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Chernobyl Liquidators: An Analysis of Government esponse and Deployment
When the Chernobyl nuclear accident took place, the government responded with Chernobyl Liquidators. Their effectiveness has been questioned, and the way they have been treated after the fact has also been questioned. As with most disasters that are cleaned up by human beings, people who were on that team often get sick at a later date. There is sometimes no rhyme or reason to why some of them get sick and others do not, but there are generally deep concerns about whether anyone who does become ill is compensated correctly for the pain and suffering that have occurred in their lives. The Chernobyl incident occurred on April 26, 2986, and there were many people from the ussian population that were called in to help clean up. They were called clean-up workers, but they also gained the name "liquidators." Certificates were given…… [Read More]
Some experts say that limits of 500 picocuries are harmful, especially to developing fetuses. hen we have conflicting information at this level, then it becomes hard to know what information is the best information. To ere on the side of caution, however, when one is facing harmful radiation levels, would logically be the course of action to follow. Except for cleanup at Chernobyl, there was nothing to be done about the accident. The question is, what kind of oversight was done to ensure that Chernobyl was cleaned up?
Chernobyl was not the first nuclear reactor the world has experienced. The first such accident happened in the United States, at Three Mile Island (TMI). In early 1979, a nuclear reactor in Pennsylvania was the site for the worst (known) accident in American history. Today, that reactor remains closed down, and the site at Three Mile Island, stands as a stark…… [Read More]
Chernobyl forum refers to an assembly of organizations that was formed in 2003 on 3-5 February in Vienna, which is the headquarters of international Atomic Energy Agency. It was founded so as assess and to give reports concerning the environmental and health consequences of Chernobyl (Clark, 2006).
Organizations involved in the Chernobyl Forum
There are various organizations that came in to give hand after the Chernobyl accident occurred. Their aim was to fully get over the stigma that was brought by the tragedy. Though there are several organizations that came in we will concentrate on two only.
This organization works very closely with International Chernobyl esearch and Information Network (Chykin, 2007). It concentrates on rehabilitation of the areas that were affected during the accident and upgrading public capabilities so as to manage public exposure.
UNICEF: This organization specializes on ensuring that mothers, young people and children have good health. At…… [Read More]
In contrast, nuclear systems today are planned to respond to disasters. Even the Japanese power plants had extensive fail-safe mechanisms. The problem was, that while the Japanese had prepared for the possibility of an earthquake, they had not prepared for the danger of a tsunami following shortly afterward: "all the affected reactors initially managed to shut down automatically as planned, and begin emergency cooling operations. None of the reactors, for example, suffered damage that prevented the insertion of the control rods. hen the Fukushima-1 lost power, the backup diesel generators started up as planned. But they were then knocked out an hour later, apparently by the tsunami" ("Japan's nuclear crisis," CS Monitor, 2011). Chernobyl, in contrast, was caused by human error, and the plant had no fail-safe mechanisms for even a single disaster.
hile the operators at Chernobyl may have been poorly trained, the firefighters who worked to contain the…… [Read More]
The Chernobyl nuclear disaster is one of the worst ever catastrophe to strike the world. On April 26, 1986 the unit 4 reactor of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine was totally destroyed by the explosion that was triggered by the sudden surge in the power output. Radioactive material got scattered all over the place leading to severe radiation hazard which was not restricted to Ukraine and the places in the immediate vicinity but affected most of the nations in the European continent. The severity of the problem can be ascertained by the grave environmental implications and the serious damage it caused to the ecosystem. Let us study the disaster with respect to the impact on the environment and its effect on the health of people.
The Accident (A brief outlook)
The Chernobyl accident occurred when the operators pushed the parameters beyond the safety limit as an…… [Read More]
egions of overlapped accountability and authority wanted to be obviously recognized previous to any disaster. A lasting infrastructure needed also to be in place and upheld for any proficient completion of defensive actions. Such an infrastructure had to comprise quick communications systems, involvement teams and observation networks. Mobile ground observation teams were needed, as was airborne observation and tracking of the plume. Many countries reacted to this need by setting up such observation networks and rearranging their crisis reaction (Chernobyl: Assessment of adiological and Health Impact 2002 Update of Chernobyl: Ten Years on, 2010).
Logistic issues linked with intervention plans and migration clearly needed to be in place and practiced long ahead of the disaster, as they are too difficult and protracted to be put into place during the short period accessible throughout the development of the disaster. Intercession measures and the stages at which they should be initiated needed…… [Read More]
It is quite clear that their attitudes toward the event are expressed in their words and photos, and that their hearts linger with the children of Chernobyl, the children with brain tumors, hydrocephalus, birth defects, cancer, and numerous other ailments that have been tied to the radiation that permeates the area. These children are the unsung victims of the disaster, and people no longer think of them, or their plight. These authors attempt to change that by bringing their condition to the public and forcing them to look at what still goes on inside ussia. They show how the government largely ignores the area, the children, and the problem. Hopefully, work like theirs will change society's attitude both toward the aftereffects of this horrible disaster and toward nuclear power in general. Safeguards were not in place in ussia, in fact, the safeguards were turned off the night of the disaster…… [Read More]
In its attempt to be a leader in the nuclear power industry, the Soviet Union took risks that proved to be disastrous. Soviet nuclear power reactors were built with a major design flaw, and on the 26th of April 1986 this design flaw caused the greatest nuclear energy disaster in history of the human race. Nuclear power reactors are extremely complicated pieces of machinery with a variety of safety features built into them, however, the Soviets' design had a problem; in the event of a total power failure the system was designed to use back-up generators to power the cooling system and prevent a total meltdown. But the back-up generators required a period of time to reach maximum output, some 60-75 seconds, and in this time the core could possibly begin to meltdown. (Smith 2) Soviet nuclear engineers had hypothesized that a fan used for cooling another part…… [Read More]
Chernobyl Nuclear disaster took place in 1986 in Ukraine which is a former Soviet State. This plant was built back in 1970 and consisted of 4 reactors. The plant was scheduled to undergo a scheduled and controlled shut down so as to test the generator's ability to produce electricity using the plant's safety system. eactor 4 of this plant exploded after interior energy increased beyond control discharging radioactive debris and smoke on close by cities and created a radioactive cloud that spread out to a big region of the U.S.S.. And Europe. This catastrophe involved over 500,000 workers, and over 18 million ubles. It was considered an International disaster due to the large area that it impacted negatively.
