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Child Prostitution in Asia
Forcing children into adult roles can lead to a destructive adulthood. This has been proven empirically and is beyond the realm of ethnocentrism. Physical and emotional abuse of children can destroy someone. Even worse is the type of abuse that is characterized by sexual activity and sexual interaction with children. Forcing a child to commit sexual acts before they are physically or mentally mature enough to handle it is the worst kind of crime. Yet, in nations all over the world, this kind of abuse not only occurs, but is a profitable business for perpetrators. Child prostitution is illegal all over the world, but in some countries the laws against child prostitution and the use of underage people for sexual interactions are lax and often go unenforced. The orld Congress against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children has declared that child prostitution "constitutes a form of…… [Read More]
Child Prostitution and the First Amendment
It's been said that prostitution is the oldest profession. Long before people were selling iPads and iPods, Automobiles, books, and mass-produced food, and so on and so forth, they were selling sex. Now people weren't just selling their own bodies, they were subjugating others and selling their bodies as well. hile most people would agree that this type of behavior is egregious, and has no place in modern society, the truth is it still goes on today. And as much as one would like to believe it only happens in the shady backrooms of seedy inner-city nightclubs or crack houses, far away from the roving eyes of upstanding suburban citizens, the reality is prostitution and sex trading happens in plain sight. Prostitution and human trafficking are ubiquitous enterprises that have been around for probably as long as man was bipedal, and from the looks…… [Read More]
Psychological abuse and psychological neglect: Neglect is the "failure to protect a child from exposure to any kind of danger," according to Sneddon, et al., in Child Abuse Review (2010). Emotional / psychological neglect involves the persistent emotional "ill-treatment or rejection of a child," Sneddon explains. It involves the "…failure to provide for a child's needs" by, for example, being "emotionally unresponsive or passive in the presence of a child" (Sneddon, 41). Psychological / emotional abuse on the other hand is the rejection of a child, or the emotional ill-treatment of a child, carried out in "the sustained repetitive, inappropriate emotional response to the child's experience" (Sneddon, 41). A child that is being psychologically abused is told things like, "you're stupid" and "you're lazy and no good" and "you are ugly"; that same child may also be subjected to a "withdrawal of affection" and experience "humiliation" and "degradation" psychologically (Sneddon,…… [Read More]
("Supreme Court ejects..." 2002) More constitutional problems have been encountered in the law's battle against child pornography as a federal court in September 2004 outlawed a Pennsylvania State law that required internet service providers (ISPs) to block websites containing child pornography. The Court considered the technology used in the blocking of such sites as clumsy that could cause "massive suppression" of constitutionally protected speech.
Apart from conducting a legal "balancing act" between the protection of children from sexual exploitation against the protection of free speech and free thought by the law makers, the campaign against child porn on the Internet is also hampered by its "borderless" characteristics. In order to counter differences in porn laws of different countries that prevented prosecution of child porn offenders, the United Nations General Assembly adopted an Optional Protocol on the ights of the Child, on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography…… [Read More]
Therefore, although the current analysis took into consideration three of the most important countries in the world, they do not lack the problems facing each country because everywhere in the world there are poor areas and low income families who will abuse their children, will abandon them, and even torture them according to their own religious or personal beliefs. Taking these aspects into consideration, it is important to consider the three different child protection policies applied in Japan, Switzerland, and Germany in order to see the extent in which the economic development is related to the child protection policy.
Japan is well-known for the way in which the family ties and connections are mirrored in the society. More precisely, it is rather well-known the fact that in general the Japanese family is committed to their own beings and the relations that establish at the level of the family members are…… [Read More]
Child Sex Trafficking
Human Trafficking is occurring all around the world and also in the United States. This is not just a crime that is committed in other countries. There have been cases reported by the authorities in every single state. Those victimized are at every age from adults to young children of both genders. Based on federal reporting it is estimated that the number of persons exploited sexually for money or trafficked are in the thousands (DOJ, 2007). Some are brought into the U.S. from other countries and the number of citizens that are trafficked in the U.S. are unknown officially. The primary sex crimes being includes child exploitation, prostitution, and pornography (Keane, 2006).
The age range of children involved in sexual trafficking is as early as 12 years old. Those of school age that do not live with their biological parents are often targeted. Children are often targeted…… [Read More]
ut the result of child abuse, including difficulty in adjusting to society and difficulty in education tend to result in a higher rate of unemployment. In short, child abuse tends to produce the same conditions where child abuse is more likely to occur.
The research shows two vital things, the first being that the number of cases of child abuse are exceedingly high, and two, that the number of cases are increasing. With the amount of money being spent on child abuse prevention, the question must be asked as to why rates continue to increase. While some believe that the increase is only due to increased awareness, this does not hold true when you consider both the extreme rise in numbers and the rise in the numbers of severely injured children. If sexual abuse cases had been increasing, this could be attributed not necessarily to more incidents, but to…… [Read More]
Child abuse is one of the most dangerous and serious problems confronting society, perhaps because of the helplessness and innocence of the victims. What is particularly bothersome about child abuse is that it occurs in all income, racial, religious, and ethnic groups and in urban and rural communities. Likewise, there is no uniform definition of what constitutes child abuse, making it difficult to ascertain what prevention and treatment methods are most effective. For example, in Sweden, the law prohibits any physical punishment of children, including spanking. By contrast, in some countries of Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean, parents are expected to punish their children by hitting them.
