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In business, change is something that is inevitable for all firms. Those who are able to effectively adapt can make adjustments with transformations in consumer tastes and the economic cycle. To fully understand the most effective strategies requires comparing and discussing the Lewins Change model with the Bullock & Battens approach. During this process, there will be a focus on why these models were chosen and how they can be used effectively inside an organization. Together, these elements will highlight the benefits of each one and the way they can allow firms to evolve with the challenges they are facing over the long-term. (Taylor, 2012)
Comparing, Contrasting and Discussing the Lewins Change Model with the Bullock & Battens Philosophy
The Lewins Change model is focused on a three step process. The most notable include: challenging the status quo, creating transformations and implementing lasting shifts. Challenging the status quo…
Taylor, V. (2012). Leading for Health and Wellbeing. New York, NY: Springer.
Change Model and Addiction
In our society physicians fill the roles of diagnostician and healer but another role equally important is that of aiding patients to understand and take ownership of their own health and guide them in making decisions and any necessary changes to improve that health. Dietary restrictions, stress management, and exercise programs are common interventions prescribed by physicians but none of these will be successful without a change in the patient's behavior. Without that relapses are common and consistent, life-long behavioral changes are difficult to implement.
We need only to look at the rows of books in stores or the numerous resolutions made at the beginning of every year to know that change is a popular topic, but it is often easier said than done. Physicians can promise a patient improvement in health and back it with scientific evidence but that does not guarantee patients will be…
Arkowitz, H, & Lilienfeld, S 2007, 'Why Don't People Change?', Scientific American Mind, 18, 3, pp. 82-83, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 December 2010.
Arkowitz, H, & Westra, H 2009, 'Introduction to the special series on motivational interviewing and psychotherapy', Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 11, pp. 1149-1155, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 December 2010.
Feldstein, S, & Forcehimes, A 2007, 'Motivational Interviewing with Underage College Drinkers: A Preliminary Look at the Role of Empathy and Alliance', American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse, 33, 5, pp. 737-746, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 December 2010.
Heather, N 2005, 'Motivational interviewing: Is it all our clients need?', Addiction Research & Theory, 13, 1, pp. 1-18, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 December 2010.
At this stage, the patient plans to make positive changes within one month. The staff needs to reinforce the ideal that the patient has what it will take to succeed (Walker, Greene, & Mansell, 2006). ewarding small initial steps is an important part of helping patients in this stage of development.
The next stage is the action phase, which usually lasts for 3-6 months (Prochaska & DeClemente, 1982). During this time, the patient is actually practicing the new behavior on a daily basis. They are in the process of restructuring old cues, relying on social support, realizing their self-efficacy in achieving the changes. During this stage, the patient may feel as sense of loss of things that they used to enjoy. The patient needs encouragement to continue on their path to healthy behavior. They need a support network upon which they can rely to help encourage them in their new…
Buckworth, J., Lee, R., & Regan, et al. (2007). Decomposing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for exercise: Application to stages of motivational readiness. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 8 (4), 441-461.
Ciccomascolo, L. & Riebe, D. (2006). Setting the Stage for Physical Activity for Secondary
Students: Want to Get Students Moving? Try the Stages of Change Model. JOPERD
The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance. 77 (9), 34.
Change Model Overview
The first step in assessing the need for change is the collection of internal data. Surveys will be used to question the hospital staff regarding not only their practice of hand washing on a daily and hourly basis, but also their knowledge about the importance of hand hygiene in general. Thus, the survey will include three major components: hand washing, knowledge of health codes and understanding of concepts behind the need for proper hand washing. This survey will be based on a Liekert scale, rated 1 to 5, with 1 being strongly disagree and 5 being strongly agree. Results can then be compared to different hospital facilities.
Within the context of this research, the primary problem is the fact that a lack of proper hand hygiene can result in increased risks of spreading hospital based infections. When nursing staff fails to adhere to proper compliance codes ultimately…
Prior research has already shown that enhanced scrutiny over hand hygiene can help keep risks of spreading bacteria to a minimum. Jones (2014) illustrated the correlation between hand hygiene and reducing risks of spreading infections within hospitals. Brooks (2013) illustrated the need for external regulators to step in to healthcare settings in order to increase adherence to health and safety codes. This intervention is successful, however, it must be followed up with proper staff education and training (Schub & Caple, 2014). Staff should also understand how to handle hand hygiene when working with various equipment as well (Wyeth, 2013). Using stricter adherence to regulations followed by staff certification is thus a successful intervention for the primary problem.
This intervention could come in the form of a training and certification process that is tailored to each department within the hospital setting. Different aspects of staff activity can dictate what type of training would be needed for what positions in the facility. Certification classes can be held for all levels of hospital staff in order to ensure that everyone within the healthcare facility has an in-depth knowledge of hand hygiene practices as well as reasons for proper adherence to reduce the risk of spreading infections. A two hour course would help provide hospital staff with tools they can actually use in the field.
This would ultimately provide a model for healthcare facilities to follow in regards to how to increase levels of hand hygiene to fight future risks of bacteria spreading to patients. Certification allows for education to be dispersed to hospital staff, thus ultimately increasing their accountability as well. With the certification, no staff can claim they did not understand the importance of hand hygiene. Such a model can then be translated into international health practices, as developing nations can emulate the combination of regulations and certification to help reduce risks worldwide. Healthcare facilities all over the globe could adopt similar certification practices, thus reducing risks of infection for patients all over the world.
Lewin's Three Step Model
eview of the Existing esearch Findings in This Domain
Lewin's 3 Step Model to Counter esistance to Change
Application of Lewin's Change Model in a Manufacturing Industry
The Change Process Implementation Using Lewin's 3 Stage Model
The process of change in any organization involves the process that enables a company to take control over the implementation of improvement mechanisms. Such improvement and change entails the transition of individuals, teams and organizations from a present state of existence within the organization to a predefined and desired condition for the future. This change thus involves change in roles and responsibilities of employees of the organization. However people tend to oppose any change in an existing system. This means that employees of an organization would want the present state of affairs to continue. This opposition to change stems primarily from the fear of losses due to a proposed change…
Burke, W. Organization change.
Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2004). Making sense of change management. London: Kogan Page.
Demers, C. (2007). Organizational change theories. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications.
Green, M. (2007). Change management masterclass. London: Kogan Page.
Lewin Change Model
Week 5 Discussion 1: Lewin Change Model
Stage 1: Unfreeze
The first stage of the Lewin Change Model entails convincing the relevant parties that change is necessary and possible. Without a sense of an urgent need for change, people will seldom be motivated to take the first, painful steps in the right direction. For example, in my school district there has been a great deal of talk about improving the nutritional content of school lunches. This has become a hot-button political issue nation-wide and there are concerns expressed by parents and teachers alike about the poor nutrition students receive at lunchtime. After lunch, concentration is poor and the children do not have enough time to burn off their sugar highs during recess.
To create change, the entire school district must be convinced of the change. First, administrators need to be presented with evidence that children who eat…
Kurt Lewin Change Model. (2012). Change Management Coach. Retrieved:
ABC/123 Version X
Change Model Worksheet
Identify four Theoretical perspectives (such as models or methods) for change processes and complete the table below. Identify the developer/originator of the perspective, describe each of the identified theoretical perspectives, explains the opros and cons of each theoretical perspectives with regard to organizational change.
Develop a change model table using the changes identified in Week 1.
Description of the theoretical perspectives
Pros and Cons of each theoretical perspectives with regard to organizational change.
Phase/Stage change theory
Involves the unfreeze, transition and freeze stages. Unfreeze involves introduction of the problem to the concerned parties. Transition stage involves evaluation of alternatives to solving the problem and introducing new measures. The freeze stage involves the implementation of the positive changes agreed upon.
