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hile other beings are considered to have love or act in loving ways, only God is determined to be love. Every action executed by God is derived from this essential principle that He is love. Love is the lens though which we understand and interpret all of God's actions.
The love of God is described by the use of the word agape in the Epistle of John. Agape love is unique to God, and proceeds from God to others. "Love is God's essence" (Kreeft 95) Thus to state that God is agape is to speak of God in terms that are the most accurate representation of the divine. The New Testament employs other words to express the tender bonds between human beings, (philla, and eros) that are translated love. However, they do not assume the same immensity and generosity of person, as agape.
"God is love." is the center of…
"Encyclical Letter." Benedict XVI Encyclicals. 2005. Web. 28 Sept. 2010.
Evans, Luther D. "Two Intellectually Respectable Conceptions of God." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 10.4 (1950): 572-577.
Kreeft, Peter. The God Who Loves You: "Loves Divine, all Loves Excelling." Michigan:
Servant Books, 2004.
Why should Christian theology be contextual? Explore this by referring to four important issues such as culture, liberation theology, feminist theology, and queer theology.
Christian theology should be contextual because religious expression is dependent on culture. Historical and cultural context have continually impacted the development of Christian theology. Biblical allegories and the gospels are contextual in that they refer to the life and times of Christ, with additional references to Hebraic culture and values. Paul's subsequent neoplatonic stamp on Christianity likewise must be appreciated within its cultural and historical context. The artifice of papal doctrine is in the preposterous assumption that Christian theology is somehow absolute. In fact, theology shifts according to the semiotics of culture and the language used to cloak the Christian vision in terms understandable to the audience.
Christian theology has essential, core elements, which do not lend themselves to contextualization. For example, fundamental issues like…
Althaus-Reid, M., 2005. From the Goddess to Queer Theology: the state we are in now. Feminist Theology 13(2): 265-272.
Boff, L. & Boff, C., 2004. Introducing Liberation Theology. Translated by P. Burns. New York: Maryknoll.
Cheng, P.S. 2011. Radical Love: An Introduction to Queer Theology. New York: Seabury/Church.
"Liberation Theology." [Online]. Accessed: http://www.globalchristians.org/politics/2/Liberation%20Theology.pdf
At its core, McGrath's work is an attempt to take a logical structure to the deeply rooted mysteries of the bible. His purpose is to draw conclusions regarding the nature of Christian Theology through the application of scientifically derived, systematic logical constructs. Does he succeed? In some ways yes, he does expose the complexities-or contradictory-ideals that have persisted since the dawn of the philosophy. McGrath is very adept at drawing parallels that can cause an individual to question the very nature of Christian Theology. Ultimately, however, in my opinion, McGrath takes full advantage of his analysis to not simply lay open the main theories of Christianity to be picked at and over analyzed but rather, through analogy makes the supposition and the case-quite persuasively-that Christians think the way they do because of an unrelenting, unwavering trust or "faith" in a divine presence they cannot…
Many of the most famous scientists in world history also happened to believe in God: including Copernicus, Bacon, Kepler, Gallileo, and Newton ("Famous Scientists Who Believed in God," n.d.). These great scientists had no trouble reconciling their faith with their practice; their Christian beliefs with their research and investigations into the known universe. Yet science has morphed from an integrated realm of study to one that excludes religion from its ranks. It has become anathema to be a practicing Christian and a practicing scientist. It does not have to be; in fact, science and religion comfortably coexist and each can benefit the other.
One of the arguments against Christians being able to be good scientists is that they are too prone to personal bias. Sure, some Christians are prone to bias, but so is any scientist. Scientists are biased by their personal beliefs no matter where those beliefs…
Boyce, K.A. (2001). Do science and Christianity coexist? Bede's Library. Retrieved online: http://bede.org.uk/boyce.htm
"Famous Scientists Who Believed in God," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/sciencefaith.html
Lloyd, R. (2008). God and evolution can co-exist, scientist says. Live Science. Retrieved online: http://www.livescience.com/5195-god-evolution-exist-scientist.html
Samuel, S. (2011). Can science, creationism coexist? Christian Post. June 19, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.christianpost.com/news/can-science-and-creationism-coexist-one-christian-author-says-yes-51315/
Ultimately, it is inconceivable why any God, much less a loving God, would ever conceive of a universe in which His creatures had no will of their own or were not free to accept His offer of love or to reject it. Salvation, therefore, cannot be predestined and must be a function of human choice or election, precisely because love without choice is not "love" at all.