This paper analyzes and examines the multitude of issues related to child abuse. Part II defines child abuse. In Part III, a history of child abuse is offered. Part IV evaluates why child abuse exists according to control theory and anomy theory. In…… [Read More]
Child Abuse and Sexuality
There has been increasing awareness about stopping sexual child abuse, which has now become an important public health concern (Hammond, 2003; hitaker, Lutzker, & Shelley, 2005). In 2005 more than 83000 cases related to child sexual abuse have been listen in the state-based reports, that have been accumulated by the office of Child Abuse and Neglect (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [U.S. DHHS], 2007). Majority of these cases related to sexual abuse never get registered or reported. Finkelhor, Ormrod, Turner, and Hamby's (2005) conducted a survey a while back in which the sample constituted of parents along with children. The results of the survey were that, in the year before the survey, out of every 1000 children 82 have been a victim of sexual abuse (hitaker, 2008).
The abused child undergoes various problems socially, behaviorally, psychologically and physically. Depression, PTSD, somatization, and personality disorder…… [Read More]
Prostitution: Causes and Consequences
Prostitution has been termed as one of the oldest professions, with its history going back to as early the ancient period. Indeed, records of most ancient societies -- from Greeks and omans to Jews, Hebrews, Asians, and Muslims -- point to the existence of prostitution several thousand years ago (Sanders, O'Neill & Pitcher, 2009). Today, though illegal in some jurisdictions, prostitution is a widespread practice, with virtually every major urban area across the globe having numerous brothels, escort services, and joints disguised as massage parlors. Prostitution is also practiced at the sex worker's or client's residence as well as in adult entertainment locations such as strip clubs. Emanating mainly from individual and socioeconomic factors, prostitution is associated with a number of dangers on the individuals involved, and may expose one to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). This paper describes the causes and consequences of prostitution, clearly demonstrating…… [Read More]
This is largely due to the global nature of the phenomenon as the Internet is indeed the trademark of interdependence and globalization. The relations and connections it facilitates allow people around the world to come together in all sorts of activities, and, inevitably, pornography is one of them. Therefore, this type of complexity demanded a thorough response from the part of the authorities both at global and at the national level.
From a global perspective, the phenomenon is dealt with by numerous international organizations. On the one hand, the United Nations has been promoting concerted action in this field through the Economic and Social Council that supervises the activities of the Human ights Council. Its annual reports on the state of children around the world have improved the visibility of child pornography as a contemporary problem. From this point-of-view, the Council monitories the evolution of national states and its elaboration…… [Read More]
international sex tourism has been a worldwide curse for a long time, the last few decades witnessed great surge in its practice as the effects of globalization, poverty and consumerism spread while advancement in internet caused an increase in travel opportunities. The racist fantasies and unusual interest in sexual activities in the developing countries along with poor law enforcement have made way for sex tourism. Though some may have exaggerated the magnitude of this immoral industry, more than one million children are trapped inside this trade every year (Vrancken and Chetty, 2009).
The 1904 Paris Agreement for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic (1904 Agreement), the first of its kind, aimed at protecting female children and others who were forced to go abroad for sex trade. It operated through border watching, supervising agencies and repatriating or employing the girls (Vrancken and Chetty, 2009). Then other national and international laws…… [Read More]
Even the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (2001), a worldwide organization opposed to prostitution, supports regular health checks, and governmental provisions for regular health checks, for prostitutes. Further, as Prorock (1999) states: "Legalizing prostitution nusually relies on monitoring practices, that decrease the transmission of STD's and unwanted pregnancies. Any way you look at it, STD's are a problem in almost any situation, but competent monitoring in a licensed service provides a certain measure of security" (p. 2). Liberator (2003, p. 12) concurs with: "There is a strong rationale for legalizing prostitution by regulating the industry, thereby monitoring sex workers and consequently the clients they serve. Allowing prostitution to remain invisible only perpetuates the spread of sometimes-deadly sexually transmitted diseases. A containment model based on managing the problem is better than an abolitionist model based on ignoring it, hoping it one day goes away all by itself."
Keeping prostitution Illegal Does…… [Read More]
Disease Control and Prevention (2016), as many as one out of every four children have experienced some type of abuse: including physical, emotional, or sexual abuse. Exposure to pornography, whether accidental or not, can be harmful to children's psychological or social development. However, coerced exposure to pornography is a more extensive form of abuse that coincides with other types of abuse including psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. Coerced child pornography may in fact be one of the most harmful types of child abuse because of the multifaceted nature of the crime. The nationwide prevalence of abuse in the United States is over 700,000 children, with prevalence of death at 2.13 deaths per 100,000 children (CDC, 2016). Child abuse is not just an ethical issue; there are proven consequences of child abuse that have been substantiated by empirical evidence in the scientific literature. Only a few of the harmful effects of…… [Read More]
Establishment owners who have been interviewed say that most of these men are highly educated family men, who frequent the establishment by day and then return home to their families at night. Women who try to maintain legitimate relationships with men find more and more that their partners are visiting these brothels and sex establishments (aymond, 2003).