The cons are that it takes a long time to come up with the desired changes…
Kritsonis A., (2005). Comparison of Change Theories. Retrieved March 11, 2016 from http://qiroadmap.org/download/Phase%201%20Resources/Kritsonis,%20Alicia%20Comparison%20of%20Change%20theories.pdf
Tata Consultancy Services, (2015). Change management: Theories and Methodologies. Retrieved March 11, 2016 from http://www.tcs.com/SiteCollectionDocuments/White%20Papers/EntSol-Whitepaper-Change-Management-Theories-Methodologies-0213-1.pdf
Copyright © XXXX by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2015 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
DESIGN FOR CHANGE PROPOSAL
Re-hospitalization of older adults has become prevalent in most of the health facilities in Canada, posing financial challenges for the health system as well as the older adults. Besides the rise in healthcare expenses that emanate from this problem, readmissions lead to other health-related challenges. The health issues that are related to readmissions include functional disintegration and increased mortality cases. Concerning the cost of readmission, the Canadian health system spends more than $1.8 billion annually due to readmissions. This has reached an alarming level, and prompt measures need to be taken to elevate the problem. Apparently, in the past decade, the Canadian population has increased by roughly 16%, but the number of Canadian hospital beds has not increased in significant percentages. Therefore, with constant hospital readmissions, the quality of care reduces significantly. In fact, one of the indicators of an institution’s inability to offer quality care…
Futoma, J., Morris, J., & Lucas, J. (2015). A comparison of models for predicting early hospital readmissions. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 56, 229-238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2015.05.016
Kripalani, S., Theobald, C., Anctil, B., & Vasilevskis, E. (2014). Reducing Hospital Readmission Rates: Current Strategies and Future Directions. Annual Review of Medicine, 65(1), 471-485. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-med-022613-090415
Philp, I., Mills, K., Long, J., Thanvi, B., & Ghosh, K. (2013). Reducing hospital bed use by frail older people: results from a systematic review of the literature. International Journal of Integrated Care, 13(4). http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/ijic.1148
Shrader, R. (2014). Predictive analytics drive down hospital readmissions. Healthcare IT News. Retrieved 14 November 2017, from http://www.healthcareitnews.com /predictive-analytics-drive-down-hospital-readmissions
The best change model for this particular scenario would be Lewin’s Change Model, which has three important stages to it that can help any organization implement an effective change (Shirey, 2013). The three steps in Lewin’s Change Model are: 1) unfreeze, 2) change, and 3) refreeze. The process begins first by creating in the minds of stakeholders (including employees) the idea that a change is needed. Then the workers can be moved to embrace the new, desired behavior. Next, the desired behavior is solidified, and finally the solidified behavior is the new norm. Lewin’s Change Model has been utilized by many professionals in many different fields, from business to nursing (Manchester, Gray-Miceli, Metcalf et al., 2014), and it would certainly work for Sea Treasures as the company attempts to shift its business to the Web.
The basic idea behind Lewin’s Change Model is that before a transformational change…
Manchester, J., Gray-Miceli, D. L., Metcalf, J. A., Paolini, C. A., Napier, A. H., Coogle, C. L., & Owens, M. G. (2014). Facilitating Lewin’s change model with collaborative evaluation in promoting evidence based practices of health professionals. Eval Program Planning, 47, 82-90.
Shirey, M. R. (2013). Lewin’s theory of planned change as a strategic resource. Journal of Nursing Administration, 43(2), 69-72.
Sutherland, K. (2013). Applying Lewin\\\\'s change management theory to the implementation of bar-coded medication administration. Canadian Journal of Nursing Informatics, 8(1-2).
Self-esteem is defined as a person's overall sense of self-worth or personal value (Cherry, 2016). Self-esteem has been established to have a connection with well-being, happiness, and even stress. Higher self-esteem, and this relationship is a two-way street. Higher levels of self-esteem help individuals to deflect stress in their lives. They manage stress better when self-esteem is higher, and minor stressors are less likely to become major ones. However, there is also evidence that stress can influence one's level of self-esteem. Stress factors can challenge a person, and in doing that can even challenge their sense of self. When things start to go wrong, self-esteem can be reduced. There is evidence from college students that stress has a negative influence on self-esteem (Hudd et al., 2000).
Stress affects many other facets of our lives as well. Because stress activates particular responses in our brain, especially the "fight or flight" response,…
Cherry, K. (2016). What is self-esteem? About.com. Retrieved April 17, 2016 from http://psychology.about.com/od/sindex/f/what-is-self-esteem.htm
Hudd, S., Dumlao, J., Sager, D., Murray, D., Phan, E. & Soukas, N. (2000). Stress at college: Effects on health habits, health status and self-esteem. College Student Journal. Vol. 34 (2) 217.
Step Up Program (2016). Prochaska and DiClemente's Stages of Change Model. StepUpProgram.org. Retrieved April 17, 2016 from http://stepupprogram.org/docs/handouts/STEPUP_Stages_of_Change.pdf
Cycle of Change Model to the Caterpillar Case Study
The process by which Caterpillar determined the nature and scope of the change needed began with understanding a very simple principle: the building blocks of an organization have to be aligned with “the overall strategy and performance objectives of the company” and its decision-making (Neilson & Pasternack, 2005). After nearly going bankrupt in the 1980s, Caterpillar reshaped its decision making process, its pathway to information, its approach to motivating, and its organizational structure. To complete this transformation it engaged in a cycle of change, which this paper will describe.
Direct the Change
To effect a change, certain ingredients are needed. These include: trustworthy leadership, systems thinking, capable champions (supporters and facilitators), followers who trust their leaders, and involved and engaged middle management (Judge, n.d.). One of the biggest of these factors is systems thinking, as it is what allows for…
A variety of technical and management issues arise during the implementation and operation of any change process. Change management in technology projects is essential to implement and monitor mechanisms to support and control users, business, and technology (Yarberry, 2007). There are different change project modules used at any stage of a project development. These include the change curve, Lewin's change management model, and Beckhard and Harris change model used in the understanding phase. The project-planning phase uses the impact analysis, Burke-Litwin, McKinsey 7s framework, Leavitt's diamond, organization design, and SIPOC diagrams. The implementation stage uses Kotter's 8-step change model, training needs assessment, while the communication change uses stakeholder analysis, stakeholder management, mission statement, and vision statements. In this analysis, the Leavitt's Diamond, the Kotter's 8-step change model, and Leavitt's model for organizational change is concerned with the interdependence of four main factors, including structure, people, technology, and task.…
Aladwani, A.M. (2001). Change Management Strategies for Successful ERP Implementation. Business Process Management Journal 7, 266.
Bruckman, J.C. (2008) Overcoming Resistance to change: Casual Factors, Interventions, and Critical Values. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, Psychology Press 11, 211-219.
Cameron, E. & Green, M. (2012). Making Sense of Change Management: A Complete Guide to the Models Tools and Techniques of Organizational Change. Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Page
Davison, R. (2002) Cultural Complications of ERP. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM 45, 109.
Yes, the merger may have been a good idea in the beginning and would have allowed both companies to form a considerable economy of scale, but only if they could work out their differences and be able to make the changes necessary. According to Lewin's model they never even got past the first age, therefore they were never able to make the changes in the first place. A merger requires that both companies "unfreeze" of their business model and other elements of their company. Unless they can get past the first age, they will not be able to get to the second and third stage of the change model. This one the key lessons that is learned by the failed merger of Daimler-Chrysler.
In 2007, the failed restructuring attempt led to the decision by Daimler AG to sell Chrysler to Cerberus Capital Management (Szczesny, 2007). One of the key reasons…
Daimler. (2006). DaimlerChrysler Creates New Management Model. January 24, 20006. Retrieved February 22, 2011 from http://www.daimler.com/dccom/0-5-7171-1-583502-1-0-0-0-0-0-9296-7164-0-0-0-0-0-0-0.html
Kadapa, S. (2008). Change Management Analysis of Daimler-Chrysler Merger. Retrieved February 22, 20110 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1306208/change_management_analysis_of_daimler.html?cat=27
[email protected] Wharton (2000). Has DaimlerChrysler Hit the Breakdown Lane or Just Stopped to Fill Up? Retrieved February 22, 2011 from http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=290
Mindtools (n.d.) Lewin's Change Management model. Retrieved February 22, 2011 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_94.htm
Change management is one of the most important components in the successful operations of a company or business organization. The modern business environment is characterized by numerous changes that are attributable to various factors including technological developments and globalization. In this regard, business organizations or companies increasingly face the need to adopt changes in their operations in order to align their businesses with the industry they operate it. However, the process of instituting organizational change in complex and can hurt a company’s operations if not conducted appropriately. As a result, there are various change management models that have been developed to help the management in instituting and managing organizational change. These models help in management of planned and unplanned change in the organization in order to enhance its efficiency and effectiveness in the industry or market it operates in. Some of these change management models include Kurt Lewin’s Three-Step Change…
An Evaluation of the OD Approach to Change
Change may occur in a number of ways, reflecting practical differences in the way it is implemented as well as the attitudes of management in the implementation. The current fashion in management literature, reflecting the predominant management theories is the utilization of organizational development values, with a softer and more humane approach to change management. This approach may be seen as contrasting significantly with the harder approaches to change management, often argued as the more favourable approach, but it is not always the best approach.
