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culture of humankind and its history, for as the saying goes, "the more we are different, the more we are the same." The Tang Dynasty in China occurred hundreds of years ago, yet some of the issues from that time remain as pertinent today as they did in the past. The poets of this period truly exemplify this continuation through time. When reading the works of the most well-known writers of this period in Asia, it is almost as if they were just written.
TO MY DAUGHTE
ON HE MAIAGE INTO THE YANG FAMILY
My heart has been heavy all day long
Because you have so far to go.
The marriage of a girl, away from her parents,
Is the launching of a little boat on a great river.
..You were very young when your mother died,
Which made me the more tender of you.
Your elder sister has looked…
Ho, Jianying. "Women of the Tang Dynasty." The Tang Dynasty. 12/01. http://www.chinavoc.com/history/tang/women.htm.
University of Virginia. "300 Tang Poems." 1997. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/chinese/frame.htm03/01/04
Female Agency in Short Stories
There are numerous points of similarity between Eileen Chang's "Shame, Amah!" and Wang Anyi's "Granny". Both stories depict the lives of Chinese domestic workers. Moreover, each tale is set during the same time period -- the years surrounding the Second World War. Furthermore, both of the authors are Chinese and display a marked affinity for the intimate details surrounding Chinese culture, which factors prominently in each respective tale. Still, there is a distinct point of differentiation in these works when it comes to the notion of female agency, and how it is displayed in each piece. It is significant that female agency factors into each of these tales. However, "Granny" is largely a story about a somewhat unconventional matriarch who is able to become the provider for a host of people. The concept of female agency in Chang's piece is centered around conventional notions of…
Poetry and Politics in 1079: The Crow Terrace Poetry Case of SU Shih
Charles Hartman in his article on the political fallout of the poetry of SU Shih acknowledges that all societies practice censorship in some degree and in some form. estern society has a history of confiscating, banning, destroying, controlling the distribution and punishing authors and individuals for the creation and possession of written texts that are deemed morally or politically subversive. The paradox of the matter is that the western knee jerk reaction to censorship is one of condemnation and dismay. This high and mighty attitude is based on the idea that the First Amendment to the Constitution guarantees freedom of speech.
However, Herbert Mitgang in his book Dangerous Dossiers: Exposing the Secret ar Against America's Greatest Authors, observes that for a greater part of the twentieth century the federal government policed many of the most revered American…
Hartman, Charles. "Poetry and Politics in 1079: The Crow Terrace Poetry Case of Su Shih." Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews, Vol. 12. (December 1990): 15-44. JSTOR. Web. 11 May 2012.
Mitgang, Herbert. Dangerous Dossiers: Exposing the Secret War Against America's Greatest Authors. New York: Donald I. Fine Inc., 1988. Print.
In the course of the Cultural Revolution, the communist leader Mao Zedong proclaimed particular cultural requirements for both art and writings in China. This was a period that was filled with violence and harsh realisms for the people within the society. Authors such as Bei Dao, Gu Cheng and Yu Hua can be considered to be misty poets, whose works endeavored to shift from an inactive response to active formation. The aforementioned individuals are renowned authors, writers and poets celebrated for their influential literal works and their impact during the course of the Cultural Revolution in China. Through their short stories and poems, these authors strove to create a cultural force with the purpose of educating the public and offering them revolutionary principles and ideals. The art and literature that was delineated by these authors played a significant role in the sociopolitical realm and the demise of the Cultural Revolution…
Chinese Cultural Revolution in Literature
There are a number of stark images found in the works of literature reviewed by Dao, Cheng, and Hua in this assignment. Specifically, this paper details the imagery evinced in Bei Dao's "Resume," Gu Cheng's "Curriculum Vitae," and Yu Hua's "On the Road at Eighteen." That imagery and those works in general are thinly veiled allusions to the Chinese Cultural Revolution, which took places in the early to midway part of the 20th century. It largely appears as though the imagery evinced in this work are indicative of some of the more salient factors of this revolution. Regardless of the political orientation of those who took place in this revolution, one of the more demonstrable facets of its manifestation was a surplus of fighting, pain, bloodshed, and even death. All of these images are found in the aforementioned works of literature, which suggest that the…
Indeed, the trajectory of the narrative involves exacting revenge on those who prevented her marriage from taking place.
Although the Bride's marital aspirations might suggest that she holds a conservative sensibility, this is far from the case and she is ultimately more aggressive than Jen. While Jen also exhibits physical prowess, her sacrificial gesture at the film's conclusion signifies how she maintains a strong reverence for the Confucian moral code, assimilating her within the wuxia genre. Physically, the Bride resembles a dominatrix; she is taller than many of the characters and fights in a relentlessly savage manner (even going so far as to bite her adversary in one scene.) in contrast, Jen is more diminutive and her face and eyes are softer and less predatory. Where the Bride looks much more imposing than an average person, Jen has an average size that is not dissimilar from the other characters. Indeed,…
China during the Tang dynasty was a period of beauty and regality among the Chinese citizenry. One of the art forms which took on new importance during the era was in writing. Literature both in the form of stories and poetry became artistic and beautiful. Those who could write best were elevated themselves to the pantheon of artists. This attitude about the importance of writing is visible in some of the stories of the ear. In the tale "Yingying's Story," the main character of Zhang finds himself completely enamored of a young seventeen-year-old girl. The only way that he is able to woo her is through his writing and in turn she is unwilling to show him her own writings for fear of how he will perceive her.
Zhang declares that he is physically unable to stand the three-month long wait it would take for a proper engagement…
Zhen, Yuan. "Yingying's Story." The End of the Chinese 'Middle Ages': Essays in Mid-Tang
Literary Culture. Ed. Stephen Owen. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP. 1996. 192-204. Print.
" That Giles does not translate that section highlights their differences. Giles never addresses the beloved, but refers to him in second-person, as if had been stricken from the mind of the poet and could not now be addressed but only spoken about. "For his coming shall not I too yearn? Since my lord left -- ah me unhappy day!"
It is not that Giles' speaker no longer is in love, but they no longer retain an image of the beloved as someone who can be addressed directly. It is easier for them to address the clouds than to address him. One may also notice a subtle difference between the speaking of his return as well. Miao referring to him as having "went away," and yet has also stated as a fact that "when people separate they always reunite" -- so it may be only a matter of time, which…
The pogam pimaily suppots the local Chinese communities to maintain younge geneation's heitage backgound, and speading Chinese cultue in the U.S. The classes ae nomally held two to thee hous on weekends with Chinese language lessons and othe taditional cultual and at activities. Most students have high levels of oal poficiency in Chinese, but needed to enhance skills in liteacy. Chinese heitage schools ae mainly suppoted by two goups: the National Council of Associations of Chinese Language Schools (NCACLS) which is founded by Taiwan o Hong Kong immigant and heitage communities, and the Chinese School Association in the United States (CSAUS) that is connected with immigant and heitage communities fom mainland China. Accoding to Scott McGinnis's (2005) compiled statistics, the combined enollment of NCACLS and CSAUS was aound 150,000 in 2003. The numbe of students in the heitage schools is lage than in othe CFL pogams acoss the U.S.
references for the researchers and educators that may lead to some recommendations in developing a better learning environment in future foreign language education. The data collected from the surveys will be treated as confidential by me, and all the collected data will be anonymous. The data will be only applied directly to this study and not in other use, nor is it available for other parties. A letter of consent form will be sent to all participants to be aware to the purpose and the use of this study from the collected data. All collected data will be protected by the researcher during the study.
A survey developed by the researcher of this study includes two sections of questions which relate to the foreign language learning. The first part of the questions is based on the participants' background and their children's background relating to their cultural and language background. The second section includes questions about the reason of sending their child to CFL program; what level do they want their child to complete Chinese language learning, and what area do they want their child to apply the language. The participants choose from the options provided that applies to them the best. There are three open ended questions, allowing for free comments. (See appendix a).
