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To the extent possible, childhood educators should try to identify the learning styles of their individual students so that they can help them maximize their absorption of subject matter in accordance with their fullest and truest intellectual potential instead of allowing their maximum progress and most positive long-term attitude toward education (Lloyd, 2005). Having studied learning theory and educational psychology, I am confident that I will be able to fulfill this responsibility as a childhood educator.
Future Career-elated Skills and Experience
One of the most interesting aspects of educational theory that I have encountered in my studies relates to the concept of Multiple Intelligences introduced by Harvard School of Education theorist Howard Gardner (2006). Early childhood education is actually the perfect opportunity to apply that theory (together with other learning theories) to determine each child's greatest potential academic strengths and weaknesses (Gardner, 2006). My familiarity with Gardner's work is only…
Gardner, H. (2006). The Disciplined Mind: Beyond Facts and Standardized Tests:
The K-12 Education That Every Child Deserves. New York: Penguin Putnam.
Lloyd, S. "Evidence-based educational methods." Educational Psychology in Practice,
Vol. 21, No. 3; (2005): 252-253.
Your props and games should have some connection to the software and the lessons and CDs should be easily accessible. Finally, you should use an appropriate desktop management program such as InternetSafe or KidDesk.
3. Imagine that you're interviewing for a position as a preschool teacher and are speaking with the program Director. Explain the second component of the Creative Curriculum to the program director and describe how it will help you to promote children's development and learning.
I am a firm believer in the Creative Curriculum approach and I hope to implement it to promote optimal student learning and educational experience at this institution. In particular, I have found that the second component, the Learning Environment, is tremendously important because it is crucial that we meet all of the developmental needs of all of our students. Toward that end, the learning environment must be a safe and comfortable place…
Men are now moving towards engaging in more child care within the family structure. This is not yet adequately reflected in early childhood education, in teacher recruitment, and in most district employment practice. Society continues to evolve, men are more actively engaged in caring for their own children; yet the early childhood workforce seems stuck in the 1970s family model.
During their formative years of early learning and development, children 0-5 years are placed for up to 50 hours per week in childcare environment for education -- in an almost exclusively female environment. Children's time with adult males and their contact with positive male role models in the family/community is thus reduced. This is exacerbated with the high rate of divorce in the developed world, and the fact than many children grow up with no male figures in their lives (Sumison, 2005).
Most early childhood programs have goals of teaching…
Women have more career choices open to them, thus are not always inclined to teach at the preschool or elementary level. It is more difficult to find qualified teachers, and school systems should actively engage in finding the best fit.
Within developed countries, the high concentration of women in any single occupation, including early childhood teaching, is problematic for women's overall economic and career advancement. The clustering of women in a narrow range of traditionally female-intensive lower-paying occupations has been noted to be a problem by government agencies concerned about women's equality and status in their work. But there is also a lack of awareness of the negative consequences of the early childhood profession, in particular, continuing to be strongly protected for females (Farquhar, et.al., 2006).
As noted, males teaching young children, even grades 1-3, is a relatively rare occurrence in contemporary education. However, since the 1960s, traditional gender-based practices have been questioned more and more, partially due to a more egalitarian workforce and cultural bias, partially as a backlash to the feminist movement. The study under review was launched in 1998 with several objectives: 1) to provide a more robust understanding of the issues male students experience when enrolling in early childhood programs; 2) to provide a support network among males who have already
Early childhood education is instrumental in a child’s life because it facilitates the developmental process. Children learn to develop relationships outside their immediate family; they acquire language, reading, mathematics and science skills even if on only a rudimentary fundamental level; and they begin the process of self-actualization, even at this young age. Early childhood education impacts the child be providing a safe and stable environment in which the child can explore, learn, interact with teachers and peers and observe model behavior that can shape the child’s psychological and behavioral development. Early childhood education impacts society by providing a foundation for life-long learning at an early age that can carry over throughout the years as the child grows.
Families benefit from early childhood education by being given educational support and training that can ease them of the burden of providing lessons for their children and leave it in the hands of…
What contribution to the understanding of early childhood development did this theorist make?
Jean Piaget has been one of the most influential early childhood and developmental psychologists. Focusing primarily on childhood cognitive development, Piaget hypothesized that children used different logical schemas than adults, and also that children progress through stages of cognitive development as they acquire new knowledge from the world around them and incorporate that information into their mental constructs (McLeod, 2018). The four stages of cognitive development Piaget proposed include the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operational stage. Piaget contributed tremendous understanding to how children adapt to new stimuli and changes in their environment, through the assimilation of new concepts into their schemas, the accommodation for potentially conflicting ideas or objects within those same schemas, and through the achievement of cognitive equilibrium as each individual progresses through the various stages of…
Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."
As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.
This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…
Brandon, Thomas H.; Herzog, Thaddeus a.; Irvin, Jennifer E.; & Gwaltney, Chad J. (2004).
Cognitive and social learning models of drug dependence; implications for the assessment of Tobacco dependence in adolescents. Addiction, 99(1), 51-77.
Center on English Learning and Achievement. (2002). Scaffolding Student Performance of New and Difficult Tasks. Retrieved March 10, 2007, at http://cela.albany.edu/newslet/fall02/scaffolding.htm.
Demant, Meagan S, & Yates, Gregory C.R. (2003). Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Direct Instruction Construct. Educational Psychology, 23(5), 483-489.
A two-year degree can offer an affordable foundation towards a Bachelor's degree through a community college, however, it is important to have students take courses that can easily transfer to a university when the time comes. Educators and administrators should be mindful of the importance of guiding students to choose courses wisely with a focus on transferring.
What it all Means
The changes are here to stay. Students with Bachelor's degrees are more economically successful than those who do not attain them. esearch concludes that the disparity between incomes of those who are educated and those who are not, is only going to get wider until there is serious class distinction between the two lifestyles.
Educators nationwide can work to bridge that gap at every level of education. Those charged with educating grades kindergarten through high school, need to focus on learning styles, and the importance of teaching students how…
Becker, Christine (2004) Panel examines link between jobs, education.
Nation's Cities Weekly "
Bernake, Harold (2007) RPT - Bernanke: Education Will Cut Income Gap
Conversely, where the exhibit is actively incorporated into a lesson on the moral basis for sensitivity to animals, the existing educational environment contributes to the formation of a moral conscience even where direction of that kind is lacking at home.
In very much the same way, the preschool and primary grade school environment is conducive to teaching other important moral values that are often postponed until much later, despite the fact that early introduction to those concepts is much more likely to result in their absorption than later introduction. acism, sexism, and other forms of bias that are no longer condoned in American society are also capable of being addressed in the preschool years so that those important lessons take root before contradictory messages are received from the external environment.
Informal Assessment of Social and Emotional Well-being in Children:
All too often, educators and other caregivers perform their professional responsibilities…
Bimonte, R. (2005) "If your class were optional, would anyone attend?" Momentum, 36(4), 6.
Byerly, S. (2001). "Linking classroom teaching to the real world through experiential instruction." Phi Delta Kappan, 82(9), 697.
Cookson, P. (2005). "The enriched classroom." Education Module, 35(4), 10.
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
The idea of developmentally appropriate practices was made popular by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) when the published their Position Statement on Developmentally Appropriate Practices in Early Childhood Programs in 1987. NAEYC developed this position statement in order to support its early childhood program accreditation system, which recognizes and sanctions programs that offer appropriate early childhood practices. Because of this system, early childhood educators can have a clear idea of suitable early childhood practices. This way they might not use inappropriate developmental and academic expectations to prepare children for public school kindergarten programs (Houser and Osborne, n.d.).
Having regulations such as the CA State licensing egulations, Title 22, helps to make sure that all of the fundamental elements of DAP and NAYEC are in place and are supporting the early childhood programs philosophies. These regulations are needed in order to make sure that quality…
Accreditation of Programs for Young Children. (n.d.). Retrieved May 12, 2010, from NAEYC
Web site: http://www.naeyc.org/academy/
Bolen, Ed. (2008). Analysis of Title 22 and Title 5 Regulations Affecting Preschool Programs.
