This is true not only in African countries with "dictatorial or authoritarian regimes but in fact China's […] commonly shared roots with African nations […] has struck a chord even with those democratically elected leaders in Africa," allowing China access to even those countries that might at first glance appear to natural allies to the United States due to their democratic form of government.
Thus, Africa's colonial past has simultaneously meant that China has a natural cultural, historical, and ideological connection to the continent while any action by the United States is viewed with a degree of inherent suspicion and reluctance; the difficulty the United States has faced in developing close strategic and economic partnerships in the region is evidenced by the fact that it has yet to find a suitable host nation for AFRICOM, the U.S. military command on the continent, even amongst putative allies, at the same time…… [Read More]
The China Fallacy provides an interesting perspective between American perception and that of economic reality. The book illustrates, how in many instances, a disconnect between truth and reality has the potential to create unnecessary conflicts between parties. The China Fallacy is no different in this regard. Within the book, the author Donald Gross illustrates how the notions of security, economic turmoil, and political instability are skewed within the general public. Gross also illustrates that it is in the best interest of the United States to allow China to prosper and flourish. This prosperity, Gross argues, will ultimately lead to an optimal relationship between the two countries, abating many of the negative influences that plague them. Gross, in his book provides solutions to abate the influences that society deems important to U.S.- China relations while also providing means to expand the overall relationship in a sustainable manner. Through his…… [Read More]
Under Communism, Confucian values, considered vestiges of the old feudal system, were supposed to have been completely swept away. Judging from what you have read from the readings, do you believe Confucianism completely disappeared after 1949?
Confucianism is the philosophical and ethical system of belief based upon the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. The core belief of Confucianism was humanism which is the belief that human beings can change, adapt, and grow. No one's identity or personality is concrete and anyone can learn from their mistakes and change. People are asked to make decisions using reason, logic, and critical thinking. hen the Communists took control of China in the, Confucianism was abandoned officially because those in charge did not want people thinking for themselves. Instead, the people were to listen to the word of the government and to accept their demands without question. Although under Chairman Mao and…… [Read More]
China Largest Country in World
China the Largest Country in the World
China is the largest country in the world. You are thinking about marketing your product in their country. Your information must be current (NLT2004). You are to conduct a comparative analysis between China and the United States. You are to determine the population of China, the mean gross income, the gross national product (GNP).
When you compare the United States with China, it is clear that the U.S. is a more developed nation. Evidence of this can be seen by: comparing the median income and the GNP of both counties. As the U.S. has an average income of $47,200.00, while China has median income levels of $7,600.00. In the case of the GNP, the U.S. is much larger than China with their economy realizing $14.66 trillion in total output for 2010. Whereas China; is experiencing GNP productivity rates…… [Read More]
I do not approve of reading so many books. The method of examination is a method of dealing with the enemy. It is most harmful and should be stopped" (Johnson 1992:552). Mao wanted control of China's destiny -- and he wanted that destiny out of the hands of the religionists, whose doctrine was not formulated by him but by an outside body. Thus, places like Sacred Heart convent in Peking were closed, the sisters expelled, the school children sent home. Not limited to Christianity, Mao's Cultural Revolution targeted "Moslem institutions and uddhist sanctuaries" as well (Fitzgerald 1967:124).
The Cultural Revolution was, of course, fueled by Mao's own Romantic tendencies. Unable to accept reality on its own terms, Mao insisted on having it his own way. His pseudo-intellectual wife convinced him to leave Peking in 1965. They settled in Shanghai, where Mao nursed his "hatred of Soviet Russia and its leadership,…… [Read More]
K -- 12 Students in China and Puerto Rico
In this essay, the author will use the 2009 PISA analysis to compare the China and Puerto Rico's policies on education and the impact or influence on the performance of K -- 12 students. Both countries are radically different in that they have different relationships with PISA and OECD. China is not a member and the Puerto Rico is via its relationship with the United States as a commonwealth entity (Fleischman, Hopstock, Pelczar & Shelley, 2011, 3).
hile in certain categories China is not rated, China is being rated by the OECD standards because of the shear size of China. The rating standards are set by areas such as Shanghai-China, and Hong-Kong China is areas such as Combined reading literacy scale and reading literacy sub-scales in the table below in areas such as those in the table below as…… [Read More]
In each of these cases, the impact of the countries' relative geographic proximity should not be underestimated. Countries like Britain and France, or Holland and England, had significant land to gain from the other and this was a main reason for their conflicts.
The only instance in which a rising power usurped the existing power without war resulting was when the United States overthrew Britain; this example is more analogous to the dynamic between the United States and China since there is less geographical proximity. However, it should also be noted that the United States is significantly more powerful than Britain was and so they should not feel as threatened. However, it would be most useful for the United States to work cooperatively and attempt to contain China's rise through engagement. An attempt to contain China would be ill-advised as it would vastly underestimate the influence that China possesses within…… [Read More]
China and India Trends towards Western-Style Consumption
Products that interest these youth markets
In these markets, the youths are intrigued by technological applications. They lead the world in innovation ranging from mobile platforms, automated cars and internet purchasing. This has been accelerated by the emulation of Western-style consumption, which is characterized by mobile devices instead of television or computers as their principal source of information access. Experts in social media argue that these markets will leapfrog America in terms of mobile innovations and corporations will seek to provide effective attempts than the U.S. (Doole & Lowe, 2008). Many young people in these markets have trendy cell phones with data access surpassing voice for the first time across this continent. It is arguably believed that mobile phones are likely to be the chief banking method in these countries. This is because the youths are already using them to make micropayments among…… [Read More]
(China, Sudan and the Darfur Conflict Fact Sheet). The types of arms that have been purchased by the Sudan from China since the 1990s include tanks, helicopters, and fighter aircraft as well as antipersonnel and antitank mines. There are many reports of the use of Chinese weapons in the ongoing struggle in the Sudan.