In order to appreciate when the OD approach is beneficial, and harder approach may be more useful it is necessary to examine both models and consider their application. To appreciate the differences a useful approach can be achieved by looking at Beer and Nohria (2000a, p136) model where change is divided into two types; Theory…
Change Plan for SBA Implementation
Change Proposal - Healthcare
The benefits of the SBA are apparent to the nursing staff in the Labor, Deliver, ecovery, and Postpartum Unit of St. Johns Hospital Birth Center. All nursing staff receives training in SBA and it has been implemented -- successfully -- for a few months at a time. However, nursing staff soon return to the historical ways of communicating about patient care, which has predominantly been by giving a verbal report.
Benefits of SBA. SBA stands for Situation-Background-Assessment-ecommendation and it is a framework for communication about patients' conditions that is used by members of a healthcare team. The following discussion is from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (2011) website. The benefits to using SBA by hospital staff are: (a) It is an easy-to-use, easy-to-remember mechanism; (b) it is a concrete way to frame conversations that fosters effective and…
Ambrose, D. (1987). Managing Complex Change. Pittsburgh, PA: The Enterprise Group Ltd. Retrieved
Ducker, P.F. (1993). The New Realities. New York, NY: Harper & Row. Retrieved http://books.google.com/books?id=WmAsWS9-fFsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=drucker+the+new+realities&hl=en&src=bmrr&ei=ASoRTvqyIZDUtQPs4pWADg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6wEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
Golden, B. (2006). Transforming healthcare organizations, Healthcare Quarterly, 10(Spring), 10-19. Retrieved http://www.longwoods.com/content/18490 .
Kotter, J.P. (1996). Leading Change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Retrieved http://books.google.com/books/about/Leading_Change.html?id=ib9Xzb5eFGQC
1.3. Summary of argument, Hypothesis
The role of leadership styles and their applicability to the success or failure of mergers, acquisitions and alliances is the focus of this research. Any leadership study, to be relevant, must also focus on the needs of those served by the organizations studies. That is why in the proposed Change Management Equilibrium Model have customer-driven processes at their center or core. The focus of the research to either validate or refute the model is based on consistency and collaboration as two factors that also serve to create greater levels of integration between the two or more healthcare providers merging or changing their organizational structures to better serve the market. This market orientation is what many public-ally-owned and operated healthcare providers struggle with, as often the source of funding becomes their "customer" or whom they serve (Brinkmann, O'Brien, 2010). Studies by AM esearch for example show…
Abbott, R., Ploubidis, G., Huppert, F., Kuh, D., & Croudace, T.. (2010). An Evaluation of the Precision of Measurement of Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales in a Population Sample. Social Indicators Research, 97(3), 357-373.
Faten Fahad Al-Mailam. (2004). Transactional vs. Transformational Style of Leadership-Employee Perception of Leadership Efficacy in Public and Private Hospitals in Kuwait. Quality Management in Health Care, 13(4), 278-284.
Antonakis, J., & House, R.J. (2002). The full-range leadership theory: The way forward. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. 3 -- 33. Boston: JAI Press.
Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Introduction to, and overview of, transformational and charismatic leadership. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. xvii -- xxiii. Boston: JAI Press.
Using Kotter's 8 steps, the three most significant errors made out of all the change stories presented were: McDonald's failure to create urgency when it implemented its initial menu changes; Kodak's failure to communicate its vision for change; and Fiorina's failure to form a powerful coalition prior to the merger between HP and Compaq Computer Corp. However, it is important to keep in mind that Kotter's approach may not best describe organizational change; its popularity may be more attributable to its usable format than from any evidence that Kotter's approach to change management is superior to competing approaches (Appelbaum et al., 20120).
McDonald's made half-hearted efforts to respond to consumer demands for healthier menu options. However, at that time, it had not seen any reduction in profits because of the perceived lack of nutritional value of its offerings and was not committed to expanding beyond its traditional fast-food repertoire.…
Applebaum, S., Habashy, S., Malo, J., & Shafiq, H. (2012). Back to the future: Revisiting
Kotter's 1996 change model, Journal of Management Development, 31(8), 764-782.
Palmer, I., Dunford, R., & Akin, G. (2009). Managing organizational change: A multiple perspectives approach, 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill.
Parker, D., Verlinden, A., Nussey, R., Ford, M., & Pathak, R.D. (2013). Critical evaluation of project-based performance management: Change intervention integration, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 62(4), 407-419.
There is no acknowledgement that leaders may indeed be flexible according to the situation and followers that they are dealing with. Even though women, for example, may favor a more laissez-faire type of leadership style than men (Eagly, Johannesen-chmidt & Van Engen), this does not mean that they will do so in all circumstances, or indeed that all female leaders will have this tendency.
The Path-Goal Theory
The path-goal theory is one of the most flexible and popular models used in the changing business world today. It allows for an integration of various styles, personalities and situations. The components inherent in this theory is the particular path that employees are expected to follow in order to reach a certain desired goal. The position of the leader in this model is to provide followers with desirability in terms of goals and the removal of obstacles along the way towards obtaining the…
Eagly, A.H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M.C., & van Engen, M.L. (2003, July). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 569-591.
Hughes, Richard L., Ginnett, Robert C. & Curphy, Gordon J. (2002). Leadership: Enhancing the lessons of experience (4th ed). New York: McGraw Hill.
Kuriger, Craig C. (2006, July/August) Workplace change and worker fears: when new technology enters the workplace. Army Logistician
Parker, Dennis R. (2002, January/February). Create opportunities, not fear, through change. Leadership.
Kotter's and Lewin's models and discusses their roles as diagnostic tools and as implementation agents. It is the nature of organizations to face constant change, whether the source comes from competitive pressures, new opportunities, technological advances or new initiatives and so forth. Both models offer a methodology for effectively managing change.
Kotter's 8-Step Change Model
Change management models help organizations to effect change in a systematic manner while avoiding some of the pitfalls associated with organizational change development. According to John Kotter, organizations frequently make the same mistakes when they try to bring about change; they allow too much complacency or they fail to communicate and so forth (Reynolds, 2009).
Kotter's 8-step change model has been shown to be a powerful and successful method for implementing change. The purpose of Kotter's model is to efficiently and effectively achieve change management. People respond better to change when they are actively involved…
21st Century Leader. (n.d.). Kotter's eight step model of change. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://www.21stcenturyleader.co.uk/kotter/
Chapman, A. (2010). Change management. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://www.businessballs.com/changemanagement.htm
DealTime. (2000). Leading change, or changing leaders? [Review of the book Leading Change]. Retrieved from http://www.dealtime.com/Leading_Change_by_John_P_Kotter/leading-change-or-changing-leaders/RD-990772/reviews
Faucheux, M. (2009). Negotiating the advantages and disadvantages of change management. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://www.brighthub.com/office/project-management/articles/18477.aspx
The first is structural resistance. This resistance may lie in the organization's rigidities as demonstrated by their current structure.
Closed mind-sets of organizational members offer another form of resistance to change. This is often found in a dedication to obsolete business strategies. Organizational members may simply not see the value in the change to occur, when compared to existing processes and procedures. Dan Sweeney, a vice president at IBM's retail consulting practice, found IBM in exactly this situation.
The corporation was stuck in their mechanistic command and control model, a business strategy that had lost its effectiveness (Engdahl, 2005).
The organization may also be entrenched in organizational culture that simply isn't conducive to change. In some instances the organizational values can be a powerful motivator of change, however, in others, it may be a strong resistor. This is especially true in the instances where organizational members don't have the skills…
Engdahl, R. (Summer 2005). Organization evolution: The natural change model for organizational structure in changing times. Organization Development Journal, 23(2). Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Proquest database.
Gray, S.N. (Summer 2005). Tipping points: Building momentum for lasting change. Organization Development Journal, 23(2). Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Proquest database.
Schaafsma, H. (1997). A networking model of change for middle managers. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 18(1). Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Proquest database.
Weymes, E. (May 2003). Relationships not leadership sustain successful organizations. Journal of Change Management, 3(4). Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Proquest database.
Change Management Plan
The role of change
"Change is so pervasive in our lives that it almost defeats description and analysis" -- (Mortensen, 2008)
Change at any level, individual or collective (communal/familial, societal, or organizational), is a complex and challenging process that requires time, energy, commitment, and often some level of distinct intention and sacrifice, on both the front and back ends of the process. Change describes both the action(s) and the result(s) of any type of alteration, modification, transformation, or exchange of one behavior/idea for another from smaller-scale individual changes to large-scale organizational (or social systems) changes.
