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Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 16(4): 99-114.
Barrett, David & Melrose, Margaret (2012). Courting Controversy -- Children Sexually Abused Through Prostitution -- Are They Everybody's Distant Relatives but Nobody's Children? Child and Family Law Quarterly, 15(4): 371-382.
McCabe, Kimberly (2007). The Role of Internet Service Providers in Cases of Child Pornography and Child Prostitution. Social Science Computer Review, 26(2): 247-251.
Streetlight USA (2012). The Issue. Accessed 18 July 2012 at http://streetlightusa.org/the-issue/
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth, and Families. (2007). Child Maltreatment 2005. ashington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Roemmele, Melissa & Messman-Moore, Teri (2011). Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College omen. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 20(3): 264-283.
Terri L. eaver, Ph.D., Jennifer Allen, M.S., Anita Bazile, Ph.D., Erin Bullet, M.S., Jason Herndon, M.S., Kristen Jackson, Ph.D., Tiffany Nowell Pelletier, B.S., Patrice Pye, Ph.D., Jacquelyn Surrell, M.S., Sucheta Thekkedam,…… [Read More]
Children Being Charged as Adults
The Negative Consequences of Treating Minors as Adults in Criminal Cases
"Old enough to do the crime, old enough to do the crime;" this is an old, yet still very controversial statement when contemplating whether or not juveniles should be tried as adults in certain circumstances (Maroney 1). There are many who believe that anyone who knowingly commits a crime must suffer the same consequences, regardless of age, race, or creed. However, treating children as adults in criminal contexts can have incredibly negative impacts on the psychological state and future of any given child. Essentially, it is clear that charging and sentencing children as adults produces more harm than good, despite opposition calling for harsher punishments in an adult system.
In today's legal environment, there have been more and more media reports of cases of heinous crimes being committed by mere children, and thus the…… [Read More]
Children and Television
Over time, television has become a must have household item/electronic for most American households. Today, unlike several decades ago, a television viewer has a wide range of channels to choose from. However, the ever increasing relevance of the television set has not come without criticism. In most cases, the criticism that has been leveled against television viewing has largely been founded on the impact it has on its viewers -- most particularly children. Television viewing can be informative and even entertaining. However, the negative impact the same has on young viewers cannot be overstated.
Television and Children: An Overview
In basic terms, the role television plays in our lives today is simply huge. To begin with, it is the most convenient source of news from around the world. However, in addition to keeping us informed, the television also keeps us entertained via a wide range of programs…… [Read More]
The courts also have a hand when it comes to termination of parental rights and making a child available for adoption. Public agencies can contract private agencies to provide foster care services to children and families. Private and public agencies collaborate to provide the best of services to the children.
The Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) of 1997 and Child Family and Services (CFSs) have provided an impetus for reform in the realms of child welfare. Some of the changes the ASFA has introduced with regard to child foster care include shortening of the timeline for making decision about permanency. The ASFA has eliminated long-term foster care as a permanent option (Bass, Shields, & Behrman, 2004). With ASFA there are clarifications on when states do not have to make reasonable efforts to re-unify children with their real parents. The act offers guidance on issues regarding termination of parental rights.…… [Read More]
Children's Safety On The Internet
How safe are children when it comes to online use? hat are the most important issues when comes to Internet safety for children? hat is being presented in the literature when it comes to protecting children who use the Internet? These issues and others will be addressed in this paper.
hat are the dangers for children while using the Internet?
An article in the peer-reviewed journal BMC Public Health describes research that includes the ongoing problem called cyberbullying, which impacts about a third of youthful Internet users. And cyberbullying has been linked to "…a variety of health concerns," including suicidal ideation (Moreno, et al., 2013). The other danger for young adolescents is that they "…frequently display personal and identifiable information" linked to their private lives, and this personal information may include: home address; "revealing photographs"; or descriptions of "sexual behavior and substance use" (Moreno, 1).…… [Read More]
These may include the parental workplace, school boards, social service agencies, and planning commissions." (Strengthening the Family: Implications for International Development, nd)
Four: The Macro-system
Macro-systems are 'blueprints' for interlocking social forces at the macro-level and their interrelationships in shaping human development. They provide the broad ideological and organizational patterns within which the meso- and exo-systems reflect the ecology of human development. Macro-systems are not static, but might change through evolution and revolution. For example, economic recession, war, and technological changes may produce such changes." (Strengthening the Family: Implications for International Development, nd)
CHILDREN RAISED by STEPPARENTS
OF DIFFERENT RACE or CULTURE
The work entitled: "Same-Sex Parenting: Results of Some Studies" states: "With the exception of studies at a few universities with very close connections and conservative Christina denominations, essentially all research studies into same-sex parenting reveal that children of these families develop normally. There is some indication…… [Read More]
What, then, should play encompass for children? Most psychologist believe it should be a combination of activities that offer children the physical (running, jumping, etc.), intellectual (social skills, norms, ethics, knowledge), and emotional (compassion, empathy, friendships) tools to become successful (Dixon, 2010). Structured play, team sports and organized events, allows children to engage with other children and adults with whom they might not normally interact. Unstructured play encourages creativity, imagination, and the ability to experiment without fear of reprisal. It is through these two kinds of activities that children learn to interact, and to engage overtly and covertly, with their environment.
