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Television viewing needs to be controlled because this is a major source of weight gain. With children engaging in less physical activity and merely dumping themselves in front of the TV in their spare time, obesity is bound to rise. Major studies have found a correlation and now lesser TV time is considered one of the biggest weight management tools. In 1985, ietz and Gortmaker first discovered a link between television viewing and obesity. This led to many studies and NHES also found it to be a major contributor. Authors ietz and Gortmaker concluded that, "only prior obesity had a larger independent effect than television on the prevalence of obesity."[ietz: 810] and then in 1993, they reiterated the claim saying that, "29% of the cases of obesity cold be prevented by reducing television viewing to 0 to 1 hours per week." [ietz, 1993: 499-500]
We can thus conclude that obesity…
Obesity on Children
Obesity is something an increasing amount of Americans are struggling with today. It is one of the most important health concerns in the country today, and both politicians, social scientists, and health experts have used various means of addressing the problem. One of the most difficult parts of obesity to deal with is when it already occurs in childhoods. While a variety of causes can be identified for this, few have truly been able to address the problem in a way that truly discourages obesity in children. One potential way to handle this is to investigate the various effects of obesity on young children and publish these not only as a deterrent, but also as a way to help young children understand the importance of a healthier lifestyle, since obesity in childhood could often lead to obesity in adulthood. Obesity in children is an important health concern…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, Apr. 27). Basics about Childhood Obesity. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/basics.html
Chaput, J-P and Tremblay, A. (2006, Feb 16.). Obesity at an Early Age and Its Impact on Child Development. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from: http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/pages/pdf/chaput-tremblayangxp.pdf
Lanham-New, S.A., Macdonald, I.A., and Roche, H.M. (2011) Nutrition and Metabolism. John Wiley & Sons.
Marcus, L. And Baron, A. (n.d.) Childhood Obesity: The Effect on Physical and Mental Health. NYU Child Study Center. Retrieved from: http://www.aboutourkids.org/articles/childhood_obesity_effects_physical_mental_health
Child Obesity and Junk Food
Over the last several years, the issue of childhood obesity and junk food has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because the total numbers of children who are considered to be at least 50 pounds overweight have risen dramatically. In a study conducted by Children's Hospital Boston, they found that 30% of those who eat junk fund on a regular basis are exponentially increasing the chances of reaching these levels. This is from them being exposed to added amounts of fat, sugar and cholesterol. (Holguin, 2004) Yet, other studies have shown that it is lifestyle choices, not the food itself that is making children obese. (Datar, 2012) This is creating conflicts about the accuracy of research. To illustrate the effects this is having requires showing how these variables are interconnected.
This will help everyone to realize how junk food is related to obesity…
Datar, A. (2012). Junk Food in Schools. Journal Policy Anal Manage, 31 (2), 312 -- 337.
Holguin, J. (2004). Fast Food Linked to Childhood Obesity. CBS News. Retrieved from:
Roberto, C. (2010). Influence of Licensed Characters. Pediatrics, 126 (1), 88 -- 93.
Child Overweight or Obese?
A study performed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1977 reported that approximately seven percent of children in the United States were overweight. A similar study done in 2000 reports that twelve to fourteen percent of children aged six to nineteen are considered overweight. While this number may seem insignificant, what it really means is that one out of every eight children in the United States are obese while another one in five are overweight. This same study goes on to say that overall about fifty percent of Americans are overweight/obese, equating to approximately ninety seven million people in the entire country. This number is increasing every year at an alarming rate. The health risks which are associated with obesity and being overweight is a significant cause for concern because in the United States alone, the number of deaths attributed to obesity is approximately…
http://members.iglou/dgruth/childobesity.html www.weightlossmd.com/parentingand child obesity.com http://www.geocities.com/nutriflip/Diseases/obesity.html
The evidences presented in this regard explain how different studies and research support that obesity can have profound deteriorating psychological effects as well as health effects on children. The changing eating lifestyles leading to increased consumption of fast foods and sodas have contributed greatly in doing so however; children and parents cannot control obesity if it is genetically engineered. Genetics play a role in the bodily structure. If children are obese due to their genetic constitution, reduced consumption of food cannot help however, physical activities such as exercises have greatly shown results in maintaining their weight. Preventive measures can be taken on a broad level to reduce the spread of obesity among children. In this regard, schools can be helpful to plan a balanced diet for children. At lunch, sodas must be banned and replaced with fruit juices or clean water so that children get accustomed to drinking healthy beverages.…
Akhtar-Danesh, N. (2004). Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention. Nutrition Journal, 4-24.
Bagchi, D. (2010). Global Perspectives on Childhood Obesity. London: Academic.
Butcher, P.M. (2006). Childhood Obesity. The future of Children, 3-18.
Cassell, D.K., & Gleaves, DH (2006). The Encyclopedia of Obesity and Eating Disorders. New York: Facts on File.
child obesity, which has become an epidemic in the current epoch of technological advancements and innovations. Since obesity is escalating at an unprecedented rate specifically amongst the teenagers and children; thus, thus research proposal intends to carry out a comprehensive research to identify its causes. This paper highlights the plan of the research process in detail that include the aims and objectives of the study, methodology, data collection techniques, risks involved in carrying out the research, ethical and legal considerations, and strategies that can ensure the validity and effectiveness of the research.
esearch Design and Data Collection Techniques
Strategies to Ensure Validity and Efficacy of the Study
Ethical and Legal Considerations
Barriers to carry out the esearch Study
By looking at the historical context, once can simply claim that being fat was considered a symbol of being healthy. However, this perception over time has changed…
Balnaves, M. & Caputi, P. 2001. Introduction to Quantitative Research Methods: An Investigative Approach. SAGE Publications: USA.
Cameron, N., Hastings, G., & Ellison, G. 2005. Childhood Obesity: Contemporary Issues. CRC Press: USA.
Merriam, S.B. 2009. Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation. John Wiley & Sons: USA.
Smith, J.C. 1999. Understanding Childhood Obesity. Univ. Press of Mississippi: USA.
Childhood Obesity and Its Affects on Self-Esteem, Learning and Development
Childhood obesity has reached alarming proportions in developed nations of the world and its prevalence is continuously rising from 1971. In the Scandinavian countries, childhood obesity is less than compared to the Mediterranean countries; yet, the amount of obese children is increasing in both cases. Even though the highest rates of childhood obesity have been seen in developed countries, and at the same time, obesity is increasing in developing countries as well. Childhood obesity is at increased levels in the Middle East and Central and Eastern Europe as well. As an example, in 1998, The World Health Organization project assessing of cardiovascular diseases had showed that Iran was one among the seven countries, which had the highest rates of childhood obesity. (Dehghan; Akhtar-Danesh; Merchant, 2005, p. 1485)
In UK, observations state that there has been a noticeable enhancement in obesity…
Abell, Steven C; Richards, Maryse H. 1996. The relationship between body shape satisfaction and self-esteem: an investigation of gender and class differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Vol: 25; No: 1; pp: 61-64
Boyles, Salynn; Smith, Michael. 2003. Mental Illness Common in Childhood Obesity; Defiance, Depression Cited in Study. April, 7. WebMD Medical News. Retrieved October 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web:
Bullying and Overweight and Obese Children. Retrieved October 18, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://kidshealth.org/research/bullying_overweight.html
Childhood Obesity and Fast Food
The paper is a research based on the topic of "The influence of fast food on child obesity." The study aims to evaluate and identify the root cause of child obesity. The study is based on a scientific approach by developing a hypothesis and then proving it through data collected.