A according to a Sudanese government official. The SPLA in 1997 overran government garrison towns in the south, and in one town alone, Yei, a Human Rights atch researcher saw eight Chinese 122 mm towed howitzers, five Chinese-made T-59 tanks, and one Chinese 37 mm anti-aircraft gun abandoned by the government army,,
China, Sudan and the Darfur Conflict Fact Sheet).
Other indications of the involvement and relationship between the two countries in terms of arms and weapons can be seen in the fact that China has aided Sudan in establishing three weapons manufacturing facilities in the…… [Read More]
China's massive growth over the last two decades has brought with it a similarly explosive need for energy resources, a need that as of yet cannot be fulfilled by domestic reserves. Thus, China imported 3.5 million barrels of oil per day in 2006, and that number is expected to increase to 13.1 million barrels per day by 2030 (Hanson 2008). Subsequently, "as the world's second-largest consumer of oil, and with only limited national resources, China is attracted to Africa's relatively underexploited petroleum and other natural resources" (Alden 2006). China's efforts in this area have become increasingly overt, to the point that "China's state oil company, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), has invested heavily in partnership with national petroleum (and natural gas) interests in the Sudan, Angola, Algeria and most recently Gabon." Furthermore, as Alden notes, "China has used a range of other economic instruments -- financial assistance, prestige construction projects…… [Read More]
The new reform policies set up industries producing appliances, textiles, garments, computers, mobile phones and other inexpensive manufactured goods (Shekarabi & Rabii 2007). While China opened up to foreign investments and the outside world, its leaders assured that the transition to a market-oriented economy would be complemented with policies to promote social stability. As foreign money pours into the Chinese markets, research and development in various fields advance the status of the state and the population. As a consequence of economic growth, improved infrastructure, better public facilities, agriculture, housing and social welfare programs raise the Chinese people's standard of living. Further consequences are a decrease in disease, infant mortality and poverty. New management care techniques and advanced pharmaceuticals are introduced. The massive infusion of trade, commerce, services and new information replaces the obsolete and brings new awareness of other nations, global issues and human rights among the citizens (Shekarabi &…… [Read More]
For example, there are several suspicions regarding the foreign companies audited by Chinese authorized auditors, given their reduced number and lack of experience. Another example regards China Life Insurance, which was listed on the Hong Kong and New York stock exchanges, raising approximately $3.4 billion. The company's future evolution was not as successful, since the following year a routine audit on the company revealed that it had uncovered $652 million in financial irregularities. The result was the immediate fall of stock, attracting a series of lawsuits regarding financial fraud. The United States investors were obviously misled, they lost significant amounts of money, their efforts were in vain, and their image was severely shaken.
The consequences of this defective accounting system that is still applied in China can become quite severe for foreign companies that invest here. As mentioned above, a series of financial irregularities can emerge. Although these irregularities are…… [Read More]
China's One Child Policy
Historically, it is noted that Mao Zedong, once a China president encouraged population growth which saw the population of China almost double during that period of his leadership. This led to overpopulation and the stretching of the social amenities and most importantly the economy. In order to address this challenge, the one -- child policy was introduced in China. This is a policy which forbids any family from having more than one child especially in the urban areas. This was a rule that was established under the watch of Deng Xiaoping in 1979 as a temporary measure to the challenge of overpopulation, albeit more than four decades down the line, the policy still is in enforcement and there are no signs of it beings scrapped from the legislation of China (Matt osenberg, 2011).
There were punitive measures that are put in place in order to enforce…… [Read More]
China's Economic Reform
An Examination of Economic Reforms in China since 1980
As the 21st century unfolds, China has emerged as a potential political and economic juggernaut that appears to be finding its stride in the international community and marketplace. As the second-largest economy in the world after the United States, the Chinese people have clearly embraced international commerce in a major way. To date, though, while there have been a number of political and economic studies conducted at the national level on China, specific regional studies are less common; however, the 1989 analysis of Guangzhou by Ezra F. Vogel helps to place this enormous region into perspective. In this regard, this paper will provide an overview of the economic reforms taken by the Chinese leadership in general since 1980, and those in Guangzhou in particular, to identify the impact of these reforms on the country's social and economic progress.…… [Read More]
The Sustainability of China's Present Economy
The Sustainability of China's Present Economy
In the past thirty years the Chinese economy has exhibited phenomenal growth, especially when compared to what the country had seen for the century before that. China has become a model of economic efficiency and stability. They have used different models to attain this through a graduated system that has been marveled at by the rest of the world. With a mix of free markets and governmental control, China has been able to achieve something few thought possible.
However, quick rising bubbles often collapse. Just like a souffle, China's economy could be in for a fall with the slightest, unconscious bump.
People have been analyzing this growth for the past three decades, and there are many theories regarding the sustainability of the model with which China has, so far, been successful. This research paper is designed…… [Read More]
China's currency manipulation is one of the most important. The Chinese government buys foreign currency, keeping the value of the yuan low. hile this is a benefit to Chinese exporters, it makes non-Chinese products more expensive in China. High prevalence of government control in key industries is another non-tariff barrier. Some of this changed with China's ascension into the TO. A government entity, COFCO, handled both imports and exports of a wide range of agricultural products, but now many of China's agencies for agricultural trade have been converted to for-profit enterprises, reducing the impact of government intervention in agricultural trade (Carter & Rozelle, 2004).