The research is a qualitative research design that investigates the similarities and differences between parental motivations towards CFL learning between diverse ethnicities by using an online survey to explore the two essential questions in this research.
Zhenshi, Guo " Playing the Game by the Rules" Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003..
Zhengrong, Hu (2004) the Post-WTO Restructuring of the Chinese Media Induistries and the Consequences of Capitalism." Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003.
Fong, Chien-san (2004) "It is Legitimate to Imagine China's Media as Socialist?"
Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003..
Ampuja, Marko (2004) "Critical Media Research, Globalization, Theory and Commercialization" Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003..
rants, Kees (2003) "Auditing Public roadcasting Performance: Its Theory and Practice" Javnost -- the Public Vol.10 No.3 November 2003.
McQuail, Denis (2003) "Public roadcasting: oth Free and Accountable" Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003.
Media Shakeup: Public What Readers Want or Perish" (2004) China Daily News [Online] located at http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/en/doc/2003/09/02 / content 260549.htm
Feng, Chien-san (2004) "Is it Legitimate to Imagine China's Media…
Zhenshi, Guo " Playing the Game by the Rules" Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003..
Zhengrong, Hu (2004) the Post-WTO Restructuring of the Chinese Media Induistries and the Consequences of Capitalism." Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003.
Fong, Chien-san (2004) "It is Legitimate to Imagine China's Media as Socialist?"
Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003..
In addition, repeating ACSI can provide trend data (Hall, 2002, p. 23+), important to government agencies, but also to new industries. Hall notes that, "Besides the ability of the ACSI to maintain a pulse on customer satisfaction, the ACSI is an index, not just a survey. This means it groups all participants and provides an integrated score, or index" (2002, p. 23+).
Schay et al. reported that the United States federal Office of Personnel Management uses a similar instrument that measures nine core dimensions underlying customer satisfaction. "These dimensions were distilled from 139 dimensions identified in the management, marketing, and organizational psychology literature. The dimensions are empirically related to organizational effectiveness and relevant to all service sectors" (Schay et al., 2000, p. 30), and therefore would need to be developed specifically for each industry.
hile ACSI is the dominant measuring tool in much of U.S. consumer satisfaction research, the Kano…
Arnould E.J. And L.L. Price. River magic: extraordinary experience and the extended service encounter, J. Consum. Res. 20(1) (1993):24-45
Berry, Leonard L. And Thomas W. Thompson. Relationship Banking: The Art of Turning Customers into Clients," Journal of Retail Banking, (1982, June), 64-73.
Bettman, James R.An Information Processing Theory of Consumer Choice, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley (1979).
Bowlby, John. Attachment and Loss: Vol. 1. Attachment, 2nd ed., New York: Basic Books (1982).
Chinese and Canadian Negotiation Styles
When dealing with businessmen globally, it's critical to be aware of the cultural beliefs and values that shape their negotiation style and business behavior. This is imperative for successful and positive business relationship because not all cultural foster similar beliefs and hence there can vast differences in negotiation styles. These differences become more pronounced as we move from west to east because while most western countries may have few things similar in terms of culture and education, the same is not true for eastern countries. In this paper we shall compare the negotiation style of Chinese and Canadians. This will help us understand what a business person from the west need to know about the Chinese business communication style in order to be successful in their relationship with them.
Negotiation refers to the process where two or more parties communicate with each other in order…
Graham J. And Lam, M. 2006 The Chinese Negotiation. Harvard Business Review.
Silverman, J. (1997). Doing business internationally. New Jersey: Princeton Training
James, D. (2003) Communication guide lines for doing business in Asia
Chinese Jade Burial Suits
During all my travels throughout ancient China, one of the more peculiar beliefs I came across was the notion that jade holds mystical powers, capable of preventing the body from decaying. I am currently in Chang'an, the capital of the dynasty, which is known in the present day as Xi'an. The year is 192 CE. The people of the estern Han Dynasty universally agree that this supposedly magical material is the essence of mountains, and because it prevents the decomposition of the physical form, it may in fact ensure rebirth. Now, as of the present day, very few of these jade burial suits still actually exist, and it may seem ambiguous as to whether or not they were a passing fad or a momentary excess amongst emperors. However, upon my investigation of the long-forgotten past, I have found that this practice of burying the dead with…
Cultural China. (2007-2010). Jade burial suit. Retrieved December 9, 2010, from http://arts.cultural-china.com/en/32Arts415.html
China.org.cn. (2001). Handicraft industry and technological advances. Retrieved December 9,
2010, from http://www.china.org.cn/e-gudai/4.htm
H-ry?-ji. Horyuji: a brief history. Retrieved December 9, 2010, from http://www.horyuji.or.jp/horyuji_e.htm
Figue 1. Demogaphic composition of the United States (2003 estimate).
Souce: Based on tabula data in Wold Factbook, 2007 (no sepaate listing is maintained fo Hispanics).
Fom a stictly pecentage pespective, it would seem that Asian-Ameicans do not epesent much of a theat at all to mainsteam Ameican society, but these mee numbes do not tell the whole stoy of couse. Fo one thing, Asian-Ameicans ae one of the most divese and fastest gowing goups in the United States today (Hong, Kim & Wolfe, 2005). Accoding to Alvaez and Kimua (2001), studies have documented time and again that, consistent with thei histoical teatment, Asian-Ameicans continue to be the tagets of acially motivated popety vandalism, vebal haassment, theft, physical assaults, and in some instances, homicide; futhemoe, othe studies have confimed that a pesistent patten diving anti-Asian violence is the peception of Asian-Ameicans as foeignes who pesent an economic, academic, social, and/o…
Due to skills and abilities
4. Based on what you know and believe, would you agree or disagree with the following statements?
Racism in America is no longer a problem for Chinese-Americans.
Racism in America is no longer a problem for women and minorities
peasant in modern Chinese fiction.
The image of the peasant in modern Chinese fiction
A great deal of writers has gotten actively engaged in discussing the image of the Chinese peasant during the last century. Class differentiation, the struggle to attain economic stability, and poverty as a whole represent some of the main topics that writers took on regarding the matter. It was very difficult for some people to understand how the Chinese peasant changed through time, especially given that communism had brought along significant transformations, making the masses less able to act in accordance with reform. In spite of these respective changes, however, the Chinese continued to preserve some of their traditional values.
Upper class individuals in China were among the most ignorant when considering their perspective toward peasants. Because of their higher social status, these people were unable to understand that peasants were equal to them and that…
Lau, Joseph S.M. "The Columbia anthology of modern Chinese literature," (Columbia University Press, 2007)
Ling, Ding, "When I was in Hsia Village"
Xun, Lu, "My Old Home"
Honor Code of Chinese Warriors
The objective of this study is to discuss the honor code of warrior-heroes in Chinese history and to answer to what the honor code consists of and the origin of the honor code. As well, this study will examine how this honor code influenced the intentions, words, and actions of the warriors and how the honor code manifests itself in novels, how and when the codes apply and what competing visions existed in human conduct.
Wuxia is a term in Mandarin that means literally "martial arts chivalry" and is representative of a unique Chinese type of story that is dated back as far as the Tang Dynasty (681-907). Wuxia is defined by stories "that combine wushu (martial arts) tradition with deeds of heroic chivalry perfomed by men and women." (Pollard, 2011, p.1) Wuxia stories are rooted in "early youxia (?
) and cike (?