Retrieved May 12, 2010, from Web site:
" [EU: I.III, 3]
Locke consistently favored the role played by parents in early childhood education for he argued that children learn best when they are exposed to knowledge from an early age by their parents. Nurturing by adults was thus an essential component of Locke's education philosophy.
However ousseau did not agree with such intervention. He felt that a child could develop his mental capacities best when allowed to use his own reason without supervision of a guide. The role of nature is more important in ousseau's education philosophy and hence he opposed Locke's views on nurturing. ousseau felt a child had the natural capacity to make sense of his surroundings, gain knowledge from it on his own and hence self-educate himself. He thus doesn't need to depend on adults but rather only on his own reasoning faculty. He thus encouraged freedom and non-habitual learning: He explained that a…
Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Edited by Peter H. Nidditch. New York: Oxford UP, 1975.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Emile, Julie and Other Writings. Edited by R.L. Archer. New York: Barron, 1964.
Rousseau, Emile, Julie and Other Writings, 80.
Spiritual Development of Children and Education
Ruth Wilson (2010) in the work entitled "The Spiritual Life of Children" writes that there is an expanding body of evidence which "indicates that children have spiritual capacities and experiences which shape their lives in powerful and enduring ways." (p. 24) Included in these capacities and experiences are those of: (1) wonder; (2) wondering; (3)relational spirituality; and (4) wisdom. (p. 24) It is suggested in the theories relating to development of cognition that young children do not have the necessary "intellectual capacity for meaningful reflection and thus cannot have a genuine spiritual life." (Wilson, 2010, p. 24)
In countries such as England, Australia, the United States and New Zealand there is a growth in the interest of ensuring that "spirituality is addressed within the curriculum of both primary and secondary education in both state and church related settings." (Hyde, 2008, p. 16)The National Curriculum…
Grajczonek, J. (2010) Spiritual Development and Religious Education in the Early Years: A Review of the Literature. Queensland Catholic Education Commission. Retrieved from: http://www.qcec.catholic.edu.au/upload/publicsite/Education/Final_Spiritual%20Development%20%20Religious%20Education%20in%20the%20Early%20Years_A%20Review%20of%20the%20Literature.pdf
Hyde, B. (2008) Children and Spirituality: Searching for Meaning and Connectedness. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. 15 Jan, 2008. Retrieved from: Jhttp://books.google.com/books?id=dcPuw2pwqQgC&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Myers, Joyce Eady (nd) Children's Spiritual Development: Analysis of Program Practices and Recommendations for Early Childhood Professional. Early Childhood Education.
Richardson, R. (2010) Spirituality and Education. Mills River Educational Cooperative. Italy, Jan 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.campcaravan.org/d_about_us/ed_and_spirituality.html
integration of computer technology (and especially reading software) into classrooms vis-a-vis improvement of reading development in early childhood education. For the purpose of this study, reading development includes a range of skills, including letter recognition, sound identification and basic comprehension and retrieval. The age ranged focused on in this study is birth through age eight, and is focused on a range of educational setting.
The primary source of information on this topic came from a survey of the literature, but this secondary information was supplemented by observation and surveying of two teachers with different approaches to teaching reading. The results of this observational study that I performed are somewhat inconclusive, due in large measure to the significant limitation placed on the story by the size of the group being studied.
However, while certainly more could have been learned if the sample had been larger than two (the sample had originally…
Biblical principles that are related to our intellectual and spiritual education. They have a basis in the Bible (both the New and the Old Testament) and can be applied to our lives in many ways. Often times, as is shown in this paper, our own experiences bear out what these principles teach us. In this paper, a discussion of 10 Biblical principles and their relation to Scripture is provided. How these principles have applied to the writer's own life is also described. Following these discussions are plans for how the ideas developed may be practically applied in life so as to give glory to God and better our own lives.
The education of young students takes place not just on an intellectual level but also on a spiritual level. It is part of what character education consists of -- the formation of the mind and soul in terms of the…
Gutek, G. L. (2011). Historical and philosophical foundations of education: A
biographical introduction (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Lickona, T. (1993). The return of character education. Educational Leadership, 51(3):
family probably feels occasional loneliness and isolation due to the parents being migrant workers. To strengthen family and community bonds in a way that respects the family's privacy, I would first approach them to offer a warm welcome gift. If the family seemed receptive to socializing and integrating with the community, then I would be able to take the relationship a step further. Otherwise, it would be wrong to assume that the family is interested in immediately engaging in social activities that are artificial, structured, and potentially of no interest to them. It is important to understand the cultural variables that are at stake too. If the family speaks different languages than the ones already spoken in our community, it might be helpful to find some way of learning about that family's language and culture. The children should be encouraged to talk about their background, their way of life, and…
National Education Association (2014). Code of ethics. Retrieved online: http://www.nea.org/home/30442.htm
"Twelve Principles of Child Development and Learning that Inform Practice," (n.d.). NAEYC. Retrieved online: https://www.naeyc.org/dap/12-principles-of-child-development
Education - Classroom Management
Relationship etween the Use of ehavior Contracts and Student's Ability to Stay on Task
An Introduction to ehavioral Contracting
In dealing with children, there are cases when a teacher encounters a child who does not behave in a normal way as other children do. For instance, a child may show constant inattentiveness to learning, or may demonstrate irresponsiveness to discipline. A child with such disruptive behaviors oftentimes requires special attention and monitoring as part of a process of modifying an unpleasant behavior into an appropriate one. One strategy used to deal behavioral difficulties of a child is ehavioral Contracting. From Family Education Network (online), the following is a definition of behavioral contracting.
A behavioral contract is a written contract that specifies the child's behavioral obligations in meeting the terms of the contract and the teacher's (or parent's) obligations once the child has met his or her…
Watson, Christopher. Behavior Modification, A Proactive Intervention for the Classroom.
2003. University of Minnesota. 28 November 2003. http://ici2.umn.edu/preschoolbehavior/tip_sheets/behmod.htm
Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood & Adolescence. 28 November 2003. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/g2602/0000/2602000079/p1/article.jhtml
As the educational system continues to come unde inceasing amounts of scutiny, the teache is ultimately at the fulcum of pessue. They ae equied to digest new educational theoy and sot out the wheat fom the chaff. They ae asked to manage inceasing levels of divesity in the classoom, and students who come to class acoss a widening spectum of pepaedness. At the same time, they ae expected to be a students fiend, motivato, and at times suogate paent. Technological advances in the maketplace have made it necessay fo teaches to adapt to inceasing amounts of technology in the classoom. All of these issues ae coming at a time when fedeal mandates in the No Child Left Behind act ae demanding impoved pefomance, in some cased damatically impoved pefomance.
In light of the inceased levels of demands placed on teaches and the continuing decline of academic pefomance, it is…
references for ways and means of communicating and sharing information
The pedagogy takes into account the e-learning styles of different students, 4) Learners have no option other than to "hack" their way through a lesson, picking up tips and tricks as they stumble across them The pedagogy encourages the development of team communication skills, in order to reduce information overload, and leverage team learning and improve group practices and performance.
Adapted from C. Willet (2002) "eRoom for Power Users, http://www.akgroup.com/solutions/eRoom_powerusers.pdf
Part Seven: Miscellaneous.
The final section of this book contain a collection of essays that address larger cultural issues in the framework of the classroom. Equality in races, between black, white, Hispanic, and others is still a hotly debated topic. Some want to measure equality by equality of outcome. However, in an increasing diverse culture, this measuring stick often does not contain the correct units to make a valid evaluation. Schools cannot guarantee equality of outcome between students, because the outcome is a function of the input the student applies. The equality of opportunity is the cry which must be heard in educational institutions. Whether a student is male of female, white or colored, upper middle class or urban poor, schools need to provide equal access, and equal opportunity. The results, ultimately, are up to the child to take advantage of the opportunity, and become an educated person.