Tariffs and minor trade disputes, however, have proliferated between China and major trading partners in recent years as China seeks to stimulate its economy. For example, China has increased tariffs on American chicken (89% of China's chicken imports) in order to protect domestic producers (Food Manufacturing,…… [Read More]
The Chinese policy makers had already managed to implement the efforts in the sense of market liberalization, stabilization and privatization. But in order to ensure that economic growth would follow, they needed to also ensure that the government would act as a facilitating force. Emphasis was for instance placed on the offering of incentives or the improvement of the relationships and collaboration between the private entities and the state institutions. At the level of the government, the reform was sensitive to revenues in the meaning that it became imperative to improve the role of the government, but not negatively impact its revenues.
The development of the public and private institutions initially from socialist institutions into transitional institutions, and then eventually their alignment with international norms in terms of resources and standards, so that they become best practice institutions.
Qian argues that China has managed to complete its reform processes and…… [Read More]
Tell what the book is about. Do not give a summary of the story, but give the topic, geographic area, and timespan that the book covers. This should take only one mid-length paragraph.
China Candid: A People's Account of the People's Republic of China is an insider's look at the modern People's Republic of China. Through intimate conversations conducted over many years, China Candid provides an alternative history of the nation from its founding as a socialist state in 1949 up to the present. Artists, politicians, businessmen and -women, former Red Guards, migrant workers, prostitutes, teachers, computer geeks, hustlers, and other citizens of contemporary China all speak frankly about what it is like to live in a rising superpower under authoritarian rule. These citizens give new insights into the face of law and order in China as well as the changes that have occurred in modern China's transition…… [Read More]
This is not necessarily because the economy will not develop further, but it cannot remain at the same rate. esides the problems listed previously that can affect the development of the economy as a sustainable economy, the simple fact that China has been developing at this rate for over 20 years is a reason enough to believe it cannot sustain a similar growth over the next 20. There were extraordinary circumstances that have led to this growth, besides the introduction of different reforms that stimulated the economy.
usinesses and different countries suddenly became interested in such a huge market such as the Chinese one and foreign investments soared in these decades. The reason for which they are still growing is that the Chinese economy is still extraordinarily attractive and has still a lot to show for. However, we can expect a certain point in time when, despite being still a…… [Read More]
China faces a tough decision with respect to floating the yuan or not. Ultimately, a float will severely limit China's ability to control the value of its currency. At present, this will be a significant problem because the yuan would likely rise in value. This would be to the detriment of the country's export industries, which are the drivers of the economy and employment. Further, the country may be tempted to continue to hold down the yuan's value, which will be much more difficult under floating rate conditions. Another issue is that China will have start publishing accurate economic information, which will pose a challenge for the country's officials, who are unaccustomed to things like transparency. The country would almost certainly need to undertake banking reform in order to float the yuan as well, posing additional structural challenges. Overcoming all of these challenges will take time.
There are…… [Read More]
PESTEL Analysis for Foreign Multinationals Doing Business in China
China represents a unique market for foreign multinationals in the 21st century. President Xi Jinping has launched a number of initiatives that look to make China a dominant player on the world stage—such as the One Belt, One Road initiative (Wilson, 2016) and the initiative to trade oil in gold-backed yuan (Jegarajah, 2017). However, China’s initiatives have been backed by an expansion of credit that could threaten to destabilize the nation in the coming years. 2025 represents a pivotal point marking the end of the first quarter of the 21st century. This PESTEL analysis will therefore identify key trends relevant to foreign multinationals doing business in the market and assessing future attractiveness for China.
There are 6 areas of environmental influences that are at work in the macro-perspective PESTEL framework. These areas consist of political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal…… [Read More]
China has a unique background in terms of culture, accompanied with a fast-economic growth trajectory. The country has received a lot of attention on the international front in as far as their adoption of corporate social responsibility is concerned. The implementation of the same will greatly influence global sustainability. Thus, this paper seeks to explore ways in which CSR has paved way for growth economically in China from the onset of economic transition, its political, cultural, and historical background, and how such dynamics have affected or been affected by the performance of business firms. Therefore, the pressure on China to adopt CSR in the recent past came close on the hills of a period when the country arguably practiced one of the strongest CSR globally. The transition is viewed against a background of the state owned-enterprise of the Chinese, also referred to as SOE, and a host of private…… [Read More]
The whole world is well aware of the Great Wall of China. It is an iconic symbol that represents the face of China in terms of culture, history, political views, attitudes and national character in general. Mao Zedong, the father of modern China quoted that one is not man enough if they have not visited the Great Wall (Hayford, 103). Indeed, the phrase has been widely adopted by the media and by tourist promoters. The Wall itself is an iconic set of permanent structures that have withstood the harshness of the elements over thousands of years; just like the Chinese culture that largely remains intact despite the passage of time. The Great Wall of China is now, an important ingredient in the heritage of the Chinese. It is a source of pride for the nation, as other countries view it with admiration (Huang, 65-6). The wall has become synonymous…… [Read More]
International Business Report: Ultra High-Temperature Pasteurization (UHT) Milk for Chinese Children Aged 3 to 11 Years
A number of important trends have converged in recent years that have significant implications for companies competing in the dairy industry that seek to expand their commercial operations into China. The world’s most populous country, China has an enormous population of infants which translates into a major demand for milk products (Cui, 2016). Moreover, the relaxation of the former draconian one-child policy has created a new surge in childbirths, and many experts believe that the population of young people in China will continue to increase well into the foreseeable future.
