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Islam teaches that Jesus was created by God in the same way that Adam was created by God, without a human father.
Islam teaches that, while Jesus was a true prophet, he was not a God in his own right. In fact, Islam teaches that none of the previous prophets, including Adam, Moses, Jesus, or Muhammad, were in any way divine. Islam teaches that prophets are human beings chosen to hear the word of God and to communicate this message to mankind. Islam teaches that the word of God delivered by the previous prophets had been distorted by man and that God chose another prophet, Muhammad, to deliver the final message once and for all.
Christianity does not accept that Muhammad was a true prophet because it teaches that Jesus was the last prophet. Christianity teaches that Jesus' arrival as the final prophet was prophesised in the Torah. Islam teaches…
The Bible. Available at http://www.biblegateway.com/versions/21st-Century-King-James-Version-KJ21-Bible/
The Qur'an. Available at http://www.usc.edu/schools/college/crcc/engagement/resources/texts/muslim/quran/004.qmt.html#004.156
Hugh Goddard, a History of Christian-Muslim Relations (2000) Edinburgh University Press
impactof humanism on Christian beliefs in the fifthteenth century.
Christianity has historically gone through many different phases; its various proponents have made a conscious effort to adapt to the times. From its origins with the teachings of Christ (which were outlawed by the Romans), to the time when those same Romans adopted it as their national religion, the way Christianity is conceived and practiced has transformed throughout the years. As such, it is not surprising that the intellectual trend of humanism produced a profound impact on this religion in the fifteenth century. Overall, humanism forced proponents of Christianity to substantiate their teachings and beliefs in sources of academia, instead of simply blind faith in God or in the Bible.
It is not surprising that humanism produced this impact on Christian beliefs in the fifteenth century, which marked the beginning stages of the Italian Renaissance and that which would span throughout…
Many of the most famous scientists in world history also happened to believe in God: including Copernicus, Bacon, Kepler, Gallileo, and Newton ("Famous Scientists Who Believed in God," n.d.). These great scientists had no trouble reconciling their faith with their practice; their Christian beliefs with their research and investigations into the known universe. Yet science has morphed from an integrated realm of study to one that excludes religion from its ranks. It has become anathema to be a practicing Christian and a practicing scientist. It does not have to be; in fact, science and religion comfortably coexist and each can benefit the other.
One of the arguments against Christians being able to be good scientists is that they are too prone to personal bias. Sure, some Christians are prone to bias, but so is any scientist. Scientists are biased by their personal beliefs no matter where those beliefs…
Boyce, K.A. (2001). Do science and Christianity coexist? Bede's Library. Retrieved online: http://bede.org.uk/boyce.htm
"Famous Scientists Who Believed in God," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/sciencefaith.html
Lloyd, R. (2008). God and evolution can co-exist, scientist says. Live Science. Retrieved online: http://www.livescience.com/5195-god-evolution-exist-scientist.html
Samuel, S. (2011). Can science, creationism coexist? Christian Post. June 19, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.christianpost.com/news/can-science-and-creationism-coexist-one-christian-author-says-yes-51315/
Beowulf experiences tough circumstances and because he does the right things, he emerges a hero and can live knowing he did the best he could. Here, responsibility leads to good works and, subsequently, a good life.
In "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight," we see Christian values displayed when Gawain accepts his responsibility in much the same way that Grendel does. hen examining the story of Sir Gawain, we cannot overlook the importance of chivalry, which is strongly associated with Christian ideals. Gawain maintain the knight's high ideals even when he under pressure. hen Gawain is traveling to the Green Chapel, he speaks with God, working out his own fear and uneasiness. The result of this conversation is a renewed sense of honor and a urgency to continue. Another example of how the poet intended Gawain to carry these ideals with him is in the pentangle, in which he describes…
Beowulf." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol I.M.H. Abrams, ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986. pp. 31-78.
Everyman." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol I.M.H. Abrams, ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986. pp. 347-67.
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986. pp. 233-87.
All of these Christian sects, as with all religions, have traditions. Although traditions normally stem far back in the past when a religion began, they are always changing and new ones forming that better conform to the changes in society. eligious belief systems and the accompanying traditions about such essential issues as slavery, women and even same-gender relationships, for example, have changed in many Christian religions. Yet traditions, like belief systems, are ingrained in many religions and their practices, and thus not always easy to change.
Nor, is it necessary that they do so in all cases. eligious traditions can be a positive or negative influence. From a positive standpoint, they keep families and groups of people together. They give stability and consistency to life over a person's life, from birth through death, and to groups of people from one generation to the next.
However, other religious traditions can negatively…
Anderson, M., & Taylor H. (Eds.) (2005) Sociology, Understanding a Diverse Society. Belmont, CA: Thomson.
Bowker, J. (1997) World Religions. New York: DK Publishing
Dupuis, J. Religious plurality and the Christological debate (1995). Focus. 15 (2-3). Retrieved October 9, 2009. http://www.sedos.org/english/dupuis.htm
Heim, M. (2000) the Depth of the Riches: A Trinitarian Theology of Religious Ends. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdman's Publishing Co.
This is why seeking out the advice and counseling of a sex therapist is not only tolerable according to Christian dogma, but could even be seen as essential in many instances. God does not create problems simply so that human beings can sit back and pray that God fixes them -- there are always things that humans can do to improve their situation. We our responsible for feeding ourselves; if we accept that responsibility, God will make sure we do not starve. The same is true of sexual health -- taking an active step to correct or address any sexual problems that might arise invites God's assistance into the problem as well, and can be an opportunity to strengthen faith in God and religion even more.
This does not even touch upon the procreative aspect of sex, and although sexuality and sex itself is important for more than simple procreative…
Cahill, L. (1996). Sex, gender, and Christian ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
De La Torre, M. (2007). A Lily Among the Thorns: Imagining a New Christian Sexuality. San Francisco: Wiley.
Foster, L. (1984). Religion and sexuality: the Shakers, the Mormons, and the Oneida Community. New York: Oxford University Press.
Grenz, S. (1997). Sexual ethics: An Evangelical perspective. Louisville, KY: Knox.
A worldview essentially denotes the framework of beliefs, ideas, philosophies, or ideologies that shapes how an individual or a group of individuals make sense of the world (Cosgrove, 2006). For instance, a three-year-old child believes that the world revolves around them. Equally, a secular humanist’s life is driven by the belief that only the material world exists. In essence, everyone has a worldview – whether conscious or unconscious. For Christians, the Bible is the ultimate influencer of their worldview. Christians believe that the sole reason for human existence is to serve God. This means that every action, decision, and emotion is driven by the desire to serve God. That is the fundamental attribute of a worldview – it influences every aspect of an individual’s life. It affects how an individual interprets the character of the world, human nature, and the purpose of life (Hiles & Smith, n.d.). Christians have their…
He says, "The South was right, my friends, there is no doubt about it" (Taft and Holleman). Thus, the Christian Identity movement is strongly connected with one's personal feelings towards Jews and those of non-Anglo-Saxon origin, seeing them as obstacles. Robin succinctly defines these problems when he lists the basic beliefs of the Christian Identity movement. Robin states that the Christian Identity members believe in a "very conservative interpretation of the Christian Bible" in addition to their beliefs about race and descendants" (Fairley para. 21).
Although their beliefs are certainly rooted in ancient history, the Christian Identity movement does not act in a way that truly supports Christian beliefs for two reasons. First, they both ignore the doctrine that Christianity is for everyone and use violence. The fact that Christianity is for everyone is seen not only through the way that many mainstream churches act today, but also through Biblical…
Fairley, Allison. "Christian Identity Movement." The University of Virginia. 1998. The
Religious Movement's Homepage. 5 June 2009.