The hypothesis of this research has been developed after a number of general observations. These observations came from generally observing the school friends, cafes and restaurants, and family members. It was observed that children who were eating fast food regularly were fat. Another observation was that when we talk to obese people they often mention that they blame fast food restaurants for their obesity. Since we have developed specific conclusions from general observations, it is an inductive approach.…
Causes of Increased Child Obesity
Causes of Increased Childhood Obesity in the 21st Century
Over the last several decades, the issue of childhood obesity has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because the overall number of children who are overweight or obese have risen dramatically. Evidence of this can be seen with a study that was conducted by the National Institute of Health (NIH). They found that the total number of children and teenagers who are obese / overweight is one out of every three. This is the highest amount of young people ever reported in either category. As, the underlying trends have continued to increase dramatically in the last 30 years. This is troubling, because in the future these individuals will more than likely suffer from a number of health issues. A few of the most notable include: hypertension, type two diabetes,…
Causes of Childhood Obesity. (2011). EMEDTV. Retrieved from: http://weight-loss.emedtv.com/childhood-obesity/causes-of-childhood-obesity.html
Citalpram Side Effects. (2011). Side Effects Hub. Retrieved from: http://sideeffectshub.com/citalopram-side-effects/
Childhood Obesity Statistics. (2011). EMEDTV. Retrieved from: http://weight-loss.emedtv.com/childhood-obesity/childhood-obesity-statistics-p2.html
Research Links. (2011). CDC. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/Features/Obesity/
Fast Food and Child Obesity
This study identifies the underlying correlation of fast food consumption and the increasing rate of child obesity. The system of fast food is prevalent in all countries, with each country having its own variations of types of items served and the nature of establishments serving. The popularity of fast food is due to the convenience of fast service, packaged food and low cost. Now major fast food industries try to make their product seem as healthy as possible. It is likely that the convenience is influencing the growth of childhood obesity in the United States. In addition, the factors of media, family, and environment bring about differences within our community. Understanding the correlation between these factors is vital in producing a solution. However, there needs to be a better support for causation, not just correlation. The children and youth will one-day influence the…
Chou, S. (2008). Fast Food Restaurants Advertising on Television and its Influence on Childhood Obesity. The Journal of Law & Economics, 51, 599-618.
Darwin, A. (2008). Childhood Obesity: Is it Abuse? The Children's Voice, 17, 4-24.
Eagle, T. (2012). Understanding Childhood Obesity in America: Linkages between Household Income, Community Resources, and Children's Behaviors. The American Heart Journal, 163, 816-837.
Fraser, L. (1998). Fast Food and Obesity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245-248.
Participants will be recruited with announcements in local newspapers and school newsletters. Flyers are posted in the nurse's offices and in the clinic. esponse cards will be given to parents who indicate an interest in participating in the study. See the participation invitation -- Appendix 1.
Once enrolled, participants will answer a series of questions related to food choices, influences, physical activities and food and beverage advertisements. The first measure will involve showing the children a set of distinct images. The children will then be asked 1) what company the image belongs to; 2) what they feel about that company; 3) if the images make them feel good/bad/nothing; 4) if they enjoy the food; 5) how they feel after eating the food; and, 6) what their parents think of the type of food or company. The following 15 images are examples of popular logos. These 15 will be used…
Caprio, Sonia. (2006). Treating child obesity and associated medical conditions. The Future of Children,16(1), 209+. Gale Group.
Darwin, David. (2009). Advertising obesity: Can the U.S. follow the lead of the UK in limiting television marketing of unhealthy foods to children? Vanderbilt journal of transnational law,42(1), 317+. Gale Cengage Learning.
Enz, C., & Lundberg, C. (1993). A Framework for student case preparation. Case Research Journal,13, 134.
Evans, W. Douglas. (2008). Social marketing campaigns and children's media use. The Future of Children,18(1), 181+. Gale Cengage Learning.
Obesity in Florida
Obesity refers to when a person has more weight than it is required by his height. Excessive fats are being gathered in the body parts in a condition. It has a number of adverse effects. It has been increasing in the various countries over the recent years. Physical training and diet are done in order to prevent obesity. Sugar and fat free products are to be consumed for proper dieting (Murphy, 2012).
What facilitates obesity?
Eating a lot of junk food
Unhealthy items available in nearby markets
Lack of exercises and physical activities.
Florida ranks 27 in state ranking according to the obesity. The obesity rate in Florida is 26.1%. The percentage of males having obesity is 73.6% and the number of females having obesity is 56.5% from 2008-2010 the percentage of average adult having obesity was 26.1% and the percentage of adults who…
Murphy, W. (2012). Obesity. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty-First Century Books.
Nies, M.A., & McEwen, M. (2011). Community/Public Health Nursing. St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier/Saunders.
childhood obesity and its correlation to social-economic background. he researchers argued that attention to childhood obesity focuses on genetic and environmental factors, and there is the increasingly prevalent belief that pediatric obesity may be a combination of both. Environmental factors can limit obesity but what -- the researchers wondered - stimulated the influencing environmental factors
Previous study: What has the previous study found out?
A previous study that the researchers had conducted stipulated three prime factors that were environmentally responsible for obesity. hese were: low weekly levels of moderate physical exercise, high levels of daily television viewing, and routine participation in a school lunch program.
he hypothesis of this study was that certain socio-economic backgrounds were more conducive for introducing these factors than were others in that -- and this was their hypothesis - median household income influenced nutrition and recreational activities.
Investigation of this suggestion was the purpose…
The correlation may be there but it pertains just to Massachusetts and indicates correlation rather than causality.
Eagle, T. et al. (2012). Understanding childhood obesity in America: Linkages between household income, community resources, and children's behaviors. The American Heart Journal, 163, 816-837.
S Gubbels. Talks about how obesity is a major problem of our society and how it is affecting the children and adults. The article talks about the causes and the consequences of obesity and provides certain prevention for this problem. The article relates the problem of obesity with the Health Belief Model and talks about how the Model contributes in motiving the people to bring Health behavior change in their lives. It point out the reasons for people in bringing behavior changes associated with the Health Belief Model. (J.S Gubbels, 2013)
In the article "Health Belief Model in the Town of Obese Elderly Women use Health Education" by Zeng Gui Ying, the writer talks about how the Health Belief Model is a major source of information and education for the obese women living in towns and villages .It tells that how the model motivates and encourages the obese women to…
Baranowski, T. (2012, September 6). Obesity. Are Curent Health Behavior Change Models Helpful in Guiding Prevention of Weight Gain Efforts.
Boskey, E. (2010, 24 March). Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Health Belief Model.
Galletta, G.M. (2012). Medicine Health. Obesity.
J.S Gubbels, M.J. (2013). ISRN Obesity. Health Beliefs regarding Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity.
Blacks also have a 320% higher rate of hypertension-related end-stage renal disease than the general population (Diet-elated Chronic Diseases, 2001).
According to a study of diet-related chronic diseases among black men in Florida, it was found that almost two-thirds of blacks in Florida are estimated to be at risk for health problems related to being overweight. The percent of the total population that is at risk for health problems related to being overweight compared to the State of Florida in shown in Table 2 below.
Table 2. Percentage of Black/White Population at isk for Overweight Health Problems - Florida vs. The U.S. (Source: Diet-elated Chronic Diseases, 2001).
The authors of this study point out that many blacks do not eat a sufficient amount of vegetables and other foods that require the recommended levels of nutrition. Clearly, there is more involved in the epidemiology and…
Anderson, P.M., Butcher, K.F. & Levine, P.B. (2003). Economic Perspectives on Childhood Obesity. Economic Perspectives, 27(3), 30.
Collins, C.F. (1996). African-American women's health and social issues. Westport, CT: Auburn House.
Diet-Related Chronic Diseases that Disproportionately Affect African-American Men. State of Florida: Health. Retrieved February 16, 2005 from www.5aday.gov/aahealth/aamen/diet/pdfs/FL_state.pdf.
Drevenstedt, G.L. (1998). Race and Ethnic Differences in the Effects of Religious Attendance on Subjective Health. Review of Religious Research, 39(3), 246.
The other 48 have their own standards and only 2/3 of them require, according to the 2010 report of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. This report said that almost 2/3 of high school students do not get enough exercise and more than a third watch TV for at least 3 hours a day. The report recommends students to perform PE or at least an hour each day, 150 minutes a week for elementary-age students, and 225 minutes for middle and high school students. Washington State schools are required 100 minutes of PE per week in the first to 8th grades. However, they are not required daily recess or a report card for each school. It also recommends that PE classes be handled by certified and licensed PE teachers. ut this is not always complied with. In 2010, parents sued the school board for allowing non-certified specialists to…
CDC (2011). Overweight and obesity. Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity: National Center for Chronic Disease, Prevention and Health Promotion.
Retrieved on April 13, 2012 from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/stateprograms/fundedstates/washington.html
-. Strategies and solutions. Retrieved on April 14, 2012 from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/solutions.html
- (2010). National obesity trends. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
It would be expected that the children would push for increased recess time. Note that no mention was made regarding diet. Also note that this specific class was selected by the principal therefore objectivity is further corrupted.