At any level, the process of change needs to be managed to some degree. Generally, individuals can manage their own processes of change and in many individual cases, change may happen more spontaneously. Change that occurs in systems, like organizational change, requires a more strategic (or structured) approach…
Mortensen, Chris, 2008, Change, In Zalta, Edward (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy found at http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/change/ >.
Stace, D & Dunphy, D 1994, Beyond the Boundaries, Leading and Re-Creating the Successful Enterprise, McGraw-Hill, Roseville, NSW.
Models, processes, and techniques of implementing change
Most businesses understand and know that there is a need for change, but few actually know where to start when it comes the implementing change. Change is vital to ensure that a business manages to keep up with the changes taking place in the business world. The businesses that manage change well will thrive, while those that fail struggle to survive. The success of any change within a business is determined by how well people understand the change process. There are three main models that businesses across the world prefer when implementing change. The models are Lewin's change management model, McKinsey 7-S model, and Kotter's 8-step change model.
Kurt Lewin developed Lewin's change management model in the 1950s. Lewin noted that many people prefer to operate within certain safety zones. In order to implement change, he proposed three stages to change.…
Baldwin, T.T., Bommer, W.H., & Rubin, R.S. (2012). Managing organizational behavior: What great managers know and do.
Cummings, T., & Worley, C. (2014). Organization development and change. Boston, MA: Cengage learning.
Hayes, J. (2014). The theory and practice of change management. 4 Crinan St., London, N1 9XW: Palgrave Macmillan.
A change management plan to implement a new process in the workforce to allow for a business to provide more personalized service is needed in the retail industry (Aloysius, Hoehle, Goodarzi & Venkatesh, 2018). Brick and mortar stores must do something to differentiate themselves from e-commerce businesses, which can provide more convenience to shoppers who prefer not to have to leave their homes. In other words, brick and mortar retailers need to give consumers a reason to come in—and that reason is personalized service. This has been demonstrated successfully by companies like Best Buy, which introduced the Geek Squad to provide a service-oriented approach to consumers so as to get them physically into the store (Meyer, Shankar & Berry, 2018). This paper will discuss the topic of implementing a service-oriented approach to consumers for brick and mortar retailers as a change management plan, using examples such as Best Buy…
Kotter Change Management Model
Many companies around the world have used the emergent change approaches, but many have not been able to stand the test of time. From their experiences, Kotter's model has a long-standing high reputation with flexibility in dealing with the vast issues and problems experienced by companies during the change. Toyota is a lean manufacturing company, and their processes involve change and improvements. The changes that occur in the company require them to have the commitment of both the management and leadership; good channels of communication; team development; cultural readiness and the autonomy of employees. In our case, we are going to apply Kotter's model in dealing with their H situation where employees wish to be given freedom (Cameron & Green, 2012). They argue that must execute duties but lack that freedom and this has hindered them from giving their best. Additionally, they want the training they…
Appelbaum, S. H., Habashy, S., Malo, J. & Shafiq, H. (2012). Back to the Future: Revisitingkotter's 1996 Change Model. Journal of Management Development, 31(8): 764-782
Cameron, E. & Green, M. (2012). Making Sense of Change Management: A Complete Guide to The Models Tools and Techniques of Organizational Change (3r Ed.). USA: Kogan Page Publishers.
Palmer, I., Dunford, R. & Akin, G. (2009). Managing Organizational Change: A Multiple Perspective Approach (2nd edition). New York: McGraw-Hill
Self, D. R. & Schraeder, M. (2009). Enhancing The Success of Organizational Change. Matching Readiness Strategies with Sources of Resistance. Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 30(2): 167-182
The theory outlines three stages including the unfreeze, make changes and refreeze stages (Levasseur, 2001). In the unfreezing stage, the current processes are unearthed to examine how matters are undertaken. This implies examining each phase and human interrelation for prospective improvements. The second phase encompasses the deployment of the changes and providing guidance to the team as they adapt. In this stage, aspects such as constant communication, training and support are pivotal in order to restrict any for, of challenges in the transition. It also includes a change in the organization’s policies, norms, and policies. The final phase of refreezing is aimed to stabilize the new change to safeguard it from regressing. Frequent reviews need to be undertaken to ascertain that the new approaches are being adhered to (Hossan, 2015). In the first phase, the staff becomes cognizant of and acknowledges the need for a change. The…
Leadership and Organizational Change Potential in the NFL
Organizational Problem or Opportunity
Description of the Problem or Opportunity
Purpose of the Investigation
Summary of Section Highlights
Problem or Opportunity Background
• Current State of the Target Organization
• elevant Organizational Processes or Systems or Functions
• elevant Theory
Lewin's Change Management Model
McKinsey 7-S Model
Kotter's 8 Step Change Model
Corporate Social esponsibility
Investigative Approach and Design Strategies
• Investigative Approach
• Theory Thread Strategies
• Data Collection and Preparation Strategies
Investigation Parameters or Limitations
Findings of the Investigation
Overall Findings: A Synthesis
Interpretation and ecommendations 34
Organizational Implications 34
• Implications for Decision Makers 35
• Future esearch 35
The National Football League (NFL) is currently the most popular sport with American adults, however this position is…
Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. (1999). Two decasdes in research and development in transformational leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9-32.
Benta, D. (2011). On Best Practices for Risk Management in Complex Projects. Informatica Economica, 142-152.
Business Dictionary. (N.d.). Change Management. Retrieved from Business Dictionary: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/change-management.html
Change management initiatives of HP, IBM, Kodak, and McDonald's
Although it is said that the only constant in business is change, the need for change has thwarted many potential corporate superstars of the recent past, including Hewlett Packard, IBM, Kodak, and McDonald's. Although these companies were able to deal with the changes demanded by exterior economic circumstances and internal corporate pressures with varying degrees of success, all met with roadblocks on their way to pursuing change. Kotter's model for successful change suggests that all change entails a certain amount of urgency; a period of coalition building during the pre-change process; the need to create a vision for the change; communicating that vision; removing obstacles; creating short-term wins; building on the change; and permanently anchoring that change in the corporation's culture (Kotter's 8-step change model, 2013, Mind Tools).
HP: Three significant errors
However, in the case of HP, critical…
Adamy, J. (2007). For McDonald's, it's a wrap. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved:
Kotter's 8-step change model. (2013). Mind Tools. Retrieved:
How Change Efforts Differ
Successful organizational change strategies are the key to allowing organizations to utilize their resources in the most effective manner. Many different change strategy methodologies have been introduced over the years. esearch into change strategies has advanced and many different models have been developed that will replace some of the earlier traditional models. The question then, that every change manager must ask themselves is which change model is best for their organization. This research will explore how change strategies differ and some considerations in how to choose the correct strategy for your organization.
Two basic approaches have developed to corporate change management. The universal and contingent approaches represent traditional views of change management. In a study conducted by Dunphy and Stace (1993), 13 service sector organizations were explored to investigate which organizational change strategies were most effective. esults of their study indicate that universal models…
Dunphy D. & Stace, D. (1993). "The strategic management of corporate change Human Relations," 46(8), 905-920.
Nadler, D.A. & Tushman, M.L. (1989). "Organizational Framebending: principles for managing reorientation." Academy of Management Executive, 3(3), 194-204.
Sathe, V. (1983). Implications of Corporate Culture. A Manager's guide to action. Organizational Dynamics, 5 -23.
There are a few instances were a company tried to institute a large-scale organizational change effort and failed. One recent one was with the FedEx purchase of Kinko's. FedEx had decided that Kinko's would complement its business since they had many mutual customers. The shipping company also felt that if it could professionalize the information Kinko's it would improve the company's profitability. That was not to be. Kinko's had a strong organizational culture that was a bad fit with the FedEx culture. Kinko's culture was informal in nature, while FedEx has a formal culture based on a high level of professionalism. After years of failing to integrate Kinko's into the FedEx culture, FedEx ended up taking a massive writedown on the transaction and rebranding the subsidiary as FedEx Office in an attempt to kill off any remaining Kinko's culture within the organization.