Immediately after the incident, firefighters arrived at the scene and tried to put off the fires. Lieutenant Pravik was among the first commandants to arrive at the scene and he died in…… [Read More]
Accountability for Dangerous Mitigation Efforts
When the Chernobyl nuclear accident took place, the response framework was nowhere near what it should have been. As such, many people died and many others became sick in later years from the effects of the radiation to which they had been exposed (Cheney, 1995). The main reason behind so much sickness and death was that the workers at the nuclear plant did not recognize or acknowledge the severity of the incident. Even with pieces of the reactor lying on the ground around them, they still felt that they could still pump water into the reactor and stop any further problems (Medvedev, 1991). In the meantime, there was so much radiation being released that the workers who were in the plant ended up dying within days from the heavy doses of radiation they received. They did not put on protective gear. Some of the workers…… [Read More]
For example, the EP has the right to bring an action for failure to act, and can also take action to have the ECJ review acts of the Council or the Commission.
Despite those protections, the ECJ determined that the legal remedies provided for in the Euratom Treaty and EEC treaty might be ineffective or uncertain.
For example, an action for failure to act cannot be used to challenge a measure that has already been adopted.
In addition, though the EP has the right to seek a preliminary ruling on the validity of such an action, such a ruling does not mean that anyone will actually bring an action for annulment.
In fact, even though the Commission is required to respect the EP's prerogatives, it is not obliged to adopt the EP's positions as its own.
As a result, the ECJ concluded that the legal remedies available to the EP…… [Read More]
These massive walls of water travel faster than a commercial jet as they descend upon cities and islands. The energy and force of a Tsunamis is the massive transference of potential energy, caused by the shifting currents of the ocean, into kinetic energy that active pushes the Tsunamis forward. In 2004, one tsunami traveled 375 miles in a mere 75 minutes, about 300 miles per hour. Energy however is not just limited the massive, and the mystical, it is present in every form of life. In our own bodies, energy is the driving force behind why our heart pumps blood and why we have the ability to breathe. We use chemical energy, kinetic energy, heat energy, etc. To power the basic functions of our bodies.
imply put, energy drives every stage of life, it is in attempting to find the factors that influence how energy is used and cultivated that…… [Read More]
Nuclear Energy: isks vs. eward
Every source of energy has its own drawbacks. This is more so the case taking into consideration the recent energy source related accidents including but not limited to coal-mining mishaps, the nuclear crisis in Japan, the B.P. oil spill, etc. In this text, I will amongst other things concern myself with nuclear power and the consequences associated with the development of the same.
As I have already pointed out in the introductory section, every source of energy has a set of drawbacks. For instance, while there are a number of benefits associated with wind energy, the same also has several disadvantages. In the words of Eccleston, March and Cohen (2011), "wind farms can interfere with radar, creating a hole in radar coverage affecting aviation and national security." The author further points out that wind energy is largely unpredictable. Similarly, although hydroelectric power in the opinion…… [Read More]
ritish Airways Flight 9
The Institution of Mechanical Engineers report entitled "Volcanic Ash: To Fly or Not to Fly? reports that the prediction of "ash movement and dispersal has become more sophisticated over the years. In the UK, the Met Office uses Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modeling Environment (NAME), computer model, developed after the Chernobyl accident in 1986." (2010, p.3) This model is reported to have tracked various atmospheric dispersion events and to have as its purpose the prediction of "how far and how concentrated, emitted particles will be dispersed, using a number of factors, such as wind, rainfall and particle size…" (Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 2010, p.3) On June 24, 1982 ritish Airways 747-200, Flight 9 near Jakarta Indonesia ran into trouble when the crew accidentally flew into a volcanic ash cloud from Mount Galunggung in west Java, Indonesia. The ash caused severe damage to all four engines and the aircraft…… [Read More]
Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability
This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. Given the threat posed by climate change, it makes sense that nuclear power would be increasing in share, not decreasing. This esearch proposal seeks to look at some of the issues facing nuclear power, and how it can overcome these issues to increase share going forward.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents v
List of Tables viii
List of Figures vii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Topic Overview 7…… [Read More]
In the months following the accident, although questions were raised about possible adverse effects from radiation on human, animal, and plant life in the TMI area, none could be directly correlated to the accident. Thousands of environmental samples of air, water, milk, vegetation, soil, and foodstuffs were collected by various groups monitoring the area. Very low levels of radionuclides could be attributed to releases from the accident. However, comprehensive investigations and assessments by several well-respected organizations have concluded that in spite of serious damage to the reactor, most of the radiation was contained and that the actual release had negligible effects on the physical health of individuals or the environment. (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission).