One famous child psychologist in fact, Yuri Bronfenbrenner, developed an entire child development theory around the manner in which the external environment shapes a child's development by allowing certain interactions that are central in that child's appropriate development and integration into society (Bronfenbrenner, 1981). Some competition, as in "who…… [Read More]
Though some have called for the abolition of the substitute parent juvenile justice system, Gardner argues that the punitive model need not result in such an abolition or in the reincorporation of the juvenile justice system into the adult system (Gardner 1987, pp. 129-151).
The earlier American system was based on similar concerns raised more recently about the UK system and was also based on a view of protecting children. The change to a more punitive system came out of fear of youth crime. The UK case followed a series of official reports, including the Department of Health and Social Security review of childcare law in 1985 and the Law Commission report on guardianship and custody in 1988: "The message of these reviews was that the current law was unclear, unnecessarily complicated and characterized by procedural and substantive injustice. The government White Paper described its purpose in bringing forward proposals…… [Read More]
Children and Bereavement
How do healthcare professionals, psychologists and others help a child transition to a life without its mother or father? hat are the best support methods for children when they are dealing with bereavement? This paper sheds light on the best practices -- and the less-than-ideal practices -- when helping a young person or a child get through this painful experience in their lives.
A scholarly article in the Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing uses the results of several studies to emphasize that children grieving the death of a parent that committed suicide tend to experience "…even higher rates of anxiety, depression, poor school adjustment" than children who lost a parent resulting from natural causes (Mitchell, 2006, pp. 130-31). hen a child is forced to deal with the suicide death of a parent, that child is not only asked to try to understand why the parent…… [Read More]
However surprisingly, there have been arguments for pornography and have stated that it encourages experimentation with new media and any act to censor it would go against the First Amendment which has not only intellectual, moral, political, and artistic value, but practical and economic value as well. It is believed that the First Amendment supports accepting adults, unrestrained by censorship, to search for innovative ways to use new media and find inventive ways to make money. Another reasonable argument is that censoring the Internet will only lead to complacency on the part of the parents who ought to be the first responsible censors of any unsuitable material. ith no regulation by the government and the potential dangers of the Internet around, they will be forced to become computer-literate. A healthy discussion between parent and child on these matters is also expected, something which otherwise would probably be swept under…… [Read More]
Children and Television
Television may be an almost universal feature on the domestic scene, however it is not sued I the same way by everyone who has access to a set (Gunter 1). The television set has become an integral piece of the household furniture, and practically every house has at least one set, if not more, which means that children are born into a world in which television is present from the start (Gunter 4). According to reports by parents, their children begin viewing television between the ages of two and three, and ilbur Schramm and his colleagues report that the medium age is 2.8 years when children begin viewing television (Gunter 4). Although television has its good side, by giving children a chance to see educational shows, learn about different cultures, and be entertained, many professionals and parents believe that television also has a bad side for children…… [Read More]
The model of the "social structural child" sees the childhood as a social system comparable to the other social categories. Though, the childhood system is different from the others and even marginalized, fact well pointed out in the "minority group child" model. The model of the "tribal child" is more concentrated on the children's world, which is considered to have its own separate culture. The "socially constructed child" model is an alternative to the others, more flexible because of the continuous process of construction and development, according to the different social contexts in time and the relations between them.
James, Jenks and Prout (1998), treat the subject of the childhood socialization with different views, the past, present and the future theories.In the first section of the book they treat the theoretical and historical childhood studies, based, beside sociology, on the psychological and philosophical contexts.
In the final section of the…… [Read More]
Children's Social Competence
Research has shown that one of the most important aspects of a child's development is with regard to socialization. Children need to have conversations and interactions with other people. This allows the child to learn to walk, to speak, to feed itself, and other behaviors which are only learned by modeling from other human beings. Conversely, it has been shown that children who have less socialization in their formative years are more likely to develop abnormally (Brower 2001). They might become introverted teens and adults or even descend into acts of violence. Interaction with other people is what establishes our feelings of empathy and sympathy. ithout these emotions, we are unable to relate to other people and as we get older only look for ways to satisfy our own needs and not considering the consequences to others.
This is seriously concerning because bullying has become a rampant…… [Read More]
Children and CIS
Describe one of the special issues of children and adolescents who are exposed to critical incident stress. What is one of the developmental issues involved when considering an intervention?
One of the special issues that children and adolescents are exposed to during critical incident stress is trauma reactions. Where, they are dealing with a series of events that have occurred in their lives. A few of the most notable include: denial, anger, rage, shock, confusion, sadness, terror, humiliation, shame and depression. This is problematic, because these kinds of situations can have an impact upon how effectively the child or adolescent is able to develop. As, they could become withdrawn from others and will often engage in activities that are considered to be antisocial including: acting out, substance abuse along with the inability to concentrate on different tasks. If left unchecked, this can have dramatic impact upon how…… [Read More]
In addition, they tend to be more prone to special education placement (Altshuler 2003). The researcher concluded that Public schools and child welfare agencies must begin to work together to support students' educational functioning. Professionals in both systems appear eager to work together more collaboratively, but need to resolve the historical mistrust. Schools of social work can help by teaching their students ways to break down the chasms that separate the various professionals. Administrators in both child welfare and education can help by creating systemic change through a commitment to joint planning and goal setting. Individual workers in both systems can help by committing themselves to working collaboratively and overcoming the mistrust that keeps them apart (Altshuler 2003).
ecent History: When Children Are removed from their Homes
It is evident that those working in the protective services must have a strong desire to do their jobs. Throughout the history of…… [Read More]
If the child reaches this state it cannot develop its own personality and may lose the trust in people. A normal assumption on the part of the child would be that love is followed by loss. If this becomes the child's mind set then it will be unable to make friends and to function properly in society.
