & Perez, M. (2005). "Preventing HIV

among Latino and African-American gay and bisexual men in a context of HIV-related stigma, discrimination, and homophobia: perspectives of providers. AIDS patient care

STDs,19(11), 737-44.
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Public Awareness and Human Diseases

Words: 2069 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71634531



A way to better distribute the information that is being taught in the classrooms is also through the community so that the changes are also effecting the parents to the students, as a change on their part as well would be helpful in the battle against obesity. It would be useful to initially target pamphlets, an informational booth or table at grocery stores, where the foundation of the problem lies. It would be effective if information is given before families go grocery shopping so they are more conscious of the items that they are purchasing. Furthermore, information should also be initially presented on TVs, in newspapers and magazines and other mediums that would likely be used in the more low-key and sedentary setting in order to galvanize individuals to get outside. Once outside, in order to sustain the physical activity, it would be nice to have water and juice at…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ahuja, Gitika, & Salahi, Lara. (11, February 2010). School nutrition program takes up obesity fight. Retrieved from  http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/OnCall/school-nutrition-program-takes-obesity-fight/story?id=9802468 

CausesofChildhoodObesity.org, Initials. (2010). Causes of childhood obesity. Retrieved from  http://causesofchildhoodobesity.org/ 

Facts about obesity in the United States. (n.d.). Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Women in NY USA With AIDS HIV Disease

Words: 2287 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15040850

Women and AIDS in New York City:

Hidden Cases, Hidden Problems

Ask most people what group of people you think of when you think of AIDS, and most people will name gay men. While it's undeniable that the AIDS epidemic was first noticed among gay men, AIDS has become an equal opportunity illness, and currently women represent the fastest growing sector of people with HIV / AIDS in the United States. This fact is true in New York City as well.

The growth in the rate of HIV / AIDS among women in New York City is a growing concern for a variety of reasons. Worse than the increase in infection among women is the death rate. Although overall, the death rate from AIDS has dropped significantly, the death rate for women with AIDS is significantly higher than that of men.

How widespread is the problem?

A look at recent…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Author not available. Fall, 1998. "The Children Left Behind. Harvard AIDS Institute. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02.  http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/hai 

Author not available. "It Helps To Know." Brooklyn AIDS Task Force, Inc. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02.  http://www.batf.net/ .

Cadman, Jill. Spring 1998. "Strategies for Interrupting Mother-to-Child Transmission." CRIA Update: Vol. 7, No. 2. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.criany.org/treatment/treatment_edu_springupdate1998.html

Center for Disease Control. "CDC: National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention." Divisions of HIV / AIDS Prevention." Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02.  http://www.cdcnpin.org/topic/stats.htm .
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Herpes An Insidious Disease of Modern Times

Words: 3406 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37785685

Herpes: An Insidious Disease of Modern Times

Herpes is considered one of the most insidious and pervasive viral diseases to affect the world population today. Conservative studies suggest that as many as 39% of men and nearly 1/2 of all women are expected to contract herpes in the U.S. alone by the year 2025 (Wetstein, 2002). Already nearly 1 in 5 people will have some form of herpes by the time they reach adolescence or early adulthood (Herpes, 2004).

In light of such dire statistics and information, it is important to examine the disease and its implications for the future. esearchers and scientists are working diligently to uncover new avenues for treatment of this incurable disease, and studies are underway for uncovering potential and promising vaccines to halt the spread of this increasingly common problem affecting millions.

There are many different forms of therapy that have been introduced in recent…… [Read More]

References

ASHA. "National Herpes Resource Center." (2001). American Social Health

Association. 27, October 2004, http://www.ashastd.org/hrc/index.html

CDC. "Epstein Barr Virus." (October 26, 2002). National Center for Infectious Diseases.

28, October 2004,  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Children With AIDS Population Demographics the Centers

Words: 1226 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15225793

Children with AIDS

Population Demographics

The Centers for Disease Control estimate there were 217 children with HIV below the age of 13, in 2010 in the 46 states. The report indicates that seventy-five percent of these were infected prenatal. By the end of 2009, approximately 10,834 people diagnosed with HIV at the age of 13 and below, were living with confidential, long-term name-based HIV reporting. Of the prenatal infections, 63% were from the African/Black community, 22% were Latino/Hispanics, and 13% were whites. The CDC estimates that the number of new children infected will increase by 30%. This is because the number of women giving birth in the U.S., with HIV increase at a rate of 30% in 2006. New York has the highest number of children with AIDS in any area of the U.S., as half of the children diagnosed with HIV / AIDS in the country reside in the…… [Read More]

References

Holmes, A.M., Ackerman, R.D., Zillich, A.J., Katz, B.P., Downs, S.M., & Inui, T.S. (2008). The Net Fiscal Impact of a Chronic Disease Management Program: Indiana Medicaid. Health Affairs, 27(3), 855-864.

Peters, V.B., M.D., Liu, K., Robinson, L., Dominguez, Kenneth L, M.D., M.P.H., Abrams, E.J., M.D., Gill, B.S., PhD., & Thomas, P.A., M.D. (2008). Trends in perinatal HIV prevention in New York City, 1994-2003. American Journal of Public Health, 98(10), 1857-64.

Schackman, B.R., Gebo, K.A., Walensky, R.P., Losina, E., Muccio, T., Sax, P.E., Weinstein, M.C., Seage, G.R. III, Moore, R.D., & Freedberg, K.A. (2006). The lifetime cost of current human immunodeficiency virus care in the United States. Medical Care, 44(11), 990-997.
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Sexual Transmitted Disease

Words: 1837 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 78834875

STDs: A MAJO CONTEMPOAY PUBLIC HEALTH CONCEN

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Given the advances in medicine and public health over the past several decades, most people might assume that the incidence and prevalence of sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) is declining; however, the scientific evidence suggests otherwise. ecent estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States suggest that 20 million new STD infections occur every year and cost the U.S. health care system close to $16 billion dollars annually (CDC, 2013). This is up from 12 million STD infections and $10 billion dollars annually during the mid-1990s (Zenilman, 2004). In 2011, reports of chlamydia incidence set another annual record, double from what it was just 10 years ago (CDC, 2011). To better understand the health threats facing Americans when they engage in sexual activity this report will review what is known about the most common STDs infecting…… [Read More]

References

CDC. (2013). CDC Fact Sheet: Incidence, prevalence, and cost of sexually transmitted infections in the United States. Retrieved from:  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Anti-Gun Control Gun Control Is

Words: 4001 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39573647

Moreover, the increase in firearm-related homicide within this age group occurred among all race-sex groups (Fatal). Rates of suicide by firearm were especially high among the elderly in the United States, and increases occurred in all race-sex groups except African-American females, for whom the number of suicides were too small to produce stable rates (Fatal).