Legalization Does Not Protect Women's Health
The legalization of prostitution mandates that the women submit to health checks and certifications, but does not require this from male consumers. This makes no sense at all since women oftentimes contract the disease from the men. The women are not protected from contracting HIV, AIDS, or other STDs. This is not to support that both the prostitutes and male consumers be checked -- it simply points out the ridiculousness that the policy implies. "A regulated and decriminalized system of prostitution will promote safer sex and HIV…… [Read More]
Hall (1987) examined the effects of the one child policy from a cultural/anthropological and ethnographic perspective. Her study revealed that such policies unwittingly result in a cultural change in attitudes, beliefs and even behaviors exhibited by children. For example, couples may lean toward the decision that having more than one child "cramps their economic style" and that may lead to the one child being spoiled and the 'babyhood' period being drawn out (Hall, 1987).
The author suggests that a country full of only children will result in children who grow into adults that will be self-centered and less likely to be concerned with the welfare of the country as a whole, and more likely to be concerned with their own personal satisfaction. This goes against the Chinese ideology that it is important to serve the country rather than oneself, and Hall suggests that "a citizenry made up of…… [Read More]
ritten by Alex Kotlowitz, a reporter for the all Street Journal, the book There Are No Children There follows two boys' activities around the Henry Horner Homes, a low-income public housing project in Chicago, Illinois. The book covers the time period from the summer of 1987 through September, 1989, and follows the protagonists, Lafeyette Rivers (nearly 12 years old) and Pharoah Rivers (nine years old). This is not an ordinary American neighborhood. It is a heavy gang area, a war zone where shootings are commonplace, drugs are a catalyst for crime and death seems to lurk around every corner. This paper will review the book chronologically through five chapters then provide a closer critique of LaJoe Rivers, the mother of the protagonists.
The average American comes home from work in the evening, opens a refreshing cold drink, gets comfortable on the couch and turns on the evening news.…… [Read More]
Sexual Child Abuse
Child sexual abuse involves a broad range of sexual behaviors that take place between a child and an older person. These sexual behaviors are planned to erotically stir the older person, commonly without concern for the consequences, choices, or outcome of the behavior upon the child. efinite conducts that are sexually offensive frequently involve bodily contact, such as in the state of sexual kissing, touching, fondling of genitals, and oral, anal, or vaginal contact. Nevertheless, behaviors might be sexually abusive even if they do not entail contact, such as in the case of genital exposure, verbal force for sex, and sexual abuse for purposes of prostitution or pornography.
For efinitions propose four main types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and child neglect), but seldom if ever does one form of abuse happen alone. The suggestion in itself is illogical. Physical abuse and sexual…… [Read More]
China's growth rate has slowed dramatically in the last 30 years under the auspice of the One-Child Policy. In fact, at this point it is believed that growth rate is under 2% and that the population replacement rate is at 2.1%, meaning that if these numbers are accurate and hold up, the population of China could actually decrease at some point in the future.
Hence, the One-Child Policy could be seen to be an immense success. But at what cost?
The 'side effects' of the Policy have and likely will continue to have a staggering effect on Chinese society. The sterility and abortion atrocities by the government, like the abandonment and infanticide of female infants by the parents, not only scream of a Policy that has lost its moral compass, but it has created a huge disparity between the number of males to females. This disparity means there a…… [Read More]
Spousal and Child Abuse
Child and spousal abuse is an intentional act that results in physical and/or emotional or psychological injury on a child or spouse (or partner) by a parent or a mate, respectively (Gelles 2004). In a child, abuse more often takes the form of neglect. Child and spousal abuse and violence are major social concerns today.
The extent that children are abused by their parents or adult caretakers is difficult to measure, although it appears to occur most frequently among lower-income communities and certain ethnic and religious minorities. Abuse of children ranges from physical and emotional abuse and sexual abuse to physical and emotional neglect (Gelles). Effects of physical abuse are varied and visible: unexplained bruises, fractures and burn marks. Emotional abuse destroys the child's sense of security and self-esteem. Sexual abuse includes all acts that expose them to the sexual satisfaction of the parent or adult…… [Read More]
Born Into Brothels
What issues doe these children face?
First of all, even though the children in this film are living in what seems to be (and probably is) and environment of squalor, with prostitution as the main theme in their little communities, they do play and the do silly fun things like kids anywhere in the world. But on the other hand when the viewer sees what these children are up really against in this ghastly, horrific environment, it is heart-breaking.
When Shanti says she would like to get an education some day, her eyes reflect the eyes of every child in the world that is struggling in poverty and cultural neglect. At least the viewer gets the sense that there is hope in some of these little children's hearts.
"Even if I was poor I would have a happy life," a little girl explains, adding, "One has to…… [Read More]
LEGALIZING PROSTITUTION IN THE U.S.A.
The topic I have chosen to discuss is the legalization of prostitution in the United States of America. y prostitution, I refer to an act where money is exchanged for rendering sexual services. Presently, 49 states out of 50 in the United States have banned prostitution withonly some forms of it allowed in a few areas of Nevada. This is not the case in all developed countries. Some places in Europe such as Holland, have legalized itand are regulating it through relevant legislature by the government.