The change was radical, not incremental. FedEx…
Morris, B., Neering, P. (2006). The new rules. Fortune International In possession of the author
Goldgeier, D. (2007). A ream of culture clashes at FedEx Kinko's. AdPulp. Retrieved May 5, 2013 from http://www.adpulp.com/a_ream_of_cultu/
Deutsch, C. (2007). Paper jam at FedEx Kinko's. New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/05/business/05kinkos.html?_r=2&oref=slogin& ;
Existence value of resistance
Organization change involves introducing new conversations and shifting existing conversations and patterns of discourse. However, new conversations have a hard time competing with existing conversation and so the challenge for change agents is getting new conversation heard. This is where resistance can be of value. esistance helps to keep the conversations in existence. Although talking negatively or complaining and criticizing have been viewed as resistance, it can be beneficial because it keeps the topic alive, giving other the opportunity to participate in the conversation.
Engagement value of resistance
esistance is one possible form of engagement with change acceptance and ambivalence being others and might, in some cases, reflect a higher level of commitment than acceptance, because some resistance is thoughtful. Change recipients who are highly committed to the success of the organization but who disagree with proposed change because it threatens something of value to them…
Issham Ismail, 5th. (2010). Proceeding of the 5th International Conference on ELearning: Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, 12-13 July 2010. Academic Conferences Limited.
Yuxia Qian, Ohio University. (2007). A communication model of employee cynicism toward organizational change. ProQuest.
Paul Parkin. (2009). Managing Change in Healthcare: Using Action Research. SAGE Publications Ltd.
Ford, J.D., Ford L.W. & DaAmelio (2008). Resistance to change: The rest of the story. Academy of Management Review, 33, 362-377.
According to Liao (2006), "The companies have entered into significant, long-term agreements that give Lenovo customers preferred access to IBM's world-class customer service organization and global financing offerings. This will enable Lenovo to take advantage of IBM's powerful worldwide distribution and sales network. Lenovo's customers are able to count on the entire IBM team - including sales, services and financing - for access to IBM's legendary end-to-end it solutions" (p. 3). In addition, pursuant to IBM's five-year contractual commitment, it will also provide Lenovo with warranty services and provide Lenovo customers with leasing and financing arrangements. According to Liao, "Through this long-term relationship, customers will receive the best products with the lowest total-cost-of-ownership" (2006 p. 3). Among the company's initiatives in this final phase of the change management process were additional efforts to further support their new dual business model. To this end, Lenovo upgraded its technology to work with…
About Lenovo. 2007. Lenovo: United States. [Online]. Available: http://www.lenovo.com/lenovo/us/en/ .
Bass, Bernard M. 1997. "Does the Transactional -- Transformational Leadership Paradigm Transcend Organizational and National Boundaries?" American Psychologist, 52(2), 130.
De Angelis, a.P. 2006, Spring. Don't 'dis' Chinese science. Issues in Science and Technology, 22(3), 31.
Dessler, Gary. 2006. "Expanding into China? What Foreign Employers Should Know about Human Resource Management in China Today." SAM Advanced Management Journal, 71(4), 11.
In this system, in which we must increasingly compete for students and research dollars and create new sources of funding, international university rankings are the utmost importance." (Probert, 2006) it is emphasized in this report that these changes are of great significance toward ensuring "greater strategic capacity within the Faculty." Probert (2006) relates two key changes which have been proposed and states them as follows:
1) the reduction in number of existing departments to ensure increased accountability and improved governance structures, and;
2) the creation of a Faculty Executive based on the Heads of School and key Associate Deans. (Probert, 2006)
There are two benefits from these changes noted and stated specifically is: "Growing Esteem requires us to work collaboratively as a Faculty in new ways (for example, in the management of the A, the improvement of the graduate student experience, development of Graduate Schools, multi-disciplinary teaching and research, as…
2007 BA Curriculum Review: Terms of Reference (2007) Faculty of Arts Renewal Strategy. The University of Melbourne. Online available at http://www.arts.unimelb.edu.au/campus/curriculum-review/index.html
Considine, Mark (2007) Curriculum in the University of Melbourne Bachelor of Arts: Report of the Review Panel. 26 Sept 2007. Online available at http://www.arts.unimelb.edu.au/campus/curriculum-review/D 'AgostinoReport.pdf
Draft for Consultation (2007) the University of Melbourne - Implementing the Melbourne Student Services Model. Proposed Staff Transition Processes. 7 Sept. Online available at http://www.arts.unimelb.edu.au/staff/mssm/MSSM_staff_transition_process_consultation_DRAFT20070907.pdf
Melbourne Student Services Model (Student Services Hub) Implementation Project Reference Group (2007) the University of Melbourne. Online available at http://www.arts.unimelb.edu.au/staff/mssm/reference-group.html
Change Cycle in an Organization:
As literature (Anderson 2001, Gelinas 1998, Olson 2001, Smith 1997) refers that process of organizational change starts from establishing a committed leadership through the need for and vision of the change to taking action, supervising the improvement and closing out the change. The basic organization change cycle is as under:
Launching A Committed Leadership:
Here we need to share stories within the organization about the need of change, passion one is having for change and how change helps in past and when change did not work. We need to decide that in any future possible situation who will take a stand? What a leader will do for taking stand? Why a leader needs to take stand?
Smell The Need For Change:
Before making a change we should know very well about some issues which arises questions like what is the current situation. Why do we…
Aderson, Dean And Linda (2001).Byond the change management, advanced strategies for todays transformational leaders.
As we will see in the case studies, leadership is a decisive factor in the process of diagnosing and in the implementation of changes in the operation of a corporate organisation. IT, HR and corporate work ethics may be excellent. However, without secure and decisive leadership, the best organisational makeovers can fail miserably.
In this part of the essay, this author will illustrate three models and techniques in the change management professional literature for diagnosing organisations. ith regard to this, we will compare and contrast three different diagnostic models/techniques, including the main strengths and weaknesses of each. In this discussion, we will also examine the relationship between each diagnostic model/technique and the organisational development and political approaches to organisational change.
In the first we will consider, a great person and a great organisational management team leads change and the charge, focusing in on areas that needs to be changed.…
Aloini, D., Dulmin, R., & Mininno, M. (2007). Risk management in erp project introduction: Review of the literature. Information & Management, 44, 547 -- 567.
Flamholtz, E.G. (2011). The leadership molecule hypothesis: Implications for entrepreneurial organizations. International Review of Entrepreneurship, 9(3), 1-24.
Ford, M.W., & Evans, J.R. (2006). The role of follow-up in achieving results from self-assessment processes. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 23, 589-606.
Friedman, B.A. (2007). Globalization implications for human resource management roles. Employment Responsibility Rights Journal, 19, 157 -- 171.
Describe at least three internal and external drivers of change for the organization in this simulation.
Internally, organizational changes are driven by three external pressures, as defined by Lewin's along the three-stage model of unfreezing, changing and refreezing employee behaviors. Motivating people during each of these change stages reinforces the acquired behaviors. Unfreezing involves the motivational factor of persuading people to replace the old behaviors and attitude with the preferred behaviors and attitudes by demonstrating the need for change by infusing employees with the knowledge and the confidence that the new behaviors and attitudes are needed to cope with external pressures. (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2004). hen, refreezing means the new behavior and attitude become integrated into the normal standard operating procedures of the organization. hen, the external pressures of positive reinforcement, modeling and coaching should be used to encourage the desired behaviors continuance. 'Change and constancy are relative…
To implement the above change strategy in response to pressures, the CEO had to weight he current personnel needs, the changing needs of the external environment, the internal demands of the corporate hierarchical structures, and the emotional and economic demands of the employees.
What kinds of resistance might the leader expect to see? Identify and explain at least five of these. What strategies might you employ to manage each of these areas of resistance?
According to Kreitner and Kinicki, "Resistance to change is an emotional/behavioral response to the real or imagined threats to an established work routine." (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2004). Of the authors' ten reasons employees resist change, five reasons that were of particular impact in the scenario were: surprises and fear of the unknown, as when innovative or radically different changes are introduced without warnings, and the natural emotion/tendency for employees is to become fearful. To prevent the spread of invalid rumors, managers must develop communication plans to minimize employees' emotions of fear of the unknown. Secondly, a climate of mistrust can arise when change comes under pretense and deception and employees come to distrust their managers. In an effort to prevent such an undesirable climate of secrecy managers must honestly discussing coming changes. Thirdly, intimidating changes can cause employee to doubt their capabilities. To
Change Is Never Easy
One of the hardest things for any company to accomplish is graceful change. This is true for at least several reasons. The first is that change is psychologically difficult: Letting go of the known for the unknown, even when the unknown is likely to be a good deal better, can seem fraught with numerous perils. The other major reason that change can be so difficult for companies and other large organizations is that group enterprises require a relatively high level of stability and predictability to thrive. Even an organization that is composed of highly skilled, intelligent, and flexible people cannot change as quickly as can a single individual. This is simply too much inertia in the system and too many specific relational dynamics that have to be shifted for change to occur as quickly as can be the case with an individual.