hile the Three Mile Island incident did not cause the same type of damage as Chernobyl and the destruction from Chernobyl was less than people initially believed it would be, it is clear…… [Read More]
Against Nuclear Power
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive global landscape of international relations and business today, all nations and their respective economies must be able to effectively globalize their energy operations in order to reach a greater potential resource base and sustain fiscal durability in the long-term. In accomplishing the aforementioned tasks, many nations have placed environmental considerations at the bottom of the ladder of priority. However, with countless new environmental initiatives cropping up each day, it behooves any and all government and big business personnel to gain a greater respect for the fragile environment in which we live. Terms like "emissions," "energy consumption," "fossil fuel depletion" and "carbon footprint" are increasingly becoming a part of the average global citizen's vocabulary. The future of all nations lies in the hands of those who seriously embrace the importance of such rhetoric. Accordingly, several energy-producing options have been considered and…… [Read More]
PART 2-Historical Event
A specific historical event which has added to our understanding of certain aspects of the natural world is represented by the Chernobyl disaster. Which occurred in 1986. "The accident caused the largest uncontrolled radioactive release into the environment ever recorded for any civilian operation, and large quantities of radioactive substances were released into the air for about 10 days." (www.world-nuclear.org) in the period in which the accident took place, many countries were undergoing development processes. The international trend included an increased trust in the use of science and technology. Locally, while the importance of the central was understood, the same thing could not be stated about the risks it involved. It is believed that the accident was caused due to the lack of proper preparation of the workers.
The consequences of the explosion included the death of thirty workers and the contamination with thyroid cancer of…… [Read More]
Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability
A Dissertation Presented using the Meta-Analysis Technique
Komi E Fiagbe Comment by Owner: This is exactly what I wanted to see Komi. Your literature review should also identify the 20 studies that you want to analyze to give your readers an understanding of what you are doing. I want you to email me all three chapters as we move into the next course.Dr. A Christina Anastasia PH-D Chair
[Committee Name], [Degree], Committee Member
[Committee Name], [Degree], Committee Member
This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best…… [Read More]
CISM in the Event of a Terrorist Attack on a Nuclear Facility
This research explores the impact of mental stresses experience by workers at a nuclear power plant during and after a critical incident. Concerns over critical incidents at nuclear facilities has caused public fear that was exasperated during the Three Mile Island incident. The dangers of nuclear power and radiation exposure are embedded in modern culture and have been since the height of the Cold War. Another associated fear has been the possibility of terrorists using a nuclear facility as a target. The World Trade Tower bombings exasperated these fears when it was realized that such an attack was possible right in everyone's backyard.
A critical incident involving a nuclear power facility is different from a similar critical incident that does not involve a nuclear plant. Core meltdown is the greatest fear surrounding nuclear power plant accidents. The recent…… [Read More]
A nuclear meltdown would be a local catastrophe requiring evacuation (and likely permanent abandonment) of the surrounding communities, but that risk is not substantially different in magnitude from a burst hydroelectric dam, or from the aggregate harm of continuing to pollute our atmosphere with fossil fuel waste products..
Certainly, nuclear energy requires strict regulation, careful facilities planning, and myriad other equally important practical considerations for administrating the industry safely so that its risks are minimized. However, the emotional objection to peaceful uses of nuclear power is based on incorrect assumptions about what those risks actually are, as well as on the illogical association of the beneficial uses of the technology with its destructive potential used in weapons of war.
In the case of nuclear power, the ethical considerations are closely related to the logical analysis. Once it is established that the emotional objection to nuclear power on overall…… [Read More]
Kenneth K. Humphreys' book, hat Every Engineer should Know about Ethics, is a fairly useful and comprehensive guide to the ethics and ethical codes involved in modern engineering. He begins his book with a chapter entitled "Problem-Solving in Engineering Ethics," and he introduces the reader to the topic by first posing an imagined moral dilemma that could occur in engineering: "The dilemma for our engineer, then, is whether to serve his own and his employers' interests by doing what he is told and, thereby, keep his job or serve the public interest by refusing to participate in the development of a device that will help enable activities that are a threat to public safety." (Humphreys, 2). Obviously, the point of this opening chapter is to illustrate the fact that engineers sometimes need to make important ethical decisions and that if they are not equipped with the right tools to make…… [Read More]
Geographic Information System (GIS) is a system that digitally creates and manipulates spatial areas. The system stores, edits analyses and shows topographic information that is critical in decision-making. GIS applications enable creation of interactive queries, analysis and editing and then present results. This is beneficial in management of disasters.