The Warrior Code (nd) China History Forum. Retrieved from: http://www.chinahistoryforum.com/index.php?/topic/31149-warrior-spirit-in-china-chinese-warrior-codes/
Hsia, C.T.C.T. Hsia on Chinese Literature. Columbia University Press, 2004 (ISBN 0231129904), pg. 149
Bordahl, Vibeke. Four Masters Of Chinese Storytelling: Full-length Repertoires Of Yangzhou Storytelling On Video. Nordic Institute of Asian Studies; Bilingual edition, 2004 (ISBN 8-7911-1464-0), pg. 166
Guth, Christine. Longfellow's Tattoos: Tourism, Collecting, and Japan. University of Washington Press (2004), p147
Women throughout Chinese history have experienced the oppression their tradition and culture exert as well as the power only members of their sex can attain in their chosen domains. Although readers have been exposed to historical anecdotes relating foot binding and Man's superiority to women, there are also many stories relating their freedom and tenacity, whether they are wives, concubines, courtesans or prostitutes. The history of Chinese women is not necessarily limited to persecution and being dominated, it is also peppered with inspirational stories of women who have been able to find happiness, success and fulfillment within the parameters Chinese tradition and culture dictate.
In Chinese society, the positions women maintained were very indistinct (http://www.wm.edu/CAS/anthropology/faculty/hamada/Virtual_Classromm/wwwb.../208.htm,1)."In Chinese society, women as a category had a dependent status." (Watson, 1991, 232). efore a girl married, she was controlled completely by her father. After she married, this responsibility was transferred to her husband. If…
Bennett, Natalie. (2001) Women of Emperial China: A Re-Examination. http://www.journ.freeserve.co.uk/china/china4.html
Burns, Dennis. (2002) The View From the Dragon's Lair. http://www.crystal-bridge.com/dennis0402.html
Jaschok, Maria. (1988) Concubines and Bondservants: The Social History of a Chinese Custom. London: Zed Press.
Jaschok, Maria & Miers, Suzanne (eds.) (1994) Women and Chinese Patriarchy. New Jersey: Hong Kong U.
He wants readers to examine the behaviors of their minds and thoughts. We should practice observing how our minds behave so as to understand the nature of ourselves more deeply and accurately, but also to help us function through trauma as well as everyday life. Too often we are lost in our own thoughts; we do not take time to observe our thoughts outside of their content.
There are several stories of themes surrounding community and identity with or through community. This is a theme western readers may expect with literature from eastern cultures. While American culture is relatively more narcissistic and selfish, Chinese culture is more relatively selfless, and group oriented.
The titles of the stories are simple and some are quite poetic. Hsun's style is delicate and penetrates the reader's senses. It is a tribute to his ability that he is able to write such tender stories about…
Hsun, Lu. Selected Stories W.W. Norton & Company, New York, London, 1977.
The analysis provided is thorough and bias at the same time. However, Armstrong provides a valuable background and policy analysis.
In terms of the relations between Ghana and its major donors, China and the EU, Giles Mohan writes a comprehensive overview of the relations Ghana has with China and the potential political and economic interests that may drive China to indeed become a crucial donor for Ghana. More precisely, the author connects the new found Chinese desire to invest in the African country to the new found oil reserves in Ghana. Furthermore, he contents that given the past nature of the relations between China and the rest of the world (such as the EU for instance), the presence of China in Ghana is also geopolitically related and not necessarily humanitarian and development related. The perspective is valuable because the author points out potential political linkages between the resources found in…
Boafo-Arthur, K & Essuman-Johnson, a 1993, Ghana, Some Foreign Aid issues, Institute of South Africa, Pretoria.
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). 2010. Ghana. CIDA. viewed on 18 January 2011 http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/acdi-cida/ACDI-CIDA.nsf/Eng/JUD-124141510-QL7
Chachage, C.S.L., 1987, Towards a critique of development theories in Africa. Vol. l9 No J / 987.
Crawford, G 2004. "The European Union and Democracy Promotion in Africa: The Case of Ghana" POLIS Working Paper Number 10 viewed on 18 January 2011 http://www.polis.leeds.ac.uk/assets/files/research/working-papers/wp10crawford.pdf
Wandering in the Garden and Soul Mountain
In comparing and contrasting the literary techniques of "Wandering in the Garden, Waking from a Dream" and "Soul Mountain," one of the biggest contrasts between the two stories is perspective: Gao Xingjian's "Soul Mountain" is written in the 2nd person, while Pai Hsien-yung's "Wandering in the Garden" is written in 3rd person. The narrator in each story is omniscient, which is their biggest similarity -- but the two differ in style in the sense that "Wandering in the Garden" has a stream-of-consciousness manner that runs through it, taking the reader deep into the main characters thoughts as she revisits her past. The style of "Soul Mountain" is much more descriptive and focused on producing the effect of putting the reader at the heart of the action -- after all, the reader is the subject of the narrative and so it is almost like…
Over 1,000 Chinese witnesses came forth to testify in the trials which lasted until February of 1947 after the Chinese government posted notices in Nanking regarding the need for credible witnesses, (Chang 1997:170). Unlike the Nuremburg Trials, however, much of the case against the Japanese fell apart thanks to faulty prosecution and a lack of true concern for justice in the region.
The events which conspired in Nanking during the Japanese occupation broke several established international laws for the protection of civilians, prisoners of war, and unarmed Chinese soldiers. According to the International Military Tribunal of the Far East, three classifications of war criminals were established based on the intent and nature of their crimes. This tribunal followed the model set in Europe by the coinciding tribunal the International Military Tribunal of Nuremburg and followed the same charter with the definition of war crimes as "violations of the laws and…
Alderman, Sidney. 1945. Address to the Tribunal: November 23, 1945.
Chang, Iris. 1997. The Rape of Nanking. Penguin Books.
Marrus, Michael R. 2006. The Nuremburg war Crimes Trial. Bedford Press.
Moghalu, Kingsley Chiedu. 2008. Global Justice. Stanford University Press
Taoism, Confucianism, Judaism
Taoism, Confucianism, and Judaism
There are several major religions in the world and in different parts of the world the religions are quite diverse. In China, two major religions are Taoism and Confucianism, while in the West one of the oldest religions is Judaism. These religions are quite different, with historical, theological, and philosophical differences. But they also have certain aspects in common, such as honesty, integrity, and compassion. These religions espouse doctrines on how a person should to live their life, how they should behave in relationships, and how they should treat other people. This essay will explore these three religious traditions; their histories, differences, and similarities.
Sometime around 550 BCE, in the Chinese kingdom of Lu, there was born a man named Confucius, called "Kung Fu Tzu" in Chinese. After opening a school and serving as a minister for his ruler, Confucius was forced to…
"Catholic Encyclopedia: Confucianism." NEW ADVENT: Home. Web. 18 June 2011.
"Confucianism." Religious Tolerance.org. Web 17 June 2011. http://www.religioustolerance.org/confuciu.htm
Dosick, Wayne. "Living Judaism: the complete guide to Jewish belief, tradition, and practice." Google Books. Web 17 June 2011. http://books.google.com/books ?id=bpXUYUO7cg8C
pain thresholds of cancer patients, with a particular focus on Chinese-American outpatients who have been treated for cancer.
hich databases will you use?
hat key words did you use in the Search Strategy fields?
EBSCOHost: Cancer, cancer pain, cancer pain thresholds, cancer patients pain, cancer pain management
ProQuest: Cancer, cancer and pain management, cancer and pain, cancer and patients, cancer pain
Infotrac: Cancer, cancer pain, cancer patients, cancer struggle
How many articles are found in each keyword search?
EBSCOHost: Cancer (1,215,732), cancer pain (5,409), cancer pain thresholds (4), cancer patients pain (699), cancer pain management (480)
ProQuest: Cancer (13,323), cancer and pain management (5), cancer and pain (28), cancer and patients (144), cancer pain (80)
Infotrac: Cancer (47,737), cancer pain (93), cancer patients (2,321), cancer struggle (334)
Is this research qualitative or quantitative? hat is the study design? hat criteria did you use to determine the study…
Edrington, J., Angela Sun, Candice Wong, Marylin Dodd, Geraldine Padilla, Steven Paul, and Christine Miaskowski, (2010). "A Pilot Study of Relationships Among Pain Characteristics, Mood Disturbances, and Acculturation in a Community Sample of Chinese-American Patients with Cancer." Oncology Nursing Forum, 37(2).