This task can be performed with the support of animated movies. The teacher can introduce a certain character within the documentary, and seek the participation of the students for understanding of the traits and behavior of the particular character, and at the end of the day; the teacher can relate those traits with the essence of moral and ethical values. (Aristotle: (http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-arist.htm)
It is also important that the rights of the teachers are protected, and this can be achieved only if the teachers under their limited capacity are able to make and understand the students their importance and significance, not only within the premises of the school, but also in the society. This is an important aspect that has to be handled and treated with due diligence, because unless the teacher is successful in making their students respect them, it will be difficult to communicate and teach the students, otherwise.…
Margot Kaplan-Sanoff, Renee Yablans. Exploring Early Childhood: readings in theory and practice. 1963. Collier Macmillan. pp.63
Robert James Havighurst, Hilda Taba, University of Chicago Committee on Human Development. Adolescent Character and Personality. 1986. University Publications. pp.54
California Committee for the Study of Education Subcommittee on the Development of Moral and Spiritual Values in the Schools. Developing Moral-spiritual Values in the Schools. 1957. University Publications. pp.254
John R. Meyer, Brian Burnham, John Cholvat. Values education: theory, practice, problems, prospects. 1979. Longman. pp.54
3. Hispanic, White Communities Forge Ties in Alabama (2003) a UA Center for Public Television and Radi9o Production. Online available at:
4. McDade, Sharon a. (2002) Definition of a Case Study. Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning - North Carolina State. Online available at http://www.ncsu.Edu/fctl/Programs/Instructional- Development/Teaching _Materials / CaseStudies/Materials / Case studyDefintion.pdf# search =%22 CASE%20STUDY % 3A%20DEFINIT ION%20OF %22.
5. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
6. English Language Development and Multicultural Education (2005) University of Alabama. Berkeley University Online available at http://crede.berkeley.edu/tools/directory2-/PDF/esl.pdf#search=%22Alabama%3A%20Elementary%20ESL%20SERVICES%22.
7. English as a Second Language (ESL) (2004) Baldwin County Public Schools; Bay Minette, Alabama. Online available at http://www.bcbe.org/Default.asp?DivisionID='824'&DepartmentID='958'.
8. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
9. Alabama (2006) KYTESOL Newsletter Vol.…
11. Alabama: Featured Facts (2005) From the SREB Factbook on Higher Education. Online available at http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:Mb3MWbM-0b4J:www.sreb.org/main/EdData/FactBook/2005StateReports/Alabama05.pdf+Alabama+Hispanic+education&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=6
12. Alabama Education Policy Primer: Chapter 2 Achievement (2005) Education Foundation - Online available at; http://www.aplusala.org/primer/ch2.asp
Education for Hispanic Students in the Elementary Schools of Alabama
According to a British Study conducted on all students born in the first week of March 1958, and following them through adolescence and on until the age of twenty-three:
There were no average differences between grouped and ungrouped schools because within the grouped schools, high-group students performed better than similar students in ungrouped schools, but low-group students did worse. Students in remedial classes performed especially poorly compared to ungrouped students with similar family backgrounds and initial achievement. With low-group losses offsetting high-group gains, the effects on productivity were about zero, but the impact on inequality was substantial." (Gamoran 1992)
As Gamoran points out, grouping or "tracking" tended to accentuate a student's skills or lack thereof. High-ability students benefited from segregation, but low-ability students did even worse than before. And while low-ability pupils received no benefit whatsoever from the tracking system, neither did their schools. The net gain in performance among…
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5000952855' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Apex Middle School, part of the wake county public school system in aleigh, NC has implemented a rigorous curriculum for grades 6, 7 and 8. The curriculum for Apex Middle School includes the following: Language Arts, Math, Science, Social Studies, Computer Education, Health and Physical Education (Wake, 2003). The objectives of each of these programs are stated below. The Apex Middle School curriculum and objectives outlined in this paper are similar to the curriculum and objectives for most public middle schools in NC. How does this differ from the middle school curriculum typically seen in New York middle schools?
According to the New York State Education Department, the objective or mission of educators is "That all students will meet or exceed high learning standards at the elementary, middle, secondary and continuing education levels" (NYSED, 2003). Major reform is currently occurring in New York. These reforms will have the potential…
Wake County Public Schools/Middle School Curriculum/Raleigh, NC/
New York State Education
What works for one child is not necessarily going to work for the next. So how can one promote the use of standardized tests as the only way to measure educational learning and success? The premise of the No Child Left Behind Act is very honorable. Each child should be taught by the best teachers that there are and each school should be held accountable for making sure that this occurs. But the measuring device that this act relies on is faulty. It places so much emphasis on the scores of the tests that all of the other educational ideas are being lost among the numbers.
Beveridge, Tina. (2010). No Child Left Behind and Fine Arts Classes. Arts Education Policy
eview. 111(1), p4-7.
Caillier, James. (2010). Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions
egarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education. Clearing House. 83(2),
Derthick, Martha and Dunn, Joshua M.…
Beveridge, Tina. (2010). No Child Left Behind and Fine Arts Classes. Arts Education Policy
Review. 111(1), p4-7.
Caillier, James. (2010). Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions
Regarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education. Clearing House. 83(2),
While both gender and race are positionalities that are difficult to hide (not that one should need or want to, anyway), sexual orientation is not necessarily something that is known about a person, and its affects on the learning process can be very different. The very fact that sexual orientation can be hidden can create a situation where the learner closes off, hiding not only their sexuality but demurring away from other opportunities of expression and engagement as well. Conversely, if an individual with an alternative sexuality was open about this fact, it could very well cause discomfort in other adult learners who have a marked generational bias against many alternative sexualities and lifestyles (Cain). Both situations could provide useful grounds for personal growth in self-acceptance and self-security, for the learner of a minority sexual orientation and for the other learners in the class, respectively (Cain).
Situated Cognition v. Experiential…
Cain, M. "Theorizing the effects of class, gender, and race on adult learning in nonformal and informal settings."
Cranton, P. (2002). "Teaching for transformation." New directions for adult and continuing education 93, pp. 63-71.
Hansman, C. (2001). "Context-based adult learning." New directions for adult and continuing education 89, pp. 63-71.
Isopahkala-Bouret, U. 92008). "Transformative learning in managerial role transitions." Studies in continuing education 30(1), pp. 69-84.
Therefore, instead of requiring non-science majors to enroll in general studies science courses such as biology, chemistry, or "physics for non-majors," the only mandatory science instruction should be courses that relate more directly to useful information. For example, obesity is a virtual epidemic in American society; therefore, a science class in practical nutrition makes mush more sense than the traditional focus of science courses for non-majors. Similarly, computer use classes would be more useful, as would classes emphasizing the logical scientific method rather than substantive science subject matter. Perhaps if mandatory scientific courses related more directly to useful information and to beneficial intellectual processes, American presidential election politics would not feature potential candidates with college (and advanced academic) degrees who still believe that Creationism or "Intelligent Design" are more plausible explanations for the existence of human life than Darwinian evolutionary theory.
As pertains to the study of foreign languages, it…
Carter, J. (2001) an Hour Before Daylight: Memories of a Rural Boyhood. New York: Touchstone.
Gardner, H. (1991) the Unschooled Mind: How Children Think and How Schools Should Teach. New York: Basic Books.
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Childhood Obesity and prevention: Action by parents and children.
Obesity, also known as overweight is defined by WHO (2018:1) as the excessive accumulation of fats that can cause harm to the health of an individuals. Obesity or overweight metrics are measured through the use of internationally accepted formula Body Mass Index (BMI). This involves the juxtaposition of body weight in kilograms against the body height in Meters. Simply put dividing the weight of an individual in KGs by the Square of the Height in Meters. Once the result is obtained, the individual can be classified as either normal weight, overweight or obese. For instance, an adult whose BMI is between 25 and 29.9 is said to be overweight, but when it goes beyond that then he is considered obese as observed by the WHO.