Ruthven, Malise. Fundamentalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Tuft, Carolyn & Joe Holleman. "Inside the Christian Identity Movement." The Ross
7). Still, it seems safe from the seat of scholarship to condemn such exclusive and condemnatory practices as decidedly un-Christian; the oft-quoted (or at least oft-referenced) Biblical passage from John seems to be one of the more direct and unequivocal statements regarding who will be saved: "For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life" (John 3:16). Basically, if you believe in Christ, you are by Biblical (and etymological) definition a Christian.
At this point, it would seem that the argument against fundamentalist Christians being true Christians has been hoisted on its own petard -- certainly, the fundamentalists believe in Christ, regardless of whether or not they seem to be paying attention to his teachings. It is possible, it must be admitted, that fundamentalist Christians must be properly seen as Christians, but they…
Brom, Robert. "Fundamentalism." Accessed 4 May 2009. http://www.catholic.com/library/Fundamentalism.asp
Hendrick, Charles. "What are Major Christian Beliefs?" Accessed 4 May 2009. http://geneva.rutgers.edu/src/christianity/major.html
John. The Bible: New International Version. Accessed 4 May 2009. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=JOHN+3:16
Matthew. The Bible: New International Version. Accessed 4 May 2009. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Matthew+24:36-44
Crabb's Biblical Model Of Counseling Comparison And Discussion
Goal of Christian Counseling
The goal of Christian Counseling differs from private practice counseling in many regards. For example, a Christian community offers a counselor a unique set of resources, often comprised of loving and caring individuals for are members of the local congregation. In private practice the resources that a counselor may have to work with can be comparatively limited by contrast. Furthermore, each Christian is called to help others based on their faith. A private practice counselor can be motivated by a plethora of reasons -- some of them are surly genuine and altruistic however others may be for monetary gain or similar ambitions. Thus, the resources that are available and the motivations behind entering counseling represent two initial and fundamental differences.
Another difference is that the fundamentals of the counseling practices might be starkly different. Many Christian counselors believe…
Crabb, L., & Crabb, L. (1977). Effective Biblical Counseling. Zondervan.
Johnson, W., Ridley, C., & Nielsen, S. (2000). Religiously Sensitive Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Elegant Solutions and Ethical Risks. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 14-20.
Mann, N. (2008). An introduction to cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. Professional Skills, 24-27.
Rogers . (2006). Carl Rogers Info. Retrieved February 26, 2012, from http://www.carlrogers.info/
hereas Origen did, to a certain degree, follow Clement's teachings, he introduced his own point-of-view in the matter and provided his followers with less information regarding Christian mysticism. This is most probably caused by his interest in teaching mainstream Christianity. He considered that it was easier for him to promote the religion this way, as the masses were presumably unable to understand mystical concepts if they did not know the difference between material Christianity and spiritual Christianity.
Origen feared that by employing a Gnostic approach at understanding religion, people would realize that it was not obligatory for them to consider Jesus Christ and His crucifixion. Origen believes that it is not that a Gnostic "denies or doubts the truth of the Gospel history, but he feels that events which only happened once can be of no importance, and regards the life, death, and resurrection of Christ as only one manifestation…
Chadwick, Henry Early Christian Thought and the Classical Tradition: Studies in Justin, Clement, and Origen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984)
Horton, Michael S. "Hellenistic or Hebrew? Open Theism and Reformed Theological Method," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 45.2 (2002)
Inge, William Ralph, Christian Mysticism: Considered in Eight Lectures Delivered before the University of Oxford (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1899)
Lardner Carmody, Denise and Carmody, John Tully, Mysticism: Holiness East and West (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996)
Christian Worldview Nursing
Health care in the West and worldwide has undergone very extreme changes over the past decades. However, the basic principles of nursing like caring for the sick and elderly have remained consistent. While technology has changed radically since the days of Florence Nightingale, Christian caring in the nursing profession is still a foundational principle. It is this foundational principle that I seek to express in my ministering to my patients.
Christian Worldview and the Integration of Beliefs, Values, Ethics and Service
The definition of nursing for me symbolizes a set of beliefs, values, ethics and service. Nursing is after all a calling and a vocation, not just a job. In Judith Anne Shelly's book Called to Care, she defines nursing as distinct from medicine, even though the two occupy domains that are close together.
She defines it in a way that I find very familiar and similar…
Salt and light. (2012). Journal of Christian Nursing, 29(2), 74.
Shelly, J.A., & Miller, A.B. (2006). Called to care: A christian worldview for nursing. (2nd ed.).
Downer's Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press.
Diane seems to be undergoing many different problems that are present today because of her past. The way she was treated by her family and her husband now has gone to affect her psychologically and emotionally. The combination of post traumatic stress disorder, schizoaffective symptoms and previous satanic ritual abuse is very severe and psychological intervention is greatly required.
One of her presenting complaints is post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) PTSD is a form of anxiety disorder that occurs as an emotional reaction to something that occurred in the patient's life. This trauma could be pain, injury, threat, or death of a loved one. (Valente, 2010) Some common examples of traumatic disorders are natural disasters, military combat or terrorist incidents. It is normal to have an adverse or a stressed response to a traumatic event. Normally, people come to back to their usual state of mind…
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Brewin, C. And Holmes, E. (2003). Psychological theories of posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical psychology review, 23 (3), pp. 339 -- 376.
Clark, D. And Ehlers, A. (2004). Posstraumatic stress disorders from cognitive theory to therapy. In: Leahy, R. eds. (2004). Contemporary cognitive therapy: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Guilford, pp. 141-160.
Clohessy, S. And Ehlers, A. (1999). PTSD symptoms, response to intrusive memories and coping in ambulance service workers. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38 (3), pp. 251 -- 265.
The moment when the line first cut into his hands in similar to the one when Christ's hands were nailed to the cross. Most readers are likely to make a connection between the two images at this point as the stigmata is an element which is present in both Santiago and in Christ.
Hemingway himself wants readers to be certain that the injured hand is an essential factor working as support to the comparison made between Christ and Santiago. The "Ay" exclamation also reinforces this belief. "There is no translation for this word and perhaps it is just a noise such a man might make, involuntarily, feeling the nail go through his hands and into the wood" (Hemingway, 1984, p. 82). Both the sufferings experienced by Christ and by Santiago have been made so that life will go on in peace.
Santiago stands as a living martyr (if such a…
1. Clark Pratt, John "My Pilgrimage: Fishing for Religion with Hemingway," The Hemingway Review 21.1 (2001).
2. Hemingway, Ernest. (1984). The old man and the sea. Barron's Educational Series.
3. Dunlavy Valenti, Patricia ed., Understanding the Old Man and the Sea: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002).
John Clark Pratt, "My Pilgrimage: Fishing for Religion with Hemingway," The Hemingway Review 21.1 (2001).
The Aztecs believed 13 to be a sacred number. The Aztec week was thirteen days long and the number was respected as a measure of time and completion (Number 13, 2010). The Aztec calendar year was 260 days long, which was calculated as 20, thirteen day periods, called Trecenas. The goddess Tlazolteotl was the ruler of the 13th Trecena, who was the goddess of sin and could forgive sins (Number 13, 2010). In Hinduism, the thirteenth night of the waning moon in the month of Maagha is sacred to Shiva, and notes a cause for celebration of creation and preservation (Number 13, 2010). For those reading tarot cards, the tarot 13 is the card of death. In Scandinavia, the day of the Saint Lucia celebration is December 13th (Number 13, 2010). egarding United States currency, the number 13 is seemingly glorified. On the one dollar bill, there are 13 leaves…
Lachenmeyer, N. (2004). Thirteen: the story of the world's most popular superstition. New York, NY: Thunder's Mouth Press.