American Ethnic Literature
There are so many different voices within the context of the United States. This country is one which is built on cultural differences. Yet, for generations the only voices expressed in literature or from the white majority. Contemporary American ethnic literature is important in that it reflects the multifaceted nature of life in the United States. It is not pressured by the white majority anymore, but is rather influenced by the extremely varying experiences of vastly different individuals, as seen in the works of alph Ellison's Invisible Man, Gloria Anzaldua's "How to Tame a Wild Tongue," and Cathy Song's poem "Lost Sister." American ethnic literature speaks for minority voices, which have long been excluded in earlier generations of American society.
American ethnic literature has developed enormously over the last few centuries, and especially within the context of just the last few decades. In today's literary world, it…
Anzaldua, Gloria. "How to Tame a Wild Tongue." Borderland / La Frontera. Web. http://wolfweb.unr.edu/homepage/calabj/282/how%20to%20tame%20wild%20tongue.pdf
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. Vintage International. 1995.
Franco, Dean J. Ethnic American Literature: Comparing Chicano, Jewish, and African-American Writing. University of Virginia Press. 2006.
Lee, Robert A. Multicultural American Literature: Comparative Black, Native, Latino/a and Asian-American Fictions. University Press of Mississippi. 2003.
In comparing a number of literary elements in one story, Smith and Wiese (2006) contend that at times, when attempting to transform an old story into a modern multicultural version, cultural meanings of the original story may be lost. In turn, the literature does not subject the reader to another culture. For instance, in the story about the fisherman, that Smith and Wiese access, the plot remains similar plot, however, significant changes transform the reported intent to make the story multicultural. Changes included the fisherman's daughter's stated name, being changed from one common to her culture to Maha. Instead of God, as written in the original version, the reference notes "Allah." Other changes Smith and Wiese point out include:
& #8230;The admonition to retrieve the fish or "be sorry" instead of the threatened curse, the reference to the golden shoe as a sandal instead of a clog;
Anderson, Connie Wilson. (2006). Examining Historical Events through Children's Literature.
Multicultural Education. Caddo Gap Press. 2006. Retrieved May 03, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1229798181.html
Banned Book Quiz. (2009). Retrieved May 03, 2009 from http://www.shetland-library.gov.uk/documents/BannedBooksWBD09quiz.pdf
Bottigheimer, Ruth B. (2008). Stories of heaven and earth: Bible heroes in contemporary
Chinese calligraphy & Western calligraphy
Weather in the East or in the West, calligraphy, the art of writing, is first and foremost an art form, by definition. This art is dedicated to practical purposes, but as any craft, it has taken its own individuality as an expression of the craftsman's abilities, his imagination, creative power and mastering of the specific techniques.
Calligraphy and literature are highly dependent on each other in sia, particularly in China. Technology has brought typewriters and keyboards on writers' desks in most places in the world, yet Chinese writers as well as painters are still paying a great deal of effort and attention to the art of calligraphy. It is only through the lens of the Chinese culture that one might properly understand the value of calligraphy. Most of the western world would consider calligraphy as an art of the past with no particular resonance in…
Avi-Yonah, Michael. 2004. Ancient Scrolls: Introduction to Archaeology. Books&Bagels
Beyerstein, Barry L. 1992. The Write Stuff: Evaluations of Graphology -- the Study of Handwriting Analysis. Prometheus Books
American literature has become much more diverse as authors of different cultures that now in live in the United States write about their heritage or life in this country. One of these authors is Amy Tan.
Both of Tan's parents were Chinese immigrants. One of her first successful books, the Kitchen God's Wife, told of the traumatic early life of her mother, Daisy. She had divorced an abusive husband, had lost custody of her three daughters and was forced to leave them behind when escaping Shanghai before the Communist takeover in 1949. Tan's mother also witnessed Tan's grandmother committing suicide. When Tan's mother reached America, she married John Tan. They had three children, Amy and her two brothers. John Tan had earlier left China when the Chinese evolution became too harrowing (Academy of Achievement).
Tragedy struck when Tan's father and oldest brother both died of brain tumors within a year…
Academy of Achievement. Amy Tan. Retrieved from website October 13, 2005.
High-Context Cultures, Low-Context Cultures. The Joy Luck Club. Retrieved from website October 14, 2005.
diversity of the different cultures. The main aim is to highlight the diversity in the form of literature. Through different research methods, the paper has been compiled with the help of different reference sites and libraries.
There are different pieces of literature listed in the paper. The main aim of this is to show the different variance of culture in literature. The main focus of the paper is children's books. There is a vast variety of different story books for children. Some are universal, while others are culture specific.
This list is based on such culture specific stories for children to read. This list consists of books which are suitable for children in grades K. To 8.
Bishop, C.H. (1996). The Five Chinese Brothers.
The story is about five brothers from Chinese descent, who have the ability to do something special. The one with the ability to hold…
Chicano Identity in Literature
In "My Name" by Sandra Cisneros, the principle character's name is Esperanza. Esperanza's problem, at first, seems only to be displeasure with her name. She is certainly displeased with her name. She is disappointed with the meaning of her name in her native tongue, Spanish. She is frustrated and perplexed with the persistent difficulty that Americans have pronouncing her Chicana name. Esperanza wishes she could be lucky, like her sister, who can come home and have a different name, a prettier name, an easier name than her proper first name.
As the story progresses, readers learn that Esperanza's central problem is greater than her name. Her problem is with the history and the legacy of her name. She was named after her grandmother. Esperanza is somewhat conflicted about her connection and her similarities with her grandmother. One on hand, she does not like her name,…
Baugh, S.L. (ed) (2006) Mediating Chicana/o Culture: Multicultural American Vernacular. Cambridge Scholars Press: Cambridge, UK.
Bernal, D.D. (2002) Critical Race Theory, Latino Critical Theory, and Critical Raced-Gendered Epistemologies: Recognizing Students of Color as Holds and Creators of Knowledge. Qualitative Inquiry, 8(1), 105 -- 126.
Cuadraz, G.H. (2005) Chicanas and Higher Education: Three Decades of Literature and Thought. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 4(3), 215 -- 234.
Deutsch, S. (1994) Gender, Labor History, and Chicano/a Ethnic Identity. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, 14(2), 1 -- 22.
scholar and poet Xu Zhimo developed a style that challenged the traditional poetic styles of china but more importantly challenged the ideas of freedom, morality and love. Xu demonstrated a modernity that included the self as the object of poetic works and he wrote largely without regard for the linguistic constraints of classic Chinese poetry in what would later become known as a free form style. A careful analysis of a few of Xu Zhimo's selected poems will demonstrate for the reader the innovative new ways Xu Zhimo dealt with anxieties and solitudes, hesitations and doubts, nostalgia and expectancy, exile and dreams, all constant themes in romantic minds and works.
In his work Chance, one can his demonstration of the ideals of love and longing, a chance meeting in the night with the language of nature. In and out of one another's lives, with no real authority to remain:
Gunn, Edward M. Style and Innovation in Twentieth-Century Chinese Prose Style and Innovation in Twentieth-Century Chinese Prose. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1991.
Ohio State University "Xu Zhimo (1895-1931): Biography" Retrieved May 30, 2004 at http://people.cohums.ohio-state.edu/denton2/courses/c503/xzm.htm.
Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature -1995 "Xu Zhimo"
Xu Zhimo: "Chance" and It's A Coward World" Retrieved May 30, 2004 at http://search.able2know.com/Books____Literature/Poetry/X/Xu_Zhimo/index.html .