Besides wanting more children, the Chinese people are increasingly able to afford them as well, and the growing middle class in China has also translated into a new demand for the best of what is available for young children today. Because the…… [Read More]
The Influence of the PRC
The People’s Republic of China (PRC) is the state that most influences contemporary international security. The globalization of the Communist superpower projects brings employment and economic growth. Since joining the World Trade Organization, China has become an increasingly influential participant in the global economy, and has used this increase in wealth to finance its other ambitions, including re-establishing itself as a great maritime power and increasing its influence over the South China Sea and nuclear development within the Indo-Pacific region.
People’s Republic of China Context
The People’s Republic of China emerged as the winning side in the post-WWII civil war between the Communist Party of China and the ruling Kuomintang. The latter was exiled to Taiwan, the PRC invaded Tibet, and the next change to the shape of the Chinese map was the return of Hong Kong and Macau to PRC rule in 1997…… [Read More]
The terracotta warriors from the mausoleum of the first Qin emperor of China Qin Shih Huang (221-206 BC) of the Qin Dynasty are a marvel to behold. This massive monument to man’s desire to have a place in eternity[footnoteRef:2] is measured by the lifelike, life-size replications of Chinese soldiers, horses, chariots, musicians, officials, acrobats and warriors in three pits at the gravesite of the Qin Emperor. The Terracotta Army as it is known consists of some 8000 painted terracotta warriors along with hundreds of horses and chariots.[footnoteRef:3] It is the duplication of a real life-size army discovered and now stored in the Museum, Shaanxi, China, as a UNESCO World Heritage site. The Terracotta Warriors symbolize the first Qin Emperor’s desire to be as great and fortified in the afterlife as he was in this world. However, the fact that they were submerged in wet soil for two thousand years, unknown…… [Read More]
More unfavorable publicity came in June when Jintao had to undergo medical checkups to ensure he was SARS-free when meeting President Bush and other G-8 leaders in France. There is little doubt that China's international standing was clearly badly damaged by its government's mishandling of the SARS epidemic.
On July 21, 2004, Dr. Bates Gill, Freeman Chair in China Studies Committee on House International Relations Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, stated official Chinese estimates show China now has roughly 840,000 persons living with the HIV virus and as of the end of 2003, only 62,159 persons had been tested and officially confirmed to be HIV-positive. "The remaining HIV-positive individuals in China, estimated at 780,000 persons or more, are not known to public health authorities, and the individuals themselves probably do not know their status, posing significant risks for the further spread of HIV." Yet, outside observers believe that…… [Read More]
As long as the government will be able to tackle these concerns and retain a sustainable development of the economy, it is likely that China will become one of the most prosperous countries in the world. However, the authorities will need to watch for popular discontent following income inequality.
Qian Yingyi; the Process of China's Market Transition (1978-98): The Evolutionary, Historical, and Comparative Perspectives. Stanford University. April 1999. On the Internet at http://www-econ.stanford.edu/faculty/workp/swp99012.pdf.Last retrieved on May 13, 2008
2. Qian Yingyi; the Institutional Foundations of China's Market Transition. Stanford University. April 1999. On the Internet at http://www-econ.stanford.edu/faculty/workp/swp99011.pdf.Last retrieved on May 13, 2008
3. Tucker, Noah. How China rises. November 2007. On the Internet at http://21stcenturysocialism.com/article/how_china_rises_01546.html.Last retrieved on May 13, 2008
4. Weil, Robert. China at the brink: class contradictions of "market socialism. Monthly Review. January 1995. On the Internet at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1132/is_n8_v46/ai_16380655/pg_16.Last retrieved on May 13, 2008
Qian Yingyi; the…… [Read More]
Chinese Manufacturing Industry
The social group that I choose to analyze is the population involved with the Chinese manufacturing industry. I choose this particular group is because of three reasons. The first reason is China's economic develop is growing rapidly relative to the rest of the world. Another interesting fact is that compared with other countries, Chinese labor is much cheaper yet there is still a high skill level. Because of these factors, a large number of products are exported every year and some people have called China "factory of the world." The final reason is personal and it is because I am a Chinese, I have an intimate knowledge with China, and my family is also currently engaged in the manufacturing industry. I have access to information about the environment, economics, and politics that has led to the number of manufacturing companies in China that is currently…… [Read More]
China's growth rate has slowed dramatically in the last 30 years under the auspice of the One-Child Policy. In fact, at this point it is believed that growth rate is under 2% and that the population replacement rate is at 2.1%, meaning that if these numbers are accurate and hold up, the population of China could actually decrease at some point in the future.
Hence, the One-Child Policy could be seen to be an immense success. But at what cost?
The 'side effects' of the Policy have and likely will continue to have a staggering effect on Chinese society. The sterility and abortion atrocities by the government, like the abandonment and infanticide of female infants by the parents, not only scream of a Policy that has lost its moral compass, but it has created a huge disparity between the number of males to females. This disparity means there a…… [Read More]
China is predicted to become a global power and in the coming polarization of the world there would be triple set of polarization, of the U.S. And the west, China and India being the three big countries that would matter in the world. (Virmani, 208) Japan finds no place in the scale of the magnitude of the countries operations. The projection of China's GDP is a good indicator of what would come. The projections show that while the GDP was 7.1 as per Goldman Sachs for 2006-2010 the future prediction by the same agency for 2029-30 was 41. That is a great leap that was predicted. (Finn, 42)
However after globalization the Yuan was being paired in Forex. In January 2009 the treasury secretary of U.S., Tim Geithner, made a statement that China has been manipulating its currency, the Yuan -- and this according to him and other…… [Read More]
China's Economic Challenge to the U.S.