Number 13. (2010). Retrieved 3 February, 2012, from: http://mysticalnumbers.com/Number_13.html
Radford, E., & Radford, M. (1949). Encyclopedia of superstitions 1949. New York, NY: Philosophical Library Inc.
Scanlon, T., Luben, R., Scanlon, F., & Singleton, N. (1993). Is friday the 13th bad for your health?. British Medical Journal, 307, 1584-1586.
Greek bishops could also marry, although such alliances prevent them from rising in position in the church, where Roman priests took celibacy vows. Regarding doctrine, some could Latin approach as more practical and judicial, while the Greek was more speculative about the nature of the Godhead.
Martin Luther founded the Lutheran branch of Protestant Christianity. Luther rejected the authority of the Catholic Pope. The Bible alone was the ultimate authority for Luther. Salvation was by grace and by faith alone in Jesus Christ. Luther retained the sacraments of baptism, penance and Holy Communion and he held that in the Holy Communion the consecrated bread and wine are the Body and Blood of Christ
However, he rejected the ideas of purgatory, indulgences, invocation of the Saints, and prayers for the dead.
In contrast, while John Calvin also rejected the Pope, he believed that God alone could dispense salvation, holding to…
Christian-Based Ethics in Business
Having strong ethics is vital to the success of an organization but often that component is bypassed in the name of profit. With a strong ethical foundation, an organization will perhaps face more obstacles but will also have a better opportunity for success and longevity. Society, particularly American society, has changed greatly within the past 50 years, and continues to evolve. And with those changes, value systems and the emphasis placed on them changes as well. At the same time, society has dealt with large technological advances. And of course, as knowledge and technology increase, new questions and situations arise to challenge society's morals and ethics. Inadvertent disclosure of information becomes more prevalent as more people become involved in document handling. And the more documents that are handled by more people, conflict of interest may arise, with the potential to threaten the organization.
Bagley, C.E., & Savage, D.W. (2010). Managers and the Legal Environment. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Harmeling, S., Sarasvathy, S., & Freeman, R. (2009). Related debates in ethics and entrepreneurship: Values, opportunities, and contingency. Journal of Business Ethics, 84(3), 341-365. doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9713-4.
Lee, S. (2009). Guiding your small-business clients through the downturn maze. Journal of Financial Planning, 22(5), 24-29. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.
Madsen, A. (2009). Navigating tough conflict of interest situations. Nonprofit World, 27(1), 18-19. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.
Finally, learning how to rely on and depend on others can help people rely on and depend on God. The exercise teaches the value of trust and shows that we can depend on other people as well as God.
7. Body Outline: Drawing an outline of the body is a helpful exercise for people who have eating disorders. It can help people recognize that their body image does not match the reality of their physical form. In some cases, drawing the body can bring up strong emotions. For this exercise, drawing the body outline enables participants to explore self-image: the lies we tell ourselves and the negative self-talk we bombard ourselves with throughout our life. We can see how some of these lies were perpetuated by parents, by peers, by the media, and by society. By exploring these lies, we can hopefully begin to see the truth: to see our…
As to whether it makes a substantive difference whether a Christian enters into a partnership or a corporation with a non-Christian, Scripture does not offer a clear-cut answer to this. Paul advises in 2 Corinthians 6:14 "Be ye not equally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? And what communion hath light with darkness?" This might legitimately be construed to mean that one should not enter into a business partnership because this implies a relationship of equality. However, it is equally valid to come to the conclusion that the equality that Paul is referring to here is a spiritual one. So long as a Christian does not try to engage on an equal level in spiritual matters with a non-Christian, then she or he can engage in matters of the world.
James 4:4-5 offers some important insight into these questions. The key questions that the Christian…
Storms, S. (2008). The Life of the Church in the World vs. The Life of the World in the Church (2 Cor. 6:14-16a). Retrieved from http://www.enjoyinggodministries.com/article/the-life-of-the-church-in-the-world-vs.-the-life-of-the-world-in-the-church-2-cor-614-16a/
She references Romans 3: 23, 24: "…(23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, (24) and all are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus." (New International Version).
Ultimately, Hendricks informs, the comfort and safety of parents with autistic children must be revealed through "their faith that a sovereign God designed their child and planned all the days of his life before any had yet occurred"; to understand that, she references the words of the Old Testament, Psalm 139: 16: "Your eyes saw my unformed body; all the days ordained for me were written in your book, before one of them came to be…" (New International Version).
In the eb site Finding Noah a Christian mother explains that if you are a Christian and you are told your child has autism, remember what Jesus said (John 16: 33): "In…
Finding Noah. (2007). Autism in the Christian Family. Retrieved Dec. 23, 2010, from http://findingnoah.org /?page_id=20.
Google Health. (2010). Autism. Retrieved Dec. 22, 2010, from https://health.google.com/health/ref/autism .
Hendrickson, Laura. (2004). Autism Spectrum Disorders. Christian Counseling. Retrieved Dec. 23, 2010, from http://www.christiancounseling.com/en/articles/printview.asp?544 .
Hendrickson, Laura. (2009). Finding Your Child's Way on the Autism Spectrum: Discovering
The same goes for Christian literature. Non-secular literature can also benefit society by introducing individuals to faith-based ideas and can help individuals find their own truth within the scope of the world.
It is not impossible to discover different worldviews within a Christian context, but it can be argued that non-secular literature and contexts are inherently more able to do this because there is not an ulterior motive in the literature. That is to say that non-secular literature doesn't have to have the motive of teaching or sending a very specific message. In this way, secular literature can benefit society by encouraging openness to differences between people and cultures. Non-secular literature is also beneficial in that it can challenge individuals in different ways than Christian literature because it doesn't have to adhere to certain spiritual guidelines. Non-secular literature can encourage individuals to find their own beliefs within a certain text.
There is an idea of longstanding that humor has power as a curative. The Reader's Digest has long had a section entitled "Laughter: The Best Medicine," reflecting an old saying about this issue. In his book Laugh Again, Charles R. Swindoll approaches this idea from a Christian perspective, recognizing the many ills and sadnesses to which life is subject and finding in humor and laughter the means to overcome these ills and banish these sadnesses.
The author makes his intention clear in the Introduction when he says, "This book is about joy" (11). He wants people to relax more, release tension, and refuse to let negative circumstances dominate their thinking. Swindoll says we can all remember when life was joyful if we think back to our childhood, as he recalls his: "I neither expected much nor needed much. Life was to be enjoyed, not endured, and therefore every…
Swindoll, Charles R. Laugh Again. Dallas: World Publishing, 1992.
Christian Counseling Scenario
What are the client's most prominent presenting issues (that is, what seems to take priority as being wrong)?
In the case of Leon, a 52-year-old man with a dysfunctional childhood who has been unable to experience life in typical fashion, the most prominent presenting issue is definitely the individual's lack of emotional capacity and general apathy, both of which are obviously symptoms of a deeply repressed psychological trauma. The circumstances described in the introduction to Leon's case, wherein his eventually divorced parents both suffered from chemical dependency and addiction, while the father inflicted sever emotional and physical abuse, is extremely typical in terms of being connected to later symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV Text evision (DSM-IV T), "diagnostic criteria for PTSD include a history of exposure to a traumatic event that meets specific stipulations and…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
(4th ed., text rev.). Washington, D.C.
Human beings, while being superior, are nonetheless part of the physical world and subject to its laws.
Mankind is made in His image and is therefore distinct from the rest of creation
This belief is central to the dichotomy outlined above: human beings are part of the physical world, but also part of God. On the basis of this inner divinity, humankind is given the right to claim superiority to their nonhuman surroundings.