The authors pointed out the fact that the integration of semantic Web with the existing remote sensing processes can help in solving the problem. The ability of the remote sensing of information to provide certain functions in an online environment is superb. This results in dynamic transfer of information across the web. The authors further points out the fact that semantic information processing gives rise to semantic-based service reasoning and descriptions. This leads to an automatic web. The building of an environment fuelled by the semantic web leads to the combining of various advantages of various aspects and respects while conducting a service-oriented study. This result in a deeper appreciation of semantic services in providing richer and improved services for various users. Li et al. (2008) provide a discussion of the various classifications of remote sensing and information processing services as well as an ontology-based service that makes use of…
Astels, D.(2002): Refactoring with UML, In Proceedings of 3rd International Conferenceon
eXtreme Programming and Flexible processes in Software Engineering (XP2002), (2002) 67-70
Banko et al. (2006).Open Information Extraction from the Web
Chiu, PH.,Lo, CC.Chao, KM (2009)Integrating Semantic Web and Object-Oriented
In contrast Mozi argued that people should always care for others equally.
Linking the thoughts of different philosophers
The ancient Chinese sacrificial practice was very common whereby the historical dynasties had carried out human sacrifices quite extensively. However there was the disappearance of this ritual during the periods of spring and autumn as well as the warring periods. Though it was practiced privately this ritual of sacrificing humans was replaced at the state level by clay puppets. The reason why this ritual was discontinued was not known. All these philosophers ignored the blood letting ritual but instead put emphasis on ritual morality to form the foundation of ritual state. Xunzi came up with a funeral ritual which was an ancestral right which required blood sacrifice in the ancient time. This according to him was to form the basis for good citizenship and morality when it came to rituals (Plutschow, 2002).…
Plutschow, H. (2002). Xunzi and the Ancient Chinese Philosophical Debate on Human Nature. Retrieved May 23, 2013 from http://www.anthropoetics.ucla.edu/ap0801/xunzi.htm
Cultural-china.com. (2010). Mohism (Philosophy of Mozi). Retrieved May 23, 2013 from http://history.cultural-china.com/en/49H6943H12322.html
Brindley, E. (2011). Individualism in Classical Chinese Thought. Retrieved May 23, 2013 from http://www.iep.utm.edu/ind-chin/
Piblius. (2007). Comparing Mohism and Confucianism. . Retrieved May 23, 2013 from http://www.chinahistoryforum.com/index.php?/topic/16546-comparing-mohism-and-confucianism/
All good things must come to an end, and at no time is this fact truer than in China in 1911, when the Xinhai Revolution resulted in the fall of the Qing Dynasty. This led to a period of unrest, as the world's powers engaged in orld ar I. Even though China had participated in the war on the side of the Allies, China was betrayed during the negotiations at the Treaty of Versailles. Instead of being given autonomy over a controlled sphere of interest in the Shandong district of China, the Treaty of Versailles instead gave this territory over to Japan. China's May 4th Movement ended up being an anti-est, anti-imperialist cultural shift that grew out of student demonstrations in 1919.
The weak response of the Chinese government to reclaim the Shandong province for itself in self-defense led to accusations of corruption. hether or not the government was…
Chen, Duxiu, "Our Final Awakening." (Essay, 1916). Retrieved from, http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/ps/china/chen_duxiu_final_awakening.pdf .
Chiang, Kai-shek, "Essentials of the New Life Movement." (Speech, 1934). Retrieved from, http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/ps/cup/chiang_kaishek_new_life.pdf .
Mao, Zedong, "Reform our Study." (Speech, 1941). Selected Works of Mao, Beijing Foreign Languages Press, 1971.
riters accused of composing subversive works were jailed, exiled, or executed" and thus silenced (Pamintuan, 2003).
Such puritanical attitudes on the part of the leadership seemed to be embraced by the common people. For example, a woman's virtue was held in particularly high regard during this period. The number of widows who honored their dead husbands by refusing to remarry or by committing suicide reached a historical high (Pamintuan, 2003). The government sponsored special female-only homes to support impoverished widows who refused to marry, to honor the memory of their dead husbands (Pamintuan, 2003).
The first Manchu emperor's successors, Yongzheng and Qianlong, were equally long-lived, ensuring stability of the regime and sustained peace. Also, they were quite effective in accumulating imperial intelligence in outlying areas of the empire. "Missives called 'memorials' were sent from trusted officials in these areas directly to the emperor with seals to guarantee that the document…
Nilsson, Jan-Erik. "Qing." Chronology. Text based on China: A Country
Study by Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, Edited by Robert L. Worden, Andrea Matles Savada and Ronald E. Dolan. Research Completed July 1987. Created 2002. Updated 23 Feb 2007. http://www.gotheborg.com/index1.htm?http://www.gotheborg.com/chronology/qing.shtml
Pamintuan, Tina. "Breaching the Great Wall: How the Manchu Took China."
Humanities. March/April 2003. Volume 24/Number 2. http://www.neh.gov/news/humanities/2003-03/greatwall.html
Like many women, reflecting the new egalitarianism of her background, she was a true soldier, caring for the sick, hauling supplies, and providing vital services to the Red Army.
Xianren undertook her mission with a clear sense of ideological motivation, but for many other women, their choice was less conscious. hile it was true that the famine was epidemic in China at the time, given the gradual shift to commercialized agriculture that deprived so many peasants of their livelihood, there is little doubt that it was far more difficult for girls. omen such as Ma Yixiang led far bleaker lives. Yixiang came from abject poverty and was blamed for the death of her siblings by her superstitious mother. She was forced to work off her father's debt as a child (Young 83). Yixiang was 'sold' for a year and a half to another family and mistreated so badly she ran…
Pruitt, Ida. A Daughter of Han: The Autobiography of a Chinese Working Woman.
Martino Fine Books, 2011.
Young, Helen Praeger. Choosing Revolution: Chinese Women Soldiers on the Long March
Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2001.
Invention of Gun Powder and the Impact it Had on the Chinese Society and Warfare
The invention of gunpowder was driven by the quest for unending life. Gunpowder, however, ended up being more or less a death potion, responsible for the development of the deadliest war weapon, after the atomic bomb. An invention dating back to the Song and Tang Dynasties, between the 9th and 11th centuries, gunpowder came to be considered one of China's "Four Great Ancient Inventions,' alongside the compass, printing, and papermaking. Due to its explosive nature, gunpowder was first used for fireworks, and later, as an explosive in war. Prior to gunpowder invention, the Chinese military used fire as their main war weapon. Fire, however, had limited coverage, and Chinese strategists sought to develop a weapon with wider coverage.
Gunpowder was employed in warfare in the 15th century. It evolved from the ancient cannon to the…
Black, Jeremy. War: a Short History. Maiden Lane, NY: Continuum, 2009.
Chase, Kenneth. Firearms: a Global History to 1700. West Street, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Gunpowder and Firearms. Washington University. http://depts.washington.edu/chinaciv/miltech/firearms.htm
Panciera, Walter. "Venetian Gunpowder in the Second Half of the Sixteenth Century: Production, Storage, Use." In Gunpowder, Explosives and the State, edited by Brenda Buchanan, 93-120. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2006.
nature of hypertension, as well as methods of treatment using both drugs and alternative approaches. Ceral et al. (2011) focus on whether antihypertensive drugs are effective or if patients are simply not using them. hey find that patients must adhere to recommended therapy in order for effects to be accurately measured. Inui et al. (1976) point out the importance of receiving and following physician tutorials. Green et al. (1975) likewise identify education for hypertensive patients as critical to effective therapy outcomes. Omran et al. (2015) discuss the treatment of hypertensive patients with diabetes co-morbidity and find antihypertensive medication to be an effective medication management tool to a limited degree.
Step 2: Briefly summarize the history and purpose of your research question.
he history and purpose of the research question is whether hypertensive medications or more effective than holistic approaches to hypertension in helping patients to alleviate symptoms and reduce hypertension…
There is a gap in the existing literature comparing pharmaceutical treatment of hypertension with holistic treatment, such as Chinese traditional medicine, which utilizes foods, spices, soups, etc. in the treatment of physical ailments. There is literature regarding holistic treatment of hypertension: Xiong, Yan, Liu et al. (2013) discuss Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine. Comparing holistic treatment of hypertension and pharmaceutical treatment could help fill this gap in the literature.