The CDC report cautions that the surveillance data in this report are intended to familiarize public health practitioners, researchers, and policymakers concerning the problem of firearm-related deaths in the United States (Fatal). And although these data help to characterize the magnitude of the problem and identify groups at risk, there are still gaps in knowledge, thus current surveillance efforts need to be expanded to include information about nonfatal injuries (Fatal). Moreover, there needs to be a greater understanding of the causes of firearm deaths to identify modifiable individual and societal risk factors, thus, further research…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Case for Gun Control. Retrieved November 06, 2005 at  http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~zj5j-gttl/guns.htm 

Fatal Firearm Injuries in the United States, 1962-1994. Retrieved November 05 from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention Web site:  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Gun Controls Studies Have Shown That Guns

Words: 2326 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18766939

Gun Controls

"Studies have shown that guns are needed for the safety of the people and there is a need to repeal Gun Control for all guns."

Semiautomatic weapons have been brought out by a student of suburban high school and fired resulting in fatal injuries to his classmates and teachers and several others. The consequence is that a pre-teen boy was sentenced for life under the charge of murdering a 6-year-old girl. One teenager breaks out a pistol and gun and another fired at the girl. The news became so widespread that the respective horrors have initiated to coalesce, making our sense of hope and security as individuals and as a society becomes irresistible. The school yard insults that once resulted in a confrontation to deal with have extended to the children literally proceeding for their guns. In the past it was a matter of grave concern for some…… [Read More]

References

Cottrol, Robert. J. (September, 1999) "Gun Control is Racist, Sexist & Classist" American Enterprise. Vol: 8; No; 1; pp: 14-16

Graves, Earl. G. (May, 2001) "Stop the Guns - Need for Gun Control Demonstrated by How Easily People Kill with Them" Black Enterprise. Vol: 11; No: 1; pp: 27-30

Kates, Don. B. (6 March, 1995) "Shot Down - Opposition to Gun Control" National Review. Vol: 7; No: 1; pp: 18-20

Lott, John; Lehrer, Eli. (December, 2004) "Gun control flops" American Enterprise. Vol: 12; No: 1; pp: 32-37
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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Conduct a

Words: 4252 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80809171

ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm, through the National Guideline Clearinghouse at http://www.guideline.gov.

Evidence-based findings concerning chlamydia screening and treatment of PID contained in the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature.

The additional resources cited at Appendix a will also be consulted.

3. Identify a specific group of people that are being affected by the disease/condition. The screening guidelines published by the USPSTF recommend that the following specific groups of women should be routinely screened, whether or not they are pregnant, if they:

Are sexually active and aged 25 or younger;

Have more than one sexual partner, regardless of age;

Have had an STD in the past, regardless of age; and Do not use condoms consistently and correctly, regardless of age (Screening for Chlamydial infection) a. Explain any unhealthy behaviors that may be contributing to the disease/condition. Some of the unhealthy behaviors that may contribute to the incidence of PID include (1) having multiple sex partners and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hubacher, D., R. Lara-Ricalde, D.J. Taylor, F. Guerra-Infante and R. Guzman-Rodriguez. (2001). "Use of copper intrauterine devices and the risk of tubal infertility among nulligravid women. New England Journal of Medicine 345: 561-67 in Mckay at 259.

Klein, Rupert and Barbel Knauper. (2003). "The Role of Cognitive Avoidance of STIs for Discussing Safer Sex Practices and for Condom Use Consistency." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 12(3-4): 137-138.

Macdonald, Noni E. And Robert Brunham. (1997). "The Effects of Undetected and Untreated Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Ectopic Pregnancy in Canada." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 6(2): 161.

Mcglynn, Elizabeth a., Eve a. Kerr, Cheryl L. Damberg and Steven M. Asch. Quality of Care for Women: A Review of Selected Clinical Conditions and Quality Indicators. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2000.
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Preventable Heart Disease in Young

Words: 1733 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91858879

Likewise, younger adults tend to consume alcohol in patterns more conducive to the development of heart disease than older adults.

Unfortunately, all indications are that these differences between heart disease rates is only likely to increase in the next generation, owing to the current obesity epidemic among American children. Ultimately, many of these risk factors are under our control, but it appears that various elements of American social culture currently militate against making more responsible choices on the part of many contemporary young adults.

orks Cited

American Heart Association (2007) Risk Factors and Coronary Heart Disease. Retrieved November 20, 2007 from the AHA Homepage, at http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4726

Edelson, E. (2007) Heart Death Rates orsening for Middle-Aged Adults;

U.S. News & orld Report; Nov. 19 / 07.

Retrieved November 20, 2007 from USNews.com website, at http://health.usnews.com/usnews/health/healthday/071119/heart-death-rates-worsening-for-middle-aged-adults.htm

Gibbs, N, (2007) One Day in America; Time Magazine

Nov. 26 / 07 (Vol. 170 No.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Heart Association (2007) Risk Factors and Coronary Heart Disease. Retrieved November 20, 2007 from the AHA Homepage, at  http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4726 

Edelson, E. (2007) Heart Death Rates Worsening for Middle-Aged Adults;

U.S. News & World Report; Nov. 19 / 07.

Retrieved November 20, 2007 from USNews.com website, at  http://health.usnews.com/usnews/health/healthday/071119/heart-death-rates-worsening-for-middle-aged-adults.htm
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Gun Control in the 21st

Words: 5200 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51492225

Hence, while ratifying the U.S. Constitution, the Virginia convention passed a resolution specifying: "That the people have a right to keep and bear arms; that a well-regulated militia, composed of the body of the people trained to arms, is the proper, natural, and safe defense of a free state;"

It is, therefore, clear that the central issue that led to the adoption of the Second Amendment, as part of the Bill of Rights -- ratified in 1791, was the concern that the powers granted in the U.S. Constitution to the Congress over the militia and a national army may be used to abrogate state sovereignty and power, rather than a desire to recognize the right for bearing arms by individual citizens. Nowhere in the background and history of the introduction of the Second Amendment in the U.S. Constitution do we find the issue of personal use of weapons, for purposes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Economic Costs of Gun Violence." Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence. Updated 4/17/07. October 31, 2007.  http://www.bradycampaign.org/facts/factsheets/pdf/economic_costs.pdf 

Firearm Facts." Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence. Updated 4/18/07. October 31, 2007.  http://www.bradycampaign.org/facts/factsheets/pdf/firearm_facts.pdf 

An interview with John R. Lott, Jr." University of Chicago Website. 2000. October 31, 2007.  http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/493636.html 

The Second Amendment." Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence. 2007. October 31, 2007.  http://www.bradycampaign.org/facts/issues/?page=second
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Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus MRSA and Lyme Disease

Words: 1981 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45596926

Lyme Disease and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)

Introduction

This text will concern itself with Lyme disease and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In so doing, it will not only give the description and epidemiology of the concerns, but also the etiology and prevention strategies. Further, diagnosis as well as treatment options and prognosis will be highlighted.