Mankind is to rule over God's earthly creation
This belief is central to the concept of humankind's separation from and superiority to nature. Nature is to be manipulated according to the needs and requirements of humanity. Technology instead of agriculture plays a large role in this manipulation. In terms of early Christianity, the use of technological tools to manipulate nature is seen as part of the divine directive to rule over creation.
Time is diachronic and headed…
S/he must therefore implement correction and rehabilitation measures as the courts of the country see fit for the convicted individual. However, the compromise would be the kind of treatment the convicted individual gets from the Christian practitioner. As a person of faith, s/he must recognize also that the person is an individual who might have shown deviant behavior to society, but s/he is nevertheless a person who must be treated equally despite his/her unfortunate circumstance (i.e., incarceration) (McCrudden, 2008:659).
Preservation of human dignity in the face of legal punishment is the compromise that is developed as the Christian practitioner tries to achieve the balance of maintaining criminal justice as both a profession and a vocation. And what about love and forgiveness, which also comes into play as one tries to understand the unfortunate circumstances of other people who are punished by the legal system? Convicted individuals deserve the love and…
Bottoms, A. And J. Tankebe. (2012). "Beyond procedural justice: a dialogic approach to legitimacy in criminal justice." The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, Vol. 102, No. 1.
McCrudden, C. (2008). "Human dignity and judicial interpretation of human rights." The European Journal of International Law, Vol. 19, No. 4.
"Responsibility, rehabilitation, and restoration: a Catholic perspective on crime and criminal justice." United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Official Website. Accessed on April 19, 2014. Accessed at: http://www.usccb.org/issues-and-action/human-life-and-dignity/criminal-justice-restorative-justice/crime-and-criminal-justice.cfm
Biblical quotes/verses. Open Bible Official Website. Accessed on April 19, 2014. Accessed at: http://www.openbible.info/
ince neither of those explanations is likely (let alone knowable), philosophical naturalists would have to doubt that the universe exists at all; yet, very clearly, it does. The most likely explanation for the existence of the universe is simply that some force or consciousness (i.e. God) caused whatever the so-called "first cause" of existence was.
The second major philosophical assumption of philosophical naturalism presupposes that all philosophical postulates must, necessarily, fit the scientific model. However, that supposition clearly closes off many possible explanations simply because they may lie outside of human understanding. Again, that position is an a priori assumption that also violates the first major philosophical assumption of philosophical naturalism. In essence, it suggests that scientific concepts provide the only possible set of tools for understanding phenomena, including phenomena that obviously defy scientific explanation such as miracles and faith. Most importantly, it automatically (and in a manner that is…
Friedman, M. (1997). "Philosophical Naturalism." Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association. Accessed online, October 15, 2011, from:
Hawking, S. (1990). A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. Bantam Publishing: New York.
At the same time, Jesus offered human beings hope for salvation. It was not just through his miracles and his teachings that Jesus proved he was the true son of God. Through his death and resurrection, Jesus illustrated that mankind is in dire need of divine assistance in overcoming evil. I look to Jesus as both role model and as symbol of hope, especially in times of darkness and despair. Jesus is all that is good in humanity: unconditional love, compassion, and kindness.
I have found that if I look to Jesus and take Him into my heart, I can overcome temptation and ill will and experience a taste of salvation. Salvation involves as much grace as it does hard work. Salvation always entails faith and unwavering belief. I believe that some suffering is essential for all human beings and that if we are willing to endure our suffering and…
All of these steps are easy to take and can help protect the Earth. Developing renewable energy sources is also an important step Christians should take regarding preserving the environment.
The commercial energy consumption, in the United States alone, in 2006, was 1,994,876 kilotons of oil equivalent. The most disturbing part of that figure is that only 8.41% of that energy came from renewable electricity production ("Energy"). Investment in research and development for technology to efficiently harness renewable energy sources is critical. In addition to investment in new technology, large energy consuming countries, such as the United States, need to take advantage of current technology to utilize renewable energy sources -- like wind.
In 2004, the United States generated 6,740 M of power with wind turbines. However, other, smaller countries have taken greater advantage of this inexpensive, clean, renewable source of power. Germany produced 16,629 M of power with wind…
Air Pollution. United Nations, Oct. 2009. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/environment/ODS_Consumption.htm .
Climatological Disasters. United Nations, Oct. 2009. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/environment/Climatological_disasters.htm .
Energy. United Nations. Sept. 2009. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/environment/Energy.htm .
Greenhouse Gas Emissions. United Nations, Aug. 2009. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/environment/air_co2_emissions.htm .
" (Polkinghorne, p. 4)
As with Lewis before him in our discussion, Polkinghorne supplies a reason for the certainty of God's presence in scientific affairs most simply because he believes there is no other more likely or rational explanation for certain accomplishments. Like Lewis, Polkinghorne simply places beyond the grasp of human capacity a certain loosely defined category of things that must inherently be accounted for by the unseen power of a higher being called God. This premise is a surprising one to extend from a discussion extolling the beauty of scientific accomplishments in that it satisfies itself on the basis of highly unempirical arguments. The central premise of Polkinghorne's text mirrors both in the blindness of its faith and the flaws in its presentation the central premise of Lewis' assertion. Namely, both proceed from the idea that because there are remarkable things for which explanations appear to be so…
Lewis, C.S. (2001). Mere Christianity. Harper San Francisco.
McGrath, A.E. (2004). Theology: The Basics. Wiley-Blackewell; 1st edition.
Polkinghorne, J. (2003). Belief in God in an Age of Science. Yale University Press.
tensions ambivalence. Yet Christian ignore Paul's theology pressed letters. Discuss The rationale essay critically explore, evaluate discuss questions: ho St. Paul-hat Paul write letters churches individuals ministry? hat cultural, social, political religious contexts readings received Paul's writings? How contemporary church reads interprets Paul's writings 21st century evangelism, mission, ministry, Christian character formation ethical teachings.
Theology of Paul
Saint Paul (originally named Saul of Tarsus) was one of the most influential individuals in the Christian world and a person who is largely responsible for how society perceives Christianity. Even with the fact that he was not one of the original Twelve Apostles, his involvement in taking Jesus' words further increased his role as an imposing Christian figure. Paul's letters to individuals and churches were meant to provide these bodies with more information concerning Christianity. The Apostle likely considered that it was essential for the world to gain a complex understanding of…
Branick, Vincent P. "Understanding Paul and His Letters," (Paulist Press, 2009)
Connybeare, William John, "The Life and Epistles of St. Paul, Volume 2," (1856)
Freed, Edwin D. "The Apostle Paul and His Letters," (Equinox Publishing Ltd., 1 Jan 2005)
Lenski, R.C.H. "The Interpretation of St. Paul's Epistles to the Ephesians and Philippians," (Augsburg Fortress, 15 Sep 2008)
he movement's issues in politics include such ideas as introducing biblical law, such as health and property laws, into the American legal system and supporting political candidates like David Duke who espouse the movement's views.
he movement's issues regarding community include such notions as living in isolation from society and governing based on local laws and religious traditions. Finally one of the movement's issues regarding paramilitarism is that eventually its members wish to overthrow the federal government through terrorist and guerilla tactics. he second paramilitarist issue has to do with territorial secession, in which followers want to someday secede territory, mainly from the mid western part of the U.S., for purposes of forming a nation exclusively for Christian Identity members2.
"Christian Identity." Watchman Fellowship Profile. 1999. Available at http://www.watchman.org/profile/Identitypro.htm Accessed April 30, 2007.
Javaid, Nida. "he origins of the Christian Identity Movement by Michael Barkun." March 9, 2006. Available at…
The movement's issues regarding community include such notions as living in isolation from society and governing based on local laws and religious traditions. Finally one of the movement's issues regarding paramilitarism is that eventually its members wish to overthrow the federal government through terrorist and guerilla tactics. The second paramilitarist issue has to do with territorial secession, in which followers want to someday secede territory, mainly from the mid western part of the U.S., for purposes of forming a nation exclusively for Christian Identity members2.