Our foster care system should provide for these situations. It is understood that not every foster parent can be a psychologist, yet some training in this direction would be very helpful for those children. A regular check with foster families can also help and keep the control on the system and not giving up on the children.
The main reason for children to be apart from their biological parents is abuse, neglect, drug use, death, and incarceration of one or both parents. If the following experience for the child becomes very negative and…… [Read More]
If the divorce occurs at an early age, the adverse effects academically are greater. Some researchers have also suggested that teachers may expect less of children who come from one-parent homes. They may have negative attitudes towards these children and expect less of them. It is dangerous for teachers to stereotype children from one-family homes as poor students.
Children from divorce need the same kind of education as other children do. They need to be in schools where the emphasis is on academics; the principal is active, involved, and a leader; where teachers are positive about all students' ability to learn and have high expectations; where the atmosphere is safe, orderly and disciplined; where the child's progress is regularly discussed with parents; and parents and school agree on educational goals. In this sense, there is no difference in the needs of divorced or one-parent home children, and children from two-parent…… [Read More]
More precisely, the figures for the two segments were 2, 3 and 2, 6 respectively.
Concerning the criteria of the peer deviance, it was concluded by the study that males tended to deviate more from the normal behavior, engaging in various activities inconsistent with the recovery program.
Finally, the psychological status was evaluated. This assessment concluded that the most common behavioral trait is hostility. Also, depression was considered to be an important result of the behavior deviance. The results related to this last issue took into consideration the difference between sexes, arguing that females were more subjected to depression moods than males. In terms of eventual differences based on race, the study did not reveal any particular variations concerning African-American or White subjects. Therefore, the difference is mostly related to sex.
The present study is relevant for pointing out certain issues teenagers face today, be it in an environment that…… [Read More]
Children's Depression Inventory
The Child Depression Inventory (CDI) is a psychological measure designed as a symptom-oriented instrument that assess children's level of depression between the ages of seven and 17 years of age, and was established to evaluate symptomology associated with dysthymic disorder and major depressive disorder (Finch, 1987). The basic form of the Child Depression Inventory consists of a 27 item evaluative tool; however, there is a 10 item CDI that many practitioners use as a measure to screen clients for depression early in the assessment process. The Child Depression Inventory was originally published by Maria Kovacs in 1992 as many practitioners found it difficult to assess and diagnose depression in young children; as historically, depression was seen as a disorder usually exemplified by adults (Liss, Phares, & Liljequist, 1992).
Stark and Laurent in their 2001 article, "Joint Factor Analysis of the Children's Depression Inventory…… [Read More]
Children in Conflict by Morris Fraser
Morris Fraser, a child psychiatrist in Belfast, describes the effects of the 'troubles' on children growing up in Northern Ireland in Children in Conflict. hile the book offers valuable insights for the behavioral sciences of psychology and sociology as a whole, it also succeeds in establishing the manner in which society can, consciously and unconsciously, end up perpetuating an existing social problem. In particular, Fraser shows the role played by educational, religious and familial and peer group structure in fostering enmity through future generations, all in the name of ideology and culture in Children in Conflict.
The importance of Foster's work must be understood in the context of the fact that the conflict in Ireland is not recent but dates back to 300 years. Viewed from that perspective, the role of social structural forces such as family, peer group, educational and religious institutions begin…… [Read More]
In a sense, literary nonsense helps the reader begin to develop critical thinking skills because it problematizes familiar concepts and forces the reader to view them in a new light. Alice's Adventures in onderland places familiar standards of behavior and etiquette in ridiculous situations in order to show how these standards are arbitrarily determined. Stuart Little challenges traditional notions of birthright and ancestry by demonstrating in a comical way that familial heritage has little to nothing to do with the content of one's life or character. innie-the-Pooh reveals how the traditional standards of the adult world are maintained not because they have some inherent legitimacy, but rather because adults are frequently too scared or self-conscious to question them effectively. Finally, the Secret Garden shows how what is considered proper or acceptable is not dependent on any inherent, essential quality, but rather what is popular in society at the time. Taken…… [Read More]
Children's Literature: The Conflict between Indigenous and Modern orlds
As the world continues to evolve towards a more modern existence, many indigenous cultures are assimilating more and more into the larger society. Books like Scott Odell's Island of the Blue Dolphins and Jean Craighead George's Julie of the olves expose the conflict between modern and traditional cultures for native peoples. These two beautifully written children's tales describe the life of native people, close to the land and all the natural elements that are tied to it. Yet, it is clear from the works that this life is in direct conflict with a life of modernity. The modern world challenges traditional cultural identity in O'Dell's Island of the Blue Dolphins and George's Julie of the olves; the two authors are showing that because the two identities are so different, indigenous identities cannot exist within the constantly evolving modern context. Yet, this…… [Read More]
Children involved in the systems of education and child welfare systems experience a great deal of obstacles that hinder their ability to become successful in their studies. This implies that there is a need for collaboration between these systems in order to improve the status and ability of these children. The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to outline articles that explain the significance of child welfare and education system collaboration by considering the obstacles and strategies.