1. Lyme Disease

Description and Etiology

Described as an illness that is often debilitating, Lyme disease, as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention- CDC (2018) points out, “is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks.” It is important to note that in addition to the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, blacklegged ticks are capable of transmitting what are commonly referred to as coinfections, i.e. a variety of other disease-causing parasites as well as viruses and bacteria. Those living in wooded areas have a high likelihood…… [Read More]

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Botulism Is a Disease That

Words: 1941 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 46412724



In this instance, what started out as a religious ceremony among villages went very wrong and could have caused deaths; hence, the authors' points are potentially helpful in the future when outbreaks like this occur.

hat are the Benefits of Botulinum Toxin?

hile it is widely known that there are dangers associated with botulinum toxin, and with botulism, Ashley Henshaw writes in Symptom Find that there are a "…variety of medical and cosmetic procedures" that are helpful for humans. In the 1950s, research began into potential positive uses for the botulinum toxin, and in the 1970s, Henshaw writes, the toxin was used with success on humans "…to temporarily paralyze specific muscle impulses" (Henshaw, 2012, p. 2). Some of the cosmetic uses include: a) certain eye conditions (like crossed eyes and "uncontrollable blinking") can be treated by "injecting botulinum toxin"; b) "upper motor neuron syndrome" (when certain muscles are not able…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aldis, W., Braden, C.R., Chunsuttiwat, S., Olsen, S.J., Ueno, K., and Ungchusak, K. (2007).

The need for global planned mobilization of essential medicine: lessons from a massive Thai botulism outbreak. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 85(3), 238-241.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2006). There are three main kinds of botulism.

Retrieved July 4, 2012, from  http://emergency.cdc.gov/agent/botulism/factsheet.asp .
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Students' Access to Birth Control

Words: 3923 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24777458



In conclusion, atkins draws an important link between teen childbearing and poverty, which takes this discussion past morals and values and moves it into socioeconomic territory. Half of all mothers currently on welfare assistance "were teenagers when they had their first child," atkins writes. Also, a) less than a third of teen mothers "ever finish high school"; b) the children born to teenage mothers "are twice as likely to raise their children in poverty"; c) the children of teen mothers "...are more likely to do poorly in school, more likely to drop out of school, and less likely to attend college"; and d) girls whose mothers were teenagers at the time of their birth are "...22% more likely to become mothers as teens themselves," thus completing the cycle and perpetuating the problem into future generations.

An article by Jennifer a. Hurley ("Promoting the Use of Birth Control Reduces Teen Pregnancy")…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bakalar, Nicholas. "Adolescence: Abstinence-Only Programs Not found to Prevent HIV." The New York Times 14 August 2007: Retrieved Dec. 3, 2007, at  http://www.nytimes.com .

Garrett, Robert T. "Texas teens lead nation in birth rate." The Dallas Morning News 5 November 2007: Retrieved Dec. 2, 2007, at  http://www.dallasnews.com .

Green, Tanya L. "Parents Have the Right to Know when their Children Receive Family

Planning Services at School." Opposing Viewpoints: Students' rights. Greenhaven Press,
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Analyzing the Gun Control Issue

Words: 4052 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 50673349

Gun Control

Definition of the Problem (Gun Control)

In America as well as other parts of the world, the role played by guns in committing violent acts, and what must be done in this regard, is a hotly debated topic. However, some facts are incontestable. Over 31,000 individuals sustained gunshot injuries in the year 2010, in America. As these victims are mostly youths, gun violence can be considered as one among the primary reasons for premature deaths in the U.S. Apart from mortal wounds, there were, in the same year, approximately 337,960 non-fatal acts of violence perpetrated with the use of guns; emergency departments of American hospitals received 73,505 cases of nonfatal wounds made by guns. The economic and social costs associated with gun violence are also huge, in the U.S. (Webster, 2013)

However, ironically, in spite of gun violence's colossal impact, a majority of public discussions in regard to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cook, P., Ludwig, J., Venkatesh, S., & Braga, A. (2007). UNDERGROUND GUN MARKETS. The Economic Journal, F558 -- F588.

Hood, M. N. (2009). Citizen, defend thyself: an individual-level analysis of concealed weapon permit holders. Criminal Justice Studies, 22(1), 73-89

Kates, D., & Mauser, G. (n.d.). WOULD BANNING FIREARMS REDUCE MURDER AND SUICIDE? Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 650.

Kopel, D. B. (1995 ). THE IDEOLOGY OF GUN OWNERSHIP AND GUN CONTROL IN THE UNITED STATES. Quarterly Journal of Ideology.
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How to Control Workplace Noise

Words: 709 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80299268

Noise Controls

Engineering controls should be the first choice for dealing with noise pollution issues in the workplace, and this is NIOSH policy - they have three categories that all involve engineering and all three are ranked higher than administrative controls and PPE (NIOSH, 2015). Engineering solutions would include designing noise buffers around particular pieces of equipment, whereas administrative controls would reflect things like supplying protective equipment or scheduling people to reduce their exposure to unsafe noise levels. There are two reasons for this. First, an engineering solution is a one-time fix that hopefully will solve the problem, so that it no longer needs to be dealt with. Second, an engineering solution deals with the problem by reducing the amount of noise, where an administrative solution merely works around the problem, but the problem still persists.

There are some instances where it is onerous to use engineering controls first. In…… [Read More]

References

NIOSH (2015). Controls for noise exposure. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved December 4, 2015 from  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Hyperemesis Gravidarum Disease

Words: 1177 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35454847

HG (Hyperemesis gravidarum) is a complicated pregnancy disease characterized by the intractable vomiting, nausea and dehydration. The HG is estimated affecting between 0.5 and 2% of pregnant women. However, malnutrition as well as other serious complications may lead to electrolyte or fluid imbalance. The HG is a rare pregnancy complication because vomiting and nausea during pregnancy exist among many pregnant women. Thus, it is often very difficult to distinguish between HG condition and common form of vomiting and nausea that most pregnant women experience.

Objective of this study is to prepare an analysis of the HG (hyperemesis gravidarum). The study provides the root causes of the disease to enhance a greater understanding of the strategy to address the problem.

oot Causes of Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Numerous theories have been put forward for the causes of the HG. The health theory suggests that the root cause of the HG is the combination…… [Read More]

Reference

Anthony, S. Emergency management of Hyperemesis Gravidarum. Emergency Nurse. 2012.20(4): 24-8.

CDC. Pregnancy Complications. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. USA.2015.

Goodwin, T.M . Hyperemesis Gravidarum. Obstetrics and gynecology clinics of North America. 2008. 35 (3): 401 -- 17.

Summers, A. Emergency management of Hyperemesis Gravidarum. Emergency Nurse. 2012. 20 (4): 24 -- 28.
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Updates on Poverty Education Disease and More

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60758748

Goals

There are eight Millennium Development Goals (MDG) that the 193 members of the United Nations agreed upon many years ago. How do these goals apply to the United States, and how have the MDGs impacted the global disease issues?

Poverty in the United States and orldwide

The MDGs report from the United Nations (2015) asserts that "extreme poverty has declined significantly" in the past 20 years; about half of the world's developing population lived on less than $1.25 a day in 1990 but by 2015 only 14% are living on $1.25. The actual numbers globally show that 1.9 billion people were living in extreme poverty in 1990 but in 2015 that number has shrunk to 836 million (UN Overview). In the U.S. in 2014 there were an estimated 46.7 people living in poverty and 15.5 (21.1%) children less than 18 years of age were in poverty (not "extreme poverty"…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Center for Disease Control. (2014). HIV / AIDS. Retrieved December 4, 2015, from  http://www.cdc.gov .