The audience of immediate interest in this case is the parents and the children both of…
In an experiment, a Caucasian girl named Morgan was shown pictures of two girls - one white and one black.
hen asked who was smarter, Morgan pointed to the white girl. She was then shown a picture of a white and a black boy and was asked who threw garbage on the floor. She then pointed to the black boy (Stern-LaRosa and Bettman 2000).
Morgan is only three years old.
The experiment shows how early prejudice can affect people's perceptions, and the various negative ways in which they are manifested.
Morgan, however, is far from a lost cause. Experts agree that children often look to adults for guidance, and that there are many strategies to help children like Morgan work through their attitudes towards difference.
Definitions of prejudice
Studies of prejudice and discrimination usually center on a group of common ideas. Most experts begin with stereotypes, which are…
Cohen, Warren. 1999. "Sticks and stones." U.S. News and World Report. March 1, 1999, p. 61.
Doyle, Anne B. And Frances Aboud. 1995. "A Longitudinal Study of White Children's Racial Prejudice as a Social-Cognitive Development." Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 4(2): 209-228.
Powlishta, Kimberly et al. 1994. "Gender, Ethnic, and Body Type Biases: The Generality of Prejudice in Childhood." Developmental Psychology, 30(4): 526-536.
Stern-Larosa, Caryl and Ellen Hofheimer Bettmann. 2000. Hate Hurts: How Children Learn and Unlearn Prejudice. New York: Scholastic.
Because the coffee was still quite hot, I was afraid of burning myself. I left my coffee up on the kitchen counter rather than holding it in my hand, and I again spilled some coffee on the counter, where before I had spilled the grains. Of the already-weak cup of coffee, I lost a great deal of the hard-won beverage to 'spillage' and less than I like ended up in my cup. I felt relieved that I did not spill any coffee on my clothing, as this would have required that I remove a stain from the cloth with a nondominant hand, hardly an easy feat!
The additional 'spillage' factor was an important illustration of why children with special needs who are coping with new tasks that are difficult for them seem clumsy, and can often frustrate adults with the 'mess' they make. The mess is not necessarily the result…
Fifth, the NCLB is devoid of any meaningful consequences for failing to achieve federal objectives other than the publication of such failures in conjunction with the rights of parents to request transfers of their children to better-performing academic institutions (Darling-Hammond 2004). Critics have suggested that the most likely result of enforcement of such limited consequences for noncompliance is the overcrowding of institutions who fulfill the federal requirements to their detriment by virtue of diminution in their ability to meet the educational needs of increased enrollment of low-achieving students (Sonnenblick 2008). Likewise, the NCLB Act authorizes increased federal funding of home schooling and for-profit institutions that further reduces necessary funds to public institutions.
Sixth, whereas George H. Bush articulated the connection between adequate nutrition and access to healthcare and preparedness to learn in school, the NCLB Act ignores this element entirely. Many critics and career educators believe that any proposed educational…
Adams, D. & Hamm, M. (1994). New Designs for Teaching and Learning: Promoting Active Learning in Tomorrow's Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169. Forgary, R. (1997) Brain Compatible Classrooms. Andover, MA: Skylight Publishing.
Transitions occur in many different educational, societal, and familial situations. Among the more common situations where problems of adjustment might be encountered are changing from one school to another, a change in grades, the shift to regular participation in afterschool programs and childcare, and going from school (non- special education) into the workplace.
(Taylor & Adelman, 2003, p. 122) Various programs have been devised, and services provided, that meet each of these import transitional needs. Children with emotional or behavioral disorders may be as much in need of transition services and programs as those challenged by physical or cognitive disabilities. Children with such conditions are frequently moved from school to school, or form program to program, either through the actions of their own families, or in an attempt to find the right form of treatment for the difficulties they face. These constant changes may, in and of themselves, result in…
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5002099972' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Accordingly, the ties between the psychological aspects of learning and the social aspects tend to be quite strong. Since the student's early social encounters take place within the classroom, he is learning far more than the step-by-step processes of test taking. Knowledge of his social conditions is necessary for the proper development of the student's abilities. Social and psychological features of education are so fundamentally related that they cannot be separated from each other without a sufficient loss of understanding concerning the other.
Primarily, the purpose of education is to produce functional members of society who value both each other and the work they perform. As simple as that may sound, it is an exceedingly difficult goal. In the United States the philosophical basis outlined by the Constitution demands that public institutions not only be employed, but also that they provide an equal level of schooling across geographic and social…
Cremin, Lawrence A. American Education: The Metropolitan Experience. New York: Harper and Row, 1988.
Sadovnik, Alan R. And Peter W. Cookson, Jr. Exploring Education: An Introduction to the Foundations of Education. Needham Heights: Pearson Educational, 2001.
Education Project Proposal (Nursing)
This study is intended to educate the patients (within the age group of 8-12) about the post operative treatment approaches and to prepare them to face the situation. As the main audience is the pediatric patients who have gone trough a kidney transplant, we will focus on the recovery issues with respect to this audience. This study will help these patients to learn about the general issues related to recovery of their wounds, the nutrition they are supposed to adopt during the recovery stage and the physical activity that is expected to be maintained by them. This educational activity is important for the patients because a thorough understanding of the recovery process is very important for the patient.
With an understanding of the process the patient will be able to cooperate with the nursing staff and will more actively participate in the process. From this program,…
Barbara A. Nilsen: Week by Week: Plans for Observing and Recording Young Children: Delmar Learning, January 1997
Evelyn A. Petersen: Practical Guide to Early Childhood Planning, Methods and Materials, A: The What, Why and How of Lesson Plans: Allyn & Bacon, November 1995
Linda M. Bambara & Tim Knoster: Designing Positive Behavior Support Plans: Amer Assn Mental Retardation: January 1998
Barbara Stevens Barnum: Teaching Nursing in the Era of Managed Care: Springer Publication Company, March 1999
Further, Robinson and Sirard posit that applying a "Litmus Test" helps to identify the specific research questions, study designs, and methods that will most likely contribute to improving individual and overall population health (198). The researchers suggest that a study should only be performed if the researcher(s) knows what the conclusion from each possible result (negative, null, positive) will be, and how the result will incline intervention to address policy, clinical or a public health problem like childhood obesity. If research is conducted as suggested, the authors maintain that studies with a greater possibility of advancing science and directly, not suggestively, improving well being and health, would be the result. Therefore, greater assurance that will be provided that ethical responsibilities of not devaluing the contributions of research participants, and responsibly responding to the need for useful research to the public, particularly if public funds are used for the project,…
Allison, D.B., Pietrobell, A., Faith, M.S., Fontaine, K.R., Gropp, E., & Fernandez, J.R.
(2003). Genetic influences on obesity. In Eckel, R. (ed). Obesity: Mechanisms
and Clinical Management. Elsevier: New York, pp. 1-74.
Ballard, M.B., & Alessi, H.D. (2004). The impact of childhood obesity upon academic.
Major depressive disorder, or MDD, may affect up to twenty percent of the adult population. The recognition of depression as a serious and common mental disorder has been vital in the identification and treatment of depression in adults. Leaps and bounds have been made in the field of depression research. The widespread recognition of the many possible causes of depression, including chemical imbalances with genetic or medical origins as well as traumatic life events, has made it possible for those suffering from depression to openly seek treatment options and discuss their depression without necessarily feeling the same overwhelming shame and isolation that were inevitable in generations past. Depression is more likely to be identified in an affected individual by family members, physicians, or others because of the public information that is available for professionals and the common people. Research is constantly revealing new treatment options, identifying causal factors,…
Fremont, W.P. (2004, April) Childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. v43, i4, 381(12).
Gaughan, D.M., et al. (2004, June) Psychiatric hospitalizations among children and youths with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. v113, i6, 1793(1).
Gazelle, H. & Ladd, G.W. (2003, January-February) Anxious solitude and peer exclusion: a diathesis-stress model of internalizing trajectories in childhood. Child Development. v74, i1, 257(22).
Louters, L.L. (2004, September) Don't overlook childhood depression: an effective approach to childhood depression requires that you maintain a high index of suspicion and understand the disorder's full spectrum of manifestations. JAAPA - Journal of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants. v17, i9, 18(7).