Disaster management signifies preparedness involving a chain of measures incorporating disaster prevention, emergency response as well as reconstruction. Many organizations federal, state and non-governmental as well as businesses, public health benefit from GIS technology. Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is actively involved in improving and publicly availing geo-processing specifications using Web Map Service and Web Feature Service protocols. OGC divides GIS products or software into two categories, compliant and implementing products, based on their level of compatibility with OGC specifications, which aid them in communication. In recent times, an explosion of online mapping applications has given the public enormous geographic information. The…… [Read More]
Sami Entry Into the 21st Century
The lives that the Sami lead are so different from the ones that most of the industrialized est lead that we might be inclined to view them as something out of history - a sort of living fossil. But, in fact, their culture is as vital as any of that on earth today and their way of life is both valid and adaptive. This does not mean that they are not currently struggling to adjust to changing circumstances - but this is always true of all cultures as the world changes around us. This paper looks at the challenges faced at this particular historical moment by the Sami people.
e should perhaps begin with a definition of who these people are. For many years called Laplanders, they are now called by the name that they use to refer to themselves. This passage explains the…… [Read More]
Nuclear energy is an energy source that has zero emissions, propels our society into the future, and provides electricity around-the-clock. Nuclear energy comes from the splitting of atoms inside a reactor through a process known as fission to heat water into steam, turn a turbine, and generate electricity. Atoms are tiny particles that make up every object in the universe. These atoms have enormous energy in the bonds that hold them together. Nuclear fission will split the atoms into smaller atoms, in essence, releasing energy. Nuclear power plants make use of nuclear fission for the production of electricity. Nuclear energy is considered to be environmentally safe because it causes zero emissions and this is beneficial to the environment as it reduces the carbon footprint (Brook & Bradshaw, 2015). However, nuclear power plants do produce radioactive nuclear waste that must be stored safely to ensure there is no…… [Read More]
This is also a symptom of ptsd, as people constantly try to find an answer for the horrors having happened. (Douillard)
In order to come up with effective treatment to combat the disorder, one first needs to understand it properly and to see what triggers it, its symptoms, and how individuals can be assisted in their attempt to fight the traumas in their past. It seems that the main part of the brain affected by ptsd is the ones influencing the states of nervousness and hopelessness. Its symptoms are basically the main thing in ptsd that prevent psychotherapists is efficiently doing their jobs.
Individuals feel either unable to understand what the therapist is trying to say, or they are simply reluctant to accept the therapy that is being provided to them. In some cases, the feelings experienced by people are very intense, and not even themselves can describe what they…… [Read More]
138). Despite the contribution these SEZs have made to the Chinese state, Becker cautions that such meteoric growth is probably not sustainable over the long-term. For instance, Becker points out that, "Technology is changing assumptions about the future of industrial labor needs. ecent studies suggest that the link between high growth and job creation may not continue forever. In the 1980s it took a 3% increase in economic growth to produce a 1% increase in employment. By the 1990s, it took more than twice as much growth -- a 7.8% increase -- to achieve the same result. (2006, p. 154).
How has all of China's modernization affected rural China in places as Fengyang?
While the major urban centers of China have enjoyed spectacular growth in recent years, less prosperity (or none at all) has flowed to the country's rural regions such as Fengyang. Fengyang stands out because it was…… [Read More]
Women and water in India. In the villages of North Gujarat in India, so much groundwater has been removed that water supplies are now becoming scarce, according to hawana Upadhyay, writing in the journal Agriculture and Human Values. Women in North Gujarat are basically looked upon as "…domestic water users while men are seen as productive water users, despite the fact that women make significant use of water for productive purposes as well"
(Upadhyay, 2005, p. 411). Domestic water usage in India goes well beyond drinking and cooking, Upadhyay writes. Dalit women in Nepal for example grow commercial vegetable crops with the water they draw; they utilize a drip system, which costs just $12 to install, and it results in a profit of around $80 annually. Without a source of safe water, the livelihood of these women would disappear. Still, women's use of water tends to be classified as domestic,…… [Read More]
They did not like the reforms or the way Gorbachev was running the country allowing all the freedoms -- glasnost and perestroika. They presented him with documents signing away his powers as General Secretary. Gorbachev exploded and ordered them to leave. They did, but Gorbachev knew he was in a grave situation, cut off from the world, not telephones, and guarded.
However, the "old guard" had made one huge mistake. They had failed to take into account or arrest the second most powerful man in the country, a man by the name of oris Yeltsin. He had just been elected as the first President of Russia, and he and Gorbachev were bitter rivals to control the entire USSR. However, not today. y Yeltsin's choice, he joined with Gorbachev in spirit and ideology, rushed to the Russian parliament and declared the supposed coup the act of mad men and threw…… [Read More]
The United States currently garners about 20% of its electricity from nuclear power plants ("Nuclear Power Now" nd). Moreover, nuclear power poses fewer direct dangers than coal-produced electricity ("Nuclear Power Now" nd).
Furthermore, nuclear physicists are working towards solutions to the problem of radioactive waste disposal. Scientists hope also to devise new ways of improving nuclear power production processes, and most importantly, to minimize the creation of radioactive waste. As waste creation is minimized and waste storage is made safer, nuclear power will become a more sensible option. Until then, it should remain a small but significant percentage of all electricity generation worldwide because nuclear power does not exacerbate the immediate problem of greenhouse gas emissions.
"Nuclear Power Now." (nd). etrieved 10 Nov 2009 from http://www.nuclearnow.org/
Sample, I. (2008). Beginner's guide: how nuclear power works. Guardian. 30 April 2008. etrieved 10 Nov 2009 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/apr/30/particlephysics.energy1
Till, C. (nd). Interview…… [Read More]
There have been rumors relating to the fact that the authorities might have lied concerning the number of curies released and that it had actually been much bigger.
hile the initial communications from the authorities advised people not to panic and that the situation had been under control, the later reports informed people that precautions needed to be taken. Several tens of thousands of people had been evacuated from the area within a few days and the surrounding schools had been closed. According to surveys done consequent to the event, people apparently considered that the job done by the authorities had been deficient.