That said, it remains…
However, this research does not stop at the idea that inertia exists as a powerful force in organizations; rather, after acknowledging the power of inertia, the authors moved past this idea (which does not account for the real and successful changes that can and do occur in a number of organizations) to incorporate "theories of organizational learning and innovation not found in the original formulation of structural inertia. The result is a broader model of inertia and momentum in organizations."
In other words, any sophisticated analysis of change must be able to account for the ways in which organizations resist change in the name of stability but also how they are able to overcome this inertia and actually effect change. One of the most important aspects of this piece of research -- and a strength that was in fact exhibited by CMIG -- is that organizations tend to resist change not out of weakness but because stability (which can here be seen as the counterpart to change) is valued by so many different stakeholders:
Hannan and Freeman's (1984) structural inertia theory offers a model of the process of organizational change that includes both internal and external constraints on organizational change. The first part of their argument addressed the probability of organizational change. They argued that organizations exist because they are able to perform with reliability and, if questioned, to account rationally for their actions. Reliability and accountability are high when organizational goals are institutionalized and patterns of organizational activity are routinized, but institutionalization and routinization also generate strong pressures against organizational change. Thus, the very characteristics that give an organization stability also generate resistance to change and reduce the probability of change. The second part of their argument dealt with the effect of organizational change on survival. They argued that because both internal and external stakeholders prefer organizations that exhibit reliable performance and because change disrupts both internal routines and external linkages, organizational change is hazardous. (Amburgey, Kelly, & Barnett, 1993).
If the need for change is accepted, rationally, then emotionally, then gradually workers will become more willing and open to learn, and to incorporate the change into the organization's standard operating procedures. Individuals are more apt to accept change if, for example, they are convinced that it will improve patient care in the long run, than if the directive is merely dispensed as required because 'management says so.'
The critical aspect of fifth phase of the change process of "learning" is how changes are introduced. Communicating is an essential aspect of 'buy-in' but so is fostering a positive sense within the organization about the proposed changes by 'creating early wins' (Campbell 2008). This will lead to an increase in people's perceived own competence in their new roles. Unfortunately, starting with easier projects is not always feasible, but even if it is not, a Clinical Nurse Leader must be particularly sensitive…
Campbell, Robert James. (2008, January/March). Change management in healthcare.
The Health Care Manager. 27 (1): 23-39
Recklies, Oliver. (2010). Managing change. The Manager. Retrieved February 24, 2010 at http://www.themanager.org/strategy/change_phases.htm
Schuler, a.J. (2003). Overcoming resistance to change. Retrieved February 24, 2010 at http://www.schulersolutions.com/resistance_to_change.html
Software quality management, compliance, and collaboration across the entire organization also need to be integrated at the process and role level with the LMA supply chain. As the LMA supply chain is very unique in that it specifically deals with prototypes often that are under covered under security guidelines and clearances, there needs to be continual focus on change management and task ownership in this area as well. For LMA supply chains is their major source of pricing competitive advantage as the company ahs been responsible for several innovations in this process area (Cheung, Myers, 2008). In conclusion as CEO of LMA the challenge of attaining and strengthening global competitiveness begins with being a transformational leader followed by concentrating on transforming compliance into a competitive advantage, and also striving to create a high level of task ownership, mastery and collaboration within and between the company's teams and outside partners including…
Appelbaum, S., J. Berke, J. Taylor, and J. Vazquez. "The Role of Leadership During Large Scale Organizational Transitions: Lessons from Six Empirical Studies." Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge 13, no. 1
(March 1, 2008): 16-24.
Spencer Arnesen, and Jeff Thompson. "ERP merger mania." Strategic Finance 85, no. 4 (October 1, 2003): 30-36.
Mark Brenner. "It's all about people: change management's greatest lever." Business Strategy Series 9, no. 3 (May 1, 2008): 132-137.
There are many things that could have been done better in order to avoid the problems that the store (and the new manager) ran into and implement the necessary change more effectively and efficiently. The need for "critical mass" to make change successful is a key feature described by Osland et al. (pp. 637) that was ignored by the manager; discussions with employees, perhaps at an open meeting, might have made it more apparent where change was needed, in order to make the organization run more smoothly and easier for everybody. The lack of shared vision from the earliest stages of the change process onward was hugely detrimental to the attempt at organizational change, and was received by the employees as an unnecessary imposition rather than a true and valid attempt to improve organization performance. Simply speaking with employees to better understand where change was needed and how it could…
There are also an increasing number of opportunities for people from diverse backgrounds to work together towards a common company goal. This brings with it a unique set of opportunities and challenges (Kosch, 2007).
Kosch (2007, p.1) for example mentions the benefits of an international camping program in the United States, where students from across the globe came to American campsites to work as advisers, cooks, housekeepers, and others. The main benefit was the diversity of cultures that enabled a mutual learning process with the result of mutual respect. The main challenge was however the fact that these workers were far from their known and trusted support systems, and cultural integration could prove difficult at first. However, in an increasing amount of workplaces, cultural diversity has become the norm rather than the exception. In such environments, H managers should therefore ensure that the various cultures integrate effectively to help the…
Grantham, P.H. And Hook, M. The Changing Role of Human Resources: Discussing the new model of the HR organization. Columbia Consulting Group. Retrieved from http://www.singergrp.com/presentations/changing_role.pdf
Kosch, S. (2007, Sept/Oct). Global Understanding: The Benefits and Challenges of International Staffing. Camping Magazine.
Management Matters. (2007, Feb). Employee Recruitment Part 1 -- Recruiting Strategies. Wood&Wood Products. Retrieved from www.iswonline.com
Schein, E.H. (2008) The Changing Role of the Human Resource Manager. Poslovna Sola. Retrieved from www.iedc.si/publications/masterclasses/masterclass_eng.pdf
Yet Arab-Americans are not necessarily hostile to the idea of greater community intervention, provided it is done to enhance community life, and not done to profile all Arab-American residents as terrorists. In fact, in the city of Chicago, there have been calls for greater police intervention in Arab-American communities by parents and local leaders, to reduce the threat of violent crime. Nizar Hasan, president of the Arab-American Police Association, believes Arab-American youth are increasingly falling into negative criminal behaviors. "It's getting worse…Some of these kids first try [drugs], get hooked, want more and look for ways to make money to support their habit, which means criminal activity" (Bohn & Schott 2009). However because Chicago, like many cities, does not track crime rates amongst Arab-Americans they are not labeled as 'minorities' -- "according to the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, persons from the Middle East and North Africa, like those…
Bohn, Lauren E. & Paul Schott. (2009, November 17). Blight of street crime creeping into Arab-
American community. Merrill reports. Northwestern University. Retrieved October 19,
2010 at http://news.medill.northwestern.edu/chicago/news.aspx?id=147319
Elliott, Andrea. (2006, June 13). After 9/11 Arab-Americans fear police, study finds. New York
The elder is expected to have learned from the previous elder, developed more knowledge and expertise, and is now passing this on to the workers that are employed. This ostensibly a function of the cultural fabric within the framework of Mexican societal mores that establishes the knowledge transfer relationship.
Therefore, business operations in Mexico, as a Mexican workforce is to be hired, are a direct reflection of these cultural mores within the rigid chain-of-command. Similar to a banking operation, the role of the employee is subject to protocol and oversight by the manager. The manager is not an embodiment of the 'chain-of-command'. In fact, Mexican office environments appear to be autonomous and horizontal rather than vertical in control.
The use of hierarchy would be to establish the rapport necessary to engage the Mexican market. Therefore, client engagements will be hierarchical with the manager-employee relationship expressing the chain-of-command as the functional…
Geert-Hofstede (2011).Mexico & Germany. http://www.geert-hofstede.com
Kwintessential (2011). Mexico & Germany. www.kwintessential.co.uk
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. (2011) Mexico & Germany. www.tradecommissioner.gc.ca/
Above all else, senior management must show belief in and a strong commitment to the change as well for it to succeed (Aladwani, 2001). Best practices in this area are achieved when companies rely on transformational or Coach-based leadership relative to transactional or authoritarian-based means
(Ash, Burn, 2003). The greater the belief those most affected by the EP implementation see the new system as a compliment to what they are doing, the lower the resistance to change. Senior management must take on a leadership role for this to happen however.