My main stance on the topic is that these countries are not worse off than the U.S.A. In terms of the expected negative societal effects of prostitution such as human trafficking, rape etc.In fact on a closer introspection it may be that this ban is causing more harm to the community rather than benefits. For example, the number of…… [Read More]
Thus the argument over whether prostitution should remain illegal or whether it should be decriminalized or made lawful, focuses principally on ethical and realistic considerations. Those opposed to legalized prostitution tend to underscore the horrors associated with the profession. They point to the trafficking in women and children, and the physical, sexual, and economic abuse of these same individuals. Prostitutes are thought to engage in a profession so reprehensible that no person would possibly choose to participate in it unless forced to do so by the most extremely adverse of circumstances. Law enforcement has failed to make much of a dent in prostitution despite an enormous amount of time, effort, and money. In fact, high-ranking officials, such as Governor Eliot Spitzer of New York have made their names breaking up prostitution rings while at the same time patronizing prostitutes themselves. The conflict reveals the very real conflict between desire and…… [Read More]
Criminalization occurs when women are treated like offenders rather than victims when they defend themselves against abusive males. Criminalized women are made to feel like they are the ones responsible for situations such as damage to property, child exposure to violence, immigration status issues, reputational damage, homelessness, and poverty occurring as a direct result of male violence. We have heard of numerous cases -- for instance, where women living with abusive partners are accused of failing to protect their children, and are held responsible in the unfortunate event that the children fall victim to, or witness disturbing episodes of domestic violence. The situation is no different in the prison system, where these women are incarcerated upon conviction. ather than strive to address the social injustices such as poverty, sexual and domestic abuse, and psychological issues that drive such women to commit crime, we dedicate our attention to making their lives…… [Read More]
homeless and runaway young people is viewed by many authorities as a human rights condition that grows out of poverty and victimization, often right in their family settings, and later, in the street (Farrow 1992) where they are further exposed to violence and other forms of dysfunction..
The International Perspective on the Health Needs of Homeless Youth uses the terms "street children" to refer to those below 18 years old who live through various ways in the streets. The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund or UNICEF estimated that there were between 30 and 170 million street children and youth in the world (Farrow 1992). The UNICEF divided these young people broadly into a larger group and a smaller group, the larger one, consisting of youngsters who engaged in some economic activity in the streets and often returned to their families at night. The smaller group consisted of young people…… [Read More]
Globalization and Social/Human Injustices
Human slavery/sex trafficking
The menace of slavery and trafficking for purpose of sexual exploitation is a menace that greatly neglected or not talked about by the high and mighty yet it is a problem that ravages families on a daily basis. Across the globe, there are people who benefit from the modern day slavery and there are countries that act as source, most of them being the underdeveloped nations where poverty is high and unemployment is also significantly high. These two factors when combined, often push affected families to willingly or otherwise let go of their daughters into the forced labor or sex slavery in more developed nations. The women and children are the most affected groups in the slavery business since they are the most vulnerable in the society. Against the common belief that slavery is obsolete, the opening up of more borders and easy…… [Read More]
Patriarchal domination really coincides with domestic violence. This is usually widely seen in Asian countries where poverty is widespread.
Disturbing and alarming, it cannot be denied that men and women (children and adults) are witnessing an act that is very unfair. People should respond to this problem not only relying to the leaders but also to one's own effort to eliminate the problem. It will be of great bliss if there are lots of people who are helping the victims to express their long-endured pain. This problem deserves public attention and resources because it can kill everyone and systematically be a cycle to every generation. National and local governments should put an attention to this by forming a special task force. Task force shall constitute a wide array of persons who themselves experienced such agonies and torture. This also includes psychiatrist and psychologist to help the mentally incapacitated.
The long…… [Read More]
Women and children are facing abuse all over the world, astonishingly, in countries where rights against abuse are more pronounced than in any other country. We are going to take the case of the abuse of immigrant women and children, mainly those who struggle to get into the United States of America through the Mexican border.
It's only in the 21st century that we have to come to notice the rapid increase of women and children immigrants moving out for job opportunities.
Men, usually get work as laborers in industries of some kind while the women or children have to do odd and low jobs just to make ends meet and earn enough money to send or take back to their family. They usually find work as hired help in places like Grande valley, El Paso, San Diego, and everly Hills. (Jane Juffer, 1988)
Furthermore, women face daily harassments by…… [Read More]
Japanese Comfort Women
It is estimated that between one and two hundred thousand female sex slaves were forced to deliver sexual services to Japanese soldiers, both before and during World War II. These women were known as comfort women and the Imperial Conference, which was composed of the emperor, representatives from the armed forces and the main Cabinet ministers, approved their use by Japanese soldiers. (Walkom)
The term "comfort women" refers to the victims of a "premeditated systematic plan originated and implemented by the government of Japan to enslave women considered inferior and subject them to repeated mass rapes," said Michael D. ausefeld, one of over 35 lawyers in his firm representing the former sexual prisoners in a class action lawsuit currently pending against the Japanese government. (Eddy)
Since ancient times, prostitutes in Japan chose to sell their bodies either for family, poverty, or for saving her husband and her…… [Read More]
Not all nursery rhymes, folktales, and fables depict 'sweet' stories. The horrific images of women held in captivity in pumpkin shells and starving dogs demonstrate examples of atrocities portrayed in the early stories. Over the years, Mary Goose stories have undergone 'sanitization'. Earlier versions of the stories portrayed a myriad of atrocities. Earlier versions of the rhymes depict gruesomeness of the violence. Domestic violence occurs as a core theme in the old Mary Goose nursery. Wives and daughters suffered the brunt of abuse that included beatings and murder. Early Victorians believed that the rhymes would encourage their daughters to grow and become dutiful and obedient wives.