"Christian Identity." Watchman Fellowship Profile. 1999. Available at http://www.watchman.org/profile/Identitypro.htm Accessed April 30, 2007.
Javaid, Nida. "The origins of the Christian Identity Movement by Michael Barkun." March 9, 2006. Available at http://web.syr.edu/~nnjavaid/christianidentity.html Accessed April 30, 2007.
Morality of Statistics
Ethics/Business Statistics, Christian Worldview
The morality of statistics: Will statistics invariably lie?
A famous book from the 1950s was entitled How to lie with statistics. Implied by the counter-intuitive name was the concept that the old cliche that 'numbers don't lie' was false. In fact, as discussed in the article "eflection before action: The statistical consultant confronts ethical issues" by S. Andrew Ostapski and Claude . Superville, statistics can be highly subjective in terms of how they are presented as are the conclusions which can be drawn from them. Even researchers have been accused of manipulating statistics to prove 'facts' that are not true within academia. The pressures only increase when statisticians are asked to serve the financial 'masters' of commerce. "The ability to be creative in building interdisciplinary bridges can be risky, especially when the parties that are served do not understand the statistical process. The…
Geertsema, J. (1987). A Christian view of the foundations of statistics. Perspectives on Science
and Christian Faith, 39.3:158-164.
Ostapski, A. & Superville, C. (2001). Reflection before action: The statistical consultant confronts ethical issues. Business Quest. Retrieved:
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…
orld ar I and orld ar II, a great deal of interest has been paid to the German Christian Church and Movement. The focus of this discussion will be on the German Christian Church and movement, specifically the protestant Church (people's church), after I and through II and the Nazi movement. The purpose of this discussion is to illustrate that the protestant German Christian church's ideology was not a product of Nazi orders or a response to Neo-Pagan influences, but in fact, was derivative of the post I culture of German.
According to a book entitled Twisted Cross: the German Christian Movement in the Third Reich, the German Christian Movement was composed of Protestants, both clergy and lay people. The author asserts that people that were a part of this movement believed that Nazi Rule was a prime opportunity to spread Christian ideology.
Members of the movement believed…
Baranowski, Shelley. "The 1933 German Protestant Church Elections: Machtpolitik or Accommodatlon?." Church History 49, no. 3 (1980): 298-315. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=26215709
Barnett, Victoria J. Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity during the Holocaust. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=79117010
Barnett, Victoria. For the Soul of the People: Protestant Protest against Hitler. New York: Oxford U.S., 1998. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97937045
Diadche: 1st and 2nd Century Christians
The objective of this study is to answer the questions of based on the Didache, what are the most important concerns for 1st and 2nd Century Christians and is there a present and emerging hierarchy within early Christianity? The Didache is also known as the "Teachings of the Lord by the Twelve Apostles." The Didache is a manual of conduct and worship written during the first century and is a collection of writings that was formulated on the earliest of beliefs and traditions of Christianity and Judaism as well as being inclusive of the Old and New Testaments. It is unfortunate that modern church members have literally no knowledge of the Didache. Core teaching of the Didache are known as the 'two ways' or the ways of life and death. It is related that the controversies created by the Didache are many and are…
Emilio, K. (nd) THE DIDACHE -- "Doctrine of the Twelve Apostles": A Theology for the Early Church. Theology One Bite at a Time. Remnant Report. Retrieved from: http://remnantreport.com/impdf/didache-01.pdf
Horner, T. (1997) Jews and Judaism in Christian Writings of the Second Century CE. 2007 Archive Edition. The Ecole Initiative. Retrieved from: http://ecole.evansville.edu/articles/earlyrel.html#did
History Of Christianity
The Conversion of Constantine
In the peer-reviewed Catholic Historical Review, author Charles Odahl explains that there was an "arduous military campaign" to regain control of Rome from "usurper Maxentius" in A.D. 312 (three hundred years after the death of Jesus Christ). The campaign was brutal and so Constantine the Great sought "supernatural assistance" against the enemies of Rome (Odahl, 1995). Of course previous emperors had sought power and influence from "traditional pagan cults" and had persecuted the Christian Church, and it hadn't worked out well in terms of military successes. So Constantine was said to have invoked (through prayer) "the Highest God" of the universe to help his troops; and because he believed he had an answer from the Christian God, he ordered placed on troops arms the "caestia signa of Christ" (the Cross). Because Roman troops won the Battle of the Mulvian Bridge (on October 28,…
Lamoreaux, John C. "Early Eastern Christian Responses to Islam." In Medieval Christian
Perceptions of Islam, Editor, Tolan, J.V. Abingdon, UK: Psychology Press, 2000.
Odahl, Charles. "God and Constantine: Divine sanction for imperial rule in the first
Christian Emperor's ... " Catholic Historical Review, 81, no. 3 (July, 1995), 327-353.
Relativist said, 'The world does not exist, England does not exist, Oxford does not exist and I am confident that I do not Exist!' When Lewis was asked to reply, he stood up and said, 'How am I to talk to a man who's not there?'" (Schultz, 1998)
Lewis: A iography
This quote shows how, in truly CS Lewis style, the writer took the everyday questions about religion and faith, tacking them head-on. Lewis was a Christian writer who was deeply influenced by the teachings of God and His Scripture.
CS Lewis was born, in 1898, in elfast, Ireland. He was educated at various schools throughout England (Hooper, 1996). In 1914, he began studying Latin, Greek, French, German and Italian and later moved to Oxford. His education was disrupted by the first World War but within two years, he resumed his studies.
In 1924, Lewis became a teacher of…
Adey, Lionel. C.S. Lewis, Writer, Dreamer, and Mentor W.B. Eerdmans Pub, 1998.
Beversluis, John. C.S. Lewis and the Search for Rational Religion. W.B. Eerdmans, 1985.
C.S. Lewis, Reflections on the Psalms, (1958) New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, (p. 64).
C.S. Lewis, The Problem of Pain. Macmillian, 1962.
Anderson (2000) converses spiritual oppression and how Satan and his fallen angels are in the process of trying to overpower the believers will. He also provides the phases to independence, for example: fake vs. factual, dishonesty vs. truth, resentment vs. tolerance, revolt vs. obedience, arrogance vs. self-effacement, and oppression vs. lack of restrictions. Fake vs. real step show how we need to absorb to recognize God's certainty so we do not fall into Satan's trap. If fall for these tricks of deception then we automatically give up God's truth for what is considered a lie. Dishonesty vs. truth shows that we should battle Satan's trickery with God's reality. If we become deceived then we must do away with any misleading views for the truth that will bring us our liberation.
Bitterness vs. forgiveness is showing us that we do not need to harbor that illness in our hearts because Satan…
A., H.D. (1999). The Anxiety Cure: You Can Find Emotional Tranquility and Wholeness. Thomas Nelson, Inc. .
Adams, E.J. (1986). How to Help People Change: The Four- Step Biblical Process. Grand Rapids: Zondervan .
Anderson, T.N. (1990). The Bondage Breaker: Overcoming Negative Thoughts, Irrational Feelings and Habitual Sins. . Boston: House Publishers, Inc.
Backus, W.C. (1980). Telling Yourself the Truth: Find Your Way Out of Depression, Anxiety, Fear, Anger and Other Common Problems by Applying the Priciples of Misbelief Therapy . Grand Rapids: Bethany Publishing Group.