Davis, J., and Bauman, K. (2013). School Enrollment in the United States: 2011. Retrieved

December 4, 2015, from  http://www.census.gov .

Feeding America. (2014). Hunger and Poverty Facts. Retrieved December 4, 2015, from  http://www.feedingamerica.org .
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Montefiore Medical Center Mmc A Case Study

Words: 3296 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 42792132

Montefiore Medical Center (MMC): A Case Study

This study reviews a Harvard Business School case on Montefoire Care Centers. The Balanced Scorecard is chosen for the strategic management initiative at Montefoire and the reasons and results of such a choice is reviewed in this case study.

The objective of this study is to answer the question of what were the underlying reasons for the development of a new strategy at Montefiore Medical centre (MMC)? Secondly this study will answer as to how could the strategic direction chosen by MMC be described and what factors likely influenced the chosen direction? This study will compare and contrast the old and the new organizational structures. With reference to the notions of synergy and responsiveness, this study will analyze the advantages and disadvantages or each of these and will explain what is meant by the term causal ambiguity. This work will take the Heart…… [Read More]

References

Ambrosini, V. And Billsberry (2008) Value Congruence and Its Impact on Causal Ambiguity. 2nd Global e-Conference on Fit. 19th-21st November 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.fitconference.com/2008/fri01.pdf

Michael E. Porter -- The Value Chain (2013) Clint Burdett Strategic Consulting. Retrieved from:  http://www.clintburdett.com/process/05_research/research_05_4_valuechain.htm 

Montefiore Medical Center (2001) Harvard Business School. 9 Apr 2001.

Porter, ME and Kramer MR (2012) Creating Shared Value. Harvard Business Magazine. Retrieved from:  http://hbr.org/2011/01/the-big-idea-creating-shared-value
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Network System Analysis Natividad Medical Center Was

Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48270712

Network System Analysis

Natividad Medical Center was established in 1844 (NMC Profile). It is a licensed hospital for 172 beds and employs approximately 800 employees. Natividad Medical Center serves more than 135,000 patients with a wide range of inpatient and outpatient services, including Doctor Clinics, surgery, lab, as well as emergency services, and handles more than 42,000 emergency visits annually. The hospital industry is governed by laws and regulations that require a high amount of security by the facility, employees, and the information system, such as Health Insurance and Accountability Act (HIPAA) (Dennis, 2005). HIPAA requires individual user authentication, access controls, audit trails, physical security and disaster recovery, protection of remote access points, such as individual computers in the hospital, secure external electronic communications, software discipline, and system assessments. The medical record storage and input interfaces are required to maintain high levels of security.

The Hospital Information System supports clinical…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dennis, R. (2005, Feb 18). Privacy and Security Regulations and How They Impact Storage Systems. Retrieved from Storage and Search.com:  http://www.storagesearch.com/asnp-art1.html 

Hospital Information System. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.eng.tau.ac.il:  http://www.eng.tau.ac.il/~gannot/MI/HISHL7.ppt 

NMC Profile. (n.d.). Retrieved from Natividad Medical Center:  http://www.natividad.com/about-us/mnc-profile
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American Civil Rights History Has

Words: 2247 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 74971377

C. Mayor Adrian Fenty made HIV / AIDS the most important public health priority (Greenberg et al., 2009). Funding from the CDC allowed for a partnership between the D.C. Department of Health's HIV / AIDS Administration and the George Washington University School of Public Health and Healthy Services, which was responsible for the Epidemiology Annual eport for 2007 -- the first to be published for D.C. since 2002 (Greenberg et al., 2009). The Department of Health also initiated a routine HIV screening campaign to help provide testing resources and lower stigma, titled "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" (Greenberg et al., 2009).

Efforts to address the epidemic in D.C. included a combination of increased resource availability and educational services as offered by public health departments. The "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" campaign provided approximately 73,000 tests in 2008, which was a 70% testing increase from…… [Read More]

References

Brown, M., & Henriquez, E. (2008). Socio-demographic predictors of attitudes towards gays and lesbians. Individual Differences Research, 6(3), 193-202.

CDC HIV Fact sheet. (2011, November 07). HIV in the United States. Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Hispanics Living in Alabama

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92063692

Hispanics Living in Alabama

The United States has a large number of minority groups and the largest among them are the Hispanic population. According to the latest census, the Hispanic population in Alabama now number 75,830. The census authorities in U.S. had coined the term 'Hispanic' to denote specifically the people from 22 countries in Latin America, and living in the United States. The growth of population in this community has been very high during the last ten years - a growth of 247 per cent. They constitute a large consumer market worth $685 million annually, and contribute $251 million to the state and local authorities in taxes. It is obvious that the large growth is due to the classic reasons for migration - poverty. They had an expectation of a new and better life in the United States when they first set foot on U.S. soil.

Of all industries…… [Read More]

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Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health Reach 2010 Program

Words: 3356 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11181704

acial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (EACH 2010 Program)

The health objectives for the United States for the 21st century have been described in The Federal Initiative to Eliminate acial and Ethnic Health Disparities and Healthy People 2010. The national interest in the areas of racial and ethnic disparities has been renewed with the public health initiatives with the leadership for the discussion being taken by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The overall health of the nation has improved a lot, but the members of the minority groups in the ethnic and racial areas have not been benefited. This includes the African-Americans, Alaska Natives, American Indians, Asian-Americans, Hispanic-Americans and Pacific Islanders.

This segment of our population is more likely to have poor health and premature deaths than the white Americans. During 1992 to 1998, the deaths from breast cancer have come down noticeably, but there are more…… [Read More]

References

Author Unknown) (n.d) Chronic Diseases, Risk Factors, and Preventive Services, Alabama. Retrieved at http://www.4woman.gov/owh/reg/4/overview.htm. Accessed on 15/10/2003

Author Unknown) (n.d) Health Disparities and Non-insulin Type 2 Diabetes. Retrieved at  http://www.medicalnewsservice.com . Accessed on 15/10/2003

Author Unknown) (n.d) HHS Awards more than 65 Million to eliminate health disparities. Retrieved at http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/BurdenBook/DeathCause.asp?state=alAccessed on 15/10/2003

Author Unknown) (n.d) Overview of Region lV. Retrieved at  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Respiratory Syncytial Virus RSV Is

Words: 2800 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57245085



It has also been suggested that low-level viral replication associated with SV may be a driver in chronic inflammation in some sufferers of chronic lung disease, although this is so far uncertain (Openshaw, 2005). It is estimated that infants who develop a wheeze as a result of SV contraction develop a recurring wheeze in around two thirds of all cases. It is also estimated that around half of these children will develop some form of asthma (Lehtinen et al., 2007). It is unclear why there are some who experience delayed onset of SV, although both immune 'imprinting' and viral persistence have been implicated (Openshaw and Tregoning, 2005).