Nature of domestic violence
The stories present a multifaceted and complex approach to the issue of domestic violence. For example, the story of an old woman who lived in a shoe presents depicts a bizarre meaning of the text that talks about…… [Read More]
These women make outcalls, where they visit the home of the client; or in-calls, where the clients visit their homes. At the second tier are women who work at established locations such as strip clubs, sex juice bars, brothels and massage parlors, where erotic services are also included following or during, what is an often a therapeutic massage. The third and lowest tier of prostitutes are the streetwalkers who roam certain areas, are picked up by customers and the sex acts are performed in motels that cater to this service, or cars or in back alleys. For each encounter, the prostitutes who belong to this third tier often charge only a few tens of dollars for their services. These lower tiers also include drug addicts who perform these acts in drug dens or at truck stops catering to long haul truck drivers.
Legalization of Prostitution
The term legalization can be…… [Read More]
Oppression of Class And Gender
Class and gender are two separate but related concepts in the sociological analysis and understanding of inequality and oppression in society. A definition of class is "A group of individuals ranked together as possessing common characteristics; as, the different classes of society; the educated class; the lower classes." (Definition of class)
According to the sociologist Max Weber class is defined in relation to the way that goods and services are distributed or allocated in a society.
All communities are arranged in a manner that goods, tangible and intangible, symbolic and material are distributed. Such a distribution is always unequal and necessarily involves power. "Classes, status groups and parties are phenomena of the distribution of power within a community."
(MAX WEER: asic Terms)
Class therefore refers to the categories in a society of those who have access to wealth and privilege and those who do not.…… [Read More]
(2009, Oct. 4). 25,000 Nepli girls involved in sex trde in Indin cities.
Commercil sex brothels in the towns of Delhi, Mumbi, Pune nd Kolkt feture young girls believed to hve been kidnpped from Nepl, ccording to the rticle. There re n estimted fifty brothels in Pune, nd mny of them re reportedly owned by dult women from Nepl. In those 50 brothels there re bout 500 Neplese girls working in sexul slvery, the rticle sserts. This informtion comes through report tht ws intended to get the medi interested in reporting these terrible crimes. Retrieved Feb. 13,
2010, from http://www.expressindi, com/fullstory.php?newsid=55901.
Hwii News Now. (2010, Februry 10). Hwii mn chrged with sex trfficking t Super Bowl. A mn who is lleged to be pimp from Hwii is being chrged with bringing teenge Hwiin girl to the Super Bowl in Mimi -- nd llegedly used her to mke money. Fred Collins…… [Read More]
Human trafficking is defined as the trade in humans for the purposes of forced labor, sexual slavery, or organ extraction Avdan, 2012.
It has been estimated that human trafficking is a lucrative industry that represents around $32 billion per year. Human trafficking is a serious crime that violates human rights. This trade affects almost all countries in the world. There are thousands of people (men, women, and children) who fall in the hands of traffickers. The traffickers are mostly located in the home country of the victims. The recruitment, transfer, transportation, receipt, or harboring of persons by using threats, coercion, force, abduction, deception, fraud, or power is also referred to as human trafficking. The traffickers are mainly intent in exploiting these persons for their own benefit.
Human trafficking should not be confused with people smuggling. People smuggling usually involves people hiring an individual who will transport…… [Read More]
To not fit in is probably one of the most difficult things a child can face, and it happens all the time in America to the children of immigrants. It is easy to talk about "celebrating your heritage," but much more difficult to do when you are a child, and have no friends because of your skin color and your culture. Now, it is easier for me, but there are still barriers in our society, and I know that throughout my life, I will have to fight those barriers to succeed and to grow as a woman, as an American, and as an Asian.
A think, after considering what I have learned in this course, that I would like to research what I do not know about my own family history, and fill in the pieces of the puzzle. Before this class, I did not think much about my family's…… [Read More]
Celibacy and Sexual Deviance by Priests
Many psychologists have suggested that clergy who take a vow of celibacy are more likely to engage in sexual deviance than clergy who are allowed to marry. Many others argue that this is completely untrue. This research paper aims to examine these points-of-view to either prove or disprove the relationship between celibacy and sexual deviances by priests.
In today's society, the Catholic Church is confronted with two important issues regarding sexuality. The first is the scandal of sexual abuse of children by priests, which is a highly publicized issue that it damaging the reputation of the Catholic Church in the United States. The second is the question of whether priest should take a vow of celibacy and remain unmarried.
In order to fully address this hypothesis, it is important to address these questions but not regard them as two aspects of one problem.