This course changed my concept of what it meant to be a Christian in three fundamental ways, all focused on what it means to me to be a Christian in modern society, rather than on the theological underpinnings of Christianity. This course helped me realize that Christianity is not merely a system of belief, which is how many people conceive of religion. Instead, Christianity must be a combination of action and belief. However, it also made me more committed to some of the fundamental underpinnings of Christian theology, which I had admittedly abandoned in my own desire to equate being a Christian with being a good person and trying to do the right thing. However, reading this book, I came to the realization that I was failing to embrace all of Christianity. Just as it is necessary, but not sufficient, to be a good person in order to honestly…
Towns, Elmer. (2007). Core Christianity. Chattanooga: AMG Publishers.
Ethical Dilemmas: Pornography
Biblically, God requires Christians to please Him in everything they do. Whether it is in secret or overtly, in thoughts or behaviour, Christians have a duty to portray Christ-like behaviour every moment of their life (Hiles & Smith, n.d.). Nonetheless, compliance with biblical teachings is not always as easy as portrayed by the Bible. In the course of their Christian walk, Christians often encounter situations of dilemma. These are basically situations in which it is not exactly clear whether doing something is right or wrong. Such situations especially arise when the Bible does not offer a straightforward solution or when the act in question appears to harm no one. Pornography is one of the issues that may present a dilemma for a Christian. Does the Bible allow pornography? Is engaging in pornography morally right given that it does not harm others? This essay discusses the ethical dilemmas…
The Hasidic Jews are extremely pious and their numbers are small around the world. Each of these sects has relatively different views of their faith and values, but they all consider themselves bound as Jews beyond their specific beliefs.
It is also important to note that Jews have been some of the most persecuted and hated of religions of all times. They were thrown out of Babylon in their early history, they were consistently banned from European cities and countries, Hitler exterminated millions of them during the Holocaust, and when Israel was created in 1948, the Arab neighbors immediately attacked and tension continues in the region. Jews have maintained their beliefs despite all these setbacks, which points to the strength of their religion and beliefs.
In conclusion, Judaism is quite different from Christianity in its philosophy and beliefs, but that does not mean it is "wrong" or "bad." There are…
Raphael, Marc Lee. Judaism in America. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003
Rosen, Jeremy. Understanding Judaism. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press, 2003.
Marc Lee Raphael, Judaism in America (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), 16.
St. Justin was one of the earliest Christian apologists, and his Apology of the second century helps trace the laying of the Christian dogmatic foundation. The faith, as expressed by Justin, contains several of the elements that established the Christian religion as a religion founded by God Himself -- and as Justin composed his Apology as a defense of Christianity against paganism, it takes pains to explain exactly what Christians were expected to believe. Justin is mentioned by Tertullian as being both a philosopher and a Church martyr who, along with a handful of other early Christian martyrs, was slain in ome for defending the Faith. That Faith was largely recorded in Justin's First Apology, one of the earliest records of Church teaching on the subject of the Eucharist. Justin's writings survive today because they like so many others were preserved and collected along by the early faithful and the…
Barnett, P. (2003). Is the New Testament Reliable? IL: InterVarsity Press.
Lindberg, C. (2006). A Brief History of Christianity. UK: Blackwell Publishing.
Robinson, J.A.T. (2000). Redating the New Testament. Eugene, or: Wipf & Stock
This is not necessarily a bad thing, as this might mean that these individuals acknowledge the fact that Christian messages are powerful and refrain from falling victim to prejudice when it comes to being a believer. Acting without considering matters at first can have a damaging effect on individuals because they might fall victim to producing incorrect interpretations of the gospel.
4. People who use intellectual principles in rejecting Christianity are motivated by ration and by their unwillingness to accept unfounded matters. It seems irrational for an intellectual individual to accept the concept of a person dying and coming back to life. Non-religious people who are guided by intellectual principles support science and feel that it directly contradicts religion. They tend to interpret the gospel literally and thus feel that it is similar to a work of fiction. Seeing the overall history of Christianity and the way that many individuals…
Christianity and the Environment
Despite the popular view that many Christians believe environmental issues to be unimportant and indeed incompatible with their core beliefs, there are many more who believe quite the opposite. Many Christians today take environmental issues to heart (McDermott 2011), believing that it is not only the right of the faithful to inhabit and "rule over" the earth, but also their duty to protect this environment. In fact, the majority of Christians have embraced the idea of environmental protection and action to curb climate change without feeling that such action is incompatible with their basic faith. Hence, despite the historic tendency to exploit the earth and its resources under license of their "special" place in creation, Christians today believe that the biblical idea of "mastery" also means protection. Even prominent institutions such as the Vatican believe in the importance of protecting the earth, while the faithful on…
Deem, R. 2009. Is Christianity Anti-Environmental? Evidence for God, Jul. 7. Web. http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/environment.html
DeWitt, Calvin B. And Nash, Robert. 2009. Christains and the Environment: How Should Christians Think About the Environment? Christian Research Institute, Feb 28. Web. http://www.equip.org/articles/christians-and-the-environment-how-should-christians-think-about-the-environment/
DeYoung, Donald. 2012. Should Christians be Concerned About the Environment? Web. https://christiananswers.net/q-eden/edn-c021.html
McDermott, Mat. 2011. Stewardship Over Creation: Christianity & The Environment. TreeHugger. Web. http://www.treehugger.com/culture/stewardship-over-creation-christianity-the-environment.html
Concise Summary of Theory
Christian counseling is usually rooted in both Biblical truths and in psychological research. In Telling Yourself the Truth and How to Help People Change, the authors discuss how to counsel from within a Christian theoretical perspective. Although these two books have different areas of focus, their core messages are the same: change is to be instigated by God and sustained in the light of Christ.
The authors view traditional psychological theories such as psychoanalysis as being helpful as starting points, but no longer relevant from either a scientific or a spiritual perspective. Therefore, Backus & Chapain (2000) and Adams (1986) infuse psychology with Christian concepts. Christian concepts, drawn directly from the Bible and its parables, can help the individual see his or her life in a new and more accurate light.
Specifically, How to Help People Change defines change within a Christian context, whereas Telling…
Adams, J.E. (1986). How to Help People Change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
Backus, W. & Chapain, M. (2000). Telling Yourself the Truth. Minneapolis: Bethany House.
Prayer and the Death of Christ
Christian living today entails a number of important doctrines and actions, all aimed towards uplifting the individual's soul to a better relationship with God. As such, the Bible acts as a guide towards better Christian living and having a close and fulfilling relationship with the divine. Particularly, two doctrines that are central to Christian living include prayer and the death of Christ. Particularly, prayer helps the Christian individual to communicate with God on various levels, while Christ's death has profound meaning as the central premise of Christianity.
The Bible Encyclopedia (n.d.) defines prayer as a "conversation with God," in which the individual addresses God directly. Prayer can be offered either orally or mentally. A person can be in constant or occasional prayer, and it can be either spontaneous or formal. In the Bible, several phrases have been used to describe prayer, including…
Bible Encyclopedia (n.d.) Prayer. Retrieved from: http://christiananswers.net/dictionary/prayer.html
Bredenhof, W. (2012). The meaning of Christ's Death. Retrieved from: http://www.theseed.info/sermon.php?id=855
Elwell, W.A. (2014). Death of Christ. Bible Study Tools. Retrieved from: http://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionaries/bakers-evangelical-dictionary/death-of-christ.html
Von Buseck, C. (2014). Three Keys To Answered Prayer. Christian Broadcasting Network. Retrieved from: http://www.cbn.com/spirituallife/biblestudyandtheology/discipleship/vonbuseck_threekeysprayer.aspx
Accoding to the autho, the passage indicates that the authos of the Bible wote unde the inspiation of the Holy Spiit, but that they did not eceive exact dictation fom God. They wee inspied to wite as they wished, but the outcome was still detemined by God's ultimate will: "Fo the pophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they wee moved by the Holy Ghost." (2 Pete 1:21). In the same way, the wods of the pophets wee thei own, but the message behind these wods was inspied by God. This is the natue of the inteaction between God's will and human feedom in tems of the Bible.
