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"... Jacques Levy in Cesar Chavez: Autobiography of La Causa quotes Chavez as saying that "there are some very simple things that have to be done, certain key things that nobody can do without, like talking to people." He concluded that if one persisted in presenting one's message, the audience would respond...In 1962 the National Farm orkers Association was founded in Fresno, California, with Chavez as president. From its beginning, his labor union, later named the United Farm orkers, was closely identified with the civil rights movement and its techniques of aggressive nonviolence. (Hammerback and Jensen 55)
Chavez learned through his own experiences and through the example of historically great and influential teachers that the best way to change those things that need to be changed is to first understand them through listening and then act on them through what the above author titled "aggressive nonviolence." ithin his many speeches…
Chavez, John R. The Lost Land: The Chicano Image of the Southwest. 1st ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1984.
Hammerback, John C., and Richard J. Jensen. "Cesar Estrada Chavez (1927), Labor leader and minority activist." American Orators of the Twentieth Century: Critical Studies and Sources. Eds. Duffy, Bernard K. And Halford R. Ryan. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987. 55-59.
Jenkins, J. Craig. The Politics of Insurgency: The Farm Worker Movement in the 1960s. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985.
Rosales, F. Arturo. Chicano! The History of the Mexican-American Civil Rights Movement. Houston, TX: Arte Publico Press, 1996.
Hispanics I have chosen are the late Cesar Chavez and U.S. Senator Ted Cruz from Texas. I greatly admire Cesar Chavez for his leadership of the farm workers toiling in the fields with back-breaking tools and no representation. The late U.S. Senator Robert Kennedy called him "One of the heroic figures of our time." Meantime, Ted Cruz is a far right wing legislator whose Tea Party positions on almost everything in the way of society and government are wrong-headed and polarizing.
Chavez was born into a world of segregation in Yuma, Arizona, and when he attended elementary school in the 1930's, Spanish, his native language, was banned. There were signs in Yuma that said "hite Only" and when he tried to speak Spanish in school the teachers would rap his knuckles with a ruler (Skallerup, 2010). Because his parents moved around to different locations to work in the…
Cruz, Ted. "Early Life and Career." Gale Biography in Context. 2012.
On The Issues. "Texas Senator Ted Cruz." Retrieved October 25, 2014, from http://www.ontheissues.org . 2013
Skallerup, Nellie Eve. "Chavez, Cesar: "Yes, it can be done!" Retrieved October 25, 2014,
From Gale Biography in Context. World and I. 2010.
Father Donald McDonnell spent many hours talking to Chavez about the plight of the migrant farm worker. They talked about strikes, lack of benefits, lack of appropriate shelter and poor pay (United Farm orkers).
It was at that time that Chavez began to study the works of Ghandi and the impact of non-violent protest (United Farm orkers).
hen Chavez met another mentor, Frank Ross he agreed to become involved and organized something called the Community Service Organization - CSO. His first task was voter registration (United Farm orkers).
It was in 1962 that he focused on farm workers and founded the National Farm orkers Association. He later changed it to the United Farm orkers Association.
He had his brother design a logo and emblem and they chose the colors black and red to represent their organization (United Farm orkers)."
Initially, there were very few dues paying members in the UF.…
CESAR E. CHAVEZ 1927-1993 April 26, 2007 http://clnet.ucla.edu/research/chavez/bio/
Cesar Chavez Day April 26, 2007 http://www.sdcoe.k12.ca.us/chavez/
Information and Resources for Educators April 26, 2007
An American Hero http://www.chavezfoundation.org/cesarechavez.html
Cesar Chavez: Impact on Society
The story of Cesar Chavez is that of Latin Americans who worked as migrant pickers and farmers in the United States. He is regarded as the most prominent Latino union organizer in the U.S. And he tried to make conditions better for his Hispanic brethren. The main reason for this activism was the problems he saw his family endure as they had to turn to migrant farm work in California during the Great Depression (United Farm orkers). This paper looks at the personal story of Chavez and how that life has continued to impact the lives of others.
Chavez was born in Yuma, AZ to an immigrant family in 1927. The house was very small and made of adobe as most of the houses in the area were so that the family could remain relatively cool during the intense summer days. The family owned…
Biography. "Cesar Chavez: Synopsis." Biography, 2012. Web.
Cesar Chavez Legacy. "About Cesar Chavez." Cesar Chavez Legacy.com, 2012.Web.