The rise of China as an economic superpower has occurred against the backdrop of increased globalization and the explosive growth of the developing world and the other BRICS nations (Brazil, Russia, India, and S. Africa). China's growing prominence in the global financial community manifested itself in 2010 as "Japan ceded its spot as the world's second biggest economy to China. Japan's nominal GDP for 2010 was 479.223 trillion yen, or $5.474 trillion; falling below the $5.879 trillion figure for China in the same year" (Monahan 2011, 1). China and Japan with their respective five trillion economies are still dwarfed by the American economy which boasts a nearly 15 trillion dollar GDP (CIA FactBook N.D.,1 ); however China will continue its growth ascendance, and in terms of GDP all but guarantee that China will surpass the U.S. In the next 30 years, and probably far…… [Read More]
hina Mobile's $12 - $15 billion bond offering was divded into multiple traunches and sold in multiple markets across the world. A majority of the bonds were sold in the U.S. But given the size of the offering the company would not have been able to price it in Hong Kong dollars due to the exchange rate at the time. One must also examine the exchange dynamics between the hinese Yuan and U.S. Dollar, as the Yuan continues to be artificially held at predetermined rate and not allowed to float in the public market.
an you see any downside to hina Mobile's international equity and bond issue?
The same reasons that support the company's decision to price their bond offering in U.S. Dollars can also be a downside risk. The greatest risk in the international bond markets is the exchange rates between the nation issuing the bond and the currency…… [Read More]
The Second Opium War would involve: the contention that the Chinese and the ritish would have for each other. As the ritish wanted greater controls of the ports and land routes. Yet, the Chinese felt that the treaty to end the First Opium War was excessive. This resulted, in open hostilities, as the ritish merchants were seeking exclusive rights to: Chinese markets, the free flow of merchants / missionaries throughout the country and the distinction of most favored nation trading status. This would lead to years of conflict that would last from 1856 to 1860. At which point, the Chinese would grant the ritish: increased access to seven more ports, monopolistic control of key markets and they agreed to pay them large sums of gold (as reparations for the war). This is important, because the second defeat would add to the overall levels of humiliation, leading to the…… [Read More]
l billion in 2007. This growth can be seen to represent the increasing interest of Chinese firms in acquiring resources, technology and brands outside of their own country (Carpenter & yman, 2009).
Lenovo was able to seal the deal essentially by acting like a estern firm. It did not approach the deal from the same perspective as say, the way that CNOOC did with its unsolicited bid and ultimately failed bid for Chevron. Lenovo had a strategic alliance with IBM prior to the deal, so that the latter's management and shareholders understood the strategic value of the deal. For Lenovo, it was able to maintain relationships with IBM, including taking some of its talent back to China with it.
Lenovo traded on the Hong Kong exchange, giving it the transparency needed by estern investors. Moreover, this also lent liquidity to Lenovo shares, allowing them to be used in the deal.…… [Read More]
State Domination and Financial Markets
The Chinese government has characterized its involvement in economic development as "serving rather than supervising the private economy" since 2008 (Xinhua, 2009). ith this shift in focus a number of changes to Chinese management can be expected. The paternalistic approach will remain, as it is part of Chinese culture, but there will be further estern influences, particularly with respect to the desire outcomes of management behavior.
In their efforts to serve business, the Chinese government will inevitably work harder to attract foreign investment and to allow business to set the terms by which they can seek investors. This will shift the desired outcomes of management behavior towards those sought by a wider range of investors, both domestic and foreign. Asia Aluminum provides an example of this, as foreign investor outcry over the bond scandal forced the company to consider other options. Management at that point…… [Read More]
The latter type of employees will act as mediators between the foreigner and the host, will point out potential mistakes and will also be more easily accepted by the staff. Undoubtedly, if Chinese who haven't had international experiences are capable of appropriately managing the business, they will be given the chance to hold top management positions after a certain period of intercultural training.
4) Referring to demand and customer relations, a foreign company should display a high respect towards its clients by offering them qualitative products and services that take into account their cultural background (i.e. avoiding colors which are associated with fatality, avoiding gestures, words that are considered to be offensive etc.).
The Chinese market's demand for a foreign company's products is significantly influenced by collectivism. For instance, in Japan which is a collectivist culture too, a U.S. based company selling ice cream paid several Japanese to stay in…… [Read More]
China is still regarded as a developing country, its rapid growth has put it in a position to compete with the top players in the world economy. With the advancement of technology and globalization, for example, China has been able to communicate and do business around the globe. This has enabled the country and its people to benefit from prosperous partnerships. Although China has advanced to a top position in the world economy, it is also true that the country faces severe problems, which could affect this position in the long-term. Chinese officials and businesses will have to give urgent attention to problems such as the water shortage, the economic strength of its local currency, and the drug problem in the country if China is to keep up its long-term success.