Based on the lessons learned from successful and unsuccessful EP implementations, the key success factors of enabling top management leadership to take a role in defining risks and rewards of the new implementation is critical (Aladwani, 2001). Second, the EP implementation must be "owned" by those most affected by fit for the change management program to be effective…
Aladwani, a.M. (2001). Change management strategies for successful ERP implementation. Business Process Management Journal, 7(3), 266-275.
Ash, C.G., & Burn, J.M. (2003). A strategic framework for the management of ERP enabled e-business change. European Journal of Operational Research, 146(2), 374-387.
Carton, F., Adam, F., & Sammon, D. (2008). Project management: A case study of a successful ERP implementation. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 1(1), 106-124.
Kemp, M.J., & Low, G.C. (2008). ERP innovation implementation model incorporating change management. Business Process Management Journal, 14(2), 228-242.
Changing a Promotion System
What is the likely cause of CSD's problems?
The problems in the Commercial Sales Division (CAD) aren't Tom's; they are the lack of succession planning, management and leadership training offered by the company. It can be inferred from the case study that ioglass at a corporate level and CSD specifically lack the necessary training to ensure high achieving sales personnel step into a leadership role. This is a common problem across many business-to-business (2) enterprises who highly value sales performance yet perennially struggle with how to turn it into excellent leadership (utler, Reese, 1991). As the book indicators, many enterprises settle for a mediocre level of performance when it comes to leadership overall, and this is especially the case in the area of sales as high achieving individual performers often struggle with the transition into management (Heneman III, Judge & Kammeyer-Muller, 2012).
Second, CSD has architected…
Bioglass in general and CSD specifically have to define a more effective sales planning, execution and management process if they are going to succeed in the short-term. Part of any sales planning process alone is the need for defining analytics, key performance indicators (KPIs) and metrics of performance that capture individualized and group-based performance (Rajagopal, Rajagopal, 2008). From this baseline of performance, Bioglass can better manage its many divisions, including CSD.
Second, Bioglass has no clear idea of the balance of qualitative and quantitative attributes and factors that will lead to success in a management or leadership position in their company today. Too often high achieving sales professionals are promoted based on their ability to consistently meet and exceed quotas, with little thought to how transferrable their skills sets are or how adept they are at coaching and nurturing other sales professionals to higher performance
(Butler, Reese, 1991). This is a common problem with B2B enterprises specifically, who often equate exceptional sales performance with the ability to lead (Rajagopal, Rajagopal, 2008). What is needed is a more consistent, methodologically-sound approach to defining promotion criterion for each specific management and leadership role in the company. There also needs to be a balance of qualitative and quantitative factors taken into account in defining these positions as well. In summary, Bioglass in general and CSD specifically need to define a taxonomy of the most critical factors for managerial and leadership success, then ensure their alignment to the current and future needs of their business model and go-to-market strategies (Rajagopal, Rajagopal, 2008). This is often one of the
Change initiatives in any organization can meet with success or failure, and results are dependent upon the leadership involved. In my experience, I have worked within a variety organizations, however none as recent as a technology organization of which I provide program management solutions. Management has come to the realization that there is a need for better collaboration with information and data. That there is a need for a certain amount of transparency in the information gathered. Their past way of interacting with data would create the triplicate touch of information, thus questioning the validity of data integrity and at the same time, information was lost in translation. Leadership in efforts of change management requires a deeper understanding of the projects at hand, as well as an understanding of the organizations global picture.
In the organization I currently work in, the task is the creation of an online solution to…
Boyatzis, R., Goleman, D., & McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership. Boston: Harvard Business
Koestenbaum, P. (2002). Leadership: The Inner Side of Greatness, A Philosophy for Leaders 2nd Edition. New York: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
Human beings are by nature change-resistant and particularly within an organizational context there is anxiety about change, given fears of job losses or simply being unable to adapt. It is essential to convince change agents of the need and urgency for change and also of the congruency of the change with the evolving vision for the company.
A "vision statement should have four elements: a customer orientation, employee focus, organizational competencies, and standards of excellence" ("Changing the game," 2015:3). The change should be demonstrated to enhance all of the organization's capacities, not simply improve its bottom line in the short-term. Having an effective vision statement is necessary for effective change. The Lewin Model of organizational change stresses the need for a three-part adaptation process called unfreezing, changing, and refreezing. In other words, the organization must be temporarily destabilized or unfrozen before it returns to a new…
DiMaggio, M. (2009). The top 10 best (and worst) corporate mergers of all time... or, the good, the bad, and the ugly. Rasmussen. Retrieved from:
McClure, B. (2015). Mergers and acquisitions: Why they can fail. Investopedia. Retrieved from:
Over time, from one second to the next, human behavior constantly changes, contributing to the fact that human behavior, consequently human cognition, constitutes a dynamic process. (Thelen and Smith, 1994). Communication, also a continuous interactive process, serves as the overtime interaction between the human motivated information processing system and the communication message. (Geiger and Reeves, 1993; Lang, 2000; Rafaeli, 1988)
Media multitasking indicates a user will simultaneously experience exposure to content from various media. As an individual possesses only a limited number of cognitive resources, he/she will not be able to process information at the same level of efficiency as media single use. As a result, the continuing, shifting attention results in less effective retrieval of information, as well as, experiencing challenges retrieving, encoding and storing information.
Statement of Problem
Despite contradictory indications from communication and cognitive psychology, younger adults' fill their lives with multitasking around media, as well…
In that sense, Wilkoff (1995, as cited by Weick & Quinn, 1999) reports on her attempts to intervene between two companies that had fused together in an unsuccessful mergence. The actors of the various companies persistently disagreed due to cultural differences in mindset, whereupon the consultant, recognizing this, changed her strategy. he began meeting with each actor separately and explaining the other's performance from his or her particular cultural assumptions. In this way, once each had understood the other, could both meet together and the mergence actually become effective. In a similar way, says chein, can change be best implemented when the leader is willing and able to looking into, work with, and attempt to understand other cultural patterns. History is change. Change necessitates working with and understanding the heterogeneity of cultures that constitute the world. A leader who does this becomes flexible to the change dynamic and can best…
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These are the two most powerful factors that anchor the Force Field Model analysis of the enterprise software industry. With the driving and restraining forces in continual interaction and at times conflict, productivity shifts drastically across the continuums of industries based on the impact of driving and restraining forces (Paquin, Koplyay, 2007).
Cincom is being affected by the disruptive driving forces of CAPEX and OPEX most severely as competitors are quick to create a competitive advantage for themselves by seizing these areas and exploiting them in the market. CAPEX and OPEX are driving such a high rate of disruptive innovation and transformation change that it is in turn disrupting cultures of companies and reordering stakeholder dynamics as well (Koslowski, Struker, 2011). The political and technological forces are also driven by these economic ones, with the restraining forces of the Force Field Model applied to enterprise software being led by CIOs…
Armenakis, a.A. & Harris, S.G. 2002, "Crafting a change message to create transformational readiness," Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 169-183.
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Brown, a.D. 1994, "Transformational leadership in tackling change," Journal of General Management, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 1-1.
According to a 2002 survey conducted under the auspices of NIH, ecstasy abuse among college and university students in general is a widespread trend that impedes academic performance (Bar-on, 2002). The NIH survey targeted 66 4-year American universities and colleges alike. The projected findings indicated a diminishing trend in undergraduate academic performance amongst students who indulge in binge drinking and abuse ecstasy in the process. Elsewhere, a Harvard College drug study indicated persistent drug users were more likely to miss lectures and delay in their coursework than the average student (Montgomery & Fisk, 2008).
A parallel IP esearch dubbed "Predictors of academic achievement and retention among college freshmen" projected that while certain students manage to cope with the new life role upon entering college, a good number of students flunk out of college before completing their freshman year. According to this research, 75% of the freshman drop out is related…
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Montgomery C. & Fisk J.E. (2008) "Ecstasy-related deficits in the updating component of executive processes" Human Psychopharmacology 23 (6): 495 -- 511
Planned Change in a Department
Change within the Medical surgery department
There are various factors that occasion change within any organization, some may be due to change in the operations of an organization, some due to expansion, relocation, takeovers, mergers, external forces in economies, internal changes in operation modes or even unprecedented needs as unforeseen at the initial stages. This last one seems to be case within the medical surgery unit in our hospital.