Diagnosis

The condition is diagnosed through rapid antigen-detection tests. It is difficult to diagnose SV in adults as the tests are insensitive in persons other than children, and practitioners rarely request tests for SV in adults. This means that it is difficult to…… [Read More]

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005) Respiratory Syncytial Virus. National Center for Infectious Diseases: Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch. Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Nedss What Do You Think Would Be

Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60337313

NEDSS: What do you think would be three hurdles to successful implementation (at CDC and in the state of Mississippi)?

"The National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) is a secure online framework that allows healthcare professionals and government agencies to communicate about disease patterns and coordinate national response to outbreaks…. The CDC mandates that hospitals, clinics and state health agencies all adopt NEDSS standards so that the speed, accuracy, standardization and viability of data about diseases are improved" (National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS, 2012, Tech Target). The goal of NEDSS is seamless integration and coordination between state and federal authorities when combatting sudden epidemics (such as H1N1) or long-standing chronic diseases that must be addressed over time, such as obesity.

One problem with implementing such a system "is the delay experienced from incident awareness, through laboratory testing and ultimately to public health investigation" (Tracking silent killers, 2012, Center for…… [Read More]

Reference

Centers for Disease Control (2011). National electronic disease surveillance system: NEDSS

overview. Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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HIV AIDS on American Society What

Words: 3463 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33384543

HIV / AIDS on American Society

hat is HIV and where did it come from? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (a primary source) explains that HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus, and once a person acquires this virus, "…you have it for life" (CDC). There is no effective cure, that is the bad news; but the better news according to the CDC is that HIV "…can be controlled" because there is a treatment called antiretroviral therapy (ART) (CDC). In fact while just a few years ago a person with HIV could expect to have full-blown AIDS within a few years, but with the ART treatment, many HIV sufferers can expect to have "…a nearly normal life…" (CDC).

The source of HIV is believed to be chimpanzees in est Africa, and how this came about related to the fact that Africans hunted the chimpanzees for food and at…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Administration on Aging. (2011). Older Adults and HIV / AIDS. Retrieved August 26, 2013, from  http://www.aoa.gov .

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). What is HIV? Retrieved August 26, 2013,

From http://www.ced.gov/hiv/basics/whatishiv.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). What Persons Aged 50 and Older Can Do.
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Rotavirus Healthcare -- Rotavirus According to the

Words: 774 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45991744

otavirus

Healthcare -- otavirus

According to the World Health Organization, otavirus is "the most common cause of severe diarrheal disease in infants and young children globally." (2013, p.1) There are approximately 527,000 that die each year due to otavirus and it is stated that "more than 85% of these deaths occur in Africa, Asia, and other low-income countries with more than two million annually hospitalized due to dehydration that is of a pronounced nature. It is reported as well by the World Health Organization that of the 43 countries that participated in the Global Surveillance Network for otavirus in 2009, "36% of hospitalizations for diarrhea among children aged… [Read More]

References

New and Under-Utilized Vaccines Implementation (NUVI) (2013) World Health Organization. Retrieved from:  http://www.who.int/nuvi/rotavirus/en/ 

Rotavirus (2013) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from:  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Schistosomiasis 200 Million People Afflicted

Words: 1210 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14665432

The symptoms and signs of chronic schistosomiasis are mostly the body's reaction to the eggs retained in the tissues. S. mansoni or S. japonicum can cause mucosal ulcerations, bloody diarrhea, focal fibrosis, strictures, fistulas and papillomatuous growths. Ulcerations in the bladder by S. haematobium may bring on dysuria, hematuria, frequent urination, and chronic cystitis. Secondary bacterial infections in the genitor-urinary tract may also develop. S. mansoni can induce persistent Salmonella septicemia. S. haematorium may cause genital disease or infertility. Their eggs can cause fibrosis and cirrhosis, portal or pulmonary hypertension in the liver or transverse myelitis and seizure in the central nervous system (Pearson).

Diagnosis and Treatment

Schistosomiasis is diagnosed through a urine or stool test for parasites (DHPE, 2010;

DPDx, 2010). The Centers for Disease and Control uses a blood test on a sample taken 6-

8 weeks after exposure. It can be cured with praziquantel taken for 1…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

DHPE (2010). Schistosomiasis fact sheet. Infectious Facts: Directors of Health Promotion

and Education. Retrieved on November 5, 2010 from  http://www.dhpe.org/infect/schisto.html 

DPDx (2010). Schistosomiasis. Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria: Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved November 5, 2010 from  http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/html/schistosomiasis.htm 

Kogulan, P. And Lucey, D.R. (2010). Schistosomiasis. eMedicine Specialties: Infections.
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Importance of Environmental Planning

Words: 686 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33079229

Environmental Planning

Human life could not exist without their basic needs being met. Humans need water, air, food, adequate space, and shelter to survive. However, humans need these things to be clean and safe. Today, emphasis is on protecting the environment. Many times focus is on protecting a certain plant or animal species, but protecting the environment does not stop there. Many things can threaten the human environment and endanger human ability to survive. This essay will explore the need to protect the environment so that it can sustain human life.

Humans face many threats to their environment that can have a significant impact on its ability to sustain life, or to maintain the quality of life for people within it. Waste Management is an essential part of maintaining an environment that is safe for humans. Humans must be protected from biological agents that can harm or kill them. Controlling…… [Read More]

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (n.d.). Avian Influenza (Bird Flu). U.S.

Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Response Team Problems

Words: 799 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91489947

Cholera

The following is a response to a major disaster in the Asian coastal country of Bangladesh. A major and destructive typhoon has recently hit the country and there are significant problems. The result of this typhoon has seem massive death, destruction and population displacement, and to worsen the situation, data indicates that cases of a diarrheal disease consistent with cholera have been reported.

This essay will highlight the priorities of work that need to be addressed in order to respond to the cholera outbreak that appears imminent. This response will recommend certain actions that need to be implemented and which agencies to seek assistance from to help in making the plan work. Pre-deployment preparations for those flocking to the disaster will also be discussed to give a more descriptive form to the problem.

Impacts of Cholera Outbreaks

It is important and preliminary to understand the problems and risks associated…… [Read More]

References

Tappero JW, Tauxe RV. Lessons learned during public health response to cholera epidemic in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2011 Nov [date cited].  http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1711.110827 

The World Health Organization (2006). Communicable Disease following natural disasters. Risk Assessment and Priority Interventions. Retrieved from  http://www.who.int/diseasecontrol_emergencies/guidelines/CD_Disasters_26_06.pdf 

Vaccinations in disaster situations: Recommendations of the PAHO/WHO special program for vaccines and immunization (2012). Retrieved from:  http://www.paho.org/English/PED/te_vacc.htm
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Anthrax in the United States Postal Service

Words: 4898 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69190781

Anthrax: An Attack on the United States

Anthrax is an acute disease that is caused by a bacteria known as bacillus anthracis. Anthrax most commonly occurs in lower-level vertebrates both wild and domestic, such as cows, goats, sheep, and camels. However, anthrax infection can also occur in humans when they are exposed to animals that are infected, or to tissue from these animals ("Anthrax," 2003). The anthrax infection in humans can take three forms: cutaneous, inhalation, or gastrointestinal. This paper examines the signs and symptoms of anthrax, as well as looks at the circumstances of the most current outbreak of anthrax in the United States.