One of the most important impacts that the rapid development in China has had is the environment. In addition…… [Read More]
China Cultural Syncretism
eligious Separation Within China's Lack of Cultural Syncretism
Interestingly enough, several of the political factions and domestic wars that have typified the vast majority of China's extensive history can be traced, in large measure, to the country's cultural roots and its ability (or lack thereof) to rectify its inherent cultural tendencies with those of other nations and the surrounding world at large. In particular, the cultural, philosophical and political mandates and manifestos of Europe and Japan can be directly attributed to the political state of China today, particularly when one considers the division between the communist People's epublic of China (which primarily occupies the mainland) and its progressively left-wing agenda, and the right-wing tendencies of the epublic of China which has occupied Taiwan and its surrounding islands for more than the past 60 years. The speculative historian could make an excellent argument that this division in hegemony…… [Read More]
China and the United States are a lot more alike than many people think. However, there are more differences than similarities. To understand these differences can mean better communication. One difference is the schools. In Chinese culture, school is very formal. Students remain quiet, usually wait for the teacher to ask a question, and things are very serious. The teacher is the authority figure. Students must stand up before they speak, and remain quiet in class. In the United States, it is the complete difference. The students in the United States speak when they want. They don't need to wear the uniform and sometimes sit in circles with the teacher like one of the students. There are some similarities too. For example, in China students enjoy all the different subjects including art, history, and economics. In the United States, the students have the same types of subjects but…… [Read More]
China's Importation Documentation equirements, Procedures, Programs, and Policies: An Overview
Every business endeavor has certain legal and procedural requirements that must be known and followed in order for the endeavor to be both successful and viable in the long-term. Embarking on any business or trade venture without first ascertaining the legal requirements and bureaucratic procedure is setting the venture up for outright and immediate failure at the worst, and an increased risk of inefficiency and heightened costs at the best. This is why obtaining pertinent information prior to actually beginning to conduct business is so important -- it will make for a much smoother establishment of the business and its necessary operations, and will also increase the efficiency and cost effectiveness of these operations. When business is conducted on an international basis, the situation becomes complicated by the multiple sources of often differing laws that can affect operations.…… [Read More]
hina's One hild Policy
In the last part of the 20th entury, hina, also known as the "sleeping giant," has transformed itself from a predominantly rural, pre-industrialized society to a political and economic challenger. Since the Maoist Revolution of 1949, also known as the Great Patriotic Revolution, hina has transformed itself from a feudal system to one of the world's faster growing economies globally. hina is huge -- in both geography and population. Over the last few decades it has experienced unprecedented economic growth with an average GDP of well over 10%. Even though the actual per capita income is still within the lower-middle category of global statistics, hina still remains the third largest economy in the world. Modern hina participates with a major role in the global economy, and organizations within the developed world take hina quite seriously. hina's own view of her economy is "Socialism with hinese haracteristics,"…… [Read More]
It was the end of the 19th century, during the heyday of the Industrial Revolution and the Age of Imperialism. Meiji Japan and Qing China engage in modern warfare. The Sino-Japanese ar was a defining moment for all of East Asia. The outcome of the war impacted not just its major players (China and Japan) but also Korea and Taiwan. The Sino-Japanese ar highlighted the ways that globalization and industrialization were influencing global politics and international relations. ith Japan's victory, the world also understood that a balance of power had shifted. Japan's military might had been massively underestimated, while China's power had weakened.
Japan had made much greater strides than China during the Industrial Revolution, in terms of upgrading its infrastructure and migrating towards a modern economy. Although both countries remained mistrustful of the est, they had yet to develop any strategic plan to form a united anti-American or…… [Read More]
This was another blow for the local markets as the SOEs formed the crux of all Chinese businesses. The privatization of this sector was initiated in 1995 when the government kept the big profit-making SOEs and discarded the smaller SOEs, yet the government was forced to hand over the market share that these big SOEs had after joining WTO and eventually hand the complete control of the SOEs to the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC) to distribute and allocate the shares which resulted in a dramatic drop of the total SOEs form 118,000 (1995) to 34,000 (current). This figure still includes some of the biggest and the core industries like those of energy, basic necessities, cement, etc. And there are many Chinese analysts who still believe that the role of the SOEs and the state can never be completely eliminated.
One of the main criticisms that the Chinese…… [Read More]
The Dilemma of a Ethical Practices and Profitability of Trading with China
China continues to have one of the world's strongest and most resilient economies, achieving a 10.3% Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate in 2010 compared to the world average of 4.2% and the United States' 2.9%. U.S. Lawmakers continue to question the $4M in foreign aid that Congressional budgets are requesting for one of the fastest growing economies globally today (Pennington, 2011). Despite the rationalization that this significant amount of investment is necessary for clean energy primary research, the rationalization is weak when compared to the many economic challenges and hardships the U.S. continues to face (Pennington, 2011). As of October, 2011 the cumulative 2011 trade deficit with China is today at $217B, down from a high of $270B earlier in the year. Arguably China could more afford to provide foreign aid to the U.S., not vice…… [Read More]
(Hill, 2008, pg. 371)
Under what circumstances might a decision to let the yuan float freely destabilize the Chinese economy? What might the global implications of this be?
If the there is outside pressure from Western governments and Chinese trading partners. Where, they will begin to impose tariffs and duties in an effort to force the Chinese to change their policy. This would destabilize the Chinese economy, resulting in a collapse of their export markets. The global implications would be that this kind of action would result in China retaliating with tariffs and duties of their own, resulting in a worldwide depression. (Hill, 2008, pg. 371)
Do you think the U.S. government should push the Chinese to let the yuan float freely? Why?
Yes. The reason why, is because the inability of China to let the yuan float freely, is creating imbalances in the global economy. If this is allowed…… [Read More]
This move is to lock out EP systems from other nations running their factories and ensure their lasting manufacturing competitive advantage.