However, use of the focus groups as means of gathering information may have been more advantageous in regards to the other 2 groups (parents and staff / teachers) since it prompts thought on the matter and inter-communications that yields discoveries on the matter and ideas about how to improve the situation. The idea about the parent volunteers, for instance, could best have emerged in a focus group environment. (Albrecht et al., 1993).
There, too, could have interviewer / facilitator bias and confounding details involved. The two trained moderators were Caucasian whereas the population was of mixed ethnic origin. Nuance of different cultural approach could have been overlooked and cultural misunderstanding involved. The two…
Albrecht, R., Johnson., J., & Walther, J. (1993). "Understanding communication process in focus groups," in D.L. Morgan (ed.) Successful focus groups. Long: Sage.
Asch, S. (1955) "Opinions and Social Pressure"
Breakwell, G., Hammond, S., & Fife-Schaw, C. (2007). Research methods in Psychology. Sage: London.
Obesity in children has become a common health problem. Obesity in children is a result of indulging in fast foods and spending time in front of the television or being stationary playing video
There is an over-abundance of food availability in America's supermarkets and restaurants, particularly fast-food restaurants (Hill and Peters, 1998). The portion-sizes of food in America's restaurants are unreasonable and uncontrolled (Hill and Peters, 1998). There is an increase in consumption of sugar-sweetened sodas and sweetend food (Bray, 2004). There is also an over-abundance of high-fat food choices paired with a lack of palpable low-fat choices. Most importantly, studies show that a diet of 35% fat or higher contributes to obesity in sedentary animals (Hill and Peters, 1998). It is no wonder that children having this unnutritious food become obese.
Another factor is the increasingly sedentary lifestyle that is due, in part,…
Branon, L., & Feist, J. (2007). Health Psychology. USA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Bray, G. (2004). The epidemic of obesity. Physiology & Behavior, 82, 115-121.
Bell & Standish, (2009) Building healthy communities through equitable food access. Community Development Investment Review, 75-87
Pollan. M. (2006) The Omnivore's Dilemma. Penguin: UK
Obesity can be defined as a state where surplus body fat is accumulated to the point that turns out to create an unfavorable consequence on an individual health. According to Haslam DW, James WP (2005) this situation brings about shortens life expectancy as well as amplified health complications. Individuals are well thought-out to be obese the moment their body mass index goes past 30 kg/m2. This extent is reached at by dividing an individual's heaviness in kg against the square of the individual's height in meters. It has been observed that obesity inflates the probability of a range of diseases, for the most part heart disease, type 2 diabetes, disruptive sleep apnea, particular kind of cancer, as well as osteoarthritis.
This condition (obesity) is usually caused by a mixture of extreme energy foods ingestion, be deficient in physical activity, as well as hereditary defenselessness, even though a small number of…
Adams JP, Murphy PG (July 2000). "Obesity in anaesthesia and intensive care." Br J. Anaesth 85 (1): 91 -- 108. doi:10.1093/bja/85.1.91. PMID 10927998 Retrieved October 5, 2013 from http://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=47995
Haslam DW, James WP (2005). "Obesity." Lancet 366 (9492): 1197 -- 209. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67483-1. PMID 16198769 Retrieved October 5, 2013 from http://www.ijser.org/researchpaper%5CA-Review-on-Obesity-and-its-Management.pdf
Imaz I, Martinez-Cervell C, Garcia-Alvarez EE, Sendra-Gutierrez JM, Gonzalez-Enriquez J (July 2008). "Safety and effectiveness of the intragastric balloon for obesity. A meta-analysis." Obes Surg 18 (7): 841 -- 6. doi:10.1007/s11695-007-9331-8. PMID 18459025 Retrieved October 5, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18459025
Kushner, Robert (2007). Treatment of the Obese Patient (Contemporary Endocrinology). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. p. 158. ISBN 1-59745-400-1 Retrieved October 5, 2013 from http://www.webmedcentral.com/wmcpdf/Article_WMC001927.pdf
Again, like with all other programs, there is no effective strategy for addressing the root causes of the problem with the individual. This makes any kind of initiatives much less effective over the long-term.
The Impact of the Programs
The impact of anti-obesity programs is that they are doing little to address the problem. The biggest reason why these programs are not working is because of a one size fits all approach when it comes to weight loss and health. This is challenging, as the body will lose weight in different amounts and the results will not be obvious for a while. This causes the person, to feel that any kind of efforts to deal with these challenges is a waste of time (which eventually leads to the same type of destructive habits as in the past).
Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than a study…
"Coping and Support." Mayo Clinic, 2011. Web. 15 Mar. 2012
"F as in Fat." Healthy Americans, 2011. Web. 15 Mar. 2012
"Obesity Rates in the U.S." Fit Sugar, 2011. Web. 15 Mar. 2012
"Strategies to Overcome Obesity." Health Policy and Market, 2011. Web. 15 Mar. 2012
Obesity in Los Angeles County
The United States, while being one of the most technologically developed countries in the world, is not a healthy nation. Typically, when we think of disease pandemics we think of things like Swine Flu, Ebola, Lyme disease, etc. However, in the 21st century, we have a new pandemic that affects our children, adults, and eventually the whole population. Because of a more sedentary lifestyle, a proclivity for fast food, a high-fat diet, and hundreds of sugary drinks, obesity is now statistically so rampant that it is having a serious effect on American's health. Almost every researcher, whether medical or academic, as well as the public health sector, agree that there are statistical links between what we ingest and the consequences to our overall health profile. Certainly, all we need to is walk down any grocery store aisle, open up most magazines and newspapers, or watch…
About Health People. (2012, December 17). Retrieved from HealthyPeople.gov: http://healthypeople.gov/2020/about/default.aspx
Executive Order on Physical Fitness. (2010, June 22). Retrieved from The President's Council on Physical Fitness: http://www.fitness.gov/about/order/index.html
Overweight and Obesity, (2008) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Retrieved
from: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa / obesity / economic_consequences.htm
Gradually, there are lesser desired adoptive kids as society have come to accept single mother who parent their children compared to earlier. The disgrace of giving birth to a child outside marriage has lowered and hence, the bulk of single moms prefer to have their kids with them in place of "relinquishing them" for being adopted. Besides, thanks to advanced technology, "birth control" pills are instantly accessible to the fertile populace, and, as abortion has been legalized, a pregnancy which is unplanned could be stopped. A new dimension to the problem has emerged because of the decrease in the supply of desirable adoptable infants and the rising infertility among Americans. (Infant Adoption is Big Business in America)
It is anticipated that out of every six couples, one couple has problems in conceiving and total infertile couples may number 5.3 million. A lot of adopters who are presently desirous of adoption…
Adoption is big business: Rationalizations for Adoption. http://www.adoption-articles.com/adoption_business.htm
Adoption: The Child Commodities Market is Big Business. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/224728/adoption_the_child_commodities_market.html?page=2
Avery, Rosemary. J. Adoption Policy and Special Needs Children. Auburn. Westport: CT.
Cahn, Naomi R; Hollinger, Joan Heifetz. Families by Law: An Adoption Reader. New York
In the second phase of the research, testing of the children in various areas related to their attitude towards outdoor play will take place. Appreciation and awareness of the natural world, signs of emerging independence or continuing dependence, and a variety of other variables associated by previous research with outdoor play will be examined. This will also provide some direct insight as to the factors that motivate outdoor play, allowing for further extrapolation. Specifically, plans and procedures for motivating increased outdoor play and more positive attitudes towards/greater appreciations of outdoor play will be recommended based on the findings of the two research phases. From this, the beginnings of a comprehensive view of early childhood attitudes towards outdoor play and the benefits of increasing positive attitudes towards outdoor play will hopefully be established.
The observations made in this research will not provide enough evidence to lead to any entirely conclusive…
Chan, L. & Louie, L. (2003). "The Use of Pedometry to Evaluate the Physical Activity Levels among Preschool Children in Hong Kong." Early childhood development & care 173(1), pp. 97-107.
Kernan, M. & Devine, D. (2010). "Being Confined within? Constructions of the Good Childhood and Outdoor Play in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings in Ireland." Children & society 24(5), pp. 371-85.
Maday, G, (2005). "Indoor play systems." Scholastic early childhood today 19(6), pp. 33-4.