While…… [Read More]
Sexual Assault Treatment Center
Describe the social problem for the community
Sexual assault is a criminal sexual act, either physical or otherwise, committed by a perpetrator against a victim (usually a child) using physical, intimidation/force, or emotional manipulation. Sexual assault subjects the victim to the perpetrator's demands through use of coercion, force, manipulation or explicit/implicit threats. Sexual assault is considered criminal because the act is committed against a victim without seeking his or her consent. Sexual assaults are also considered wrong and criminal regardless of the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim or the religion, culture, sex, sexual orientation or age of the victim. In case the victim is a child, sexual assault is termed as sexual abuse. In sexual abuse an adult uses his or her position of power to satisfy their desires. As mentioned earlier, sexual assault can be with or without physical contact and it may…… [Read More]
This legislation passed in 1999, this bill is one of 16 "basic laws" that are enacted in order to "address fundamental issues of the state system creating connections between the Constitution" in Japan and the legislative process itself. It clearly shows dramatic progress in the rights and power of women in Japanese society and government.
A brief comparison of Japan policies with U.S. policies: In Chapter 3, Gelb compares Japan and the U.S. On the issue of domestic violence; in the U.S. (p. 66) in 1994, Congress passed the Violence Against omen Act, "the most significant law ever passed in this policy area," she asserts. The passage of this landmark act was due to "feminist advocacy, key congressional support, and widespread public discourse," she added (p. 69). In Japan, meanwhile, domestic violence legislation called the Law for Prevention of Spousal Violence and the Protection of Victims passed in 2001, which…… [Read More]
More studies related to the impact of Internet use in various scenarios; among different age groups; comparing time spent online, this researcher recommends, are needed. Future considerations related to these and other aspects of Internet use are needed to help counter potential negative challenges prior to them evolving into crises.
A group of individuals who share through communication, this researcher concludes, most effectively answers this study's number one (literally and figuratively) research question: What is an e-community? In addition, as this study relates the impact of e-communities, the data/information consequently validates the hypothesis: When an e-community consists of positive components; constructs; consensuses, then the impact this virtual community wields upon its members will consequently prove to be positive.
auserman, R. (2003). Child Pornography Online: Myth, Fact, and Social Control. The Journal of Sex Research, 40(2), 219+. Retrieved August 25, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001963434
ritain Online; as TV…… [Read More]
In a study entitled Lost on the Web: Does Web Distribution Stimulate or Depress Television Viewing?, it was found out that Web distribution of TV programs positively influenced the overall viewing of TV network programming (Waldfogel, 2007). A joint poll by America Online and the Associated Press reports that 80% of their respondents say that their TV viewing habits remain unchanged despite having consumed online videos. It can be inferred, therefore, that Web distribution of network material can actually become a form of free advertising.
ESACH QUESTIONS and HYPOTHESES
The review of the literature and the study framework lead to the following research questions: Does downloading or online viewing of shows play a role in the TV viewing habits of University students? What are the motivations that drive these students who prefer online downloading and viewing over watching shows aired in cable TV?
It is likewise the review of the…… [Read More]
Higuchi Ichiyo's novella Takekurabe, alternately translated as Growing Up or Child's Play, follows the lives of three children growing up near the "licensed quarter" of Yoshiwara, meaning the area of Tokyo where prostitution was legalized and regulated (Ichiyo 70). The story charts the gradual transition from childhood into adulthood during a period of rapid change in Japanese history and culture. The Meiji period represented the first emergence of a truly unified Japan out of the feudal states of the past, and the young lives of Midori, Nobu, Shota, and Chokichi feature a vitality and excitement that reflects this hope for the promise of change and growth. However, as they get older, they gradually realize that ossified social structures of Japanese classes and professions remain even as the country changes on a larger scale, such that they end up following in the footsteps of their families rather than charting their own…… [Read More]
" Of course the Convention claims that children are a special interest, with the need for special rights, but in the world of public opinion, special interests are too often framed as only benefiting one interest at the expense of others. Acknowledging that the establishment and maintenance of special rights for children is merely the development of further tools for the successful maintenance of an equitable society precludes this pigeonholing, because it frames helping children as a means of helping everyone.
Nonetheless, a potential drawback of using an NGO to work for the rights of the child remains in the fact that focusing on this issue does mean that other specific issues will not be granted the same time and money, but even here one may note that focusing on the rights of the child can actually work towards improving the time and money available for other issues, because once…… [Read More]
It is possible that an individual who was abused as a child was able to recover from the trauma of his/her experience, and tried to convert his/her negative experience into a positive one by helping out abused children, with the goal of helping them to also recover and develop as psychologically healthy individuals. This kind of psyche abolishes the phenomenon of double jeopardy, and provides a counter-argument to the earlier claim that abused children tend to have realtionships who will also abuse them.
7. eflect about the idea from the text regarding, "child abuse is transmitted across the generations." Do you agree with this statement?
I agree with the statement that child abuse is transmitted across the generations, as empirical studies have shown that indeed, abused individuals during their childhood (in the study's case, mothers) had indeed the tendency to also abuse their children. Again, this statement is just part…… [Read More]
Future ole of the Juvenile Justice System in the United States
Young people are naturally prone to experimentation and impulsive behaviors that frequently result in their involvement with the law enforcement community, and police officers today generally enjoy wide latitude in resolving these incidents. In fact, in some if not most cases, police officers can release young offenders into the custody of their parents or guardians without the further involvement of the criminal justice system. Even when young offenders are arrested, though, the juvenile justice system tends to afford them with more leniency than their adult counterparts, due in part to the view that the role of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate rather than punish. These enlightened views of juvenile justice, though, are being replaced with "get-tough-on-crime" approaches in some states, and there remains a paucity of standardized models for states to follow. To gain some fresh insights…… [Read More]
Antisocial ehavior in Females with Comorbid Diagnoses of ADHD
Detention centers and residential treatment facilities are replete with male and female youth that have been in and out of the juvenile justice system for many years. Although the majority of the populations in these facilities are male, the number of female juvenile offenders is continually increasing. Many of the children in these facilities have a history of behavioral difficulties that may or may not have been diagnosed during much of their childhood.