Still, the onslaught of manufacturing continues to China. Dell Computer for example opened a manufacturing center in Xiamen, along the coast of China that borders Taiwan, and IBM has a sizeable office and development center in Shanghai. The most troubling aspect of this however is how quickly corporations in western nations including the U.S. will trade information and even the potential freedom of people to gain access to China. The release of personal information by Yahoo of a blogger in China and the about-face of Google on sharing search data with China on their citizens are cases in point.
Friedman (2005) - Thomas . Friedman, author. The World is Flat. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. New York, NY.…… [Read More]
While at the same time, it will make imports in Hong Kong / China cheaper in relation to goods that are manufactured in both locations. Over the course of time, this will cause the trade surplus that Hong Kong / China enjoys decreasing as both markets begin to buy the cheaper foreign imports. ("The Impact of China's Revaluation of the Yuan," 2005)
Yet, both Hong Kong and China are facing a similar situation as Japan, due to the fact that they rely heavily on foreign trade. Where, many of the different markets are somewhat open to exports, with restrictions. This is similar to a policy that Japan engaged in during the 1970's and 1980's, where once the peg was removed off of the U.S. dollar, the yen appreciated in value. Under normal circumstances, this should have solved Japan's trade surplus problems. However, because their markets were still restrictive to foreign…… [Read More]
The market for coffee is slightly counterintuitive for the Chinese market since coffee is not actually the beverage of choice in China -- the Chinese much prefer tea. What has become evident is that the typical Chinese middle-class individual will opt for a product that is less preferred, but of clear high quality if it is in the appropriate location for them to be seen while consuming the product. Being perceived as successful and as having good taste is of a very high priority to the Chinese middle-class, and as such the young businessman will generally opt to patronize a quality establishment that serves a product less desirable in his personal tastes than a less reputable establishment that provides what he would truly prefer. In a nutshell, the young, middle-class Chinese businessman will drink tea at home, but drink coffee at Starbucks in public.
Also considered in this evaluation are…… [Read More]
We also know that they engaged in robust trade, both domestic and foreign and even over the Hindu Kush and into the Persian Gulf areas. Between 1800-1700 BC, though, most of the cities were abandoned, perhaps from environmental reasons (deforestation, etc.) and perhaps from invasion from Central Asia (Bentley, et.al., pp. 49-50).
By 3000 BCE, Ancient China had developed larger regional states and political/social units called dynasties. Each succeding dynasty took over more and more territory, which allowed for a similar development in Chinese culture. Chinese political orgaqnizations were complex, and based on both the family and socio-cultural unit. Because of the abundance of population working in agriculture, though, they also turned to technological innovations that increased their own power, but also tended to shield them from outside influences. Some of these inventions include: iron casting, the compass, gunpowder, geological mining techniques, mechanical clocks, row farming in agriculture, silk farming…… [Read More]
China and the Mongol Conquest
China and Mongol Conquest
The 13th century saw the influence of the Mongol Empire which Genghis Khan established stretching from the borders of Poland in the west to the East around Yellow Sea. Grandson of Genghis named Kublai Khan was the ruler of this empire in 1260 after which he went a head to consolidate his power when he relinquish the Mongol conquests outside China and established his capital where modern-day Beijing is now located.
As Venetian merchants, Nicolo Polo and his brother traveled overland in 1260 to the Mongol capital where they remained within the court of Khan until when they reached Venice in 1269. The two merchant once again traveled (though dangerous trip) to Kublai Khan's court in 1271 accompanied by their seventeen-year-old son Marco. They had to take three and a half years before their adventure came to an end. After staying…… [Read More]
Again, the deference shown by the King is stressed. But the Emperor is again firm -- the "Celestial Empire" lacks no goods within its own borders, thus why does it need to trade? Although not disrespectful in a direct sense, the translation suggests a slightly mocking tone of superiority in the Chinese response. The edict goes on to summarily reject, one by one, England's request to establish specific trading bases and hubs in several ports and island locations. Nor will there be any reduction of tariffs or duties as requested, upon British goods. And finally, in point eight, no missionaries or alteration in Chinese worship structures (and hence veneration of the Emperor) shall occur. In fact, the Emperor finds the requests on the whole to be so presumptuous he cannot think that a true king would make them, and instead blames the British Ambassador for the bad manners inherent in…… [Read More]
China's Rise: The strategic Stake
While we have so far discussed the positive economic impact of a growing China from the perspective of Australia, there are also some concerns about China's growing stature and the changing strategic balance. As a communist nation, the U.S. And its allies including Japan have always viewed China with caution. China has repeatedly claimed that it is fully committed to peaceful economic growth as Zha Peixin, the vice president of CPIFA (Chinese people's institute of foreign Affairs) stated, "China will stick to the peaceful development, opening up, and building a harmonious society domestically and promoting a harmonious world internationally." However, the recent arrest of the Australian mining giant Rio Tinto's executive officer in China over charges of espionage has created some friction in the relationship. The recent issues involving Australia granting of visa for Rebiya Kadeer, the human rights activist from China, much against the…… [Read More]
Repatriation of profits have proven to be a problem as well. Fourth, as stated by Staff (2004) is the challenge presented by poor training in the sector which is stated to be "...weak both at a practical level as well as at a higher strategic level" and the problem has only been exaggerated due to the government and other regulatory authorities in China to promote logistics programs." (Staff, 2004) the fifth challenge stated is in relation to "information and communications technology" in China characterized by a: "...lack of it standards and poor systems integration and equipment. At a very basic level, the consistent supply of energy is also problematic leading to interruptions to communications through power outage." (Staff, 2004) Sixth presenting in the way of a challenge is the "undeveloped domestic industry" due to fragmentation of the logistics sector in China that is: "...dominated by commoditized and low quality transport…… [Read More]