Jarrett, Valerie. "Living the Legacy of Cesar Chavez." White House.gov, 2010. Web.
Tejada-Flores, Rick. "Cesar Chavez and the UFW." PBS, 2004. Web.
(Olivia C. Smith, 2002).
One of the leading political Chicana women today is Dolores Huerta; she is the co-founder of the First Vice President Emeritus which belongs to United Farm Workers of America. orn in April 10, 1930, she founded an organization namely Community Service Organization in 1955 and in 1960 she founded Agricultural Workers Association. Later on, she worked with Cesar Chavez and built an organization, National Farm Workers Association which name was changed to United Workers Organizing Committee and afterwards it became UFW in 1966. She made a contract between UFW and Schenley Wine Company for the farm workers who successfully bargained with an agricultural enterprise. Dolores directed a boycott the UFW's national grape for the farm workers to the consumers. In result for this boycott, California table grape industry signed a three years agreement with the United Farm Workers. She is highly politically active and against the…
Jandura, Tereza. Women in the Mexican Revolution. http://www.ic.arizona.edu/ic/mcbride/ws200/mex-jand.htm#Soldaderas
Smith, Olivia C. 2002 Chicana Feminism http://www.english.emory.edu/Bahri/chicana.html
Wikipedia.com Maria Echaveste and Dolores Huerta www.wikipedia.comPath: Maria Echaveste, Dolores Huerta.
Irish Culture Background
Ireland is a rather cultural place. The most ancient stories from the country are partly about mythological personages that appear to have been known as deities, whom they referred to as Tuatha De Danann. They are also partly about the chivalry of some heroes and heroines, who had Cuchulain as their central figure (Hull, 1931). Emain Macha' Ulster was the group's chief center. Within the district are indications of burial-places, chariot-paths and forts. The neighborhood here still has old traditions and names that are correspondent to the heroes, as they appear in writing on the 10 thcentury and 11th century manuscripts. Disputes have erupted regarding the period when the five provinces were formed. There is an ancient tradition that states that the first segmentation took place during the Firbolg era. The Firbolg were, one among the pre-Gaelic Ireland people. Later on, the Clann Mileadh, also known as…
"Cesar Chavez - Facts & Summary - HISTORY.com."History.com -- American & World History. Web. 31 Oct 2016. .
Eleanor, Hull. A History of Ireland and Her People. Vol. 1. London: 1931. Print.
Eleanor, Hull. A History of Ireland and Her People. Vol. 2. London: 2015. Print.
"Irish-Americans - History, Irish emigration, Immigration until the famine years." World Culture Encyclopedia. Web. 16 Oct 2016. .
An exponential pair of outstanding contemporary artists originating from Cuba is Andres Arturo Garcia Menendez and Gloria Maria Milagrosa Fajardo Garcia de Estefan. The former is commonly regarded as the most notable Cuban-American actor of his generation (Lipworth, 2005) for his talented performance in successful Hollywood motion pictures starting with the late 1980s. Gloria Estefan is yet another strong example of crossover accomplishment, as a singer-songwriter and film actor, her success amounting to around 100 million records sold worldwide. Having migrated from Cuba as a girl with her family, she had a humble start in life and presently owns 7 Grammy Awards, which stands for a solid equivalent of the accomplished American Dream (Thomas, 1998).
Overall, it is clearly visible that Mexican-Americans, Puerto ican Americans and Cuban Americans form a large part of the American people and have been responsible for manifold contributions to culture and society, both globally and…
Kahn, R. (2007). "Cesar Chavez." In Encyclopedia of Environment & Society. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.
Lipworth, Elaine. "Film: Untouchable in Exile; Andy Garcia Is One of Hollywood's Aristocracy. But He Tells ELAINE LIPWORTH That Cuba Is Still His Home and His Inspiration." (2005, July 29). The Independent, pp. 8-9.
Marc Anthony. (2013). The Biography Channel website. Retrieved 10:04, May 24, 2013, from www.biography.com/people/marc-anthony-241193.
Pew Hispanic Center (2012). "The 10 Largest Hispanic Origin Groups: Characteristics, Rankings, Top Counties." Retrieved from www.pewhispanic.org/2012/06/27/the-10-largest-hispanic-origin-groups-characteristics-rankings-top-counties / [2013, May21].