Anthrax is not very common in the United States, at least not anymore. Anthrax is primarily a disease of agricultural countries where contact with and exposure to animals is a common, daily occurrence. When anthrax infects a human being, it is normally through contact with…… [Read More]

References

Anthrax." (2003). CDC. Retreived on June 25, 2003 at  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Epidemiological Considerations Anthracis Originates in Soil in

Words: 2390 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43392196

Epidemiological considerations anthracis originates in soil in a lot of regions of this world in which we live. Environmental aspects (for example plentiful precipitation subsequent to a phase of water dearth) might improve spore mass in soil, even though the precise impact of such features remains badly understood (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002).

The organism by and large subsists in the endospore shape in environment; germination of spores exterior to an animal congregation might take place when the subsequent situations are encountered (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002):

elative humidity >95%

Presence of sufficient nutrients

Temperature amid 8°C and 45°C

PH amid 5 and 9 (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002)

Endospores are opposed to heat, drying, gamma radiation, ultraviolet light, and various antiseptics. Spores can continue in soil for decades, as exemplified by organic combat researches all through World War II on the Scottish island of Gruinard. All through 1943, as well as 1944,…… [Read More]

References

Bell, D.M., Kozarsky, P.E., Stephens, D.S. (2002). Clinical issues in the Prophylaxis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Anthrax. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(2), 222-225.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). Anthrax Disease Information

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Considerations for Distinguishing Influenza-Like Illness from Inhalational Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(44), 984-6.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Update: Interim Recommendations for Ant microbial Prophylaxis for Children and Breastfeeding Mothers and Treatment of Children with Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(45), 1014-6.
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Improving the Quality of Medical

Words: 4818 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 29120759

This is particularly the case in sub-Saharan Africa where clinicians have often come to rely on signs and symptoms alone to make diagnoses." (Nicoll, Walraven, Kigadye, Klokke, 1995)

The laboratory environment is critical to administering testing to determine population rates of HIV / AIDS throughout nations and perhaps continents where the lacking of resources facilitates a substandard environment for care. In the case of the African nation of Mozambique, which perhaps can be understood as a case indicative of the environmental assessment one would find throughout Africa and therefore, can be labelled to be a median statistical nation. A nation representing the median would indicate that half of the population nations that are categorized as resourced deficient, half would be above Mozambique in terms of resource allocation and half would fall below.

esearch into the quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case-reporting system in Mozambique was conducted by (Chilundo,…… [Read More]

References

Chappuis, F., Loutan, L., Simarro, P., Lejon, V., and Buscher, P. Options for Field Diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, January 2005, p. 133-146, Vol. 18, No.1

Chilundo, B., Sundeep S., Sundby J. The Quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case reporting systems in Mozambique. African Journal of AIDS Research 2004, 145-155. Copyright NISC Pty Ltd.

Clark. Blood Safety PPT. CDC, WHO

Loefler, I. Surgical wound infection in the Third World: the African experience. Journal of Medical Microbiology. Volume 47, 471-473. 1998. The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
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Difficult Step in Responding to

Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 38529934

Due to the apparently low level of contagion, the need for public awareness is not urgent, but it is still necessary. Warnings to stay away from the convention area and to report to a local hospital if symptoms developed after being in the area or in contact with someone who had been at the convention should be issued (CDC 2009).

The known details of the attack, however, should not be released, as it is likely to create panic and bolster the terrorists' optimism. Federal assistance should be immediately sought, not necessarily for control of the spread of the disease but for the investigation and apprehension of suspects. All available resources should be called in as soon as possible in order to counter the attack. As far as treatment of the attack goes, mass prophylaxis of all convention attendees and those who have come into contact with infected individuals should be…… [Read More]

References

Bravata DM, Sundaram V, McDonald KM, Smith WM, Szeto H, Schleinitz MD, et al. (2004). "Detection and diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism response." Emerging infectious diseases. Accessed 25 April 2009.  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Mad Cow

Words: 2122 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34318618

80s and the 90s, an unknown but virulent cattle disease, called "Mad Cow," destroyed 180,000 livestock in the United Kingdom and some other European countries and plunged other major cattle-producing nations - including the United States - into global panic (Freudenrich 2004). Health experts assured the public that humans were not prone to it. Nonetheless, its symptoms resemble those of an already existing and similarly deadly human nervous condition called Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), believed to afflict only those 50 years old and older. CJD was then linked to Mad Cow, but believed to be limited to the older population. In the mid 90s, however, several ritish young people, died of a new variety of disease with similar symptoms to both Mad Cow's and CJD's, this time plaguing the young (nvCJD). In all those troubled years, contaminated ritish cattle were exported to as many as countries, including the U.S.A., as animal…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dealler, Steve. BSE Statistics. The Pathology Laboratory: Burnley General Hospital, 1999. http://bse.airtime.co.uk/statb.htm

Department of Health. Monthly CJD Statistics. Jan 2004, http://www.doh.gov.uk/cjd/stats/jan04.htm

Freundenrich, Craig C. How Mad Cow Disease Works. HowStuffWorks, 2004.  http://science.howstuffworks.com/mad~cow-disease.htm 

Lohn, Martiga. Why Mad Cow Could Happen in America. Natural Health: Weider Publications, Oct-Nov 2001.  http://www.findarticles.com
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HIV AIDS on African-American Community in

Words: 1921 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24967309

HIV / AIDS on African-American Community in U.S.

Certain diseases occur more frequently within certain communities or ethnic groups. In part, this can be connected to genetics, heritage, environment, or the habits of a given cultural or ethnic group. This phenomenon is no different with HIV / AIDS, an illness which has been aggravated in the African-American community. HIV stands for the human immunodeficiency virus, a virus which can eventually turn into AIDS, also known as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV / AIDS is believed to have come from a chimpanzee in West Africa: "They believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus (called simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV) most likely was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood. Studies show that HIV may have jumped from apes to humans as far back as…… [Read More]

References

Cdc.gov. (2013, May 29). What is HIV? Retrieved from cdc.gov:  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Hantavirus An Overview Virulence Hantavirus

Words: 1360 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84216536

This indicates that transmission signs should be identified from a combination of symptoms and living scenario.

Symptoms:

The symptoms of Hantavirus will undergo a set of phases with the increase in severity of the condition. Both in cases where the condition is fatal and in cases where convalescence does occur, the disease will take roughly a month to run its course. This course will include a transition from symptoms that resemble a strain of the influenza virus to more debilitating symptoms attacking lung, heart and kidney function. According to the research provided by Duchin et al. (1994), also offered in the wake of the Southwestern U.S. outbreak, "the most common prodromal symptoms were fever and myalgia (100%), cough or dyspnea (76%), gastrointestinal symptoms (76%), and headache (71%). The most common physical findings were tachypnea (100%), tachycardia (94%), and hypotension (50%)." (Duchin, 949) These findings would be gathered through autopsies of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2010). All About Hantaviruses. National Center for Infectious Diseases-Special Pathogens Branch.