Langworthy, S., Robertson, L., Bhakta, S. (2016). Building Collaborations Across Child
Welfare and Education Systems: MINNESOTA CHILD WELFARE AND EDUCATION FOCUS GROUP REPORT. University of Minnesota.
In this article, the authors assessed the challenges experienced by professional working in child welfare as well as educational systems in Minnesota. Bearing this in mind, Langworthy et al. (2016) questioned professionals in these areas to pinpoint obstacles to cooperating across systems and executing…… [Read More]
Children's capacity to choose appropriate behaviour is influenced by their developmental ability, temperament, interactions, life experiences and environmental factors." (Government of South Australia, 2004)
Children are known to accumulate a great deal of information in their early years and to use this information in situations when they believe it would be required for them to do so. Society thus created educational tools with the purpose to control the information being provided to children and to make it more likely for them to develop into moral individuals who are able to integrate the social order properly. The developmental changes occurring in children during the ages of 6 and 14 are especially intriguing, considering that it is during this time that they come to gain a more complex understanding of the world and their role in it.
A child's behavior can be a collection of actions in and as a result of…… [Read More]
Nursery rhymes linger in our minds our entire lives; they are repeated to us at an early age and remain in our subconscious longer than commercial jingles. What makes Mother Goose so memorable? Surely it is not the content of the nonsensical poems: young children not care about the content of a nursery rhyme, and toddlers are incapable of grasping it. Nursery rhymes are not like fairy tales: they do not moralize, nor do they tell deep stories. Nursery rhymes endear, entertain, and enlighten because they are catchy. Called nursery rhymes for a reason, these verses grab hold of a child's attention like nothing else. Even throughout adult life, we are still captivated by familiar tunes like "Twinkle Little Star." But not all nursery rhymes have melodies attached to them. "Little Miss Muffet" is devoid of singsong but still has rhythm and cadence. Both these familiar nursery rhymes captivate audiences…… [Read More]
Children's Television Programs More Violent than Adults' Programs?
North American culture in 2004 is a media-rich one. In addition to the Internet and magazines, there are literally hundreds of television stations in nearly every home. This has led to heated debate over the prevalence of violence on television. The wealth of literature on violence in television indicates that this is a matter of great interest to social psychologists. Furthermore, the indication by some studies that violent children's programming leads to violent behavior, has fueled calls for greater oversight in the area of violence and aggression as it pertains to children's TV. In this study I look at the distinction between aggression and violence, and examine the incidence of both on programs for children, compared to programs for adults.
The topic of television violence and children has generated much research over the past several years. Cantor (2000) examines some of the…… [Read More]
Divorce and Children
In the United States today, it seems as if divorce is almost as common as marriage. In fact, the statistics suggest that one in every two marriages will end in divorce. Sometimes the divorcing couple has had no children, and their actions and choices affect only them, but when the couple has had, or adopted, children, the children will be affected by their deteriorating relationship and by the divorce. Experts note that sometimes the children have difficulty for a short period of time, but that sometimes the effects linger.
During the period the divorce is occurring, children can show a variety of problems including emotional problems, behavioral issues and disruptions in their normal development (Palosaari, 1994). Teenaged boys often show more antisocial behavior around the time of the divorce (Palosaari, 1994).
Researchers who looked at how divorce affected younger children looked at themes the children showed during…… [Read More]
Adam Gopnik's Through the Children's Gate: A Home in New York recounts the author's return to New York City after years of living in Paris. The book contains Gopnik's quirky observations of everyday life in New York, including its architecture. The title refers to the children's gate of Central Park but also to how Gopnik is seeing the city anew through the eyes of his children. The extent to which being a New Yorker is hard-wired into your DNA from birth is dramatically illustrated through Gopnik's children Olivia and Luke. Yet Gopnik also suggests that to be a New Yorker is to be a perpetual child, always in love with the size and the wonder of the city.
In one essay entitled "Bumping into Mr. Ravioli," Gopnik details how even children in New York are so over-scheduled that his daughter's imaginary friend seldom has time to play with her. Charley…… [Read More]
Boston Children's Hospital has become an important location in assisting children to deal with a host of issues ranging from cancer treatment options to transplants. According to U.S. News and World eport, it is ranked as the number one facility for helping children to address a host of issues. This is having a positive impact on their lives by offering them with state of the art treatment options in a caring environment. ("Why Chose Boston Children's Hospital," 2013) ("Number One anked Pediatric Facility," 2013)
To fully understand how the facility is able to adjust with different changes requires focusing on the way they are evolving with health management issues and real life problems. Together, these different elements will highlight the challenges facing the hospital and what steps they are taking to deal with them. It is at this point when these factors will demonstrate those specific ideas that helped to…… [Read More]
images commercial vs. educational children's television. I research paper include sections/information: I. Introduction: You spark interest discuss: A. hy topic significant study? B.