By providing more time for children to be in school, the program takes away dangerous time that students will be on the streets making negative alliances. Additionally, by increasing home-school interactions and providing greater access to teachers, the program may offset some of the negative conditions caused by single parent homes.
Because studies have suggested that juvenile alliances and socioeconomic status, as well as other social conditions, are some of the causes for juvenile delinquency, addressing those causes has become an important method to avoiding juvenile offenders, victims, and witnesses of violent crimes. ith schools being a major part of children's lives during childhood and adolescence, teachers and administrators, with programs like KIPP, must take on the burden of preventing or counterbalancing these social conditions that lead to juvenile delinquency. Although the process of doing so may seem difficult to teachers who have been educated primarily in instructing and only…
Abdul-Adil, Jaleel. K. And Farmer, David Alan. "Inner-City African-American Parental
Involvement in Elementary Schools: Getting Beyond Urban Legends of Apathy." (NEED to PROVIDE REST of CITATION. WAS NOT PROVIDED to RESEARCHER.)
Boehnke, Klaus and Bergs-Winkles, Dagmar. "Juvenile Delinquency Under the Conditions of Rapid Social Change." Sociological Forum. 17.1 (2002): 57-79.
Bowling for Columbine. Michael Moore. DVD. a-Film. 2002.
his is largely due to the eating patterns established in poverty; lack of food during childhood has the tendency to increase over-eating when food is available, and instills a strong compulsion to avoid food insecurities in adulthood, leading to unhealthy eating habits (Olson et al. 2007). Such habits obviously cause health deterioration, which limits productivity and creates bigger expenses, and so assists in the intergenerational perpetuation of poverty and the likely creation of similar or related issues in the children of the adult overeaters. his also ties into other social factors of adult life that stem from issues related to childhood poverty.
Employment in adulthood can be heavily affected by poverty in childhood, as noted above. here are several complex and interrelated ways in which this can occur. First, there is a strong indication that childhood poverty creates a pattern of psychological stress that becomes all but inescapable in…
This is largely due to the eating patterns established in poverty; lack of food during childhood has the tendency to increase over-eating when food is available, and instills a strong compulsion to avoid food insecurities in adulthood, leading to unhealthy eating habits (Olson et al. 2007). Such habits obviously cause health deterioration, which limits productivity and creates bigger expenses, and so assists in the intergenerational perpetuation of poverty and the likely creation of similar or related issues in the children of the adult overeaters. This also ties into other social factors of adult life that stem from issues related to childhood poverty.
Employment in adulthood can be heavily affected by poverty in childhood, as noted above. There are several complex and interrelated ways in which this can occur. First, there is a strong indication that childhood poverty creates a pattern of psychological stress that becomes all but inescapable in adulthood (Evans & Kim 2007). The prolonged stress that this can lead to has been linked to many health problems, like any other form of prolonged stress, but the cumulative effects of continued conditions of poverty often exacerbate the problem still further (Evans & Kim 2007). It can even lead to a lack of ability to fully regulate stress, and this leads to many issues in the employment world, including memory issues, the ability to handle work-related stress including deadlines and other common features of modern jobs, which simply leads to more stress and again, reduced productivity (Evans & Schamberg 2009). The problems of childhood poverty easily become self-perpetuating due to the reduced productivity of adults that grew up in poverty.
This is not merely evidenced from a medical and psychological perspective, but by direct economic research as well. Writing in the New York Times, Eckholm (2007) details recent findings that adults who were raised in poverty not only end up less productive, but typically also have higher costs associated with health problems and other issues. Intervention, then, must occur early and must come form an outside source if the cycle is to be broken. It is, of course, unfortunately impractical to think that poverty could simply be alleviated, but there are ways to mitigate the effects of childhood poverty so that they are not as exposed to risks either in childhood or in adulthood, giving greater
In the last three decades, the rates of childhood obesity have increased by more than three times. This is according to the American Health Trust (2013), which further reports that 30 states have over 30% of their children above the overweight mark. Weight ranges greater than what is considered healthy for a given height, is what is considered overweight or obese by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These weight ranges are considered to increase the likelihood of some health complications such as Type 2 Diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea and liver disease. Both the CDC and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend the Body Mass Index (BMI) as the screening tool to identify possible weight problems in children.
Overweight and obese children are at a risk of developing serious health complications such as diabetes type 2 and hypertension (CDC, 2015b). Children and adolescents are the ones…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015a). Healthy Weight. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/ on August 29, 2016
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015b). Childhood Overweight and Obesity. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/ on August 29, 2016
Chang, W., Lee, P., Lai, H., Chou, Y. & Chang, L. (2009). Perceptions of exercise in obese school-aged children. Journal of Nursing Research, 17(3), 170-176.
Fahlman, M., Dake, J., Mccaughtry, N., & Martin, J. (2008). A pilot study to examine the effects of a Nutrition Intervention on Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors, and Efficacy Expectations in Middle School Children. Journal of School Health, 78(4), 216-222.
Obesity in young ones is a major public health issue in the U.S. as the figure of overweight teenagers has tripled over the last thirty years such that 17%, that is, 12.5 million of children and teenagers aged between 2 and 19 years are currently categorized as obese on the basis of BMI (body mass index) (Jackson, 2). CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) defines childhood obesity as a body mass index above or at the 95th percentile for kids and teenagers of similar sex and age. This paper reviews childhood obesity, outlining the causes, lifetime consequences to a kid, diagnosis, management strategies, and measures to prevent it.
The main cause of obesity is an imbalance of energy between calories consumed and those burned. orldwide, the rise in energy- laden foodstuffs high in sugar and fat but short of dietary value together with decline in physical…
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Defining Childhood Obesity, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2015. Web.
Glasper, Alan. "Childhood Obesity Plan: The Government Declares War on Sugar." British Journal of Nursing 25.17 (2016): 984-985. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 24 Nov. 2016.
Jackson, Callum G. Childhood Obesity: Causes, Management and Challenges. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2013. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 24 Nov. 2016.
McHugh, Bronwyn. "The Childhood Obesity Epidemic." Journal of The Australian Traditional-Medicine Society 22.2 (2016): 94-98. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 24 Nov. 2016.
New York: Praeger.
Cohen, M. (2003). 101 Ethical Dilemmas. New York: outledge.
Daniels, H. & Edwards, a. (Eds.). (2004). The outledgefalmer eader in Psychology of Education. New York: outledgeFalmer.
Gielen, U.P. & oopnarine, J. (Eds.). (2004). Childhood and Adolescence: Cross-Cultural Perspectives and Applications. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Gregory, E., Long, S., & Volk, D. (Eds.). (2004). Many Pathways to Literacy: Young Children Learning with Siblings, Grandparents, Peers, and Communities. New York: outledgeFalmer.
Manson, S.M., Bechtold, D.W., Novins, D.K., & Beals, J. (1997). Assessing Psychopathology in American Indian and Alaska Native Children and Adolescents. Personality and Social Psychology eview, 1(3), 135-144.
King, Patricia M. And Kitchener, Karen S. (1994). Developing eflective Judgment: Understanding and Promoting Intellectual Growth and Critical Thinking in Adolescents and Adults. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
eese, H.W. & Franzen, M.D. (Eds.). (1997). Biological and Neuropsychological Mechanisms: Life-Span…
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Yet, that is arguably why the characters act as they do (Mcilliams 197). Mcilliams further notes that human incompetence is comedy (197). Since the characters are not real people but Twain's creations, students should feel free to laugh at the ignorance and misfortunes of Huck and Jim in the same way that they are free to laugh when someone deliberately falls down in an attempt at comedy.
Comedy may not be immediately obvious in Twain's portrayal of Pap Finn. Yet he is one of Twain's strongest examples of satire and irony. Carter argues that Pap Finn establishes himself as an example of all that is wrong with the Southern social system; in becoming that example, readers can look to him to see what needs to change in order for people to become better and society to improve (137). In younger classrooms, this may at first be difficult to grasp. However,…
Bollinger, Laurel. "Say It, Jim: The Morality of Connection in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn." College Literature 29.1 (2002): 32-52.