Duchin, J.S. et al. (1994). Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome: A Clinical Description of 17 Patients with a Newly Recognized Disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 330, 949-955.

Nichol, S.T. et al. (1993). Genetic identification of a hantavirus associated with an outbreak of acute respiratory illness. Science, 262(5135), 915-917.

Schmaljohn, C. & Hjelle, B. (1997). Hantaviruses: A Global Disease Problem. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 3(2), 95-104.
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West Nile Virus Emerging Infectious

Words: 877 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 72327041



Worldwide, the distribution pattern of WNV is mainly found in the northern, eastern and southern regions of Africa, parts of Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia. On a global scale, mortality rate of diseases caused by WNV human infection could range from 2.4% to as high as 47% (Bourne, 2011). In the United States, CDC reports its latest (2011) data showing that there have been a total of 432 WNV infections reported as of October 2011. Sixty-seven percent of this reported human infections are neuroinvasive cases (encephalitis / meningitis), while about 5% resulted to death. Across states, California has the most number of cases of WNV human infection at 87 cases (20%), followed by Mississippi as far second (46 cases, or 11% of total reported cases). The prevalence of WNV human infection in these states reflects the virus' characteristic as thriving in tropical / temperate regions. CDC has not…… [Read More]

References

Bourne, D. (2011). "West Nile Virus Disease." Available at: http://usgs.wildlifeinformation.org/List_Vols/westnile/Disease_WNVInfection/04WNVMortality.html

"Epidemic/Epizootic West Nile Virus in the United States: Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention and Control." (2003). Center for Disease Control (CDC) Website. Available at:  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Stroke Prevention Prevalence in U S

Words: 1822 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 4744688

The most common cause is blockage of an artery, usually by a piece of atherosclerotic plaque in one of the brain's main arteries that ahs broken off and gotten stuck "downstream." TIA are also caused by blood clots that originate in the heart, travel to the brain, and become lodged in a small artery there. By definition, the symptoms of a TIA last less than 24 hours, in contrast to the symptoms of a stroke, which last longer -- and are often permanent. (Komaroff, 2006, p. 88)

An individual may have one or more experiences with a TIA, though they may have none, prior to the actual stroke vent, often leading up to it, within a year or more of the stroke event. If these symptoms are noted, and even if they go away an individual should still seek care to begin treatment for medical stroke prevention. Individuals should also…… [Read More]

References

Better Control of Hypertension Has Reduced Stroke Deaths. (1987, July/August). FDA Consumer, 21, 2.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Heart Disease and Stroke (2008). Stroke Fact Sheet. Retrieved, December 5, 2008.  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Health Organization in 2008 There

Words: 1143 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Grant Proposal Paper #: 63627388



Prevention methods, combined with education have been shown to effectively prevent malaria and this is good because, the infrastructure of poor nations is often inadequate to care for those who do fall ill. Many malaria treatment medications are very expensive, where legitimate (non-counterfeit) remedies can be found. In many of these nations the problem is perpetuated by counterfeit drugs, which sap family resources and do little if anything to remediate symptoms. In fact the presence of these drugs may even worsen the problem by creating drug resistant strains, as many counterfeit medications have been shown to contain only minute amounts of the anti-malarial pharmaceuticals and therefore expose the parasites to amounts that simply allow them to adapt, rather than eradicating them in the human body.

According to the Kaiser foundation, researchers claim that the wave of counterfeit anti-malarial drugs has reached industrial levels, meaning that the drugs are being produced…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Centers for Disease Control "Malaria: FAQ" 2010 from  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Nursing Case Study

Words: 1425 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 93800722

Nursing Case Study

Managing a possible Case of Gastroenteritis: A Nursing Case Study

The effective delivery of optimal nursing care requires a comprehensive treatment plan that addresses both the patient's symptoms and the security of the immediate environment. This report presents a case study of appropriate evidence-based nursing practices in treating an elderly female patient presenting with abdominal discomfort in a residential care setting.

The client presents with new onset faecal incontinence, diarrhoea and increasing abdominal discomfort and cramps. These symptoms suggest a possible gastrointestinal disturbance (Crisp & Taylor, 2009) and present a number of possible diagnoses. While the client's nursing care plan indicates that she is normally continent, her confidential disclosure to the nurse suggests that her symptoms may be more prolonged. Another relevant client characteristic is her advanced age of 85 years.

The client's proximity to the dirty utility room in the aged care facility and the report…… [Read More]

References:

1. Crisp J, Taylor C. (2010). Potter & Perry's fundaments of nursing (3rd ed.). Chatswood, N.S.W.: Elsevier, Australia.

2. Kirk MD, Hall GV, Veitch MGK, Becker N. (2010). Assessing the ?incidence of gastroenteritis among elderly people living in long-term care facilities. Journal of Hospital Infection, 76, 12.

3. Australian Government: Department of Health and Ageing. (2007). Retrieved from- http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/icg-guidelinesindex.htm .

4. Andrew E, Simor MVD. (2010). Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Review. The-Americans Geriatric Societ, 58(8), 1557-1593.
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Behavioral Risk for HIV Infection Among Gay and Bisexual Men in the United States

Words: 1273 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47726134

Behavioral risk for HIV infection among gay and bisexual men in the United States

According to reports published by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), they state that by the year 2004, more than nine hundred and forty thousand individuals in the United States of America had been diagnosed with AIDS, majority of who were gay men and African-Americans. This report including others have brought the issue of HIV infection in gay and bisexual men into sharp focus and more in particular the behavioral risks that the group exposes themselves to, which have contributed to the sharp increase in HIV infection amongst members of this group. This research intends to focus of this behavioral risk and preventive measures that have been established to prevent HIV infection in gay and bisexual men in the United States.

Behavioral risk

Another recent research conducted by Centre for Disease Control and Prevention…… [Read More]

References

Hockenbury, D., & Hockenbury, E., (2008), Psychology, Word publishers, pp 232-234

Kelly, J.A. (1992). HIV risk behavior reduction following intervention with key opinion leaders of population: An experimental analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 82, 1483 -- 1489.

Latkin, C.A., Sherman, S., & Knowlton, A. (2003). HIV prevention among drug users: Outcome of a network-oriented peer outreach intervention. Health Psychology, 22, 332 -- 339.

Wasserheit, J.N., & Aral, S.O., (1996), the dynamic topology of sexually transmitted disease epidemics: Implications for prevention strategies. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 201 -- 213.
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Population at Risk

Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11116571

eart Failure in African-Americans

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are among the top killers in the world population and number one in the U.S. eart failure is the number one killer in the U.S. And stroke, number three. The African-American Population has even higher numbers that fall victims to these killers. The main factors that lead to heart failure and stroke are: "high blood pressure, high cholesterol, cigarette smoking, diabetes, poor diet and physical inactivity," with their natural consequences: "overweight and obesity" (http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=21).