Valentine, G. & McKendrick, J. (1997). "Children's outdoor play: Exploring parental concerns about children's safety and the changing nature of childhood." Geoforum 28(2), pp. 219-35.
Obesity and Genetics
esearch shows that science has been displaying that genetics have always been playing a position in obesity for quite a while. It is clear that the genes can openly produce obesity in syndromes for instance, with the Prader-Willi syndrome. Nevertheless, genes do not at all times forecast future health (Genetics, 2006). Behavior and genes could both be required for an individual to be heavy. In some circumstances multiple genes possibly will raise one's weakness for obesity and necessitate outside factors; such as abundant food supply or not having much physical activity. With that said, this paper will discuss genetics and the role it plays in obesity.
Obesity is Complex
Obesity is not that simple but it is a complex disease. It results from the dealings of an extensive variability of hereditary and ecological factors (Hirschhorn, 2005). The mutual progress in measureable heredities, genomics and bioinformatics…
Chouet, H. (2011). Genetics of Obesity: What have we Learned? Current Genomics, 12(3), 169-179.
Farooqi, S. O. (2006). Genetics of obesity. Biological Science, 361(1471), 1095-1105.
Genetics, H. M. (2006). Genetics of obesity and the prediction of risk for health. Oxford Journals, 15(2), 124-R130.
Hirschhorn, H. N. (2005). Genetics of common forms of obesity: a brief overview. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82(1), 215S-217S.
As it is, obesity emerges in cultures that become wealthy and start eating fast food.
Doctors are also responsible for promoting the myth that obesity is related more to genetics than to lifestyle by misrepresenting the statistics about the disease. As ebMD points out, "If one of your parents is obese, you are 3 times as likely to be obese as someone with parents of healthy weight." hat the ebsite fails to mention is that the reason why parents pass on obesity to children might not be related at all to genes, but to lifestyle habits. A child who grows up watching a parent eat potato chips and fast food while watching television might model behavior after that parent. If the parent is obese, the child will become obese not necessarily because of genes but because of behavior modeling.
Public policy is also to blame for obesity. It is a…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Obesity and overweight. 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/overwt.htm
Sifferlin, Alexandra. "Americans Are Eating Fewer Calories, So Why Are We Still Obese?" Time. 22 Feb, 2013. Retrieved online: http://healthland.time.com/2013/02/22/americans-are-eating-fewer-calories-so-why-are-we-still-obese/
WebMD. Obesity -- Cause. 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.webmd.com/diet/tc/obesity-cause
During the study a number of factors were considered for the evaluation of the fact that females unlike males in Saudi Arabia constitute a larger proportion.
Lifestyle and dietary
Adolescent boys and girls were studied for at least two weeks on their feeding habits, for this period, females were observed to consume more snacks than male in that males could only consume snacks once a fortnight unlike their female counterparts who for the 14 days averagely took snacks at least 12 days. For the consumption of rice, bread, nuts and fish the percentage of females consuming this surpassed that of men i.e. 54.8 to 50.5%, this shows that females consumes more food products that are energy giving than males in Saudi Arabia leading to deposition of more calories in the body triggering obesity as it is supposed that the body can not convert the whole chunk of calories. More…
Al-Gelban, K.S. (2008). Diatery Habits and Exercise Practices among the Students of a Saudi
Teachers Training College. Saudi Med J, 29 (5), 754-759.
Al-Rukban, M. (2003). Obesity among Saudi Male Adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med Journal, 34, 27-33.
Al-Shammari, S., Khoja, T., & Al-Subaie, A. (1994). Trans-cultural Attitude Towards Being
This is an area that receives little attention, but it promises to be fruitful if attention is given to it. The health practitioner will combine attempts to reach this group with administrative policy and in combination; there will be a moderation of the problem at school.
The popular kids at school set the norms of the schools and influence the values within the school. The popular kids are generally not the ones who are obese they may make fun at obese children. An awareness program that allows popular children to observe the impact of their taunts and other unkind comments on their peers may strike within their hearts a desire to become part of the solution rather than the problem. When combined with an administrative approach that encourages more exercise that is physical and coupled with a school climate of support for eating healthy food. This strategy will create changes…
Anderson, Patricia M. And Butcher Kristin F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential
Causes the Future of Children, 16: (1): 19-45.
CDC Fact Sheet: Foods and Beverages Sold Outside of the School Meal Programs.
Crosnoe Robert & Muller Chandra (2004) Body Mass Index, Academic Achievement, and School Context: Examining the Educational Experiences of Adolescents at Risk of Obesity. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45 (4):393-407.
Obesity Prevention Nonprofit Organizational Marketing Plan
The primary purpose of this report is to help investors understand the need for a program which will help reduce obesity throughout the UK and then less developed countries in Eastern Europe. The problem is that the environment that many developed countries have created for themselves advances obesity without intending to. There is also the danger among less developed countries, that are beginning to see some amount of prosperity, that they could have the same issues that the rest of the developed world is having (Hill, Wyatt & Peters, 2005).
The goal is to use a program that has been proven to be effective to make sure that people have the tools that they need to be able to combat obesity. The issue is that the predominance of obesity is among the poor and especially with women and children. Therefore,…
Arozian, M. (2003). Branding for nonprofits: How a community nonprofit can establish a presence among those it serves and those it depends on for support by linking its name to a very recognizable symbol. The Public Manager, 32(2), 9-11.
Barreto, R.A., & Hughes, A.W. (2004). Under performers and over achievers: A quantile regression analysis of growth. Economic Record, 80(248), 17-33.
Colls, R., & Evans, B. (2010). Challenging assumptions: Re-thinking the "obesity problem." Geography, 95, 99-104.
Frumkin, P., & Kim, M.T. (2001). Strategic positioning and the financing of nonprofit organizations: Is efficiency rewarded in the contributions marketplace? Public Administration Review, 61(3), 266-277.
Obesity -- More the Fault of the Individual Than of Society
Obesity is a tremendous problem in American society with more than two-thirds of all adults and nearly half of all children either overweight or clinically obese (Baldauf, 2008; Sizer & Whitney, 2003). There are many reasons that account for this, some of which have to do with modern life and others that are attributable to personal choices made by individuals and families on behalf of children. Granted, modern life does entail far less physical activity: personal vehicles and public transportation have taken the place of walking; most work is sedentary rather than physical; and food companies invest heavily in marketing non-nutritious high-calorie food. However, being overweight or obese is not inevitable and many people maintain healthy body composition and weight throughout their lives. Among all of the contributing factors, those that are purely a matter of choice are the…
Baldauf, S. "Too Fat? No More Excuses: Research Is Revealing How Very Damaging
Extra Baggage Is." U.S. News & World Report. (January 14, 2008): 57-61.
Sizer, F. And Whitney, E. (2003). Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies. Belmont:
In that regard, such foods are more likely to be consumed by those in the lower income brackets as they seek to shelter some dollars. hen it comes to technological and agricultural innovations, Nnakwe explains that such occurrences drive down the prices of food (209). Cheaper food could motivate people to eat much more than their regular portions. Further, weight gain and thus obesity may be as a result of giving up smoking. There are various reasons that support this assertion. To begin with, those who quit smoking may increase the food portions they ingest largely because individuals tend to taste their food better after they quit smoking (National Institutes of Health). Further, quitting smoking affects the body's calorie burning rate. According to the National Institutes of Health, "nicotine raises the rate at which your body burns calories."
In conclusion, it is important to note that although most of…
Centers for Disease Control -- CDC. "Adult Obesity Facts." CDC. N.p., 27 April, 2012. Web. 22 July, 2012.
National Institutes of Health -- NIH. "What Causes Overweight and Obesity?" NIH. N.p., 01 November, 2010. Web. 21 July, 2012.
Nnakwe, Nweze E. Community Nutrition: Planning Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. 2009, Print.
Rossen, Lauren M. And Eric a. Rossen. Obesity 101. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company. 2011, Print.