According to the studies performed in order to determine the level of radiation exposure, people had not been subjected to life-threatening doses of radiation. The average dose of radiation to which people have been subjected to consequent to the TMI incident is believed to be eight millirem.…… [Read More]
Everything was routine until the attempted refueling.
Moran did her research well, including flying with a KC-135 tanker crew to experience an in-flight refueling so that she was cognizant of exactly what might have taken place that day. Her account of the accident holds the reader's attention, and, at the same time, seems purely objective.
Since the pilots of the 52 survived the disaster, along with the 52 navigator and spare pilot, her telling of the story comes first-hand -- at least the 52 crew's version since all aboard the KC-135 were killed. And, despite the vast differences between what the pilots told her and the results of the investigation board after the accident, Moran holds to an unbiased account of both.
She draws no conclusions other than repeating what the investigative board ruled. While the pilots described only a sudden explosion occurring at the rear of the 52 causing…… [Read More]
The First Nuclear Test
Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.
This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…… [Read More]
These proteins include homologous members of yeast. The presences of these proteins suggest that E. histolytica is skilled to perform homologous recombination, which is the same as in other organisms. DNA damage was evaluated by TUNEL assay. In yeast and in human cells, histone H2AX becomes rapidly phosphorylated when DSs are introduced into chromatin (Lavi et al.).
Studies show that histone as a protein plays a significant role in the transition between the expression of a fetal gene and that of the adult gene. The adult gene's metabolism becomes oxidative in order to adapt to air and to weight, as it generates methylated transmitters and creatine phosphate. The muscles get used to life on the ground as compared to the fetal life which takes place in an aquatic environment. Regulated proteins allow the muscles to respond in a more adequate manner to this environment.
Now, let us see how histone…… [Read More]
For the Soviet Union, the period of time during and immediately after the Second World War was in reality, yet another cruel landmark in the numerous wars, revolutions and crises which had been influencing and destroying the country since the year 1905, and when in the year 1985 Gorbachev took over the administration and management of the country, the people of the Soviet Union hoped for some form of relief from the years of oppression that they had been subjected to under various leaders, including Stalin, Khrushchev who denounced Stalin and caused communists to defect from the party in large numbers, Brezhnev, under whose rule the Soviet government gradually changed from a personal dictatorship to oligarchy, Sakharov, who helped create the world's first Soviet H. bomb, Chernenko, Andropov, and several others. (Lecture 16: 1989: The Walls Came Tumbling Down)
Gorbachev was an individual and a leader who was…… [Read More]
As the Cold War began, U.S. found itself in a war with the U.S.S.R. On several levels and the only method that could have given U.S. The supremacy it desired was through the good use of intelligence. Espionage, military, industrial, and technological developments were all part of the weapons used during the Cold War. This is why the intelligence revolution was very much needed and useful in the end.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the CIA was one of the most respected organizations in the U.S., given its role in resisting against the expansion of influence of the Soviet Union and the spread of communism. These were the main missions of the organization. As the results of having a well-organized and well-trained intelligence agency paid off and as U.S. managed to prove itself superior to the Soviet Union in many instances, CIA became the main instrument for guiding the U.S.…… [Read More]
However, the cost of construction in areas without adequate roads would be astronomical. This being said, it is not without precedent that a nuclear power facility, under the strict guidelines of the United Nations, might be set up to provide power to the major cities. Public attitudes towards nuclear power remain ambivalent, and issues with Chernobyl, etc. still sting, but the simple fact is that the technology is there (Dittmar, 2010).
What does Afghanistan have in abundance, though? Not really enough sunlight to make solar profitable in all seasons, but certainly that could work in major cities and for certain applications. Based on the Copenhagen Climate Conference, there are four major ways to finance new energy options in countries like Afghanistan that actually benefit global climate initiatives (Brown, Bird, and Schalatek, 2010). Afghanistan, like much of Central Asia, is ideal for the development and robust exploitation of wind power technology.…… [Read More]
Behrens and Rosens (2002) have an entire discussion pertaining to the effects of sleep deprivation on adolescents. College students, actually, routinely deprive themselves of sleep as does the American nation in general (Weiten, 184) mainly in the hope and mistaken belief that they can achieve more in their life this way. According to Dumer and Dinges (2005), in fact, approximately 20% of adults are routinely sleep deprived.
cientific research on sleep, actually, presents something of a paradox since, whilst on the one hand, it indicates that sleep deprivation is not as detrimental as one might expect, on the other hand, evidence seems to indicate that sleep deprivation may be a major social problem, undermining efficacy in school and academic achievement, contributing to countless accidents, and negatively impacting an adolescent's life in various aspects.
The level of seriousness of the effects of partial sleep deprivation depends on the amount of sleep…… [Read More]
Fatigue Management in Aviation
Many documented incidents can be linked to pilot fatigue. A case in kind occurred on August 18, 1993, where a Connie Kalitta DC-8 crashed whilst completing its 1/4-mile base leg. The flight crew had flown for 9 hours and been on duty for 18 hours, accordingly disrupting their circadian rhythm and experiencing sleep loss (National Transportation Safety Board, 1993).