Although heart diseases are the number one cause of death in the U.S. today, they are also among the most preventable diseases. An unprecedented opportunity to prevent heart disease and stroke exists today in the United States. "We know what causes these conditions and how to prevent them, largely because of the decades of research supported by NI, the American eart Association, and others" (http://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/action_plan/pdfs/action_plan_full.pdf ). The African-American Population…… [Read More]

Hansen, Jeff. The Birmingham News. "Health Department Wins Double Grants $13 Million to Fight Obesity, Tobacco." Available at:  http://www.jcdh.org/misc/ViewBLOB.aspx?BLOBId=270  Retrieved: Sep 29th, 2014

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention. Addressing the Nation's Leading Killers: At A Glance 2011. Available at:  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Health Syphilis -- Viewed From

Words: 2554 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 12765813

These diseases may be aggravated or deteriorated because of indulgence in sexual life as well. In severe cases, indulgence in sexual life even may cause vital crises such as cerebral bleeding and myocardiac infarction. Accordingly, sexual life should be moderated during the daily health care and rehabilitation. In severe cases, sexual life should be stopped for the time being (Syphilis, n.d.).

There are several tests that can be used to for Syphilis. These include: Syphilis Serum Test, the venereal diseases research laboratory test (VDL test), unheated serum reagin test (US test), rapid plasma reagin card test (P test), and cardiophospholipid is used as an antigen to examine the anti-cardiophospholipid antibody in serum. This test is used for screening examination. In spirochete antigen test, such as fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test (FTA-ABS test), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test (TPHA), usually the diagnosis of syphilis can be confirmed by positive result in the spirochete…… [Read More]

References

Introduction to TCM. (n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2010, from Traditional Chinese Medicine

Page Web site:  http://www.tcmpage.com/ 

Kent, Molly E. And Romanelli, Frank. (2008). Reexamining Syphilis: An Update on Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Management. Retrieved January 27, 2010,

from Medscape Web site:  http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/571812
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Mold Remediation in Wilkes-Barre PA Mold Remediation

Words: 1924 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 56576698

Mold emediation in Wilkes-Barre, PA

Mold emediation

Mold emediation in the Aftermath of Flooding in Wilkes-Barre, PA

Mold emediation in the Aftermath of Flooding in Wilkes-Barre, PA

Pennsylvania was hit hard in September, first by Hurricane Irene and then by the remnants of Tropical Storm Lee (Huber, 2011). Close to 100,000 residents living in areas that were inundated in 1972 due to Hurricane Agnes were ordered to evacuate on Thursday, September 8, 2011 (The Times Leader, 2011) and were not allowed to return until Saturday afternoon or later (Olson, 2011). Fortunately, the levees built in the aftermath of Hurricane Agnes did their job and a comparatively low number of 5,400 homes were exposed to floodwaters (Huber, 2011). However, those residents whose homes were flooded will be faced not only with physical damage to their property, but also the threat of significant exposure to mold-generated bioaerosols if their homes were exposed…… [Read More]

References

Brandt, Mary, Brown, Clive, Burkhart, Joe, Burton, Nancy, Cox-Ganser, Jean, Damon, Scott et al. (2006). Mold prevention strategies and possible health effects in the aftermath of hurricanes and major floods. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 55, 1-27. Retrieved 23 Feb. 2012 from  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Mazen Bader and David S

Words: 1138 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66850004

The focus of the article is upon the unique constitution and needs of the elderly, not upon herpes zoster or influenza as a national phenomenon particular to the United States. However, all of the studies it cites are based in the United States, and SV has been primarily studied as a phenomenon occurring in the U.S. The prevalence of nursing homes in the United States might also make the article more relevant to U.S. practitioners, and the regulatory and drug treatments it discusses are particular to North American, such as the FDA.

Supporting evidence: What scientific evidence does the author(s) present to support his or her claims?

The article's most conclusive evidence is found in its treatment of influenza. It notes that in the 40% to 60% of elderly patients in whom the influenza vaccine produces the desired immunity, an effective immune response can be mounted within 10 to 14…… [Read More]

References

Bader, Mazen & David S. McKinsey. (2005, Nov). "Viral infections in the elderly."

Postgraduate Medicine. 118.5: 45-54
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Rand Report Critique as Discussed

Words: 2581 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 27729493

26 Yet public health continued to mean, even more than in the Clinton administration, a technological approach to national defense. In the Bush administration, pharmaceutical protection became the centerpiece of biodefense policy. On December 13, 2002, convinced of the Dark Winter-type threat of smallpox, President Bush announced his nationwide smallpox inoculation program. Publicity about Iraq's potential biological arsenal, especially in the lead-up to the 2003 invasion, and the threat of bioterrorism had convinced many in the public to participate. The states and the CDC were ready to handle the logistics. In addition, civilian participation was voluntary, which reduced legal liability for those who administered the vaccine and for the government.

As might have been predicted, this smallpox vaccination campaign found it difficult to circumvent the well-known fears of vaccination as a source of bodily pollution and the mistrust engendered when vaccines appear a worse health risk than the forecast epidemic.…… [Read More]

References

Fauci, Anthony S.M.D., Bioterrorism Preparedness: NIH Smallpox Research Efforts, available at  http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t011102b.htm  Accessed on October 22, 2011.

Frist, William. The Political Perspective of the Bioterrorism Threat, in Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities, 29 (Stacy L. Knobler & Adel A.F. Mahmoud & Leslie A. Pray eds., National Academy Press 2002).

Neergaard, Lauran. Postmaster: Anthrax Threatens Mail, The Washington Post, Oct. 24, 2001, available at  http://www.washingtonpost.com /wp-srv/aponline/20011024" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Genital Herpes Is Another Type

Words: 2657 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26443995

Psychological stress may have been causing it, but the recurrence itself can, of course, result to more stress to the infected person. There have been numbers of studies that show that recurrences of genital herpes are related with psychological morbidity, and the extent of which seems to be directly related to the frequency of recurrences (Taboulet, et.al., 1999). This is just an expected outcome for any person who will be diagnosed with genital herpes will not only worry about how to cure or prevent the occurrence of another outbreak, but will also worry or think about how others might view him/her as an infected person. A person with the genital virus will be feared by the opposite sex in the same manner that the infected person will of course tend to shy away from getting into another intimate relationship. As it is pointed out, the virus will never leave the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Social Health Association. (1998), Sexually Transmitted Diseases in America: How Many Cases and at What Cost? Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation.

Fleming DT, et al. (1997), Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 in the United States, 1976 to 1994. NEJM; 337:1105-11.

Gandhi, M. (February 2006), Division of Infectious Diseases, VeriMed Healthcare Network UCSF, San Francisco, CA.

Genital Herpes," (May 2005), Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/genital-herpes/DS00179/DSECTION=8