Part IV: Identify the influence of empiricism on quantitative research methodology. Discuss its applicability to evidenced-based practice projects.
The influence of empiricism on quantitative research methodology is seen in the demand for quantifiable data and tangible results. Objective processes that can be duplicated in research, methods that are clear and supported by research, and analysis that is based on observation is key to conducting research in sciences today. The applicability to evidence-based practice projects is that empirical analysis helps to provide clear, objective findings that can be tested by other researchers.
Improvements to The Chinese System and Ideals Done by Kublai Khan
Genghis Khan moved his troops into the quasi Chinese Chin-rule north China in 1211, and in 1215 they crushed the capital city. Hisson Ogodei vanquished all of North China by 1234 and ruled it from 1229 to 1241. Genghis Khan's grandson, Kublai Khan, vanquished the Chinese Southern Song in 1279, and out of the blue all of China was under foreign rule (Johnson, 2014).
In 1271 Kublai Khan named his administration Yuan which signifies "origin of the universe." The Yuan tradition in China kept going from 1279 to 1368. Kublai Khan took after a speculative approach of Sinicization, that is, he adjusted to the Chinese method for administering and when you take a look at his picture, he looks especially like other Chinese rulers. Then again, in spite of the fact that he utilized some Chinese in low…
WBGT Limits for Chinese Migrant Workforce
The effects of heat stress on workers has been well documented (1-4), especially in the construction industry (5-6), but widely compatible standards for determining safe limits for heat exposure have yet to arisen, which makes a difficult task of determining the compatibility of Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) limits with a Chinese migrant workforce in the construction industry, working primarily in a tropical climate. Each population and climate requires specific considerations when determining the risk of heat stress, and these specific considerations ultimately demonstrate certain gaps in the WBGT heat index that makes it incompatible for deployment with the previously mentioned workforce. A number of regulations use the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature as a standard for determining heat thresholds (7), but recent research (8-9) has shown the WBGT to be overly conservative in certain situations, particularly in areas with high humidity levels such as…
1. Ben GS, Hashim Z, Hamzah R. Occupational heat stress of workers in a plastic industry,
Selangor. J of Occupational Health 2009; 1(2):56-63.
2. Chen M, Chen C, Yeh W, Huang J, Mao I. Heat stress evaluation and worker fatigue in a steel plant. AIHA J. 2003; 64(3):352-359.
3. Bates GP, Miller VS, Joubert DM. Hydration status of expatriate manual workers during summer in the Middle East. Ann. Occupational Hygiene 2009; 54(2):137-143.
The founding of the Chinese Communist Party was preceded by an influential intellectual movement called the New Culture Movement. Usually dated between 1915 and 1919, the New Culture Movement was headed by Chen Duxiu of Beijing University, as well as Cai Yuanpei, Li Dazhao, Lu Xun, and Hu Shi (Ebrey; "New Culture Movement"). The New Culture Movement provided the theoretical, scholastic, and ideological underpinnings of the subsequent political movements that would come to define 20th century Chinese culture. riters like Lu Xun captured the prevailing social unrest in his unconventional novel A Madman's Diary. A Madman's Diary uses a grotesque metaphor to capture the self-destructive, primitive, outmoded, and senseless oppression of the Chinese model of feudalism. ritten during the warlord period, A Madman's Diary exposes the futility of social conformity to the Confucian value system while suggesting that the only way to evoke change is to appear as…
Ebrey, Patricia B. The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1996. p. 270-271. Retrieved online
Lu Xun. A Madman's Diary.
"New Culture Movement." Cultural China. Retrieved online
Chinese Manufacturing Industry
The social group that I choose to analyze is the population involved with the Chinese manufacturing industry. I choose this particular group is because of three reasons. The first reason is China's economic develop is growing rapidly relative to the rest of the world. Another interesting fact is that compared with other countries, Chinese labor is much cheaper yet there is still a high skill level. Because of these factors, a large number of products are exported every year and some people have called China "factory of the world." The final reason is personal and it is because I am a Chinese, I have an intimate knowledge with China, and my family is also currently engaged in the manufacturing industry. I have access to information about the environment, economics, and politics that has led to the number of manufacturing companies in China that is currently…
Batson, A. (2007, Nov 05). Politics & economics: In china, big firms benefit from push to curb supply. Wall Street Journal Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/399090053?accountid=28041
Han, Y., Zheng, E., & Xu, M. (2014). The Influence from the Past: Organizational Imprinting and Firms' Compliance with Social Insurance Policies in China. Journal of Business Ethics, 65-77.
He, Y. (2014). The Dynamic Mechanism and Empirical Study on Distribution and Manufacturing Sector Co-evolution: Evidence from China. International Journal of u -- and e-Service, 317-328.
He, Z., & Liu, H. (2002). An analysis and strategic study of quality management in chinese manufacturing industry. IIE Annual Conference.Proceedings,, 1-6. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/192469571?accountid=28041
Love and the Developing and Unstable Female Sense of Self
Lord Byron, in his epic poem "Don Juan," famously noted that although love may be an all-consuming passion for men and women, only for women does it provide the reason for their existence, only for women does love constitute their reason for the self's existence alone. Although this point-of-view may be said to be that of a misogynist, both Marguerite Duras' The Lover and Love in a Small Town provide the same textual narrative for the reader, as did Byron's 19th century version of the young, dashing Don Juan. Both author's works suggest that, only by being exposed to a new, sexually awakened sense of body and self, does a woman gains her full identity as a human being.
Marguerite Duras presents a vision of forbidden love that on its surface may seem to challenge the reader's conventional assumptions…
Duras, Marguerite. The Lover. New York: Pantheon, 1998
Matlock, Curtiss Ann. Love in a Small Town. New York: Avon, 1997
Hill, Leslie. Marguerite Duras: Apocalyptic Desires. New York: Routledge, 1993.
Hoffman, Carol. Forgetting and Marguerite Duras. Boulder: University of Colorado Press, 1991.
Aristotelian influence predominated together with the wisdom and learning of other ancient writers, while the former was often used as a framework for intellectual debates which readily expanded both philosophy and other areas of knowledge (Grant 127-131). The European university system was established alongside monasteries as centres for the propagation of knowledge. Scholars like Robert Grosseteste, Albertus Magnus, and Roger Bacon wrote about natural science to a growing audience. While Christianity did not recede as a dogmatic cultural system, it was not entirely determinative. Scholars could explore natural phenomena with an openness to past views, although often the learning acquired was purely rational rather than experimental, and was fused with a biblical worldview. In other words, the renaissance of the twelfth century played an integral part in transmitting scientific methodology within a predominantly religious environment that required thinkers to harmonise science with religion.
Other significant achievements took place in less…
1939, John Steinbeck published his novel The Grapes of rath, and that same year the film version of the story was released. The film was directed by John Ford and was very popular, and the book and the film together reached millions of people. In writing this novel, Steinbeck reflected many of the social, economic, and political currents of the time. The story is set in the Great Depression era, and the Depression was still have its effect in 1939. hat would bring about the end of the Great Depression was already starting in Europe, meaning orld ar II, which does not impinge directly on the story of the Joad family but which we can see from our standpoint today was about to bring about massive changes in American society. The very nature of the story of the Joads, however, links that story to the Depression and its effect on…
Banks, Ann. First-Person America. New York: W.W. Norton, 1980.Caldwell, Mary Ellen. "A New Consideration of the Intercalary Chapters in The Grapes of Wrath." Markham Review 3 (1973), 115-119.
Ford, John. The Grapes of Wrath. Twentieth Century-Fox, 1939.
The Grapes of Wrath." Contemporary Literary Criticism, Vol. 59. Chicago: Gale, 1989.