Because Chavez also deployed faith and prayer in achieving his goal, he was able to fuse the Christian religion that was so important to the farm workers into a vital element of the Chicano movement in a way that advanced rather than impeded its political struggles.
Part 3, entitled "Taking Back the Schools," brings an urban dimension to the struggle for Chicano rights. The high drop out rate, crumbling buildings, lack of Mexican-American teachers all mobilized Latino and Latina students to walk out of their schools in 1968. They demanded better conditions under which to realize their education, and although not all of the urban ills were addressed by their collective action, this act provides an important reminder of the ability of young people in urban circumstances to use their anger for political rather than self-destructive means.
Part 4, "Fighting for Political Power," concludes the book. It describes the creation…
Rosales, Franciso Arturo. Chicano! The History of the Mexican-American Civil Rights Movement. New York, 1996
Down These Mean Streets believe that every child is born a poet, and every poet is a child. Poetry to me was always a very sacred form of expression. (qtd. In Fisher 2003)
Introduction / Background History
Born Juan Pedro Tomas, of Puerto Rican and Cuban parents in New York City's Spanish Harlem in 1928, Piri Thomas began his struggle for survival, identity, and recognition at an early age. The vicious street environment of poverty, racism, and street crime took its toll and he served seven years of nightmarish incarceration at hard labor. But, with the knowledge that he had not been born a criminal, he rose above his violent background of drugs and gang warfare, and he vowed to use his street and prison know-how to reach hard-core youth and turn them away from a life of crime.
Thirty years ago Piri Thomas made literary history with this lacerating,…
Anonymous. "Piri Thomas" (2000). 09 December 2003. http://www.peacehost.com
Coeyman, M. "In a Largely Minority School, Literature Helps Students Confront Complex
Issues of Race and Culture" (2002). The Christian Science Monitor. 10 December 2003. http://www.csmonitor.com
Fisher, S. "Mean Streets Author Launches Latino Month" (2003). 10 December 2003. http://www.advance.uconn.edu/htm
To intimidate striking workers or escort strike breakers, workers who would replace the individuals striking, across picket lines some employers contracted private companies like the Pinkerton Detective Agency.
The United States Department of Labor reports that the Coal Strike of 1902 proved to be a turning point in U.S. policy. On October 3, 1902, to address the strike in the Pennsylvania anthracite coal fields that he perceived to threaten a coal famine, President Theodore oosevelt resolved to end the strike by setting a precedent for the Federal Government's interventions. After a bitter battle, with President oosevelt's intervention, both sides of the coal labor dispute agreed to the findings of the Anthracite Coal Strike Commission. As a result, labor and industry accepted that the public possessed overriding rights as well as vital interests. President oosevelt's voice and negotiation skills returned peace to the coalfields (the Coal Strike of 1902…, 2010).
A Brief History of the Labor Movement. (2006). NPR. Retrieved March 8, 2010 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5758863
Florida State Union. (2009). Unions.org. Retrieved March 8, 2010 from http://www.unions.org/home/umap9-.htm
Greenhouse, S. (2010). Most U.S. union members are working for the government, new datashows. The New York Times. Retrieved March 8, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/23/business/23labor.html
History at the Department of Labor. (2010). United States Department of Labor.
Because of the fact that they ae Negos, they have been oppessed and intimidated on seveal occasions. Malcolm X also makes some histoical claims when demanding the civil ights. He states that Nego evolt has been going on since 1945 in the whole wold and in 1964 will see that it then emeges to be a black evolution. He claims that this evolution has been happening in Asia, Afica and Latin Ameica fo the not white individuals. The blacks who wee colonized by the Euopeans I Asia have been involved in the stuggle fo since 1945. Fo the Mexican-Ameican stuggle fo equality also involves some histoical statement especially in 1965 when efeing to Cesa Chavez who has had majo contibution fo the La Raza Unida quest fo the ights though non-violent means.
Reason fo the timing of the civil ights demands
In the Montgomey bus boycott, the people ae demanding…
references to his citizenship and the democracy. As for Malcolm the rights are also provided by the constitution. In the Mexican -- American, the rights are provided by the democratic system.