Carter, Everett. "Huckleberry Fun." Making Mark Twain Work in the Classroom. Ed. James S. Leonard. Durham, NC: Duke Univeersity Press, 1999, 131-139.
Edgar, Christopher, and Ron Padgett. Classics in the Classroom: Using Great Literature to Teach Writing. New York: Teachers & Writers Collaborative, 1999.
Ferris, William R. "Trying to Tame Huck Finn." Humanities 21.1 (2000): 4-.
Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. y doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.
Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.
Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…
Adams, M.J., Treiman, R., & Pressley, M. (1998). Reading, writing, and literacy. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Child psychology in practice, 4, 275-355. New York: Wiley.
Albertson, L., & Kagan, D. (1988). Dispositional stress, family environment, and class climate among college teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 21(2), 55-61.
Amidon, E. (1980). Personal Teaching Style Questionnaire. Philadelphia: Temple University, College of Education.
Allison, Anne. (1996). Producing mothers. In Anne E. Imamura (Ed.), Re-imaging Japanese women (pp. 135-155). Berkeley: University of California Press.
Standards for Early Childhood Professionals
There have been a great number of advances, strides, and changes in the field of Early Childhood or Early Childhood Development. Perhaps one of the most overt changes in this field is the nomenclature and jargon. This field was not always called Early Childhood. The field of Child Development is fairly recent as well. Expansion in perspectives on education and human development sparked the invention and subdivisions of stages of development. The stage dedicated to infants, toddlers, and children that have not yet reach the age for formal education is called Early Childhood. Since the existence of Early Childhood, there have become a number of degree and certification programs for Early Childhood. Early Childhood was not always available as a major or degree concentration. Some of the changes and increased formality in Early Childhood have changed the way Early Childhood professionals are educated…
Ackerman, D.J. (2004). What do teachers need? Practitioners' perspectives on early childhood professional development. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 24(4), 291 -- 301.
Sheridan, S.M., Edwards, C.P., Marvin, C.A., & Knoche, L.L. (2009). Professional Development in Early Childhood Programs: Process Issues and Research Needs. Early Education Development, 20(3), 377 -- 401.
infancy early childhood. Include: Explain families affect
Early Childhood and Adulthood
There are a number of key facets and processes that occur during infancy and early childhood that profoundly affect an individual's growth and development. Some of these factors include early childhood education, a variety of parenting styles, as well as familial involvement in cognitive and physical development. All of these factors indicate that parents and surrounding family members play a highly important role in the development of infants and young children.
One of the most eminent ways in which families produce a direct influence on their children is through the establishment and implementation of rituals or routines. The repetitive nature of these daily constructs provides a valuable structuring for activities that has been linked to cognitive and emotional processes in children and infants -- most discernibly when there is a break or a shifting in a particular ritual that…
Spagnola, M., Fiese, B.H. (2007). "Family routines and rituals: a context for development in the lives of young children." Infants and Young Children. 20 (4): 284-299.
In the U.S. The conflict between progressive and traditional education has been going on for over 100 years, and E.D. Hirsch and John Dewey are polar opposites in this pedagogical and philosophical conflict. Dewey was indeed a support of the Left in politics who wanted the U.S. To become a social democracy and move away from more traditional conservative ideas. He thought that democratic socialism would be the wave of the future in urban, industrial society, and that the traditional education system was not preparing students to participate as active citizens in this new society. It was rigid, authoritarian and hierarchical, with teachers acting like dictators in the classroom and often dispensing plenty of corporal punishment. ather than follow a rigid, old-fashioned curriculum, the teacher had to allow students to participate in designing lessons that were relevant to their lives and experiences. Only this way could the public schools…
Dworkin, M.S. (1961). Dewey on Education. Classics in Education No.3.
Dewey, J. (1938/1997). Experience and Education. Macmillan.
Hirsch. E.D. (1996). The Schools We Need and Why We Don't Have Them. Doubleday.
Fernandez, R. (2003). Mappers of Society: The Lives, Times and Legacies of Great Sociologists. Praeger.
Real Education: Four Simple Truths for Bringing America's Schools Back To Reality
In his 2008 book, Real Education: Four Simple Truths for Bringing America's Schools Back to Reality, author Charles Murray seeks to destroy the notions that the American people and government have operated under in past decades: the belief that schools and the educational system itself must be structured in a way that forces education down the throats of the masses, which has proven wholly ineffective in Murray's eyes. Murray, alternately, argues that the American educational system has based itself in romanticized ideals of demanding excellence from every student, which is simply impossible, largely ineffective, and debilitating to students and individuals who are actually academically and intellectually superior enough to succeed in education, thereby restructuring the system and perhaps the American landscape completely.
Murray has noted that his book seeks to counter the ideas of the past, saying, "American…
Kirkland, Lynn and Manning, Maryann. "Keeping the Arts Alive in a Test-Crazed
Culture," in Childhood Education, 87(4): pp. 285-288. 2011. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Murray, Charles. "The Age of Educational Romanticism." American Enterprise Institute.
2008 May 1. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.aei.org/article/education/the-age-of-educational-romanticism / [Accessed on 5 December 2011].
Universal Preschool Education
Importance of Universal Preschool Education
Many countries including the US and the UK consider the provision of universal preschool education an aspect that should be adopted for better social and economic development. The preschool education entails the government funding educational programs for all children who are below six years of age. The increased need for this provision is highly attributed to the rapid globalization where countries perceive education as the cornerstone for their development (Swiniarski, 2007). Some scholars argue that providing the education does not add any good to the society due to the limited time that children have in bonding with their parents and community and developing the necessary social skills. However, I believe that preschool education is necessary and all countries should adopt.
Providing preschool education contributes to their social and learning development (Swiniarski, 2007). In this case, children are introduced earlier to the learning…
Doggett, L., & Wat, A. (2010). Why PreK for All?. Phi Delta Kappan, 92(3), 8-11.
Hustedt, J. T., Barnett, W. S., Jung, K., & Figueras, A. (2008). Impacts of New Mexico PreK on children's school readiness at kindergarten entry: Results from the second year of a growing initiative. National Institute for Early Education Research, Rutgers University.
Swiniarski, L. B. (2007). Starting school early in Britain: A model for universal preschool education. Early Childhood Education Journal, 35(1), 19-24.
Male Teacher etention in Early Childhood Programs: Why They Stay.
quick glance into any elementary, preschool or child care center quickly reveals that very few men work with young children. This cursory observation is solidly supported by the fact that fewer than five percent of all early childhood teachers in the United States are male (U.S. Department of Education, 1994).
There are a wide variety of reasons why so few men remain in the field of early childhood education. These reasons include suspicion, subtle discrimination, social isolation, pressure to move into administrative position away from children, and a double standard for behavior and performance (Sargent, 2001).
Importantly, the recent upsurge of reports of sexual and physical abuse in schools has made many male teachers feel vulnerable to unfounded charges of sexual or physical abuse against children in their care. Certainly, our societal tendency to see males as perpetrations of violent…
Kennedy, N.M. 1991. Policy issues in teacher education. Phi Delta Kappan, 72: 658-665.
Neugebauer, R. 1994. Recruiting and training men in your center. Child Care Information Exchange, May: 8-11.
Robinson, B. Vanishing Breed: Men in Child Care Programs, Young Children, Sept 1988.
Sargent, P. 2001. Real men or real teachers: Contradictions in the lives of men elementary school teachers. Harriman, TN: Men's Studies Press.
(Novick, 1996) According to Novick practices that are developmentally appropriate and that contain culturally relevant teaching are: "...well grounded in human development and brain-based research..." (1996) The teacher must understand that today's schooling: "...takes place in a wider political context, one in which currently there is a great deal of anxiety and controversy regarding the nature of schooling, the economy, and our society, itself." (Novick, 1996) Schorr (1990) states that "methods and materials that promote active, experiential, inquiry based, cooperative learning activities lend themselves to accommodating a wide range of abilities and interests." (as cited by Novick, 1996)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
It is critically important that the teacher of the middle-childhood classroom understand and apply in the classroom practice the theories as set out in this research in order to motive the students both on a group and individual level in their acquisition of knowledge and learning.