Groene, Horst. "Agrarianism and Technology in Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath." Southern Review (9:1)(1976), 27-31.
rand Effect on Consumer ehavior
Influence of rand Effect
The influence of brand effect on consumer behavior:
Irish and Chinese consumers in Ireland
This paper discusses the influence of brand effect on consumption behavior of the Irish and Chinese in Ireland. Since shopping and purchase decision are affect by many sociological factors, the factors that influence the Chinese and the Irish in Ireland may be inherently distinct. While the Chinese population in Dublin is only a small part of the total population, they are becoming an important cultural force in the city, which can have an effect on Ireland's economy. rand loyalty can influence purchasing behavior, however, this paper will attempt to show that Consumer purchases are strongly influenced by cultural, social, personal, and psychological characteristics as opposed to brand names.
Keywords rand effect, Chinese consumers, Irish consumers, brand loyalty
Paper type Research paper
rand effect is the ability…
Antonides, Gerritt. & van Raaij, W. Fred. (1999). Cases in consumer behaviour. John Wiley & Sons.
Bloomberg Businessweek. (2004). Ireland: A nation of immigrants? Retrieved 28
Invention and Evolution of Porcelain in China
Although the precise origins of porcelain have been lost in the mists of time, most modern researchers believe that it was invented in China. Not surprisingly, then, many Chinese today boast that their ancestors were drinking tea from porcelain cups when their European counterparts were still wearing animal skins and living in caves, and it turns out that this pride is accurate and justifiable. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a discussion concerning the technical and artistic history of porcelain drawing on four examples that span four different time periods in Chinese history. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings about the invention and evolution of porcelain in China are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Porcelain differs in fundamental ways from ordinary pottery known as earthenware that is formed from clay and then…
Bartlett, S. (2011, Annual). Robert Finlay, the pilgrim art: Cultures of porcelain in world history. Southeast Review of Asian Studies, 33, 229-232.
Chinese art. (2016). Development of Visual Arts in China. Retrieved from http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/east-asian-art/chinese.htm#tangpottery .
Porcelain. (1988, October). UNESCO Courier, 22-24.
Fitzgerald, C. P. & Seligman, C. G. (1938). China: A short cultural history. New York: D. Appleton-Century.
Lover" and "The Awakening"
Both Kate Chopin's The Awakening and Marguerite Duras' The Lover address what happens when a woman searches for a way to leave her present life behind and seek a new one that may, or may not, be any better. In The Awakening, 28-year-old Edna Pontellier struggles for selfhood but does not have the strength to accept the ramifications of this possibility. In The Lover, the 15-year-old female narrator embraces self-awareness and uses her acquired strength to widen life's possibilities.
The Awakening takes place at the end of the 19th century, when the Western world was beginning to undergo major changes due to the Industrial evolution and increased urbanization. Although women were beginning to envision a less-restrained future, they were still, for the most part, bound by tradition to be subservient to their husbands. Middle- and upper-class women were expected to stay at home as idle, decorative…
Chopin, Kate. The Awakening (Electronic Version). http://docsouth.unc.edu/chopinawake/chopin.html
Culley, Margaret, ed. The Awakening. Kate Chopin. New York: Norton, 1976.
Duras, Marguerite. The Lover. New York: Harper, 1993.
While it is almost certain that intelligence ahs a neurological basis, the extent to which intelligence is determined by neurological and chemical changes is not fully understood. A recent study suggests that changing hormone levels prior to and during puberty have a large effect on intelligence; high salivary testosterone levels in ten-year-old boys showed a positive correlation with intelligence, but a negative correlation in twelve-year-olds (Shangguan & Shi 2009). This shows that intelligence can be quite fluid, and can even be affected quite differently by the same mechanisms. The exact nature of the changing influence testosterone seems to provide or signal is not known, but the correlation demands further study.
These three different research studies display very different theories of intelligence. In the first study, accepted methods of cognitive relationships with the environment are valid, if perhaps somewhat inaccurate at the extremes of the intelligence spectrum. The second study points…
CJ. (2009). "Working memory predicts learning outcomes." Psychologist 22910), pp. 827.
Shangguan, F. & Shi, J. (2009). "Puberty timing and fluid intelligence: A study of correlations between testosterone and intelligence in 8- to 12-year-old Chinese boys." Psychoneuroendocrinology 34(7), pp. 983-8.
Whitaker, S. & Wood, J. (2007). "The Distribution of Scaled Scores and Possible Floor Effects on the WISC-III and WAIS-III." Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, 21(2), pp. 136-41.
Often, the Sung dynasty poetry was written for a special occasion or public reading. While this poem could have been written for a public reading, there is no way to really know for sure, but it is short enough to have kept the listeners' attention, and it is funny, but has a subtle message, too. Poetry was very popular during this time, and from this poem, it is easy to see why. Many Sung poets rejected a bond between politics and poetry, and this poem shows that (Mair 343). This poem really has nothing political about it, except it mentions the host was "south on official duty" (Yao-ch'en). That really does not have any real importance in the poem, and it contains no open political statements. This is another reason it illustrates the Sung dynasty, because it does not have political overtones.
Finally, many Sung poets tried to continue the…
Mair, Victor H., ed. The Columbia History of Chinese Literature. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
CONVERSATIONS ITH GOETHE
The German poet, novelist, translator, scientist, dramatist, and instrumentalist, Johann olfgang von Goethe (1749 -- 1832)turned out to be the last worldwide mastermind of the est and a ruler of world literature, the writer of ilhelm Meister, Faust and The Sorrows of Young erther,. There is not anywhere else that one can meet a more all-pervading, multifaceted, and Private Goethe than in the astonishing Conversations (1836) which was done by Johann Peter Eckermann (1792 -- 1854), a German scholar and writer in addition to Goethe's acquaintance, archivist, and editor. Even though simply thirty-one at the time of the meeting of the seventy-four-year-old literary expert, Eckermann rapidly dedicated himself to helping Goethe throughout his preceding nine years though never fading to document their far-ranging dialogue. The book gives us Goethe's thoughts on Byron, Delacroix, Hegel, Shakespeare, Carlyle, and Voltaire, in addition to his opinions on astronomy, art, and…
Eckermann, J.P. (1998). Conversations of Goethe with Johann Peter Eckermann. New York: Da Capo Press .
Lu Xun's a Madman's Diary
Story references taken from Norton's Anthology, Expanded Edition
No page numbers listed as requested, chapters listed instead riters are often influenced by their circumstances and, as a result, inspired to write about the things they feel passionately about as well as the things they witness. riters sometimes use fiction as a tool to express their emotions and opinions and the most successful of writers are able to shape their situations and surroundings just as much as situations shape their literature. That certainly can be said of the Chinese writer, poet, and essayist Lu Xun, who is considered by many of his contemporaries to be the founder of modern Chinese literature. (Chinese Cultural Studies)
From his writings, it is clear that Lu Xun was heavily influenced by the Chinese culture and the politics of the day. It is also obvious that if Lu Xun had any…
Biography: Lu Xun in Shanghai. China. Org. 4 Oct 2002. http://www.china.org.cn/english/NM-e/46675.htm 23 January 2003.
Chinese Cultural Studies. Compiled from Compton's Living Encyclopedia. 1995. http://acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~phalsall/texts/chinlit.html
Xun, Lu, "Diary of a Madman." Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces, Expanded Edition. New York W.W. Norton, 1995.
There are three major religions that have established themselves in China: Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism; and of the three, only Buddhism is not indigenous to China. Buddhism found its way to China along the Silk oad, brought by missionaries from India. For centuries, the three religions have co-existed with many Chinese adopting elements of each in their daily lives. Whatever similarities, or symbiotic elements each contains, the three religions have also competed with each other for prominence and prestige within Chinese society. At different times each has been the dominant religion, fully supported by the Imperial Court, however, Buddhism, since it's incorporation into Chinese society, has viewed itself as the superior religion. While most Buddhists are completely comfortable with the idea of other religious ideals in society, and even embrace certain aspects of them, they still feel that Buddhism is superior. One piece of Chinese literature, generally accepted as…
Hodus, Lewis. (2006). Buddhism and Buddhists in China. New Vision Publishers.