Stereotypes presently dominate society, even with the fact that it has experienced notable progress in the last few years and discrimination is presently on a lower level. hen considering children television, one is likely to observe that, depending on its purpose, it can be more or less stereotypical. On the one hand, advertisements are typically shown in a cliched, as girls are portrayed playing with dolls and cooking while boys are pictured as being more aggressive, more competitive, and generally determined to attain as much power as possible. On the other hand, children also have access to educational television, this normally making it easier for them to understand social order and moral matters.
Ever since its appearance approximately half a century ago, television has played…… [Read More]
Role of Language in Children's Early Number Development
Language Development in Children
The Role of Language in Children's Early Number Development
The Role of Language in Children's Early Number Development
Language and communication are an essential part of one's life. There is hardly anything more remarkable than the way a child utters his first complete words and how they change into phrases and eventually, dialogues or sentences in just a short matter of time. Language plays a very significant role in the childhood learning processes. The development of language in children starts even before their birth and as they grow up, their vocabulary and language skills build up at an incredible pace. When it comes to learning numbers and applying the concept in later life, language again has a vital role to play. Although, that role is difficult to isolate, research has still provided distinctive evidences as to how language…… [Read More]
sight, Through the Children's Gate by Adam Gopnik, seems a collection of blurred essays. As I read further the more these essays seemed to me to revolve around a certain theme. Existentialism. The fact that we are all unique, each having our own views on life, and ways of livingwe may find it hard to communicate with one another or to understand each other. e each have our own mind maps and that these maps we develop in our mind are constantly changing. Children think differently than adults. They can help adults see the world in a new way. There is not a specific way to see the world. At first sight, it may seem there is. Just as at first sight the streets of New York seem similar. Gopnik's observation in that first essay Through the Children's Gate: Of a Home in New York, the streets of New York…… [Read More]
HUMO IMPOTANT IN CHILDEN'S LITEATUE AND HOW DOES MO WILLEMS USE HUMO IN HIS PICTUE BOOKS?
The objective of this study is to answer as to why is humor important in children's literature and how does Mo Willems use humor in his picture books? Don Nilsen (1993) stated that humor "is a very important aspect of much of children's and adolescent literature." (p. 262 cited in: Zbaracki, 2003) Zbaracki writes that it is "perhaps…this discovery of characters and the different forms of humor that Kappas (1967) discovered years ago that draws children into reading." (2003, p. 3)
Humor Engages Children
Mo Willems utilizes humor in his children's books in order to engage children in the story, in learning, and in the pursuit of reading. For example, in Mo Willems book entitled "Hooray for Amanda and Her Alligator!" A girl named Amanda has a best friend that is an alligator, who…… [Read More]
Secrets in the Text
The writer of Through the Children's gate, Adam Gopnik, has been writing for the New Yorker since the year 1986. Even though he is very famous for his writings in the New Yorker, he has been appreciated the most for his assortment of dispatches from the French capital. He wrote these dispatches from the years 1995 through 2000.
Being a brilliant writer, this book has been beautifully written by Gopnik. In his writings, we can find all aspects including warmth, wisdom and wit. However, his status in France was that of an outsider, and that is what brought something extra in his writing when he returned to New York.
He wrote this book when he returned to New York with his wife and children. Gopnik was an American who was brought up in Canada. He came to New York as a young boy and lived here…… [Read More]
History Of Multicultural hildrens Literature
While all cultures are ripe with stories, tales, and literature geared towards their children, the international melting-pot existence of the modern world necessitates the systematic inclusion of more than one culture with which a child might identify. America stands as a most direct example of this, where people most generally describe their ethnicities with the hyphenated form, - American. While identifying multicultural children's literature is a time-consuming task occupying both educators and parents across the United States, the invocation of children's literature exists in a history dually worth noting. Beginning with the age of immigration and culminating in the 1990s boom, accepting the many-cultured conversion of the United States, the history of multicultural children's literature is inextricably tied to the social history of America.
The growth of children's literature in the United States is concurrant with the movement for compulsory education, which social activists, politics,…… [Read More]
Bisogni, S., Aringhieri, C., McGreevy, K., Olivini, N., Gonzalez Lopez, J., Ciofi, D., . . . Festini, F. (2015). Actual implementation of sick children's rights in Italian pediatric units: a descriptive study based on nurses' perceptions.. BMC Medical Ethics, 16(1), 1-8. doi: 10.1186/s12910-015-0021-0
Europe has issued numerous children's rights charters for solemnly proclaiming their rights during hospitalization. However, despite such general proclamations, whether the rights of hospitalized kids are actually put into practice remains unclear. This study's aim was determining the extent to which their rights, as decreed by two key, current child rights charters, are really implemented and recognized in the pediatric facilities of Italy, and in pediatric divisions of general hospitals in Italy, according to the perception of nurses employed in those healthcare centers. The cross-sectional research employed a 12-item web-based questionnaire; researchers emailed invitations to pediatric nurses employed in Italian hospitals using social networks and…… [Read More]
Lillian Hellman's The Children's Hour takes place in an all-girl boarding school. The play was written and produced in the early 20th century and takes place either then or within a few generations earlier. Two friends, Karen Wright and Martha Dobie, have poured their life's energy and savings in to a rural farmhouse, converted into an all-girls' boarding school they have named the Wright-Dobie School.