Consequence of failure
The civil rights activists for the Montgomery bus boycott are using non-violent approaches in demanding their rights. This is in line with the approach that Martin Luther King always uses therefore it's expected that the people will continue with the peaceful demonstration until their plights are heard. As for the Malcolm protesting people, they are at this moment peaceful. However if their rights i.e. voting rights are denied, the black man will start using the bullet as a new way to advocate for their rights. They will turn into violent movements and use violence so as to gain their rights.
The civil rights movements in the post was a reaction by most of the war veterans who came from the war hoping to be respected because of the sacrifice that they had given only for them to find that they are still stuck in a segregated and racist nation. This was also in sharp contrast to the freedom principals that they had fought for overseas. Therefore the civil rights seeds were sowed as the as demands were then put forth by the black leaders for equal rights. Martin Luther King was one of the leaders and in this instance he is seen leading the boycott of the Montgomery bus. He advocates for the equal rights of the blacks that they may be respected by their counterpart white citizens particularly in the bus stations. Malcolm X is also advocating for the civil rights of the black people in his expression of the ballot or the bullet. He is expressing the importance of the voting right to be granted because it will be useful in a bloodless revolution. He warns however that the failure to grant the right will lead to retaliation by violence of the bullets. The last incidents considered by the paper is the Mexican-Americans rights group through the faction called La Raza Unida. The members of this group seek to advocate the right of the Mexican-American having realized that there are no equal provisions of opportunities.
It is also more likely to create a constructive rather than a destructive outcome, it is a process of conflict resolution that may aim to arrive at the truth of a given situation rather than simple victory for one side and it is the only technique of struggle that is consistent with the teachings of the major religions (eber and Burrowes, n.d.).
Nonviolent action is a method by which people who reject passivity and submission, and who see struggle as necessary, can have their conflict without violence. Nonviolent acts are not seen as an attempt to steer clear of or ignore conflict. They are one reaction to the problem of how to act effectively in politics, particularly how to wield powers effectively. It consists of acts of protest and persuasion, noncooperation and nonviolent intervention designed to undermine the sources of power of the opponent in order to bring about change…
Burstein, Stanley M. And Shek, Richard. 2005. "World History Ancient Civilizations." Texas:
Holt, Rinhart and Winston
Jones, Chris. 2008. "Analysis of Martin Luther King Jr.'s Letter from Birmingham Jail."
Web. 27 April 2010.
In the Struggle for Democracy (Greenberg, 483-84) the author explains that gradually, little by little, the Supreme Court of the United States responded to the need to rule segregation unconstitutional. And in the process the Court ruled that any law passed using the criteria of race was also unconstitutional. The Brown v. Board of Education vote in 1954 meant that segregation in schools was not constitutional and it was the agency of black activists and advocates that got it done by bringing litigation forward. Meantime Jones mentions that Eisenhower had a "hands-off" policy regarding enforcing the Brown v. Board of Education; and while that "emboldened" segregationists and racists to resist the Supreme Court ruling, it activated ordinary African-Americans to joined in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. Thanks to the marching feet of tens of thousands of Black Americans - and the boycotts led by people like Rosa Parks…
Greenberg, Edward S. The Struggle for Democracy.
Jones, Jacqueline. Created Equal: A Social and Political history of the United States.
Racial Profiling Data Collection Resource Center. 2008. Northeastern University. Retrieved April 14, 2008, at http://www.racialprofilinganalysis.neu.edu
S. were Protestant and that 18% of them mostly converted from Catholicism (Weiss and Solis 2007). The Hispanic population increased by 28% from 2000 to 2005. The survey identified the reasons why Hispanics would not assimilate and integrate easily or smoothly into the non-Hispanic religious culture in the U.S. Many Hispanics have a different approach to religion. They are generally more devout than non-Hispanics. This attitude derives from a mystical experience and understanding of their faith. This faith, in turn, connects powerfully to their language and original customs. Their identity links more with the community than that of the Anglo-Saxon church of the U.S. The Pew study interviewed approximately 4,000 Hispanics nationwide. The broad differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanics in the practice of their religious faith in the U.S. included denominations, faith experience, choice of place of worship, and the use of the Spanish language. About 68% of Hispanic adults…
Althoff, Andrea. Migration and Transformation of Latino Religious Identities in the U.S.
Calvin College, 2007. Retrieved on March 7, 2008 at http://www.calvin.edu/henry/schedule/althoff.pdf
Dow, James W. The Growth of Protestant Religions in Mexico and Central America.