In this way, Feinbeg uses the Bible to substantiate eveything he says about divine and human will, and I am theefoe convinced that his aguments ae supeio to those of Reichenbach…
references to God's sovereignty and omnipotence. Clearly, passages such as Psalm 115:2-3 indicates that God imposes no limitations upon his own power or knowledge even in the face of non-belief: "2 Why should the Gentiles say, / 'So where is their God' / 3 but our God is in heaven; / He does whatever He pleases." Psalm 139:16 states that God knows absolutely everything regarding the outcome of events: "...in Your book they all were written, / the days fashioned for me, / When as yet there were none of them."
Surely what Reichenbach attempts to prove is directly in contradiction to the above. In the light of this, therefore, I believe that Feinberg presents a much stronger biblical argument for the manifestation of human freedom and its interaction with God's will. The Bible contains no passages that indicate God's limitations; either self-imposed or otherwise. In contrast to Reichenbach, Feinberg accepts God's unlimited knowledge and power and basis his philosophical arguments upon this rather than attempting to contradict biblical truth. The latter author's argument is therefore stronger in biblical terms.
The books the researcher would first and foremost include the following books which currently constitute the Old and New Testament of the Bible:
Pentateuch - 5 books
Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy
Historical Books - 12 books
Joshua, Judges, Ruth, First Samuel, Second Samuel, First Kings, Second Kings, First Chronicles, Second Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther.
Poetical - 5 books
Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon
Prophetical - 17 books
Major Prophets - Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel
Minor Prophets - Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah
Historical Books - 12 books
Joshua, Judges, Ruth, First Samuel, Second Samuel, First Kings, Second Kings, First Chronicles, Second Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther.
Poetical - 5 books
Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon
Prophetical - 17 books
Major Prophets - Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel
Minor Prophets - Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
Beeby, H. Dan. "No Loose Canon." International Review of Mission. World Council of Churches. 2000. HighBeam Research. 4 May 2009 .
Blue Letter r Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for metathesis (Strong's 3331)." Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2009. 4 May 2009.
Slick, Matthew J. 2008. "What is the Canon?" Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry.
Freud, Nietzsche & Russell
The Discovery and Realization of the Self in the Philosophies of Bertrand Russell, Sigmund Freud and Friedrich Nietzsche
With the emergence of nineteenth and twentieth centuries, human history had been introduced to new philosophies that seek to celebrate individualism and the intelligence of human beings. From the philosophical discourses proposed by Sigmund Freud, Bertrand Russell, and Friedrich Nietzsche, it becomes evident that there no longer exists subsistence to religious idols and personalities, which had been the prevalent ideology and philosophy among societies in human history's early history until the 18th century.
In the texts that follow, this paper discusses and analyzes the philosophies of the three philosophers cited earlier. With references to the following texts, "Thus spake Zarathustra" by Friedrich Nietzsche, "Why I am not a Christian" by Bertrand Russell, and "Lecture 35: A philosophy of life" by Sigmund Freud, this paper argues that the philosophers'…
Divorce and Marriage
Divorce and remarriage
Divorce and Marriage is Permissible
In the current modern society, a breakup of the traditional marriage is the most significant challenge. Prior research on this matter suggests that 43% of first marriages end separation and possible within 15 years. Although these results are disputable, it is undisputable that the divorce is on the rise across the globe. The increase in divorce is the main cause of societal problems such as early pregnancies (teen pregnancies), suicide, alcohol, and substance abuse, and the hesitation of young people to engage in marriage. Therefore, divorce has resulted into many societal problems, and children have to pay the price. Disturbingly, a comparison between the Christians and non-Christians show that Christians are more prone to divorce (Paechter, 2013).
Therefore, it is clear that the divorce is a church problem. Considering that, Christianity teaches that lasting faithful marriages are part of…
Clark, A. (2004). Parallel Classic Commentary on the New Testament. Chattanooga, TN: AMG
Clark, K.D., & Rakestraw, V.R. (1995). Readings in Christian ethics: Issues and applications.
Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Academic Publishers.
Eldredge, R. (2002). Can Divorced Christians Remarry? Camarillo, CA: Choice.
Power of the Cross: alter ink and the Nature of Non-Violence in Christianity
alter ink, professor of Biblical Interpretation at Auburn Theological Seminary and well-known international lecturer, discusses in his religious discourses the nature of Christianity in society, particularly in its creation of a different 'worldview' among its followers/believers. ink posits in Engaging the Powers that Christianity successfully creates social transformation by creating a distinct 'worldview' among its followers, manifested through religious institutions, artifacts, and rituals/traditions. In effect, Christianity, as a religious philosophy and ideology, subsists to non-violence in order to establish influence and power in society. ink appropriately terms this phenomenon of Christian dominance as "the power of the cross."
In studying the nature of the Christian worldview, ink traces the origin of Christian dominance in the world. His analysis showed that by portraying an image of a non-violent religion, Christianity has gained power and influence over its people.…
Wink, W. (1992). Engaging the Powers: Discernment and Resistance in a World of Domination. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.
W. Wink official web site: http://www.walterwink.com.
worldview is a "mental model of reality -- a framework of ideas & attitudes about the world, ourselves, and life, a comprehensive system of beliefs," (usbult, n.d.). Each person views the world through the lenses created by personality, parental and peer influences, the media, culture, and a host of other internal and external forces. While worldviews can change over time, generally they can remain static throughout one's lifetime, especially when one grows up in a tightly knit or traditional community. A worldview shapes one's outlooks and beliefs to extent that it impacts political opinions, moral views, relationships, and behaviors. A clash in worldviews can create serious miscommunications and misunderstandings, which is why living in a diverse society like ours can present significant challenges.
(1) The Question of Origin: The Bible literally begins with the question of origin because "in the beginning God created the heavens and the earth,"…
Meyer, R.K. (2003). A comparative analysis of the factors contributing to the biblical worldview of students enrolled in a Christian school. Dissertation: Boyce Digital Library.
Newport, J.P. (1998). The New Age Movement and the Biblical Worldview. Cambridge: Eerdmans.
Rusbult, C. (n.d.). What is a worldview? Retrieved online: http://www.asa3.org/ASA/education/views/
secular society, Christian values, beliefs, and worldviews are systematically excluded from the educational system. Parents who can afford costly private schools can help inculcate their children into a Biblical worldview, but the majority of Christians who cannot do this and whose children attend public schools need to find ways to resolve the ideological conflicts presented to their children. Children regularly receive disparate information about crucial issues such as those related to gender roles and norms, human sexuality, and the origin of life on earth. While all of these core topics challenge Christian educators to adapt their curricula to conform to legal and societal expectations, the most contentious of these might be the evolution and intelligent design debate. Christian educators continue to struggle with presenting a more balanced worldview to their students, but legal and societal expectations persist in silencing minority voices. One of the most important contemporary issues in education,…
ACSD (2012). What is the purpose of education? Retrieved online: http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/journals/ed_update/eu201207_infographic.pdf
Anti-Defamation League (n.d.). Intelligent Design: Not science. Retrieved online: http://www.adl.org/assets/pdf/civil-rights/religiousfreedom/religfreeres/ID-NotSci-docx.pdf
Beckwith, F. J. (2003). Public education, religious establishment, and the challenge of intelligent design. Journal of Law, Ethics, and Public Policy 461(2003).
Center for Science and Culture (2015). Darwinian evolution, the teaching of intelligent design. Retrieved online: http://www.intelligentdesign.org/education.php
SWOT of a Christian Business Leader/Marketer
· Christian faith that is united to the brand of the business and used in marketing campaigns to develop brand loyalty among consumers. The faith can be leveraged to gain traction with consumers and increase the brand’s popularity.