Clearly, Martha and Karen enjoy what they do and do it for the love of the children and passion for teaching, as opposed to doing it for financial gain, political status, or even to spread a particular type of religious propaganda as the school is secular and not sponsored by a religious organization. The school is moderately successful and they retain a good number of girls, but as expected in any school, Karen and Martha eventually contend with students with behavioral problems like Mary Tilford.…… [Read More]
Early Childhood Development: Children's Play Needs By Age
Children's Play Needs by Age: Early Childhood Development
Children's Play Needs by Age]
When designing your environment, it is important to keep in mind the skills that the children in your group are learning and have mastered. The way you arrange your classroom and the materials you fill it with can have a big impact on the kinds of play and learning opportunities you provide to your students. For your assignment, use the developmental milestone chart, the unit readings, and the four classroom models to complete the chart below.
Analysis of Environment Designs
Developmentally Appropriate Materials or Activities
Physical Design Changes
Adaptive Materials or Areas for diverse learners
Analysis of the 0- to 1-year-old environment design
Briefly describe 2 developmentally appropriate materials or activities you would add to the environment to address skills for this age group.
1. Tummy time…… [Read More]
Term: Winter, 2014
Age of Child: 6 years old
Date of Observation: February 3, 2014
Time of Observation: 9:00 to 10:00
Place of Observation: Child Care Center
Other People Present in the Observation Setting: 1 teacher, 1 assistants, 15 other children
Development: Appears mostly normal; has some problems with fine motor skills and challenging cognitive skills.
Permission: Permission was granted by the Director of the Child Care Center, the child's teacher and his parents
John was observed unobtrusively from some distance. The observer sat at a desk in the classroom while the teacher and assistant worked with children. The observer did not interact with the child and in fact remained out of the way of the children and teachers for the duration of the observation. The observation included classroom activities such as children writing their names, coloring, and building puzzles. The children then had snacks after which…… [Read More]
Both of the children were a bit older, so he was not constantly monitoring their every move. Instead, his attention shifted from watching the girl, who was playing with another set of children, and watching his son, who was also playing in a separate area with another group of children. Periodically however, he was texting on his phone. This texting interrupted his watching the children. The girl would go to him for a couple of minutes at a time, but then she would run off with her friends again. The son did not approach his father again once he was playing with the other kids. The father was however, sitting less than ten feet away from the areas where both of his children were playing.
The father in this case was careful in terms of periodically observing what his children were doing and where they were, but he could have…… [Read More]
Child Poverty and Its Effects on Education and Development
Beyond problems of financial inequality that occur when countless young children reside in poor as well as persistently inadequate households, poor children can easily perpetuate the never-ending cycle when they achieve adulthood. Prior study implies that children who're born poor as well as are constantly poor are considerably much more most likely to remain poor as grownups, quit school, give teenage premarital births, and also have spotty employment details than all those not very poor at birth (atcliffe and McKernan 2010). This previous research focused on the earliest cohort of youngsters reviewed here-children born in between 1967 and 1974 as well as who turned Thirty amid 1997 and 2004. An important query is whether or not this link has endured with time. Even though information aren't accessible to see outcomes via age 30 for children born within the subsequent two cohort…… [Read More]
Child and Elder Abuse
Many children and frail elderly people are at risk of being abused largely because their ability to defend themselves is impaired. In the recent past, the media has been awash with many cases of abuse and neglect involving children and the elderly. In this text, I conduct an online research in an attempt to identify and analyze two recent cases of child and elder abuse.
ecently, Alyssia Skinner - a resident of Hernando, was according to ojas (2013) "charged with child neglect, aggravated child abuse with great bodily harm, and torturing and caging a child." This severe case of child neglect and abuse was discovered after detectives visited her home and found a 17-month-old baby living in deplorable conditions. The said baby had been living in a small room which was largely disorganized and had no toys. Further, the room in question had several soiled…… [Read More]
Gradually, there are lesser desired adoptive kids as society have come to accept single mother who parent their children compared to earlier. The disgrace of giving birth to a child outside marriage has lowered and hence, the bulk of single moms prefer to have their kids with them in place of "relinquishing them" for being adopted. Besides, thanks to advanced technology, "birth control" pills are instantly accessible to the fertile populace, and, as abortion has been legalized, a pregnancy which is unplanned could be stopped. A new dimension to the problem has emerged because of the decrease in the supply of desirable adoptable infants and the rising infertility among Americans. (Infant Adoption is Big Business in America)
It is anticipated that out of every six couples, one couple has problems in conceiving and total infertile couples may number 5.3 million. A lot of adopters who are presently desirous of adoption…… [Read More]
Define child and labor separately.
Child labor in the United States has long been a subject of concern. The U.S. enacted strict child labor statutes in 1938 (Labor, 2009), and has continued to enforce that law. However, there remain problems at home in the U.S. And abroad. The United States seeks to enforce the law, but there are times when it is difficult to catch perpetrators of violations. However, the U.S. has trade restrictions against countries that do not have strict enforcement of international standards. This research examines statutes in the United States (including their historic antecedents), what is being done to violators, and how trade is affected by citizen outcry against human rights violators and compliance with international law.