2006 report to Congress on China's WTO compliance (2006, December 11). United States Trade Representative. Retrieved at http://www.ustr.gov/assets/Document_Library/Reports_Publications/2006/asset_upload_file688_10223.pdf brief chronology of China's intellectual property protection. Retrieved at http://www.american.edu/TED/hpages/ipr/cheng.htm
alfour, F.(2008, March 18). World sneezes, China's just fine. usinessWeek. Retrieved at http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/mar2008/gb20080318_747713.htm?chan=globalbiz_asia+index+page_asia+investing
China. The World Fact ook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html#Econ
Economic reform in the People's Republic of China. Wikipedia. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_economic_reform
Gupta, a.K. (2008) the quest for global dominance. p. 239..Jossey-ass. ISN978-0-470-19440-9
Navarro, P. And Chien, E. (2006, April 21). China's devalued yuan: Hu won't budge; ush doesn't get it. New America Media. Retrieved from http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article.html?article_id=3bd87bd1fb3eb56a29a5759f349165f8
Patten, C. (2005, September 26). Comment & analysis: Why Europe is getting China so wrong. Financial Times. Retrieved at http://search.ft.com/ftArticle?queryText=China+the+world%E2%80%99s+largest+economy+for+18+of+the+past+20+centuries&y=6&aje=false&x=14&id=050926000484&ct=0&nclick_check=1
The real great leap forward. (2004, September 30). The Economist print edition. Retrieved at http://www.economist.com/printedition/displayStory.cfm?Story_ID=3219418… [Read More]
This is an opportune time to establish a foothold in China for the United States' knowledge economy. The longer the United States has to wait, the smaller its advantage will be upon entering the Chinese market, which it will eventually have to do.
It appears now that the United States did not benefit much from China's WTO accession. China's inadequate Intellectual Property framework diminishes the U.S. advantage in high tech industries. (Harvard, 8). Computer software, from such companies as Microsoft, are some of the most profitable products in the world, but they are often used by Chinese consumers without Microsoft being paid for it. Software products, often delivered through compact discs or even online, cost next to nothing to copy and transfer, as Chinese bootleggers have demonstrated.
The research and development costs that go into such software products is huge. Actually, they are the very epitome the United States' factor…… [Read More]
China did not have any debts to pay. However, actually during this era Chinese authority had been so undermined and the prestige of the government with its own people so completely destroyed "that it may well be said to have prepared the ground for the Walpurgis night of imperialism, which was witnessed in the decade following the Sino-Japanese War in 1895."
For example, one major complication that rendered diplomatic relations between China and the Western nations led by Britain extremely difficult was the attitude of the British mercantile community. The chimera of inexhaustible trade had drawn them into the interior. The central highway of China, the Yangtze, had now been opened. "Settlements" and trading establishments existed in every important city. Yet for some reason the results were bitterly disappointing. The fabulous China trade did not materialize.
The mercantile community blamed their failure on the opposition of the Chinese officials. Their…… [Read More]
Parents are aware that the competitive economy combined with the pressure to succeed means they must push their children. Schools and teachers are also under tremendous pressure to perform. "Some schools link teacher pay to student test performance, and the pressure on teachers is intense" (Chang 2008:5).
However, despite the economic gains of recent years, there is also a profound sense that something has been lost of China's native culture. One recent editorial in the Chinese Communist Party's official newspaper stated that Chinese cultural development "lagged behind rising diplomatic and economic clout, reducing China's overall influence and exposing it to foreign dominance" (Boden 2011). The Party stated its desire to build up China's organic culture, rather than importing it from the West, which risks the possible tainting of the populace with western ideas. "It decried that Walt Disney Co.'s Mulan appropriated a Chinese legend that proved popular at the box…… [Read More]
Furthermore, the Chinese version of the iPhone cost as much as $1,025, compared with $299 in the United States. "Apple picked a weak partner, irked the customer with its pricing, and ignored the competing channel. Essentially, it continues to cultivate competition by marketing the touch-screen smart-phone segment and weak-playing the largest market in the world" (Yaw 2009).
According to Chinese consumers, "the iPhone in China costs more than 1000 dollars without a service contract. The per capita GDP of China is 6000-7000. The grey market vendors are successful because their prices are reasonable" and the Chinese consumer is still more value-conscious than his or her American counterpart (Kharif 2009). Joked one Chinese consulting firm: China Unicom's iPhone plan "will be an interesting exercise in how to sell an inferior product at a higher price" (Apple's iPhone sales debut, 2009, Bloomberg). However, according to Apple, the prices of the phones "will…… [Read More]
The introduction of reform for the good of the Chinese people has not been framed by the authorities, nor is it framed in the minds of most of the population, as the ability to disagree with the government. Thus "freedom of the media is more a lessening of Party control than any media liberalization in the estern sense" where the media operates independently of the ideas and interests of the state rulers (infield & Peng, 267). The locus of dissemination of propaganda has shifted to private rather than governmental entities, but the actual messages disseminated by such entities are not free.
Pamela E. Oliver and Frank Johnson have criticized frame theory for being insufficiently attentive to the impact of ideology in influencing frame narratives, thus they might see the framing of capitalism through the Chinese lens of ideology as distinct from an unregulated and uncensored press as a concrete demonstration…… [Read More]