Showing how fatigue was determined to be a contributing safety factor in the event
That the accident was, to a great extent, contributory to sleep loss was confirmed by Jim Danaher, chief of the NTSB's Operational Factors Division at the November 1995 Fatigue Symposium near Washington, D.C.:
The company had intended for the crew to ferry the airplane back to Atlanta after the airplane was offloaded in Guantanamo Bay. This would have resulted in a total duty time of 24 hours and 12 hours of flight time…."(National…… [Read More]
Earthy Odyssey: A Review
If anyone would know about the state of our environment, it would be Mark Hertsgaard. As a respected journalist, he's traveled the world for over six years getting a first-hand view of the environmental destruction of our world and people's attitudes toward it. Earth Odyssey offers weighted insight into complex issues such as humanity's addiction to the automobile, the spread of nuclear technology, and the unavoidable tension between unbounded capitalism and the health of the planet. Mark Hertsgaard's contention is that global environmental problems should be given a higher profile and I agree. ut first, he says, it must begin with us.
In his few first pages, Hertsgaard, says it that human beings appear to be at war with their environment. In fact, he wonders is we'll even survive this century before us. For some, it is merely a struggle for survival which drives them to…… [Read More]
The CDM is meant to award the developers 'credits' for supporting projects in developing countries which avoid greenhouse gas emissions (Joy, 2000). Provided that these credits can be bought and sold, effectively the price of the project is decreased. It has been anticipated that this may decrease the price of nuclear plants by as much as 20 or 30 per cent. On the other hand it was decided, after pressure from the EU, that nuclear projects should not be eligible for CDM credits, with opponents to nuclear inclusion arguing that it was not a clean, safe or sustainable option, nor a useful tool for economic development, at the reconvened Conference of Parties to the Kyoto agreement held in Bonn in 2001 (Ferguson, 2010).
Despite the fact that there are some scenarios for a nuclear revitalization in estern countries, this does not appear probable to be on a big level, and…… [Read More]
Technology and Global Ecosystem
An Analysis of the Implications of Technology and the Global Ecosystem
The 21st century promises to usher in innovations in technology that cannot yet be imagined, and the advancements to date have provided many in the world with unprecedented standards of living. Improved methods of transportation and communication, combined with more leisure time than ever in which to spend it has resulted in many people developing a keen appreciation for technology and what it promises for mankind; an unfortunate concomitant of these innovations in many parts of the world, though, has been an intensive assault on the globe's ecosystem in an effort to bring emerging nations into line with the productivity being experienced in the developed nations of the world. As a result, a debate over whether or not technology threatens the integrity of the global ecosystem has emerged in recent years, and pundits warn that…… [Read More]
It was then important to see the degree at which technology and training played a role in combating each fire.
1.2.4.ationale of the Study
What is that can be gained from this study? The reasoning behind such a study is born out of a need to provide better training for fire fighters so that fire management systems will improve and reduce the amount of loss due to the fire. By studying such a topic, one can gain the knowledge of how to better train fire fighters and how to make his or her job safer in the process. This in turn, results in reduced losses due to the fire. This also results in higher service ratings for the fire department and an increase in morale for the community.
1.3.Definition of Terms
The Underlying Causes of Fire.
It has already become a general knowledge that the majority of forest and…… [Read More]
The confidence of Disney was to some extent based on the number of Europeans visiting U.S. Disney parks. The Europeans would be visiting the parks based in U.S. As they were in America but not going to America with the specific motive to pay a visit to the parks. Therefore these figures do not exactly show the popularity of Disney theme parks in Europe. The American Disney Parks are viewed as a part of the American experience and not as a complete holiday destination. All the predictions of attendance are based on parks inside the U.S. And Japan that is also much Americanized. (Euro Disney - Why it failed)
Besides one more striking mistake on the cultural front has been the attention to the wrong details. There will be very few Europeans who will be paying attention to the leather wallpaper when they cannot get their normal breakfast or wine…… [Read More]
These experiences strengthened my decision to pursue a career in health-related profession that mainly focused on serving the underserved community.
However it was not until I moved to California seven years ago that I realized that lack of cultural diversity in the field of psychology was actually hurting the victims from other ethnic backgrounds. For the past three years, I have been working with a minority group that helped me better understand the need for cultural diversity in this field. I have come to realize that there are strong traditional and cultural barriers that prevent patients of African-American background to open up and voice their feelings. They usually express their emotions believing that family issues and problems must remain within the family alone. A person from a different ethnic background may not be able to fully comprehend these psychological and cultural barriers and hence the need arises to have more…… [Read More]
The results of the investigation provided information that allowed sweeping changes to be made regarding the methods by which power plants are run and monitored in the future.
Even given the fact that the investigation proved the maximum exposure that any one person had as a result of the meltdown was no more than one x-ray would create there were more than 2,000 law suits filed in court with claims that the exposure to radiation caused varying health issues for individuals (Three mile island (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/reaction/readings/tmi.html).
The court chose ten test cases on which to decide the outcome of all 2,000 cases. Those cases took 15 years to resolve and in 1996 the lawsuits were dismissed in favor of the defendants (Three mile island (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/reaction/readings/tmi.html).
It should be noted that the operators and emergency operating procedures (EOPs) did not recognize the accident as a classic LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) since…… [Read More]
hat we learn from this is that no mistake can be erased from history just as no reparations can completely repair damage done. Germany's inability to carry her own weight during this time of trouble only prolonged the world economy, which was badly bruised and desperately needing to be healed.