Current thinking on human rights dictates that children reach a certain age before they are to be put into the workforce. However, different cultures have different…… [Read More]
It is difficult to write a children's book because there are so many different things to think about before it can be accomplished. The style has to be interesting enough to keep the interest of the audience, no matter whether that is adults or children, but if a book does not flow correctly a child will sense it and be bored. Also, there is the matter of what age level the book is for. The selected subject matter has to be appropriate for the age of the targeted audience and it has to be presented in such a way that it does not lose the young reader. A young child will also want interesting illustrations that can hold interest.
The best advice may be to research others who have been successful with a certain age group nor genre and see what they did. Pat Mora, a…… [Read More]
esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…… [Read More]
In addition, the human pronoun "her" is used to refer to the mother penguin, while "it" would have been a more appropriate choice if the author wanted to reinforce the penguins' animal aspects (BBC 3, 8). hile the author does use the term "chick" throughout the book, mixing it with the human-like terms further allow the child reader to grasp the non-fiction elements of the book while still remaining interested and emotionally involved in the story. Evoking sadness in the reader, a photograph shows the mother walking away from her baby. Through the use of these words and illustrations, the fact that the penguins are animals living in a natural home is emphasized, while children are still engaged through the mild human-like qualities that are ascribed to the animals (BBC 3-4).
Thus, a comparison of the personification used in The Cat and the Hat and in Baby Penguins yields great…… [Read More]
(Derek Van der Mewe,
Reasons that children under seventeen years of age should not be allowed to attend a college university educational setting include the fact that all child prodigies enabled to attend universities do not as their outcome stories to tell relating great success and achievement and in one example, the individual, Sufiah Yusof is stated to have: "...fled Oxford University in 2000, aged 15, after her third-year exams. When police found her after a huge hunt, she blamed her parents for too much pressure, never finished her course and became an administrative assistant for a construction firm." (Frean, 2007)
In a separate story related in the work entitled: "Young + rilliant, lessed + Cursed" (Hartigan, 2005) writes that a young man of the age of fourteen named Robert Mercer who would: "...easily pass for much older than 14, were it not for his self-conscious giggle and the telltale…… [Read More]
Psychological abuse and psychological neglect: Neglect is the "failure to protect a child from exposure to any kind of danger," according to Sneddon, et al., in Child Abuse Review (2010). Emotional / psychological neglect involves the persistent emotional "ill-treatment or rejection of a child," Sneddon explains. It involves the "…failure to provide for a child's needs" by, for example, being "emotionally unresponsive or passive in the presence of a child" (Sneddon, 41). Psychological / emotional abuse on the other hand is the rejection of a child, or the emotional ill-treatment of a child, carried out in "the sustained repetitive, inappropriate emotional response to the child's experience" (Sneddon, 41). A child that is being psychologically abused is told things like, "you're stupid" and "you're lazy and no good" and "you are ugly"; that same child may also be subjected to a "withdrawal of affection" and experience "humiliation" and "degradation" psychologically (Sneddon,…… [Read More]
ut the result of child abuse, including difficulty in adjusting to society and difficulty in education tend to result in a higher rate of unemployment. In short, child abuse tends to produce the same conditions where child abuse is more likely to occur.
The research shows two vital things, the first being that the number of cases of child abuse are exceedingly high, and two, that the number of cases are increasing. With the amount of money being spent on child abuse prevention, the question must be asked as to why rates continue to increase. While some believe that the increase is only due to increased awareness, this does not hold true when you consider both the extreme rise in numbers and the rise in the numbers of severely injured children. If sexual abuse cases had been increasing, this could be attributed not necessarily to more incidents, but to…… [Read More]
The man allegedly asked the "child" to have sex with him and to meet him at the Burger King on Beretania Street, where police arrested him at 8:10 A.M. Similarly, a 31-year-old Waianae man convicted of using the Internet to arrange a sexual encounter with a minor has been ordered to spend 30 days in jail and five years on probation. The pedophile's girlfriend admitted that he went online looking for a 13-year-old girl to chat with him (Barayuga, 2004).
Keeping children safe on the Internet is everyone's job. Parents need to monitor and stay in close touch with their kids as they explore the Internet. Teachers should help students use the Internet appropriately and safely. Community groups, including libraries, should help educate the public about safe surfing (Montgomery, 2000).
The anonymity the Internet provides to pedophiles is of great concern to law enforcement (Oswell, 1999). Since it requires a…… [Read More]
("Supreme Court ejects..." 2002) More constitutional problems have been encountered in the law's battle against child pornography as a federal court in September 2004 outlawed a Pennsylvania State law that required internet service providers (ISPs) to block websites containing child pornography. The Court considered the technology used in the blocking of such sites as clumsy that could cause "massive suppression" of constitutionally protected speech.
Apart from conducting a legal "balancing act" between the protection of children from sexual exploitation against the protection of free speech and free thought by the law makers, the campaign against child porn on the Internet is also hampered by its "borderless" characteristics. In order to counter differences in porn laws of different countries that prevented prosecution of child porn offenders, the United Nations General Assembly adopted an Optional Protocol on the ights of the Child, on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography…… [Read More]
Children of Alcoholic Parents
It is generally accepted that alcoholism tends to run in families and that compared with children of non-alcoholics, children of alcoholic parents have approximately four time greater risk of becoming alcoholics themselves (Reich Pp). However, the causal factors that determine the development of alcohol abuse and dependence have not yet been conclusively determined (Reich Pp).