Oakland University, 2003. Retrieved on March 7, 2008 at http://personalwebs.oakland.edu/~dow/personal/papers/meso/sssr_2003/e_connected.pdf
MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.
Numerous factors are considered in determining whether an individual is worthy of admiration and respect. Some individuals are deemed to be great because they have a unique gift or talent. For example, Bach, Beethoven, Mozart, Picasso, and Van Gogh are well-renowned due to their universally recognized artistic and musical abilities. ther individuals achieve long-term recognition by making invaluable contributions to individuals and society. For example, Cesar Chavez, John F. Kennedy, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King Jr., and Rosa Parks have attained enduring praise because of the contributions they made to individuals and society. This paper examines the life of Martin Luther King Jr. And the impact he made on society.
MARTIN LUTHER KING JR.'S LASTING IMPACT
It is nearly impossible to understand the full extent and nature of Martin Luther King Jr.'s accomplishments without examining the history underlying the civil rights movement. The United States Supreme…
Other incredible events in Martin Luther King Jr.'s life include his participation as a principal speaker in the historic March on Washington, where he delivered one of the most passionate speeches of his career. After winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, Martin Luther King Jr. led a voter-registration campaign in Selma, Alabama which culminated in the historic Selma-to-Montgomery Freedom March. In addition, Martin Luther King Jr. launched an open-housing and slum-rehabilitation program in Chicago, Illinois.
Few individuals are capable of achieving true admiration, recognition, and respect. Likewise, even fewer individuals attain long-term admiration, recognition, and respect. In addition, very few individuals have the ability, determination, and skill to make a lasting contribution to other individuals and society. Martin Luther King Jr. is one of the rare individuals who was able to lead a movement for black equality in a non-violent manner while crossing racial lines and gaining long-term admiration, recognition, and respect of whites.
Board of Education of Topeka. This case represented a watershed for Civil ights and helped to signal an end to segregation because it determined that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal" (Warren, 1954). It is essential to note that federal support on this particular issue was only earned after African-Americans decided to use the legislative system to their advantage by taking the segregationist school system of Topeka, Kansas to task. This particular court case was a class action lawsuit filed on behalf of 13 parents whose children were enrolled in the city's school system. This action was highly influential in the African-American struggle for civil rights and to end discrimination because it demonstrated that they had learned the most effective means of fighting this systemic oppression -- by utilizing the system itself, in this instance, the legislative system that ran the country.
By doing so, African-Americans helped to end the…
Du Bois, W.E.B. DuBois, W.E.B. 1903. "The Talented Tenth." Pp. 31-75 in the Negro Problem: A Series of Articles by Representative American Negroes of to-Day. Contributions by Booker T. Washington, Principal of Tuskegee Institute, W.E. Burghardt DuBois, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Charles W. Chesnutt, and others. (NY: James Pott & Co., 1903
Lincoln, a. "13th amendment to the U.S. constitution: abolition of slavery." Ourdocuments.gov. Retrieved from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=40
Mack, K.W. (1999). "Law, Society, Identity and the Making of the Jim Crow South: Travel and Segregation on Tennessee Railroads, 1875-1905.," 24 L. & Soc. Inquiry 377 . http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/2790089/Law%2c%20Society%2c%20Identity%20and%20the%20Making%20of%20the%20Jim%20Crow%20South.pdf?sequence=2
Maidment, R.A. (1973). "Plessy v. Fergueson re-examined." Journal of American Studies. 7 (2): 125-132.
Chicano Movement was one of numerous movements for human rights and social justice that took place and reach great heights in American during the 1960s. The Chicano people were and are Mexican-Americans. Mexican-Americans advocated and organized so that there experiences and voices would be heard and respected. They, like many other groups fighting for justice and freedom in America, protested, demonstrated, held vigils, rallies, sang songs, and confronted the politicians that supposedly represented them and their interests. The Chicano Movement, like many other social movements in American and in the world, additionally was about the creative expression of people from this group. There were musicians, poets, writers, and fine artists of all kinds that were motivated and inspired by the struggles of their Chicano brothers and sisters. They created art and other forms of creative expression during this movement and as part of this movement, too. The Chicano Movement fundamentally…
Farager, J.M., Buhle, M.J., Czitrom, D., & Armitage, S.H. (2009). Out of many: A History of the American people, Volume 2, 5th Edition. Upper Salle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Chapter 29: "The politics of identity," 837 -- 843.