Interview with an Obese Individual
For this assignment I interviewed an obese individual from the South Florida area. I found it difficult to select an individual based on their physical condition. It was definitely a challenge to, not only identify such an individual, but also find a way to approach them without being insulting or making the person feel uncomfortable about their condition obesity in any way. Although I am familiar with some obese people through my network of friends and family, I chose to select an individual that I was not acquainted with so that there was slightly less pressure to not be offensive in anyway. For example, I obviously know that this is a sensitive subject for many obese people, and I was personally worried that if I somehow offended someone that was within my network that it would cause some kind of issue for my…
Obesity's a condition in which people have too much fat in their body and as a result of this excess fat, they end up having health problems such as diabetes and heart-related problems including mobility issues and a decreased life expectancy. A person is considered to be obese when their Body Mass Index (BMI) exceeds 30 gm and the BMI is calculated by dividing a person's weight in grams by the square of a person's height in meters.
Today, obesity is a major problem facing our society and more than one-third (35.7%) of Americans are obese (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). There are many implications of obesity for the society and one such outcome is the higher medical costs for obese people. It is estimated that in 2008 alone, $147 billion was spent for treating diseases related to obesity. Some groups are more affected by obesity than others…
Adult Obesity Facts. (2012). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html
The former are commissioned to improve the balance and affordability of healthy food options and the latter are considered valuable policy advocates, with prominent entertainers and athletes serving to the proliferate an important message. ith respect to the distribution of this method, though certain demographics are targeted for their heightened vulnerability, the state of California is the population served on the whole here. The implications of this service direction are crucial to such large-population contexts as the Los Angeles County and metropolitan area.
The program is generally facilitated by public funding such as the taxpayer's allotment which is given to the California Department of Public Health.
The primacy of prevention is crucial to what the COPP does. Therefore, one its core services is the provision of outreach to those demographics which are recognized as being high risk. In our research, populations of particular note are those living in…
Brownell, KD. (2007). Culture Matters in the Obesity Debate. Los Angeles Times.
California Department of Public Health (CDPH). (2010). California Obesity Prevention Plan (COPP). State of California.
Los Angeles County Public Health. (2006). The Obesity Epidemic in Los Angeles County Adults. Retrieved July 10, 2010, from http://lapublichealth.org/wwwfiles/ph/hae/ha/obesity05.pdf
Schwarzenegger, A.; Belshe, K. & Shewry, S. (2006). California Obesity Prevention
Budget constraints made it necessary to use grants and volunteers to staff the Cape May initiative, but by working within the community, CE was able to create an effective campaign: for example, walking was stressed, given the low income and the need for affordable exercise amongst community residents. The community also began a collective dialogue to improve the quality of nutritional and physical education support within the large juvenile population.
Discuss overall community efforts to resolve this problem
CE stresses the need for communities to help themselves. By staging conferences and working within the community, it strives to tailor its programs in a highly specific fashion. New Jersey is a densely populated state with many budgetary challenges: its geographical diversity, spanning rural areas in the south and urban areas in the north demands a targeted effort to effectively address community obesity.
Discuss the community health nurse's role in…
Rochford, Marilou & Elizabeth Kaminsky. (2004, October). Fighting back against childhood obesity through the Cape May County Children's Health Summit. Prev Chronic Dis. 1(4): A17. Retrieved March 29, 2010 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1277957/
Rutgers Cooperative Extension. (2010). Rutgers University. Retrieved March 29, 2010 at http://njaes.rutgers.edu/extension/
Obesity is when a person has an unhealthy amount of body fat. It causes a person to be overweight in all aspects of the body. There is a lot of body fat due to being overweight. It is important for every human being to have some body fat. However too much fat can lead to a lot of health problems. There are a lot of factors which contribute to obesity. Experts believe that the high calorie diets of our time are to blame for majority of the cases. A lot of people eat food such as burgers, nuggets, ice cream, cake, chips, candy and other various types of snacks. These snacks are full of fats and calories. Eating fatty foods contributes to obesity. Obesity is also linked to the genetics of a body. It can occur if a person has obesity in the family.
Fast Food's link to Obesity
1. Fast Food Nation, Eric Schlosser, 2000
2. Mayo Clinic: Obesity www.cnn.com/mayo
3. BBC Health: Why fast food makes you fat, October 2003
4. Overweight and Obesity, Healthy People 2010: Leading Health Indicators and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Homework assignments can include discussing with parents at least one healthy food that can be added to the family diet.
Gym sessions can be increased during the school day, supplemented by field trips that encourage physical activity. Homework assignments, especially for young children, could include physical activities undertaken with parents. Children could then report on these in writing or orally.
chool policies can therefore be modified in simple and small ways to change the daily habits of children, and to encourage parents to do the same. These can be implemented while the more complicated issues such as fast food at school cafeterias are addressed by legislation. The important aspect of this is that the root of the problem is addressed by involving the whole family in a policy of exchanging unhealthy habits for healthy ones.
Richards, Edward P., Gold, Jay & McLean, Thomas (2004, June). Legislative trategies to Reduce…
School policies can therefore be modified in simple and small ways to change the daily habits of children, and to encourage parents to do the same. These can be implemented while the more complicated issues such as fast food at school cafeterias are addressed by legislation. The important aspect of this is that the root of the problem is addressed by involving the whole family in a policy of exchanging unhealthy habits for healthy ones.
Richards, Edward P., Gold, Jay & McLean, Thomas (2004, June). Legislative Strategies to Reduce Obesity. Third Annual CDC Public Health Law Conference.
For adolescents living in the Delta, health education on modifiable risk factors is mandatory if any change is to be seen.
FINDINGS of the REVIEW of LITERATURE
Findings of the literature reviewed in this study include the key roles of mothers, cafeterias in schools, physical education teachers and food accessibility in overweight African-Americans. Community initiatives which are combined and integrated with school and home initiatives focused toward healthier eating have been found to be effective in educating and treating African-Americans who are suffering from obesity. Sedentary lifestyles and poor eating habits coupled result in not only obesity but also oftentimes more serious diseases and complications such as experienced by those with diabetes mellitus, which is a common complication of obesity among African-American individuals.
RECOMMENDATIONS for PROGRAM DESIGN
ecause there are cultural factors that greatly impact the rate of obesity among African-American individuals it is necessary that these types of programs…
Environmental Influences on Physical Activity and Obesity in African-American Adolescents - a Multilevel Perspective. (2008) Active Living Research. Online available at http://www.activelivingresearch.org/node/11623
Dietz, William, (2000) Focus Group Data Pertinent to the Prevention of Obesity in African-Americans. From the Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta GA. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences.
Cultural Attitudes Toward Weight, Diet, and Physical Activity Among Overweight African-American Girls" by Josephine E.A. Boyington and colleagues is found at http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2008/apr/07_0056.htm?s_cid=pcd52a36_e .
Hughes, Gail D. (2002) Obesity and the African-American Adolescent, the Mississippi Delta Report. 130th Annual Meeting of APHA. 11 Nov. 2002. Board 8. Online available at http://apha.confex.com/apha/130am/techprogram/paper_46137.htm
It will not focus on achieving a certain standard of thinness, and will emphasize the importance of behavioral modification as an essential component of healthy living. A national and comprehensive obesity campaign can be effective, if implemented correctly and in a fashion that promotes overall wellness, not simply achievement of a standard of thinness. Obesity can be conquered if it is approached from the perspective that healthy and well people are the norm and the ideal American person.
A.A.F.P. "Obesity and Children: Helping Your Child Lose Weight." 2001. American
Academy of Family Physicians. 16 October, 2004 http://familydoctor.org/343.xml
AOA. "American Obesity Association Fact Sheets." 2002. American Obesity
Association, 17 October 2004, http://www.obesity.org/subs/fastfacts/Obesity_Treatment/shtml
Behrens, Laurence & osen, Leonard J. Writing and eading Across the Curriculum.
A pp. 440-516). New York: Longman: 2001.
Crister, Greg. "Too much of a good thing." (2001). In Laurence Behrens and Leonard J.
osen (Eds.) Writing and…
A.A.F.P. "Obesity and Children: Helping Your Child Lose Weight." 2001. American
Academy of Family Physicians. 16 October, 2004 http://familydoctor.org/343.xml
AOA. "American Obesity Association Fact Sheets." 2002. American Obesity
Association, 17 October 2004, http://www.obesity.org/subs/fastfacts/Obesity_Treatment/shtml
The effects of obesity are numerous and include both physical and psychological factors. The physical effects of obesity include heart disease, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, hypertension, respiratory issues, and sleep apnea (Health Consequences). Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in the United Sates. In many cases heart disease is preventable or controllable through weight loss and healthy living. Another major effect of obesity is diabetes. Diabetes is a very detrimental disease because it can affect every organ in the body and it is a major cause of blindness in the United States. In addition, many people with diabetes experience kidney failure and even the amputation of limbs as a result of nerve damage and poor circulation (Health Consequences).