Studies from the 1950's and 1960's generally emphasized psychosocial explanation, such as "poor parenting, lack of good role models. And impoverished home life" (Reich Pp). Beginning in the 1970's, research has investigated heritable components in the familial transmission of alcoholism" (Reich Pp). Adoption studies analyses of half-siblings and studies comparing identical and fraternal twins have all provided evidence that genetic factors play a crucial role in the etiology of alcoholism (Reich Pp). Although there is strong evidence for a genetic contribution, few researchers would deny the influence of environmental factors in…… [Read More]
Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.
Bradley, .H., & Corwyn, .F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual eview of Psychology, 371.
Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.
Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.
Eisler, . (2000). Tomorrow's children: A blueprint for partnership education in the 21st century. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Garcia, P., & Holt, C.B. (2005, December). Preparing teachers for children in poverty: The Nashville District picks up the mantle for qualified instruction in high-needs schools. School Administrator, 62(11), 22.
Gilbert, N. (1997). Combating child abuse: International perspectives and trends. New York: Oxford University…… [Read More]
Children: Exposure to Violence Through the Media
The extent to which exposure to violence creates violent children and/or aggressive behavior is a subject which has been debated in a comprehensive manner. However, the fundamental research findings are consistent. The research continues to demonstrate that exposure to violence creates negative manifestations in the behavior of children. "While violence is not new to the human race, it is an increasing problem in modern society. With greater access to firearms and explosives, the scope and efficiency of violent behavior has had serious consequences. We need only look at the recent school shootings and the escalating rate of youth homicides among urban adolescents to appreciate the extent of this ominous trend" (Beresin, 2010). Given the fact that children are manifesting violent behavior in more and more disturbing ways, making places like schools -- previously dens of safety -- into places where children feel unsafe…… [Read More]
The Watertown (MA) Family Network creates a community for mothers who may not have anyone to ask questions about their infants and toddlers. As the video's narrator stated, "There are no roadmaps to raising children." With the Network, which is free and provides resources such as a new mom support group, parents do not need to feel as if they are all alone with this rewarding, but challenging, job of raising a child.
Epstein (2009) suggests there are five types of family engagement: childrearing, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, and representing other families. A comprehensive family involvement plan can be developed by choosing several of these types.
In the church-based childcare center where I worked, as with the Watertown Network, staff helped parents who had questions about what they should do at home. This center was in a military community where many young mothers were away from their…… [Read More]
Child abuse is one of the most dangerous and serious problems confronting society, perhaps because of the helplessness and innocence of the victims. What is particularly bothersome about child abuse is that it occurs in all income, racial, religious, and ethnic groups and in urban and rural communities. Likewise, there is no uniform definition of what constitutes child abuse, making it difficult to ascertain what prevention and treatment methods are most effective. For example, in Sweden, the law prohibits any physical punishment of children, including spanking. By contrast, in some countries of Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean, parents are expected to punish their children by hitting them.
This paper analyzes and examines the multitude of issues related to child abuse. Part II defines child abuse. In Part III, a history of child abuse is offered. Part IV evaluates why child abuse exists according to control theory and anomy theory. In…… [Read More]
Child Abuse in England
The bruises on Clara's upper arms are indicative of something serious that the health visitor, if she, indeed, has been seeing her for two and a half years, should have noted or anticipated. The account given is so scanty that the general information can hardly be gleaned. The other family members should have been asked or given in the account, even if the health visitor does not know the family very well. The barest family statistics could still have been obtained.
esides Christine, who are the other adults in the family? And how many more children are in it? What is the socioeconomic status of this family? Its culture mix? Christine's educational achievement, her family and work background, her current aspirations and view of her present condition must be obtained. So too the views of the other members be secured.
The bruises on Clara's…… [Read More]
Developmental Observation of Five-Year-old
Statement of esearch/Observation: To observe a five-year-old female child in her natural setting to determine age appropriate developmental stages.
Description of Child Being Observed: The subject is a five-year-old female: Maribel.
My friend has a five-year-old niece. The subject's mother was contacted and agreed to allow the observations to take place in her home and on the playground. The project was discussed and plans were made to accommodate all involved parties.
The introductory visit was conducted at my friend's house, also the child's grandmother's home. Maribel often visits her grandmother and is very comfortable within this home setting.
Upon this visit, Maribel was introduced to me as her aunt's visitor. She said, "hi" to me, and asked me if I was visiting her aunt. I replied yes, and asked Maribel if she would like to sit with me and wait…… [Read More]
Secondly, the kid should be assisted in augmenting their reasoning and by making them know deaths with realistic information. Thirdly, the kid should attain consent to allow him/her do away with old lifestyle and come up with new lifestyle. An example of a long-term effect includes troubles with the internalization of conscience.
Loss at Teenage Years
At this age, for the teenager to finish the duties of psychological loss the adolescent requires to resist parent figures that nevertheless are constantly available. Parent loss will interrupt these duties. Secondly, control matters will continually affect the teenager's behaviors, more so if he/she feels a great part of the resolutions about his life are out of his/her control.
In order to reduce the short-term effects, teenagers are required to feel that they do have rising control over their very own lives. Also, adults should offer them many chances as much as possible in…… [Read More]