Bowers, C.A. & Flinders, D.J. (1990). Responsive Teaching. New York: Teachers College Press.
Bowman, B.T. (1992) Reaching potentials of minority children through developmentally and culturally appropriate programs. In S. Bredekamp & T. Rosegrant (Eds.), Reaching potentials: Appropriate curriculum and assessment for young children. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
Bowman, B.T. (1994). The challenge of diversity. Phi Delta Kappan, November, 218-224.
Bowman, B.T. & Stott, F.M. (1994). Understanding development in a cultural context: The challenge for teachers. In B. Mallory & R. New (Eds.), Diversity and developmentally appropriate practices. New York: Teachers College Press.
Since the introduction of PL-142 the Special education system has received both praise and criticism. Special Education Programs are an essential component to our educational system. The current special education system has aided many people but improvements are desperately needed as rates of enrollment increase and the number of special education teachers' decrease. The growth in the number of special education students is the topic of conversation among educators all across the country.
The purpose of this investigation is to discuss the increase in the American special education population. We will discuss the factors that have contributed to the increase including; the effect of PL-142 on the growth of the special education population early identification of special needs, the additional conditions that qualify students for special education, the placement of low achieving students in special education programs, accountability reforms, pressure from parents, the disproportionate amount of minorities that…
Digest of Education Statistics. (2001) U.S. Department of Education.
Educators Should Require Evidence. (1999). Phi Delta Kappan, 81(2), 132. Retrieved May 30, 2003, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Presidents Commision on Revitalizing Special Education. 2002. United States Department of Education. Retrieved May 28, 2003, from. http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/assessment/Pres_Rep.pdf
Based on these findings, a number of assessment tools are used to evaluate students' abilities and the most appropriate level of participation in general educational settings (A Parent's Guide, 2002).
Early childhood education programs in District 75 have been affected by other federal mandates, including the Governmental Performance eporting Act (GPA) and the Program Assessment ating Tool (PAT); both of these initiatives require that all federal programs (e.g., Head Start, childcare, and programs for children with disabilities) must provide performance data concerning the progress that has been made toward meeting the goals of the program, which in turn are used to formulate federal budget allocations (ous et al., 2007). Current performance data for District 75 is presented at Appendix A.
Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP). In those cases where the District 75 assessment committee finds that children require services and a special education setting, they are provided with an Individualized…
About us. (2011). New York City Department of Education. Retrieved from http://schools.nyc.
Annual yearly progress. (2011). New York State Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/ spp/2011/ind3.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
253). Based on their review of 20 existing education for sustainability initiatives, Ferreira and her associates identified three primary models that exist along a continuum from local to more broad-based approaches as follows:
1. Collaborative esource Development and Adaptation model: This model seeks to bring about change through the development and adaptation of high quality curriculum and pedagogy resources. It does not usually seek to bring about change across a whole teacher education system;
2. Action esearch model: This model aims to build capacity by engaging the initiative participants in a 'deep' process of reflective action. This model thus targets change at the practitioner and institutional level; and,
3. Whole-of-System model: This is a radically different model from the other two in that it seeks change in a multi-faceted and system-wide manner (2007, p. 46).
An analysis of these three models by Ferreira et al. showed that while each model…
Companion, M., Laurie, J. & Shaw, G. (2002, Summer). Education for sustainability: an ecological approach. Green Teacher, 68, 6-7.
Davies, J., Engdahl, I., Otieno, L., Pramling-Samuelson, I., Siraj-Blatchford, J. & Vallabh
(2009). Early childhood education for sustainability: Recommendations for development.
International Journal of Early Childhood, 41(2), 113-115.
.." (Fluker, 2006). According to research, 90% of faculty and 75% of students enrolled in doctoral religious studies programs in the United States and Canada are Caucasian (American Academy of eligion, 2003). Fluker argues (and rightfully so), "Without racial and ethnic diversity, schools fail to create a positive institutional climate in which students from all backgrounds can succeed. Without racial and ethnic diversity, students fail to meet and learn from role models and mentors they can emulate in their own vocations. Without racial and ethnic diversity, students of all races fail to learn how to relate to the diverse world in which they will live and work after graduation..."
The fourth article "Education Groups Push for Greater Diversity in Teaching Force" defends the fact that "a lack of racial and cultural diversity among teachers is hurting the chances of success for minority students..." (Cox, Matthews & Associates, 2004). esearch suggests…
Cherwitz, R.A. (2004). Capitalizing on unintended consequences: Lessons on diversity from Texas (Reality Check). Peer Review 6 (3), 33-36.
Fluker, S.W. (2006). Diversity delayed, excellence denied. Diverse Issues in Higher Education, 23 (4), 59-60.
Noteworthy News (2004). Education groups push for greater diversity in teaching force. Black Issues in Higher Education, 21(21), 14-15.
Valentin, S. (2006). Addressing diversity in teacher education programs
..now requires understanding and manipulating the processes used to create messages in the modern world" (Adams & Hamm, 2000, p. 22) in fact the student is expected to be able to decode the information from various types of media. However the equally important point is also made that this expanding definition of what literacy comprises does not "...diminish the importance of traditional reading and writing skills; rather, it recognizes the increasing importance of information and communication technology" (Adams & Hamm, 2000, p. 22).
This is an important caveat to the enthusiastic embrace of modern technology and visual aspects of modern teaching. In other words, while visual literacy has become more important and while this aspect is closely linked to the use of modern technological tools such as computer, yet the basics of teaching and education should not be forgotten. Of equal importance however is the view that; "Today's students live…
Adams, D., & Hamm, M. (2000, Winter). Literacy, Learning and Media. Technos: Quarterly for Education and Technology, 9, 22. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5002377227' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Developing A Personal Philosophy Of Inclusion For Young Children, Special Education
Inclusion: Early childhood education
I believe that every child has a right to an education. This education must be adapted to every child's individual needs. These needs encompass a wide range of biological, sociological, and psychological differences. Although every child is entitled to an equal education, giving every child the same education is not the same thing as equality. For a child who is blind, it is necessary that the child have access to a talking book or Braille to enable him or her to comprehend the same material as his or her peers. Similarly, a child who is dyslexic or has a sensory processing disorder requires additional support to keep up with other students.
I believe that teachers must be flexible when dealing with children. Teaching is more than simply writing out a lesson…
This emphasis will build culturally sensitive curriculum. (Oakes, Quartz, yan & Lipton, 2000, p. 77) Though the importance of cultural identity, and even the dreaded sources of nationalism, such as independent cultural identity and linguistic heritage must not be ignored in an attempt to universalize education. With some of the world's most influential organizations in a serious bid to establish universal education the goals of the economists may be essentially answered, but educators must take care to make sure that universalization does not include an element of whitewashing that reduces the importance of individual cultural/linguistic heritage.
A directly related to the world's economic needs. Education and the global economy are envisioned as having an interdependent relationship. Competition in the global economy is dependent on the quality of education, whereas the goals of education are dependent on the economy. Under these circumstances, education changes as the requirements of the economy change.…
Anicich, Maggie; Kirk, Rea. (1999) "Cultural Awareness Education in Early Childhood Education.." 14 pp. (ED433928) at http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&an=ED433928&loginpage=reflogin.asp&site=ehost-live .
Darder, a. (2002). Reinventing Paulo Freire: A Pedagogy of Love. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Freire, P. Ramos, M.B. (2000). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. 30-year anniversary Edition. New York, NY: Continuum International.
Giroux, H.A. (1981). Ideology, Culture and the Process of Schooling. Philadelphia: PA: Temple Press.
" And following that experience the class can discuss what acid rain does to the ecosystem and the teacher can show a video of a forest devastated by acid rain, or just photos of depleted forests and dead fish floating on a stream or lake (waters that have been polluted by acid rain).