2. Democracy became the word that was whispered across the globe during the twenties and thirties. The promise of democracy proved to be easier than the act of democracy. "Democracy seemed divisive and ineffective, so one country after another adopted a more authoritarian alternative during the twenties and early thirties" (Noble 1034). However, it is impossible to squash the human sprit that longs to be free. Noble asserts, "Democracy proved hard to manage in east-central Europe party because of special economic difficulties resulting from the breakup of the Habsberg system" (Noble 1035). In addition, he notes, "The countries of east-central…… [Read More]
Actions Lawsuits in Employment Sex-Discrimination Lawsuits: When are they Appropriate?
The class action lawsuit is a somewhat controversial tool, particularly in the case of employment discrimination. In many ways, it is a hallmark of judicial efficiency. After all, if a number of plaintiffs have the same claim against a defendant, it is inefficient to try the same case a number of times. Moreover, later plaintiffs may be unable to recover if earlier plaintiffs exhaust a defendant's financial resources. Therefore, if a company has an employment policy that is facially discriminatory, or has a readily-provable and consistent disparate impact, class-action litigation can be appropriate. However, in many ways the class actions lawsuit is not well-suited for employment discrimination lawsuits. Employment discrimination, particularly gender-based employment discrimination, is frequently subtle and a finding of discrimination is not going to be based on company policies, but on the treatment of a particular individual. Moreover,…… [Read More]
Even with the fact that the philosophy is appreciated by many individuals today, the fact that it promotes immoral behavior and that it influences people to take on aggressive attitudes against innocent people in order to achieve their goals makes it no different than earlier theories that ended in failure.
Individuals who have a cultural Islamic background are most likely to favor radical Islam. However, even these individuals are apparently inclined to express hesitation with regard to supporting the ideology. "After 23 years of rule by fundamentalist clerics, most Iranians, especially the young, would like to live in a far more liberal society" (Fukuyama). Even with the fact that some feel that it would be justified for them to be unsupportive of American cultural values, many consider that supporting radical Islam is not the answer to their problems.
Fukuyama is right in thinking that radical Islam makes no difference to…… [Read More]
Film Nation is a relatively new production company that already boasts a long leger of big hits including Chernobyl Diaries, The King's Speech, and The aven. In addition to their lists of production credits, Film Nation has distribution rights to a number of movies including Ceremony and Aftershock. A long and esteemed list of film makers have linked with Film Nation to bring a film to production including Steven Soderbergh, Terrence Malick, Pedro Almodovar, Jeff Nichols and Sofia Coppola (Film Nation). Film Nation's most recent acquisition has been the screenplay to children's book "A Tale Dark & Grimm" by author Adam Gidwitz (McNary). The announcement of the acquisition was made at the Toronto Film Festival.
According to company literature, "veteran international film executive Glen Basner" founded Film Nation in 2008 (Film Nation). The company is described as "a new kind of film company -- global, versatile and full-service; and is…… [Read More]
s a resident of Taiwan, I know all too well how devastating an earthquake can be. Japan and Taiwan both experienced earthquakes in March, 2011. The lives lost and physical damage sustained remind us of nature's power. Japan's earthquake continues to be major news because of the nuclear accident that resulted, the worst since Chernobyl. Taiwan's recent earthquake was, fortunately, far less dramatic, with damage to buildings and roads but no loss of life. Taiwan is frequently rattled by earthquakes, although they are usually minor. More than a decade ago, however, our island was rocked by a strong earthquake that killed more than 2,000 people. We wait and wonder if it will happen again.
s terrible as Japan's recent earthquake was, the outcome could have been even more disastrous. s scientists have increasingly come to understand when, where and how earthquakes occur, governments have been better able to…… [Read More]
Polish Companies Reacted to Ethical Issues and Changes in usiness Standards Since the Fall of Communism in 1989?
Poland's Economy Pre-Communism's Fall
Poland's Natural Resources
Minerals and Fuels
The Polish Economy Under Communism
The Centrally-Planned Economy
Establishing the Planning Formula
Retrenchment and Adjustment in the 1960s
Reliance on Technology in the 1970s
Reform Failure in the 1980s
Poland's Economy After the Fall of Communism
Poland After the Fall of Communism
Fall of Communism
Marketization and Stabilization
Required Short-Term Changes
Section 2.3.2. The Shock Strategy
Section 2.3.3. Initial Results
Section 2.3.4. Long-Term Requirements
Section 2.4. Macroeconomic Indicators for 1990-91
Section 2.4.1. Price Increases
Section 2.4.2. Impact on Productivity and Wages
Section 2.4.3. Statistical Distortions
Section 2.4.4. Agricultural Imbalances
Section 2.4.5. Causes of Decline
Section 2.5.The Polish Post-Communism Privatization Process
Section 2.6. Structure of Poland's Economy: Post-Communism
Section 2.6.1. Fuels and Energy
Section 2.6.2.…… [Read More]
Reframing Organizations, Lee G. Bolman and Terrence E. Deal argue that many organizations today fail due to a lack of imagination. Most managers are ineffective because they are locked in a "psychic prison." Rather than analyzing new organizational challenges through innovative techniques, many managers simply fall back on the same old strategies.
Bolman and Deal believe that most managers are limited by a worldview that examines an organization's problems through a single lens. As a result, they fail to employ "different and more powerful tools" to meet these new challenges. Most organizations are thus "overmanaged but underled." Because of the lack of leadership, many organizations are losing "any sense of spirit or purpose."