The prevailing condition at the moment that needs a change approach that would improve the conditions within the medical surgery unit and the entire hospital in general is the imbalanced ration between the nurses and the surgery patients currently realized within the unit. The prevailing rate is one nurse within the medical surgery unit handling an average of 6-7 patients which has proven to be too high for a single nurse. The other pertinent problem within…
American Nurses Association, (2011). Effects of Nurses Shortage. Retrieved July 4, 2013 from http://ana.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/workforce/NurseShortageStaffing/NursingShortage/Effects.aspx
Honor Society of Nursing, (2013). Facts on the Nursing Shortage in North America. Retrieved July 4, 2013 from http://www.nursingsociety.org/Media/Pages/shortage.aspx
Nursing Theories, (2011). Change Theory by Kurt Lewin. Retrieved July 4, 2013 from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/change_theory.html
National Foundation for American Policy (2007). Deadly Consequences: The Hidden Impact of America's Nursing Shortage by Stuart Anderson. Pp 4. Retrieved July 4, 2013 from http://www.nfap.com/pdf/0709deadlyconsequences.pdf
Innovative Nursing Care Delivery Models a.This website detailed profiles 24 successful innovative nursing care delivery models. These profiles developed part a research project conducted Health Workforce Solutions LLC (HWS) funded obert Wood Johnson Foundation (WJF).
Innovative nursing care model: The Care Transitions Intervention
Innovative nursing care model
I chose the Care Transitions Intervention Model on which to focus because of the increasing importance of geriatric care in the field of nursing. Although my organization serves the needs of persons of all ages, elderly patients are an increasingly large proportion of the patient base. The Model stresses the need for the empowerment and self-care even of patients with high-risk conditions. The Care Transitions Intervention Model allows elderly patients the maximum amount of mobility and autonomy possible given the limits of the patient's condition and enables them to stay in a home setting as long as possible. As its name suggests, the…
Care Transitions Intervention. (2013). Innovative Care Models. Retrieved:
Kurt Lewin Change Model. (2013). Change Management Coach. Retrieved:
Organizational Management Models
Change Management Models
There are several change management models that have been advanced as useful for most organizations in their daily operations. Though there are numerous change management models companies may choose from, there are three models which a company is likely to select as far as change is concerned. Nonetheless, a company only selects the model best meeting its needs after the strengths and weaknesses have been compared. Presented in this paper are three change management models; McKinsey 7-S model, Lewin's change management model, and Kotter's 8-step change model. The models' differences as well as similarities are compared; but, only one of model can be considered as a best fit for a company needing a large amount of change.
The first model; the McKinsey 7-S model is a holistic approach to company organization, which collectively determines how the company will operate. This model has seven different…
Manage. (2007, April 90). 7-S Framework (McKinsey). Retrieved January 10, 2013, from www.12manage.com: http://www.12manage.com/methods_7S.html
Mind Tools. (2007). Lewin's Change Management Model: Understanding the Three Stages of Change. Retrieved January 10, 2013, from www.mindtools.com: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_94.htm
Rose, K.H. (2007). Leading Change: A Model by John Kotter. Business Source Elite.
However, while I see that Boy Scouts has helped develop my empathy and my planning ability, I know that I continue to struggle with my ability to frame concepts for a group. Servant leadership is not about asserting power, but about developing rightful authority. ather than force a group to do the leader's bidding, a servant leader's role is to persuade people to follow the leader's path. However, it is not really the leader's path that he asks people to follow. On the contrary, because a servant leader listens to people, respects all members of the group, and considers short- and long-term consequences, the path that the servant leader proposes should be one that is best for the group. Of course, that path may not seem best to the group because of competing interests, short-term worldview, or the fact that every plan is going to have pluses and minuses for…
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Managing Change Organization. Provide a significant change place a major organization, compare contrast established change management models/frameworks implementation phase common lessons learned.
Managing change in the organization: est uy
One of the most recent successful changes to be implemented at a major organization is that of the technology company est uy's shift to a results-only workplace (ROWE). In the ROWE model, workers are judged solely on their output, not on how many hours they log at the company headquarters. This is a complete shift from the previous organizational culture and the way of valuing employees at est uy before ROWE was implemented. efore, workers were encouraged to pride themselves about how early they came in to the office and how late they stayed. Today, measurable output alone is how workers are valued. "Employee productivity has increased an average of 35% in departments covered by the program," and the…
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The open communication and team objectives will make the COA team realize high energy, renewed commitment to the change process, and openness. In this stage, the FHA team has adopted the change, and requires leadership to sustain the drive. At this stage, an effective leadership style to maintain the drive to change is the management by objectives (Bridges & Bridges, 2009). This leadership style drives people to connect to the objectives of the change process and to the change plan. I would also motivate the team by recognizing the effort in the change process to avoid complacency.
Key Elements in the Leadership Organizational Change Process
The leadership model created in the change process was accentuated with smart-power or the model of visionary leadership. In this model, organizational and project team communication was achieved by adopting the principals of strategic control, balance of constraint and creativity, transfer of information,…
Bridges, W. & Bridges, S. (2009). Managing Transitions: Making the Most of Change. 3rd ed., Da Capo Lifelong Books.
Kondalkar, V.G. (2010). Organization Effectiveness and Change Management. PHI Learning.
Martini, P.H. (2008). Toward an Integrated Model of Visionary Leadership: A Multilevel Study. Regent University, Proquest, AAT 3340923.
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Managing Human esources
Change and conflict are some of the manager's current challenges. This thesis tries to inquire into the change processes and managers response to conflicts that arise as a result of change resistance. The manifestation of conflict and the impact of conflict are also discussed. The thesis also looks into the different theories formulated to explain change process and their relationship to conflict management. Also covered is the way decision makers can mitigate conflict and bring sanity in their organizations.
Today's managers are faced with the trade off between change and conflict. Change has become an irresistible part of organization and managers must therefore come up withy strategies and policies of managing change in an order to reduce conflict that may hinder the performance and also to reduce performance gap.
Conflict is bound to occur when different individuals have different perception, opinion, ideas and thought. Change and…
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Humphreys, M. (2005). Natural Resources, Conflict, and Conflict Resolution: Uncovering the Mechanisms. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49 (4), 23-36.
Kindler, H.S. (2005). Conflict Management: Resolving Disagreements in the Workplace. London: Thomson/Course Technology.
Kotter, J. (1995, march-april). Leading Change:Why Transformation Efforts Fail. Havard Business School Review, 59-67.
Managing Organizational Change
Cincom and Accountability of Sales epresentative for esults
Cincom is a 43-year-old developer of enterprise software applications and by virtue of the designed-in nature of their applications, has been able to literally coast on a comfortable wave of recurring revenue for a decade. This recurring revenue stream is comprised of license payments, maintenance fees, and the continual need for updates to mission-critical systems the company sold, in some cases, decades ago. With the majority of revenue being generated through a recurring revenue stream, the urgency and intensity to sell which is often found in smaller, younger, and more cash-starved businesses is not as prevalent inside Cincom. The framework for change model provides an invaluable construct in which to analyze the complacency of Cincom, what contributed to that false sense of security, and the path back to being a competitor in their core markets (Kotter, 2008).
Kotter, J.. (2008, December). Transformation. Leadership Excellence, 25(12), 20.
John P. Kotter & Leonard A Schlesinger. (2008, July). Choosing Strategies for Change. Harvard Business Review, 86(7,8), 130-139.
Anthony J. Mento, Raymond M. Jones, & Walter Dirndorfer. (2002). A change management process: Grounded in both theory and practice. Journal of Change Management, 3(1), 45-59.
Michael W. Phelan. (2005). Cultural Revitalization Movements in Organization Change Management. Journal of Change Management, 5(1), 47-56.
Organizational Change in the Public Sector
This research proposal explores the feasibility of management in the public Sector as an organizational paradigm and new model in organizational development. The literature review reviews numerous journal articles that explore on the key concepts of change management strategies from a public sector project management perspective. The authors suggest that employee's participation, effective feedback across the board, and empowerment of subordinate staffs is a major step in transforming public organizations. This proposal further hypothesis that establishment of long-term and productivity advantages are crucial throughout the organization.
SCOPE AND PURPOSE
Factor 1: Need for change
Factor 2: implement a Plan for change
Factor 3: create political internal environment for Change
Factor 4: Support and Commitment from managers
Factor 5: enhancing External Support
Factor 6: Provide Resources for change
Factor 7: establish Change
Factor 8: ascertain comprehensive Change
Determinants of implementing…
Abramson, Mark A., and Paul R .Lawrence .2001. The Challenge of Transforming
Administration and its influence on organizational change. Management Decision,
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