Antisocial behaviors are acts that violate social rules and the basic rights of others. They include conduct intended to injure people or damage property, illegal behavior, and defiance of generally accepted rules and authority, such as truancy from school. "These antisocial behaviors exist along a severity continuum (Clark, et al., 2002). When childhood antisocial behaviors exceed certain defined thresholds -- the diagnostic criteria specified in the Diagnostic and…… [Read More]
Lullabies for Little Criminals
The novel Lullabies for Little Criminals tells the story of a young child who is forever altered by her interactions with adults who do not behave according to the laws of the land. In the universe that author Heather O'Neill constructs, a young girl is placed in the position of ersatz adult thanks to the poor choices of the actual adults around her. At only twelve-years-old, the narrator Baby is forced into a premature maturation thanks to lack of supervision. Her own parents, both children themselves at the time of her birth are either dead or completely incapable of being any kind of functional parental figure. Rather than a story of an empathetic set of characters, O'Neill creates a reflection of a real issue in modern American, or in this case Canadian, society. Not only is Baby's story tragic, but it is a probable situation particularly…… [Read More]
But as for the modern version of ARTEK, the writer claims "...the camp has little in common with the ideology that reigned at ARTEK in Soviet times... [and] is similar to boy and girl scout camps in the est."
Indeed, Bransten writes that during the 80th anniversary of ARTEK (August 18, 2005), show business stars like soccer player Andrei Shevchenko and pop music star Ruslana along with movie star (of Ukrainian origin) Milla Jovovich arrived for the celebration. Also attending: Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko, Polish President Aleksander Kwasniewski, Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili, and Lithuanian President Valdas Adamkus.
Tim Jackson, a British electronics professional and technical programmer visited ARTEK Pioneer Camp in August 1965, when the camp was still under the control of course of the Communist Soviet Union authorities. On his eb site Jackson write poignantly about his stay at ARTEK. He remembers boarding a bus in Simferopol and saying…… [Read More]
That the story begins with a description of life fifteen years previous, and includes her origin story (how she lost her teeth, how she was connected to the Compsons, her relationship with Jubah and as a whore, all formed a mosaic - each element being singular and symbolic of a much larger reality for the black southerner.
Greg Barnhisel, in his critical essay on "That Evening Sun," observed that, "Faulkner rarely hit upon a more effective combination of the dark side of history and of individual human drives than he did with "That Evening Sun."
In this story, the two combine, and a young boy who is rapidly approaching maturity must puzzle together what is happening and what his own place in the impending tragedy might be....Quentin, from his unique perspective, gives the reader simply information, not interpretation, for the majority of the story, (Barnheisel, npag)
The totality of the…… [Read More]
Fass does a remarkable job of pointing out how during the 1920s acute transformation was occurring within the United States. Fass uses Flappers to demonstrate the problem of youth, and shows how flappers were associated with sex, frivolity, licentiousness and the general lack of regard for order characterized by most young people at the time (Fass, 260).
Fass does not however suggest that total disorder reined supreme, pointing out that many students for example took heed of traditional social norms including the prohibition of drinking, where students recognized "a clear code of limitation on drinking" and respected them by and large (Fass, 316). However this held for only the early part of the 1920s, and social order did again begin to shift away from propriety as "youth's behavior and attitudes reflected a common unofficial standard among adults" (Fass, 316).
Most striking in this work is Fass's knowledgeable account of youth…… [Read More]
Career in Prostitution
'CHOOSING' A CAEE IN POSTITUTION
Criminality, Sex, and Work
'Choosing' a Career in Prostitution
'Choosing' a Career in Prostitution
The concept of 'career' has been defined by economists as "… the means through which human capital is accrued through experience and education" (Murphy and Venkatesh, 2006, p. 132). Sociologists on the other hand, propose that the definition of 'career' also includes nurturing a positive social role. Mainstream America would probably define 'career' using both these concepts, in addition to others. For example, most Americans would probably include a significant degree of choice and commitment to a specific type of occupation.
While most Americans would probably not imagine crime as a possible career choice, many of the same core concepts of 'career' seem to be present when speaking of drug dealers, thieves, and prostitutes, as they are depicted in the HBO television series The Wire (Simon, 2002-2008). On…… [Read More]
Person: Single mom, who lost custody over her children, has sex with multiple male partners, asks for money afterwards, and denies that she is prostitute because she doesn't charge money up front. The mother is hypercritical and unloving and her father has been an absent figure in her life. Her stepfather abused her.