Respiratory problems and sleep apnea are also high amongst people who suffer from obesity. Respiratory problems may lead to dependence on oxygen machines. Sleep apnea is particularly…
This association between education, socioeconomic level and obesity has not yet been fully explored, and may be false, since rates of obesity are increasing in high and middle income groups as well.
Medical issues may lead to weight gain, and must be considered in the differential. Conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome and polycystic ovarian syndrome are often associated with weight gain. Lack of knowledge surrounding the condition may also contribute to rates of obesity. In a recent study published in American Family Physician (2007), Americans were surveyed asking to report approximate height and weight, which was then used to calculate BMI. esponses showed 20% of Americans were obese and 38% were overweight. Since this study is based on self-report, it is quite possible that there is an even higher degree of obesity, since many people underreport their weight. These figures certainly differ from objective data gained from the Centers…
International Obesity Task Force (2007) Global Rates of Obesity, 2006. Accessed on the Internet on 14 October 2007 at http://www.iotf.org/database/GlobalAdultTableJune07.htm
Davidson M, Knafl KA. (2006) Cultural Analysis on the concept of Obesity. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 3, 342-350
No Author Listed. (2007) Poll Shows Americans Underestimate Obesity Problem. American Family Physician. 2; 15-16.
Katz DL, O'Connell M, Yeh MC, Nawaz H, Nijke V, Anderson LM, Cory S, Dietz W. (2007) Public Health Strategies for Preventing and Controlling Overweight and Obesity in School and Worksite Settings MMWR,
' (EurActiv 2008)
'The traffic light Scheme was shown to be the most effective of by the FSA. hat they also discovered was that consumers wanted product labeling; they liked separate information on 4 key nutrients that include fats, carbohydrates, proteins and salts and sugars.' (EurActiv, 2010) Consumers found traffic color coding easy to understand and use. As a result they wanted numerical information on amount of nutrients in a serving. However they found GDA percentage rather confusing. Also the importance of making nutrition and ingredient labeling mandatory on wines, beers and spirits and having a consistent mandatory labeling system with color codes was emphasized by the NGOs representing different areas of health at the hearing. These products could not be eliminated from the labeling because they were part of the foods that contributed to obesity.
At the public hearing on efficient food, (Public Hearing on Efficient foods, 2011) Mr.…
DN Sanco, (2011) European Vegetarian and Animal News Alliance (EVANA): Renewed Commitment of stakeholders to Combat Overweight and Obesity Related Health Issues Brussels, Belgium
European Public Health Alliance, (2011) putting citizens' health at the heart of Europe, Brussels, Belgium: Retrieved from www.epha.org/a/3107
EurActiv, (2008) European Food Safety Authority: Food industry, food labeling Retrieved from http://www.euractiv.com/en/cap/smes-hit-cost-eu-food-labelling-proposals/article-174970
EurActiv, (2011) Europe Urged to recognize Chronic Obesity Brussels, Belgium: Retrieved from http: / www / euractiv.com.en/health / Europe
" (2008, p. 146) Flegal, Ogden & Carroll stress the need to educate lowering the fat content of the diet through nursing intervention and practice. (2004, p. S147) These nursing interventions can like this work stress the implementation of a program that exposes adolescents to healthier alternatives and builds the efficacy for obtaining them through successfully seeking family behavior changes and building awareness about healthier options and food costing that make such options obtainable.
What interventions have been successful and what interventions have NOT been successful?
It is clear that general nutrition education, in the schools or in the community has not been an effective intervention tool for children in general, especially given what some would consider the deplorable condition of the public school nutrition programs in most states. It is also clear that family focused interventions are rare, but where they have been tried they have proven most successful…
Heiss, G.L. (2008) Chapter 18: Health Promotion and Risk Reduction in the Community. In Maurer, F.A. & Smith C.M. eds. (2008) Community/Public Health Nursing Practice: Health for Families and Populations Philadelphia, PA. Saunders.
Flegal, K.M. Ogden, C.L. & Carroll, M.D. (July 2004) Prevalence and Trends in Overweight in Mexican-American Adults and Children. Nutrition Reviews 62 (7) S144-S148.
Fortmeier-Saucier, L. Savrin, C. Heinzer, M. & Hudak, C. (Third-Quarter 2008) BMI and Lipid Levels in Mexican-American Children Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes World Views on Evidenced-Based Nursing. 142-147.
Kumanyika, S. & Grier. S. (2006) "Targeting Interventions for Ethnic Minority and Low-Income Populations." The Future of Children 16 (1) 187.
In fact, social researchers Michael Gard and Jan Wright (2004) point to studies that show:
today's children, in both developing and industrialized countries, are taller and heavier than in the past, in spite of relatively stable or falling energy intakes among children from industrialized countries. Their fat intakes are falling and the percentage of total energy derived from protein is rising. Lower energy intakes are apparent even among young children and seem to be more pronounced in girls than in boys (olland-Cachera and Bellisle 2002:74) (Gard and Wright, p. 115)."
While there is evidence that is compelling in both research camps, the result is that parents are, today, taking a more concerted role in their children's nutritional needs and paying closer attention to the ways in which their children spend their leisure time. Whether or not childhood obesity is the urgent problem that some experts suggest it is, we…
Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19+. Retrieved February 14, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014370999 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108854352
Gard, M., & Wright, J. (2004). The Obesity Epidemic: Science, Morality, and Ideology. New York: Routledge. Retrieved February 14, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108854354 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014371031
Lindsay, a.C., Sussner, K.M., Kim, J., & Gortmaker, S. (2006). The Role of Parents in Preventing Childhood Obesity. The Future of Children, 16(1), 169+. Retrieved February 14, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014371031 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108854352
Many Americans would rather die or cut off a limb than be fat... (Worley). There is an underlying prejudice towards the excessively overweight that has, to a large extent, become an accepted part of society. As Worley states, it has become "...acceptable to shun fat people and make them the butt of cruel jokes" (Worley). Worley, Schwartz and others also emphasis the negative way that fat people are treated in public, as well as by family members. This leads to feelings if shame and a loss of self-esteem, with all the negative psychological aspects that this implies.
However, there are organizations that have realized the extent of this problem and who actively involved in raising public awareness about unfair prejudice and in helping combat such prejudice in society. The National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance (NAAFA) has reacted against this innate prejudice in society by providing a platform and a…
Hearne. S. et al. F as in Fat: How obesity policies are failing in America. April 20, 2008. http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:pbbUEelBegwJ:healthyamericans.org/reports/obesity/ObesityReport.pdf+the+Centers+for+Disease+Control+reports+only+eight+percent+of+elementary+schools+offer+daily+physical+education+classeshl=en
Kreulen G. Informing the Debate. 2002. April 18, 2008.:
NAAF Policy: ADOPTION DISCRIMINATION. April 18, 2008. http://www.naafa.org/documents/policies/adoption.html
Obesity is a global epidemic affecting almost all population cohorts. Rates of obesity are rising worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2013), the obesity epidemic “is not restricted to industrialized societies,” with millions of obesity-related cases burgeoning in developing countries (p. 1). With billions of cases worldwide, obesity has therefore been described as the “major health hazard of the 21st century,” (Zhang, Liu, Yao, et al., 2014, p. 5153). Given the global nature of the disease, clinical guidelines have become increasingly standardized, but it is still necessary to tailor interventions to specific populations to create age appropriate, culturally appropriate, and gender appropriate treatment interventions. After a brief discussion of obesity pathophysiology, this paper will evaluate standard practices at local, state, national, and international levels. Access to care and treatment options also determine disease outcomes. Therefore, this paper will also address…
Obesity increases the risk for many fatal diseases, including cardiovascular disease, and is recorded in the United States, as being the second preventable leading cause of death (smoking is the first) (World Health Organization, 2000). One of the recommendations for weight-loss is exercise. The Consumer eport (2002), for instance, showed that exercising at least three times a week was a strategy that 73% of successful dieters shared (Brannon & Feist, 2007).