· Large base of Christian consumers who are loyal to Christian companies like Chick-fil-A and Hobby Lobby and In-N-Out Burger (Edouard, 2015).
· Strong score on the Faith Equality Index, which Christian consumers use to determine which companies they will patronize (Wetzstein, 2015).
· Positive track record in the community in terms of corporate social responsibility—the business supports Christian projects and programs in the community.
· By promoting the Christian identity, the business risks polarizing consumers and turning them off from the brand.
· The business lacks a broad-based appeal in which Christian consumers can feel satisfied with the company’s values and non-Christian consumers…
Christians and the Environment
When it comes to the environment, Christians are as beholden to it as anyone regarding its preservation and restoration. The environment is a physical manifestation of God's love and it's for us to preserve. This notion is found clearly in scripture which asserts in Colossians 1:1619, "For by Him [Jesus] all things were created, in heaven and on earth… whether on earth or in heaven…" This clearly demonstrates the undeniable responsibility that all Christians have in preserving and protecting the environment and how they have an obligation to protect the earth not just for themselves but for future generations.
One of the major articles of proof for such a thesis is in the belief or viewpoint that the environment is a gift from God and thus the responsibility of all Christians. As one scholar explains, "Our environment is one of the greatest examples we have of…
Belknap, J. (2013). God's Gift, Our Responsibility. Retrieved from Christianitytoday.com: http://www.christianitytoday.com/iyf/hottopics/faithvalues/belknap.html
Dwyer, R. (2013). Caring for God's gifts: the natural environment and faith. Retrieved from spsmw.org: http://spsmw.org/2009/04/20/caring-for-gods-gifts-the-natural-environment-and-faith/
Escrivia, J. (2013). The environment should mirror the creative love of God. Retrieved from JOsemariaescrivia.info: http://www.josemariaescriva.info/article/the-environment-should-mirror-the-creative-love-of-god
UPI.com. (2013, February 25). Poll: Environment is low global priority. Retrieved from UPI.com: http://www.upi.com/Science_News/2013/02/25/Poll-Environment-is-low-global-priority/UPI-97081361826137/
Chistian counseling has become an impotant teatment modality fo a gowing numbe of health cae pactitiones and patients acoss the county in ecent yeas. Intoduced duing the ealy 1980s, Chistian counseling advocates integating eligious pactices and beliefs founded on eligious taditions with psychotheapeutic techniques to povide an optimal appoach to helping people cope with a wide ange of pesonal poblems and family issues. The pupose of this study is to povide a citical and systematic eview of the elevant liteatue in geneal and Gay R. Collins's book, Chistian Counseling: A Compehensive Guide (2007) in paticula, concening the oigins and tends in Chistian counseling and how this appoach can be used to povide the timely and essential inteventions that can help people bette cope with pesonal and family poblems. A summay of the eseach and impotant findings concening these issues ae pesented in the study's conclusion.
Table of Contents
references regarding prayer as a counseling intervention. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 35(4), 328-340.
West, W.S. (2004). Spiritual issues in therapy -- Relating experience to practice. Basingstoke:
Wood, G.D. & Ellis, R.C. (2003). Risk management practices of leading UK cost consultants. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 10(4), 254-262.
Christian doctrine evolved to contain a variety of philosophical perspectives and theological analyses. Early shapers of Christian thought and discourse included Irenaeus, Clement, Tertullian, and Origen. Each of these figures shaped Christian discourse and changed the doctrine of the religion indelibly. Because each came from a different historical and cultural milieu, and used different languages to express their ideas, Christianity became a complex and even diverse faith.
Irenaeus's theodicy provided the fundamental features for how Christians would address the problem of evil: how an omniscient and benevolent God would simultaneously allow, condone, or even seem to encourage evil. The importance of theodicy to the evolution of Christianity cannot be underestimated, as subsequent Christian theologians have built upon the teachings of Irenaeus to better resolve the problem of evil. John Hick in particular has provided modern Christians with a sound theodicy built on the foundation of Irenaeus's teachings. However, it was…
"Origen." Christianity Today. Retrieved online: http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/people/scholarsandscientists/origen.html
persecution of early Christians under the oman Empire is a matter of great interest and intrigue to many, even today; as is the matter of distinction and distrust between early Jews and Christians. Furthermore, the ironically similar behavior of orthodox Christians towards heretics rouses the curiosity of many scholars. This paper will discuss the effect of Christianity on omans and their perceptions towards Christians, Christian perceptions and treatment of Jews. The relationship between orthodox Christians and heretics will also be discussed.
ome before Christianity
The empire of ome, at the time of Christ's birth, was one of the two greatest kingdoms and was steadily continuing to flourish and expand, even then. Soon, it covered most of what we now know as Western Europe. The conquered land began from Spain in the west and ended in Syria in the east, while the great countries of England, France and Greece, and the…
Badnewsaboutchristianity.com (n.d.). Christian Persecution of Heretics - Bad News About Christianity. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.badnewsaboutchristianity.com/gbc_heretics.htm#_edn4 [Accessed: 10 Dec 2012].
Bainton, R.H. (1960). Early Christianity. Princeton, N.J: Van Nostrand.
Fitzgerald, T. (1998). The Orthodox Church. Westport, CT: Praeger Publisher.
Hackl, . (2012). Israel Considers Drafting Its Arab Citizens . Christian Science Monitor, August 1.
Early Christian polemicists such as Clement of Alexandria, Justin Martyr, Irenaeus of Lyons, and Tertullian all attacked Gnosticism as 'heresy' and until the 20th Century virtually nothing was known about it except in the distorted texts they had written. Their purpose was to construct the boundaries between what later became 'orthodox' or 'catholic' Christianity in opposition to Judaism, paganism and carious Christian 'heresies'. Until the fourth and fifth centuries, however, when Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire under "the guiding influence of the Christian emperors" like Constantine and Theodosius, Christian 'orthodoxy' was still fluid and in dispute. Only because of the power of the Roman state did Christianity become a "monolithic unity" that had not existed before and redefined "manifold ancient religious practices into three mutually exclusive groups: Jews, Christians and pagans (King 22). Early Christian polemicists deliberately exaggerated the differences between these groups and minimized…
King, Karen L. What Is Gnosticism? Harvard University Press, 2003.
Milavec, Aaron. The Didache: Text, Translation, Analysis, and Commentary. Liturgical Press, 2003.
EBT and Christian Principles
ational Emotive Behavioral Therapy and Christian Principles in Young Adults
The goal of rational emotive behavioral therapy (EBT) is to help people address and resolve behavioral and emotional problems so that they can lead fuller, happier, and better lives (Dryden, 2005). In many ways, Christian principles are similar, as a relationship with Jesus Christ often helps people live their lives in better ways, feel happier, and find a sense of fulfillment (Nielsen, Johnson, & Ellis, 2001). Getting the two to work together, though, can be somewhat difficult because psychology and religion have long been at odds when it comes to how issues from the past should be handled. This does not mean that psychology and religion cannot work together, though, and because there are ways to tie them together it is possible to use both to help young adults with the issues with which they struggle…
Dryden, W. (2005). Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy in a Nutshell (Counselling in a Nutshell). NY: Sage Publications.
Ellis, A., Abrams, M., & Abrams, L., PhD. (2008). Theories of Personality: Critical Perspectives. NY: Sage Press.
Ellis, A. & Dryden, W. (2007). The Practice of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (2nd ed.); NY: Springer Publishing.
Nielsen, S.L., Johnson, W.B., & Ellis, A. (2001). Counseling and Psychotherapy With Religious Persons: A Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Approach; NY: Lawrence Erlbaum.