Qiancheng Li. (2004). Fictions of Enlightenment: Journey to the West…. USA:
University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books
Wu, Cheng'en. (n.d.). Journey to the West. Retrieved from http://www.chine-informations.com/fichiers/jourwest.pdf
large book about a stone, would you be interested? Probably not, but if they are talking about the "Story of the Stone" by Cao Xueqin, then you are definitely in for a treat.
The story begins in the Land of Illusion where we learn the tale of the Stone and the Crimson Pearl Flower through the story of the two Priests, one of who is a Taoist and the other Buddhist. The Buddhist picks up a solitary stone and talks to it, and so we learn the story of "The Stone" which then sets the tale for what happens later in the story in the 'real' world. The connection here is made when the Stone says[to the Priest], "What you say is indeed true...my poor story is adorned by no rhetorical flourish nor literary art....but the world of mortals being what it is...I cannot but think that the tale here…
Xuequin, C, The Story of the Stone, translation by Henry Giles, Chinese Literature, Appleton 1909, edited and footnotes by Richard Hooker.
The Nature of the Book Trade between China and France
In the past, it was apparent that the Chinese government’s approach to matters culture and art did not significantly differ from its stance on a variety of other factors that involved various internal affairs of the nation. However, while it may have exercised some control on the distribution aspect of culture and art, it has largely remained ineffective as far as control on the consumption front was concerned. In general terms literature has always been an important item of culture and art. In recent times, more and more current authors are exploring modern literature. Towards this end, geographical boundaries no longer act like a limiting factor. As a matter of fact, this is increasingly becoming a competitive frontier amongst contemporary authors. Chinese authors, who have been missing in action in this particular case, are catching up. In addition to…
The words of 'I regret to have killed' in the Battle of Dragon and Tiger were too poor. I'll thrash you with a steel mace was still the best. But when he wanted to raise his hands, he remembered that they were bound together; so he did not sing I'll thrash you either."(113)
Lu Hsun's narrator in the story is another highlight of the work. The narrator is as fictional as the protagonist himself and maintains completely authority over the story's events. He chooses when and how an event would be described. In the first Chapter, he speaks in first person but turns to third person from there on. He describes himself as an -old-fashioned Chinese intellectual whose voice is at times smug because of his access to knowledge and his position as the writer. He shows a range of emotions towards Ah Q. from condescension and criticism to sympathy…
L.D. Pozdneeva, Lu Hsun: His Life and Works, 1881-1936 Moscow: Moscow State University, 1959
Smith Arthur H. Chinese Characteristics. New York: Revell, 1894
Li Tuo. " Xuebeng hechu?" (Where does the avalanche fall?). Preface to Yu Hua, Shiba sui chumen yuanxing (Leaving home at the age of eighteen). Taipei: Yuanliu, 1990,
Lu Hsun, Zaitan baoliu," (My further reservation) Complete works of Lu Xun 5: 114 wen ben 'Ah Q. zhengzhuan' xu ji zhuzhe zixu zhuanlue," Complete works of Lu Xun 7: 77
The crime rates in the western countries started when the Europe experienced a growth rate, which was the time of the 19th century industrial era. During the period, there was an influx of immigration from different part of the world that led to the urbanization and growth of the cities. Moreover, different thoughts were emanated during the period such as romanticism, modern western industrialization, rationalization of enlightenment, and Darwin theory of evolution. The book, "The Humanistic Tradition," (Fiero, 2010 p 1) illustrates the emergence of different thoughts that include realism and romanticism of the 19th century (Fiero, 2010). However, different thoughts in the books are reflected in the film titled the Seven (1995). The chapter 27 of the books reveals the industrial progress of the 19th century, the idealistic thought, nature of European literature, and Asian literature. However, the crime rates was part of the major characteristics of…
Fiero, G.K. (2010). The Humanistic Tradition Book 5: Romanticism, Realism, and the Nineteenth-Century World.(6th Edition). Chicago. Humanities & Social Science.
Claire, K. (2015). Synopsis for Seven (1995) . Amazon Company.
Over the past several thousand years, the Chinese have contributed some of the world's most significant technological tools and inventions. Most of these inventions have had a tremendous impact on human history and it is hard to imagine life without any of them. Among the most influential of Chinese inventions include gunpowder/explosives; paper; moveable type; the magnetic compass; tea; noodles; matches; and silk. Of these eight inventions, the four most important include paper, gunpowder, tea, and noodles. Of those four, the Chinese invention I could least likely live without would be noodles.
It is difficult to imagine how human beings could have spread information without paper. Even if the Chinese had not invented moveable type well before the Gutenberg printing press was designed in Europe, the invention of paper is one of the most important contributions to the spread of knowledge, learning, ideas, and information. As the Franklin Institute…
Asia Society (2013). Chinese inventions. Retrieved online: http://asiasociety.org/education/resources-schools/elementary-lesson-plans/chinese-inventions
Columbia University, East Asian Curriculum Project (n.d.). Timeline of Chinese inventions. Retrieved online: http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/song/readings/inventions_timeline.htm
The Franklin Institute (n.d.). Chinese inventions. Retrieved online: http://fi.edu/tfi/info/current/inventions.html
Roach, J. (2005). 4000-year-old noodles found in China. National Geographic News. Retrieved online: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/10/1012_051012_chinese_noodles.html
The holistic theory of health, "Therefore... looks for the signs of disharmony in the external and internal environment of a person in order to understand, treat and prevent illness and disease." (Traditional Chinese Medicine: NHS)
It is also important to note that the Chinese medical theory is closely linked to their ways of thinking or philosophy. This includes the theory of complementary opposites such Yin-yang, the Five Elements, the human body Meridian system and others. (Traditional Chinese medicine) the following quotation clearly shows the way in which Chinese medicine attempts cures and better health by looking at the overall situation of the individual. This is a very different approach to the conventional estern method focusing only on the central area of illness or concern.
Traditional Chinese medicine has a "macro" or holistic view of disease. For example, one modern interpretation is that well-balanced human bodies can resist most everyday bacteria…
China. July 12, 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China
Chinese Art. July 13, 2006. http://library.thinkquest.org/26469/contributions/artintro.html
Chinese cuisine. July 13, 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_cuisine
Chinese Herbal Medicine. July 13, 2006. http://library.thinkquest.org/26469/contributions/harbalmedicine.html
.....female agency in Wang Anyi's "Granny" and Eileen Chang's "Shame Amah"
The objective of this study is to compare and contrast the work of Eileen Chang's with reference to her theme "Shame Amah" and the work of Wang Anyi focusing on her theme "Granny". The study uses their works of the two writers to analyze their differences and similarities in the writing styles focusing on the themes Shame of Amah and Granny. Remarkably, Zhang was in her early twenties when she had been identified as a discriminating and precious writer. She benefited from both classical Western and Chinese literature making her being one of the most renown Chinese writers in the literary world.
Similarly, Eileen Chang is one of the most talented Chinese writers born in 1921 and has published several collections of English stories as well publishing two English novels. Eileen Chang was born in Shanghai and attended the…
Anyi Wang is a noted author from China. Her stories are clearly influenced by the progression of time and politics in China and beyond. She has been hailed as a hero and a scholar by some but has been vilified by others. Even so, her story is intriguing and so is the material that she has written. Her stories include an eclectic array and they are worth of review in terms of the historical and literary context that exists around them. First, there will be a story told about Anyi Wang and her history and then there will be an extensive review of Granny in particular. The thesis and focus of the bulk of the report will be the manner and method in which people contort themselves so as to get along and fit in while at the same time changing a little too easily with the times and the…