Many people, however get intimidated at the very thought of exercise due to the required self-discipline and immensity of the project. Then, too there is gym membership that is costly for the average working person, aside from which there is the element of time too. For someone, for instance a single mother whose life orbits around her job and her children, attending a gym would mean an hour less of work that she, patently, can barely afford to do.…
Branon, L., & Feist, J. (2007). Health Psychology. USA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Hakim, A.A. et al. (1998). Effects of walking on mortality of nonsmoking retired men, New England Journal of Medicine, 338, 94-99.
Stofan, J.R., DePietro, L., Davis, D., Kohl, H., & Blaie, S.N. (1998) Physical activity patterns associcated with cardiorespiratory fitness. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 1807-1813.
World Health Organization. (2000). Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. WHO Technical Report Series, 894.
The key to this program's success is changing the way the citizens approach their daily lives, without changing the traditions and practices that are unique to the community.
Teaching children how to cope with this unique conundrum will be difficult but could be the most successful approach in the long run. If the program is successful in slowing down the rate of obesity found in the younger citizens, then it could have longer lasting effects than the same program instituted with older citizens. One study showed that obese children are much more susceptible to diseases, especially diabetes than adults are with the same body mass index.
The study concluded that, "After stratification age and body mass index (BMI) the risk ratio for diabetes in Anti-HCV+ participants increased when age decreased and body mass index levels increased" (ang, ang, Yao, Chang, Chou, 2007, p. 202). Diabetes is currently a non-curable disease…
Bell, a., (2006) the kids are not OK, National Underwriter (Life & Health/Financial Services Edition), Vol. 110, no. 36, p. 41
Callaway, L.K., McIntyre, H.D., O'Callaghan, M., Williams, G.M., Najman, J.M., Lawlor, D.A., (2007) the association of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with weight gain over the subsequent 21 years: Findings from a prospective cohort study, American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 166, Number 4, pp. 421-428
Confessore, N., Farmer, a., (2006) "In Borough Park, the unusual taste of fear." The New York Post, May 10, 2006, pg. B.3
Cooke, R., (2006) When normal is not necessarily good, New Statesman, Vol. 135, Number 9, p. 135
Obesity n France/ChildhoodOrder
Obesity in childhood in France
Obesity is a global problem that affects people early on in childhood, and many children never learn about how important their dieting habits are and when they are constantly exposed to whatever they want to especially to the high contents of sugar in soft drinks. In France, there are many families who follow a well-balanced diet because of their parenting, preference, education, or whatever the reason they may be, yet there are other families that prefer to live off a lot of junk food, high in carbohydrates, and other bad for you sugars and fats and fried food with instead of a well balanced diet. When observing the childhood obesity of France due to soft drink it was notated from France Ellisle from France's Institute of Health and Medical esearch, there is a direct link between weight gain and sugar, and the…
Obesity and Economics Department, Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs. (n.d.). Obesity and the economics of prevention: fit not fat -- france key facts Paris, France: Government Printing Office. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/document/26/0,37469_33929_46038682_1_1_1_1,00.html
Obesity. (2010). *****, Retrieved from http://*****/print/O besity/243 9.html
Ross, E. (n.d.). Study: soft drink intake linked to childhood obesity. ABC News/Health, Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=117618&page=1
Country Worst Obesity
Three countries: Why obesity rates are so high
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), obesity is no longer a disease of affluence. As noted in its 2015 Fact Sheet on the issue of obesity and overweight worldwide, over-nutrition rather than under-nutrition is linked to a higher percentage of deaths across the globe. Broadly speaking, this phenomenon is associated with an expansion of industrialization and a more Westernized, processed diet, causing a dramatic decrease in caloric expenditure and an increase in easily-consumed calories from processed foods. Obesity is a multi-factorial disease, linked to changes in "health, agriculture, transport, urban planning, environment, food processing, distribution, marketing and education" ("Obesity and overweight," 2015).
The United States has one of the highest obesity rates in the world: 30.6% ("Obesity: Countries compared," 2015). This has caused a great deal of understandable shock and consternation in many quarters. How is it…
Berl, R. (2012). Why we're so fat. U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved from:
LeBillon, K. (2012). French kids don't get fat. Retrieved from:
Children in urban areas may lack support for physical education, because of the absence of safe places to play in their environments. While the contributing factors to obesity may be the same -- too many calories and not enough physical activity -- the reasons that an activity and caloric balance occurs must be addressed locally, and not in a generic fashion.
Within six months: aise awareness about the organization. Contact local, state, and national leaders. Touch base with leaders who are sympathetic to the goals of the organization. Disseminating the message of obesity reduction through public service messages as well as replicating existing programs and advocacy messages will be part of the organization's efforts to make connections with sympathetic leaders.
Within a year: esearch and target critical programs and initiatives that will become the focus of fundraising of the organization.
Ongoing, but within a year to six months to…
Edible schoolyard. (2010). Official website. Retrieved October 27, 2010 at http://www.edibleschoolyard.org/
Fast food near schools means fatter kids. (2009, January 10). Reuters. Retrieved October 27,
2010 at http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE5013LU20090102
Hellmich, Nina. (2010, January 20). Michelle Obama to launch initiative fighting childhood obesity. USA Today. Retrieved October 27, 2010 at http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/weightloss/2010-01-20-michelle-obama-obesity_N.htm
Obesity and Diabetes: A Community Health Problem
Many people do not consider obesity to be a deadly non-communicable disease -- and yet research shows that obesity is one of the main causes of death in American communities, and it is growing (Tabish, 2007). The community chosen for this paper is a typical, demographically diverse suburban Middle America community: the city is Pueblo, Colorado. The vulnerable population chosen here is the community's children. Children are especially vulnerable to the risk of obesity and by extension diabetes. This paper will review why this is so and what a community health nurse can do to help address the issue. The purpose of this paper will be to identify strengths, risks and barriers associated with this population's vulnerability to obesity and diabetes and what can be done to actively combat this problem.
Vulnerable Population Overview
Diabetes is a growing threat to communities around the…
Cunningham-Myrie, C., et al. (2015). Associations between neighborhood effects and physical activity, obesity, and diabetes: The Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey, 2008. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 68(9): 970-978.
Davis, B. (2008). Defeating Diabetes: Lessons from the Marshall Islands. Today's
Dietitian, 10(8): 24.
Goran, M., Ball, G., Cruz, M. (2009). Obesity and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical
These studies point to other factors that contribute to obesity and being overweight among children. For some experts, the association with genetics has grown out of changes in human physical activity. Concerns such as obesity did not matter when people were physically active. However, sedentary lifestyles and more time spent in front of video games and televisions have caused the human body to react differently to high-fat, high-carbohydrate diets.
Additionally, the rise of obesity among disadvantaged households also highlights allied social problems. Many of such households are run by single parents. Others are headed by parents who both work in order to support their families. This leaves them little time to supervise their children's diets and activities. Thus, even if the marketing of fast-food items were regulated, there is no guarantee that children will be able to make nutritional choices.
Children who come from a disadvantaged socio-economic background face additional…
Community Advocacy Project-Health Policies
Course Project: Community Advocacy Project-Health Policies
Child obesity refers to a medical condition that mainly affects teenagers and children. This happens when their bodies store excessive body fat. A child can be classified as obese if his or her weight is above the stipulated average for the age and height bracket. Weight gain occurs when energy in the form of drink and food is more than the energy burnt off (Koplan et al., 2005). Few teenagers and children suffer from obesity because of uncommon genetic diseases. The following study endeavors to identify the existing policies that affect child obesity and explain whether they are adequate or need to be revised based on their limitations and strengths. It also explains the important aspects when addressing the issue of child obesity.
The existing policies include early assessment of risk. This policy is necessary as early obesity…
Koplan, J., Liverman, C.T., & Kraak, V.I. (2005). Preventing childhood obesity health in the balance. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
Langwith, J. (2013). Childhood obesity. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
Obesity in young ones is a major public health issue in the U.S. as the figure of overweight teenagers has tripled over the last thirty years such that 17%, that is, 12.5 million of children and teenagers aged between 2 and 19 years are currently categorized as obese on the basis of BMI (body mass index) (Jackson, 2). CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) defines childhood obesity as a body mass index above or at the 95th percentile for kids and teenagers of similar sex and age. This paper reviews childhood obesity, outlining the causes, lifetime consequences to a kid, diagnosis, management strategies, and measures to prevent it.