About this time, students are asked: "here does the acid rain come from?" Let them guess, and talk about it. Then the teacher shows photos of smokestacks belching out clouds of brown sooty looking pollution and explain that once in the atmosphere, the pollutants (they don't need to know the science of precisely what chemicals bond with condensation but they could certainly relate to dirty polluted particles joining with raindrops) return to earth as acid rain. And as an additional part of this curriculum, students should be shown the various products that are produced in the factories…
Chappell, Tracey. (2008). Getting serious about inclusive curriculum for special education.
Primary & Middle Years Educator, 6(2), five pages.
EdChange. (2008). Curriculum Reform: Steps Toward Multicultural Curriculum
Transformation. Retrieved June 21, 2009, from http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/curriculum/steps.html .
This perspective suggests the necessity of distinguishing between the intended use (and real affordances) of an object and its perceived affordances. For instance, affordances presented by a knife are defined by the individual who uses it, not necessarily by its designer. More specifically, although a designer envisaged the knife as a cutting tool, the user might not utilize the knife for cutting. While Gibson (1979) suggests that the knife does not have any affordance on its own, except when an individual has attributed a meaning to it, Norman suggests that the designer's real or intended affordance for the knife was for cutting purposes. Although there are debates in the field of ecological psychology about the nature of affordances (distinction and overlays between intended and perceived affordances), affordance perspectives are a crucial area in the study of usability (Sadler & Given, 2007).
3. Pedagogical Affordance and ICT
Peter and osamund (2005)…
American Library Association 2006. Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education. Retrieved on December 27, 2011, from http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/informationliteracycompetency.cfm
American Library Association 2007. Intro to Info Lit. Retrieved on December 27, 2011, from http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlissues/acrlinfolit/infolitoverview/introtoinfolit/introinfolit.cfm
Barrett, A. 2005. The Information-Seeking Habits of Graduate Student Researchers in the Humanities. Journal of academic librarianship, 31(4), 324-331.
Beile O'Neil, P.M. 2005. Development and validation of the Beile Test of Information Literacy for Education (B-TILED). Doctoral dissertation, University of Central Florida, Florida, United States. Retrieved December 27, 2011, from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. (Publication No. AAT 3193465).
As the civil rights victories of the Civil Rights era develop in ways that help shape the long-term social culture of the nation, cultural diversity considerations are becoming the standard rather than the exemplary exception to the routine as may have been true throughout much of the last decades of the 20th century. Naturally, as cultural diversity becomes a dominant social theme, it has also impacted all aspects of American education, including special education (Burton, Moore, & Magliaro, 2004; Lascarides & Hinitz, 2000). Naturally, the important need of accommodating cultural diversity within special education programs is at least as important as achieving that objective in traditional education programs. That is because the detrimental effect of every additional barrier to learning and social development is magnified in special education.
Likewise, cultural diversity also entails corresponding lingual diversity. In that regard, the importance of mitigating the potential barriers represented by language issues…
Brehony, K. "Montessori, individual work and individuality in the elementary school classroom" History of Education; Vol. 29, No. 2; (2000): 115-128.
Burton, J., Moore, D., and Magliaro, S. (2004). Behaviorism and Instructional
Technology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Lascarides, V. And Hinitz, B. (2000). History of Early Childhood Education. New York:
Such limitations seem necessary because of the limited resources that schools have and the need for students to learn English as soon as possible so that they can receive all the benefits of a public school education.
It is evident that this issue will be present for years to come. The increase in the number of children for whom English is not their first language is an indication of the importance of this subject. It is also evident that the issue must be resolved so that all of the children in this nation are able to receive the education needed to become viable members of society.
Brisk, Maria, Maria Estela Brisk. Bilingual Education: From Compensatory to Quality Schooling. 2005 Routledge
Calhoon, Mary Beth, et al. "Effects of a Peer-Mediated Program on Reading Skill Acquisition for Two-ay Bilingual First-Grade Classrooms." Learning Disability Quarterly 30.3 (2007): 169+. Questia. 9…
Brisk, Maria, Maria Estela Brisk. Bilingual Education: From Compensatory to Quality Schooling. 2005 Routledge
Calhoon, Mary Beth, et al. "Effects of a Peer-Mediated Program on Reading Skill Acquisition for Two-Way Bilingual First-Grade Classrooms." Learning Disability Quarterly 30.3 (2007): 169+. Questia. 9 July 2008 http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5023349521' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Then students use AlphaSmart software to paste the picture and explain in a paragraph why, how and where in the plot they feel that picture relates to the story. This tests three things: (a) student concentration; (b) student level of understanding of the general plot; and - student imagination. This is an important implementation because it opens the students' horizons and allows them to see the general links and relations that their own lives might have with the stories that they read. The implementation of taking the pictures is one way that this has been successfully achieved. This use of a camera is a very flexible application and is being used in different ways for different special-needs students.
May (2003) found that cameras are being used to also expand the span of words or vocabulary amongst the special-needs students. The teacher hands out a set of words to the students…
Beukelman, D.R., Beukleman, H.M., Ranklin, J.L., Wood, L.A. (2003). Early Computer Literacy: First Grades Use the "Talking" Computer. Reading Improvement. 40: 3. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from www.questia.com
Castek, J., Coiro, J., Henry, L.A., Leu, D.J., Mcmullan, M. (2004). The Lessons That Children Teach Us: Integrating Children's Literature and the New Literacies of the Internet. The Reading Teacher. 57: 5. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from www.questia.com
Doering, a., Hughes, J., & Huffman. D. (2003). Preservice teachers: Are we thinking with technology? Journal of Research on Technology in Education. 35(3), 342-362. In Speaker, K. (2004). Student Perspectives: Expectations of Multimedia Technology in a College Literature Class. Reading Improvement. 41: 4. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from www.questia.com
Dowrick, P.W. Kim-Rupnow, W.S, and Power, T.J. (2006). Video Feedforward for Reading. Journal of Special Education. 39: 4. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from www.questia.com
This view is described as, "...mutually reinforcing qualities of a fully functioning mind and body." (Dustin, Hibbler, Mckenney & Blitzer, 2004)
The idea of educating the whole child is particularly relevant to early teaching methods and aims. "This philosophy of educating the whole child has led early education theorists to emphasize the importance of addressing children's social and emotional needs as well as their cognitive and physical ones..." (Kowalski, Pretti-Frontczak & Johnson, 2001) the concept of educating the whole child is also aligned to an interdisciplinary approach in education.
Education that makes a difference"
This commonly heard phrase refers to the importance of education in the development of the child and individual. It is also a specific concept which expands on the idea of holistic education and points to the way that education can shape and change life. It also contains within it the idea that education makes a difference…
Cochran-Smith, M. (2005). No Child Left Behind: 3 Years and Counting. Journal of Teacher Education, 56(2), 99+. Retrieved October 2, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5009261632' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Once this occurs, is when their horizons are expanded from taking this kind of focus. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010) (Burger, 2010)
Authentic inclusion of children with varying abilities
The educator will take into account the child's abilities and will steer them in a direction that enhances them. This takes place by sparking their interest in a variety of areas. When this happens, the student will have a desire to want to learn more. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010) (Burger, 2010)
Building parent / family relationships
Family relationships are built by working with the parents and children to create curriculum which is supporting these objectives. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010) (Burger, 2010)
How do you think your findings on this research compare with Global Quality Guidelines?
Why is it important to be critical about the research you read, especially as it relates to the experiences of young children and families who cultures may…
Global Guidelines. (2014). World Forum Foundation. Retrieved from: http://worldforumfoundation.org
Burger, K. (2010). How does Early Childhood Care and education affect cognitive development? An International review of the effects of early interventions for children from different social backgrounds. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25(2), 140-165
Harcourt, D. (2012). Standpoints on quality: Listening to children in Verona, Italy. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 37(2), 19-26
Howes, C. (2010). Culture and Child Development in Early Childhood Programs. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.