Walter euther's German immigrant father was a socialist, pacifist and labor leader who did not wish his sons to fight in the Prussian Army, which is why he came to the United States in 1892. He brought up his sons in the socialist-labor tradition, and the entire family supported Eugene Debs and Norman Thomas in the years 1900-32. During the Great Depression, Walter and Victor euther traveled the world for three years. They were in Germany in 1933 when the Nazis took over and witnessed first hand the suppression of the labor and left-wing movements there, as well as the attraction some of their own relatives felt for Hitler and the Nazi regime. In 1933-35, the lived in the Soviet Union as "well-paid" foreign workers for ford, and unlike most ussians were allowed to travel freely around the country (Carew 1993, p. 12). After visiting Japan, the returned to the…
Barnard, J. (2004). American Vanguard: The United Auto Worker Union during the Reuther Years, 1935-1970. Wayne State University Press.
Carew, A. (1993). Walter Reuther. Manchester University Press.
Lichtenstein, N. (1995). Walter Reuther: The Most Dangerous Man in Detroit. NY: Basic Books.
Parenti, M. (1996). Dirty Truths: Reflections on Politics, Media, Ideologies, Conspiracy, Ethnic Life and Class Power. City Lights Books.
Common sense suggests that pay is a good motivator. The logic is: "You get what you pay for."
Provide examples of three different career tracks where people clearly are not focused on earning high pay.
For each of your examples. Describe what the key motivators are.
Cesar Chavez once said that, (Farm workers) are responsible for the planting, cultivating as well as harvesting huge amounts of food for the whole society. They are responsible for the production of such large amounts of food that it can feed the whole country and can be exported as well. The tragic and ironic thing here is that at the end of the day these farmers don't have enough food left to keep for themselves. They don't even have sufficient amounts of money after all this hard work.
Sadly, this is the kind of paradox that has always been there…
(2013). Retrieved from managementstudyguide.com: http://www.managementstudyguide.com/maslows-hierarchy-needs-theory.htm
Baldwin, S. (2007). Motivating Staff. U.S.: Exchange. Retrieved from: http://www.center-school.org/ocdel/online/documents/movitatingstaff.pdf
Birch, L.L., D.W. Marlin, and J. Rotter. (1984). Eating as the 'Means' Activity in a Contingency: Effects on Young Children's Food Preference. Child Development 55(2, Apr): 431-439. EJ 303-231.
Deci, E.L., and R.M. Ryan.(1985). Intrinsic Motivation And Self-Determination In Human Behavior. New York: Plenum.
intended to provide an overview of the individuals and movements who played important part in Chicano movement
Chicano movement is one of the most eminent chapters in the history of Mexican-Americans. The Chicano movement reflects a decade's long pursuit of Mexican-Americans for their rights. Although it has its roots in 1800s, the movement grew stronger in 1940s. In order to understand what Chicano movement really is, one needs to understand the past events leading to it. It is a common saying in Mexican-Americans that we did not crossed the borders, the border crossed us. There have been several treaties signed between Mexicans and Americans which provided a lot of benefits to Mexicans along with citizenship, however when the senate revised these treaties, all these leverages were removed depriving Mexicans of their lands and other properties. Then started the journey of Chicano Movement. There are various individuals and several movements who…
Chavez, E. (2002). "Mi Raza Primero!" (My People First!): Nationalism, Identity, and Insurgency in the Chicano Movement in Los Angeles, 1966-1978. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Gonzales, M.G.(2000). Mexicanos: A History of Mexicans in the United States. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Rosales, F.A. (1997). Chicano! History of the Mexican-American Civil Rights Movement. Houston, TX: Arte Publico.
Lopez, I.F. (2004). Racism on Trial. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
Vatican II, officially known as the Second Vatican Council, was a meeting of many leaders of the Catholic Church to discuss both theological and social issues pertaining to the Church in the modern era. Convened by Pope John XXIII in the 1960s and continued by his successor Paul VI, the main goal of the Second Vatican Council was to establish the Church's role and meaning in the modern world, which it recognized as fundamentally changed from the role of the Church in previous eras. Many different topics of concern were examined during the many phases of Vatican II, and the Council produced a number of documents on these varying subjects that help to define Church doctrine and perspectives on the modern world. When it comes to the social thought and action of the Catholic Church following Vatican II, one of the most important documents produced by the Council…