The main cause of obesity is an imbalance of energy between calories consumed and those burned. orldwide, the rise in energy- laden foodstuffs high in sugar and fat but short of dietary value together with decline in physical…
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Defining Childhood Obesity, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2015. Web.
Glasper, Alan. "Childhood Obesity Plan: The Government Declares War on Sugar." British Journal of Nursing 25.17 (2016): 984-985. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 24 Nov. 2016.
Jackson, Callum G. Childhood Obesity: Causes, Management and Challenges. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2013. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 24 Nov. 2016.
McHugh, Bronwyn. "The Childhood Obesity Epidemic." Journal of The Australian Traditional-Medicine Society 22.2 (2016): 94-98. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 24 Nov. 2016.
Preventing Childhood Obesity
Childhood obesity is on the rise in America and across the world. Obesity presents physical, social, and emotional complications for all sufferers. However, childhood obesity is especially concerning because the chronic conditions associated with obesity such as type II diabetes and heart disease are increasingly difficult to manage over time and today's generation of obese children is more likely to become a generation of overweight adults. According to the Centers for Disease Control, approximately 17% children and adolescents aged 2 -- 19 are obese ("Childhood obesity facts," 2014). Obesity in children is significantly correlated with poverty and certain specific minority statuses. "In 2011-2012, obesity prevalence was higher among Hispanics (22.4%) and non-Hispanic black youth (20.2%) than non-Hispanic white youth (14.1%). The prevalence of obesity was lower in non-Hispanic Asian youth (8.6%) than in youth who were non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black or Hispanic" obese ("Childhood obesity facts," 2014).…
Bray, G. (2004). Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79(4): 537-543
Retrieved from: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/79/4/537.full
Childhood obesity facts. (2014). CDC. Retrieved from:
(Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Strategy 3: Community Food Access - Promote efforts to provide fruits and vegetables in a variety of settings, such as farmers' markets, farm stands, mobile markets, community gardens, and youth-focused gardens. (Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Action Steps: (1) Encourage farmers markets to accept Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) food package vouchers and WIC Farmers Market Nutrition Program coupons; and encourage and make it possible for farmers markets to accept Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (or SNAP, formerly the Food Stamp Program) and WIC Program Electronic enefit Transfer (ET) cards by allocating funding for equipment that uses electronic methods of payment; (2) Improve funding for outreach, education, and transportation to encourage use of farmers markets and farm stands by residents of lower-income neighborhoods, and by WIC and SNAP recipients. Introduce or modify land use policies/zoning regulations to promote, expand, and protect potential sites…
Berkowitz, Bobbie and Borchard, Marleyse (2009) Prevention of Childhood Obesity Advocating for the Prevention of Childhood Obesity: A Call to Action for Nursing. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. ANA Periodicals Vol 14 -- 2009 No 1 Jan'09http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol142009/No1Jan09/Prevention-of-Childhood-Obesity.aspx
Dehghan, Mahshid, Akhtar-Danesh, Noori, and Merchant, Anwar T. (2005) Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention. Nutrition Journal 2 Sept 2005. Online available at: http://www.nutritionj.com/content/4/1/24
National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 http://obssr.od.nih.gov/news_and_events/news.aspx
Local Government Actions to Prevent Childhood Obesity (2009) Institute of Medicine. September 2009. Report Brief. Online available at: http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/20090901iombrief.pdf
Many health issues that children have been faced with in the United States have decreased in intensity and prevalence over the past few decades, but they have been replaced by new problems that could cause even more serious long-term effects. One such, childhood obesity, is troublesome because it is can be the root cause of many more serious problems. Childhood obesity leads to an increased incidence of heart disease, diabetes and other serious health issues. The primary method for combatting childhood obesity is education of both the children and the parents, and nurses are among the most important means of providing that education. This paper examines the seriousness of childhood obesity and how nurses can be advocates of change.
Nurses are guided by a set of principles much like other professionals in health care and other occupations. For nursing, these guidelines answer the who, what, when, where, and…
ANA. (2012). Scope and standards of practice. Nursing World. Retrieved from http://nursingworld.org/scopeandstandardsofpractice
The National Academy of Sciences. (2005). Preventing childhood obesity. Health in the Balance.
isk Factors for Obesity: A Critique
Major isk Factors for Obesity: A Critique of the esearch Literature
Major isk Factors for Obesity: A Critique of the esearch Literature
The World Health Organization (WHO, 2013) estimated that close to 1.4 million adults were overweight in 2008 and of these 500 million were obese. For adults over the age of 20 this implies that 35 and 11% of the global adult population were overweight and obese, respectively. The definition of overweight is a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or higher, while obesity is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher. While obesity does not directly result in the death of anyone, it is the fifth leading mortality risk globally and is responsible for 2.8 million deaths annually. This is due to obesity representing a significant risk factor for serious comorbid conditions, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, nearly…
Cooper, M. (2012, December 12). Census officials, citing increasing diversity, say U.S. will be a 'plurality nation.' New York Times, p. A20.
Gaskin, D.J., Thorpe, R.J. Jr., McGinty, E.E., Bower, K., Rohde, C., Young, J.H. et al. (2013). Disparities in diabetes: The nexus of race, poverty, and place. American Journal of Public Health, published online ahead of print 14 Nov. 2013.
Goldschmidt, A.B., Wilfley, D.E., Paluch, R.A., Roemmich, J.N., & Epstein, L.H. (2013). Indicated prevention of adult obesity: How much weight change is necessary for normalization of weight status in children? Journal of the American Medical Association -- Pediatrics, 167(1), 21-6.
Hearst, M.O., Pasch, K.E., & Laska, M.N. (2012). Urban v. suburban perceptions of the neighborhood food environment as correlates of adolescent food purchasing. Public Health Nutrition, 15(2), 299-306.
For many children this may mean limited or no weight gain while they grow taller. Recommendations for maintaining weight include regular physical exercise and carefully watching ones diet to avoid too many extra calories. "Factors predicting success are:
including parents in the dietary treatment program strong social support of dietary intervention from others involved in preparing food regular physical activity prescription including social support" (Overweight in Children, n.d).
There is a great importance in continuing lifestyle changes in order to continue any weight loss success. The best way to change weight is to do it gradually (Overweight in Children, n.d).
hen the goal is to help a child reach and maintain a healthy weight, parents should be the ones to take the lead. Healthcare providers and nutrition advisors are there to help, but parents exercise the most control over a child's activities and habits and thus are in the best…
Anderson, Patricia M. And Butcher, Kristen F. "Childhood Obesity:
Trends and Potential Causes." n.d. The Future of Children. 4 April 2009
"Helping Your Overweight Child." n.d. Weight-Control Information Network. 4 April 2009
Indeed, obesity among children and adolescents is even associated with an increase in economic costs. It is estimated that the hospital costs for obesity-related disease among children and adolescents increased from $35 million in 1979-1981 to $127 million in 1997-1999, which represents more than three times the costs of 20 years ago (Wang & Dietz, 2002).
Numerous obesity-related health complications such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, type II diabetes mellitus, coronary plaque formation, and serious psychosocial implications, are also affecting children and adolescents (Freedman & Stern, 2004; Pinhas-Hamiel, Dolan, Daniels, Standiford, Khoury & Zeitler, 1996; Ludwig & Ebbeling, 2001; Dietz, 1998; American Academy of Pediatrics, 2002). Since the increase in such health problems has generally paralleled that of the obesity epidemic, Anderson and Butcher (2006) remarked that there should be an association between these health problems and childhood obesity.
Guo, Wu, Chumlea & oche (2002) indicated that overweight children…
Adkins, S., Sherwood, N.E., Story, M. & Davis, M. (2004). Physical Activity among African-American Girls: The Role of Parents and the Home Environment. Obesity Research, 12: 38S-45S.
Allison, K.R., Dwyer, J.J.M., Goldenberg, E., Fein, A., Yoshida, K.K., & Boutilier, M. (2005). Male Adolescents' Reasons for Participating in Physical Activity, Barriers to Participation, and Suggestions for Increasing Participation. Adolescence, 40 (157) [HIDDEN]
American Academy of Pediatrics (2004). Soft Drinks in Schools. Pediatrics, 113 (1): 152-154.
American Heart Association (2004). Overweight and Obesity -- Statistics. Retrieved in June, 2011 from the internet website: http://www.americanheart.org/downloadable/heart/1136820021462Overweight06.Pdf