To meet these new challenges and to ensure that organizations continue to retain their vision, Bolman and Deal suggest "reframing" organizational problems. Rather than the same single lens, they propose several frames that managers and leaders could…… [Read More]
Downside of Nuclear Energy:
Energy production has been a major issue that has attracted huge concerns in the recent past because of the negative environmental impacts associated with generating energy through burning of fossil fuels. A growing interest in nuclear power has significantly increases during this period as it is considered as a real solution to energy security and means of dealing with climate change. Actually, there have been concerns on whether nuclear power is the solution or answer to a warming planet or it is dangerous and expensive to meet the future energy needs of the modern society. hile some people have argued in support of the use of nuclear energy as a solution to these problems, others have opposed such attempts. These varying opinions have been based on arguments and counter-arguments that demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy.
Increased Attention on Nuclear Power:
As previously mentioned,…… [Read More]
safe working environment for employees and in addition to providing them with the opportunity to learn more about this respective environment, a CEO would have to concentrate on further educating his or her employees in order for them to have a complex understanding of their roles and the risks they involve. Through minimizing these respective risks, employees and the management can cooperate with the purpose of making the business as a whole a safer place.
ith Vincenzo Soprano having a very good overview of safety risks in the company, one would mainly have to think about ways to open employees' eyes with regard to attitudes they need to take in order to be safer. Through constantly consulting employees concerning health and safety issues, an employer can make sure that he or she is doing everything in their power in order to prevent any accidents from happening.
Having meetings on a…… [Read More]
The modern world has been characterized with several environmental issues in the recent past including natural resource depletion, climate change, pollution, and overpopulation. However, climate change has attracted significant attention because of increased environmental impact of industrialization and globalization. Climate change is largely attributable to the current energy sources, which continue to affect the environment. As a result, the search for a suitable energy source with little to no environmental effect has become a major issue for policymakers, governments, and environmentalists. Despite conventional views that nuclear power is unsuitable, recent studies and statistics have considered it a clean energy source. This has contributed to arguments and counter-arguments on whether nuclear energy is clean and safe for the environment. Despite having little to no emission of dangerous gases, nuclear energy is unsustainable when considered from an economic and social perspective.
The Case for Nuclear Energy
In the past few…… [Read More]
Radiation can be described as energy that is in the form of streams or waves of particles. Numerous types of radiation surround us. When most individuals hear the term radiation, the thing that comes to their mind is nuclear power, radioactivity, and atomic energy. Radiation, however, has several other forms. Visible light and sound are some familiar kinds of radiation. Other kinds of radiation include television and radio signals, infrared radiation (some type of heat energy), and ultraviolet radiation (responsible for suntans). The earth together with occupants are always subjected to radiation produced by the sun, stars as well as other galactic sources and from the radioactive substances found on the earth’s crust. Here on earth, being exposed to radiation is unavoidable as a result of the radioactive materials present in the air, water, and also within the body. Radiation cannot be seen, but it occurs in form if…… [Read More]
Evidence of this can be seen with the company being slow to provide information, on the total amounts of oil that are leaking into the ocean and the various restrictions that they have placed on media coverage. (Lack of Transparency Afflicts Oil Spill Response 2010) This problematic, because when there are restrictions and the company is slow to release information, it appears as if they have something to hide. At which point, the public will become furious with the company, from their perceived unwillingness to cooperate. This could have negative political fallout, as various Congressional Committees and regulators will demand all documents relating to the spill. Once this take place, it sets the stage for an ugly showdown with Congress and the White House. Where, they could seek to force the company to disclose more documents and engage in criminal investigations, as these actions give the appearance that executives are…… [Read More]
Several interesting facts surrounding he China Syndrome are worth bringing out at the beginning of this paper. First, Jack Lemmon, Jane Fonda, and Michael Douglas, the principal actors in the film, were all actively anti-nuclear at one time during the 1970s and 1980s in California and Oregon. Fonda in fact flew from Los Angeles to Eugene Oregon in 1976 to appear as a celebrity on behalf of the proponents of Measure B, a ballot proposition (which failed) that would have restricted the further development of nuclear plants in Oregon pending the establishment of a safe repository for the highly radioactive "nuclear waste."
he same kind of ballot measure that was voted on in California in 1976, and was defeated because of massive advertising by the utilities, which used scare-tactic V commercials showing a family eating dinner by candlelight (the direct implication was that the lights would go out…… [Read More]
Science Tasks (Document 2 of 2)
MOISTURE-RELATED HABITAT PREFERENCES IN ISOPODS
PROJECT DESIGN PLAN
Isopods -- also known as "sowbugs" or "pillbugs" -- are usually mistakenly thought of as insects. In reality they are the only terrestrial species of crustacean, and are evolutionarily more related to crabs, shrimp and lobster than any kind of "bug."
This evolutionary relationship to so many aquatic species -- and the dearth of land crustaceans besides the isopods -- raises interesting questions about the isopod choice of habitat.
Crustaceans obviously have a system of underwater respiration using gills. Isopods also have these gills but do not live underwater: they are predominantly found in moist damp environments (beneath a rotting log).
But could isopods live underwater if necessary, or are their gills fully adapted to land life now?
I proposed an experiment to determine habitat preferences in isopods. It would offer a representative sampling of isopods…… [Read More]