Cognitive self-regulation theory, fashioned by Bandura, believes that human behavior is motivated and regulated by the influence that one has over the self. This self-influence works through three key mechanisms: monitoring one's behavior, causes of one's behavior, and the effects of that behavior; judging one's behavior in contrast to personal standards; and regulating the feelings / moods (affect) of one's conduct / behavior. Higher goals lead to enhanced behavior and this results in a certain mindset. Self-regulation is continuous and never-ending. And is also effectuated by self-reinforcement that result in self-efficacy. It is intentional and…… [Read More]
The lack of authority over the slave woman's body is exemplified by an 1850 daguerrotype of a young slave woman named Delia, found in the photo history of the era at the Peabody Museum (Sterling and ashington18). Delia was a slave girl in Columbia, South Carolina, and belonged to an owner named B.F. Taylor (18). She was "ordered" to pose partially dressed, nude to her waist (in the picture in Sterling's book), for purposes of "scientific studies (18-19)." The photographer, Louis Agassiz, a Harvard University professor, wanted to "study the anatomical details of the 'African race' to bolster his theory that blacks were a separate species, separately created (19)." As the authors of the book, e Are Your Sisters: Black omen in the Nineteenth Century, Dorothy Sterling and Mary Helen ashington (1997) note that Delia no doubt experienced humiliation during the photo session, but the photograph portrays a young…… [Read More]
Origin of the Topic
The most common origin of virginity is derived from Christianity. Christianity teaches that sex before marriage is wrong. Sex should only occur between a man and a woman who are married. Sex outside of marriage is considered an abomination to God. The Bible states that when a man leaves home, he should cleave unto his wife and they shall become one flesh.
Impact on Male and Female Sexuality
Phone sex, masturbation, and sensual massages are just a few activities in which couples can participate together without risking the loss of virginity. Sensual massages release endorphins that enhance moods so that the receiving individual is left satisfied with just being touched. Many people might find these activities embarrassing or unusual, but if you cannot engage in such activities with your partner, why would you commit to having a sexual relationship or marriage? It would take a…… [Read More]
Prostitution and Feminism: Questions for a Modern Society
In answer to the question of whether prostitution is just another line of work, the most comprehensive and simplest answer is to say, no, it is not. The reason for this is that there are too many complexities associated with prostitution -- not just ethical and moral issues -- but also social, legal, economic, political, safety, and theoretical issues that color the sex industry. True, one could argue that any field of labor or industry could be discussed using the same terms, but the issue with prostitution is that it is a term that can be used without being properly defined. As Hallie Rose Liberto points out, when feminists discuss prostitution, they are discussing much more than the sex trade: they are discussing women's rights, women's alienation, women's health, and women's equality.[footnoteRef:1] Because the issue is those so charged with underlying meanings,…… [Read More]
This memorandum is an analysis of the P&E issues raised by proposed legislative changes regarding criminal sexual behavior, as well as so-called "vices" and other related conduct. The purpose of this analysis is to define a coherent set of public policy objectives characterizing all legislative changes supported by the Fictitious State Governor's Office.
Upgrading penal classification of Solicitation/Prostitution misdemeanors and increasing sentences and fines associated with all Solicitation/Prostitution felonies.
This committee does not recommend enacting any of the proposed penal upgrades across the board as set forth. We recommend re-evaluating current "vice" policy regarding violations of existing
Solicitation/Prostitution statutes in order that funds for law enforcement and prosecution efforts be redirected and channeled more specifically toward violations that most affect "quality of life" issues for lawful citizens of Fictitious State.
Both anecdotal evidence and documented statistical information available from the seventeen counties in Nevada where prostitution…… [Read More]
Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…… [Read More]
They may be sold to another owner after they arrive, and since most agreements are verbal, they are easily broken. Another startling fact in human trafficking is how many victims enter the trade willingly, because of the need to provide income for their families. esearchers Cwikel and Hoban note this is especially true in ussia, where many former Soviet Union countries have privatized education and health care facilities. ussian women often enter the sex trade via trafficking as a way to earn wages for education and health care expenses for the rest of their family. Often, victims come from poor, third-world countries. esearcher Miller states, "Desperate and gullible populations, especially in developing and transitioning countries, are susceptible to the promises made by recruiters (including family members) of a better life in another place, especially promises of paid work, marriage, or domestic service" (Miller). Thus, the practice preys on the most…… [Read More]
Victorian Period Literature- Status of Women
Women in English literature have always found a subservient place akin to that of a second-class citizen. It was more pronounced in the Victorian period when it was believed that marriage was the only possible career for women. They were expected to prepare themselves for courtship, make themselves skillful enough to be liked by men and finally land themselves a good husband. That was the be-all and end-all of their lives. However not everyone subscribed to that viewpoint and some tried to raise a voice against the status of women in the society and how it was contributing to their poor standard of lives and deteriorating lot. Interestingly one such person was Elizabeth Barrett Browning whose ballad "Lord Walter's Wife" was refused publication in 1861 on the grounds that it could lead to public outcry since it talked of man's love for a woman.…… [Read More]
Trafficking and Prostitution in the Developing orld
The world can be a harsh place, especially if you live in a developing nation, and especially if you are a woman. Lack of food and adequate housing, lack of access to good educational and medical facilities, an oppressive, often male-dominated social system - these are just some of the problems faced by millions of women each and every day of their lives. For most there is no hope of escape. Each new dawn brings with it the same sense of despair; the same feeling that one is a prisoner of one's fate. Change is slow in the developing world. Progress, if it comes at all, comes only very gradually, painfully, and often at a high price. Many of the nations of the Third orld were only recently communist, or colonies of the estern powers. Many still have one foot in…… [Read More]
Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.
Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…… [Read More]