Armstrong, Karen. 1993. A History of God. London: Heinemann.
Bennet, David. 2004. Predestined for Free ill. Online. Available from the Internet, www.freewill-predestination.com/,accessed18 March 2009. accessed 18 March 2009. http://www.freewill-predestination.com/,accessed18 March 2009. accessed 18 March 2009. accessed 18 March 2009.
Capoccia, Tony. 2009. Bible Questions and Answers Part 19. Online. Available from the Internet, http://www.biblebb.com/files/macqa/1301-Q-11.htm. accessed18 March 2009.
Deem, Richard. 2008. Predestination vs. Free ill - Is it One or the Other? Online. Available from the Internet, http://www.godandscience.org/doctrine/predestination.html,accessed18 March 2009.
Armstrong, Karen. 1993. A History of God. London: Heinemann.
Bennet, David. 2004. Predestined for Free Will. Online. Available from the Internet, www.freewill-predestination.com/,accessed18 March 2009. accessed 18 March 2009. http://www.freewill-predestination.com/,accessed18 March 2009. accessed 18 March 2009. accessed 18 March 2009.
Capoccia, Tony. 2009. Bible Questions and Answers Part 19. Online. Available from the Internet, http://www.biblebb.com/files/macqa/1301-Q-11.htm . accessed18 March 2009.
Deem, Richard. 2008. Predestination vs. Free Will - Is it One or the Other? Online. Available from the Internet, http://www.godandscience.org/doctrine/predestination.html,accessed18 March 2009.
This course changed my concept of what it meant to be a Christian in three fundamental ways, all focused on what it means to me to be a Christian in modern society, rather than on the theological underpinnings of Christianity. This course helped me realize that Christianity is not merely a system of belief, which is how many people conceive of religion. Instead, Christianity must be a combination of action and belief. However, it also made me more committed to some of the fundamental underpinnings of Christian theology, which I had admittedly abandoned in my own desire to equate being a Christian with being a good person and trying to do the right thing. However, reading this book, I came to the realization that I was failing to embrace all of Christianity. Just as it is necessary, but not sufficient, to be a good person in order to honestly…
Towns, Elmer. (2007). Core Christianity. Chattanooga: AMG Publishers.
Chistian counseling has become an impotant teatment modality fo a gowing numbe of health cae pactitiones and patients acoss the county in ecent yeas. Intoduced duing the ealy 1980s, Chistian counseling advocates integating eligious pactices and beliefs founded on eligious taditions with psychotheapeutic techniques to povide an optimal appoach to helping people cope with a wide ange of pesonal poblems and family issues. The pupose of this study is to povide a citical and systematic eview of the elevant liteatue in geneal and Gay R. Collins's book, Chistian Counseling: A Compehensive Guide (2007) in paticula, concening the oigins and tends in Chistian counseling and how this appoach can be used to povide the timely and essential inteventions that can help people bette cope with pesonal and family poblems. A summay of the eseach and impotant findings concening these issues ae pesented in the study's conclusion.
Table of Contents
references regarding prayer as a counseling intervention. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 35(4), 328-340.
West, W.S. (2004). Spiritual issues in therapy -- Relating experience to practice. Basingstoke:
Wood, G.D. & Ellis, R.C. (2003). Risk management practices of leading UK cost consultants. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 10(4), 254-262.
Christian Beginnings by M.S. Enslin
Morton Scott Enslin's book "Christian Beginnings" is about exactly what the title says. It deals with how Christianity came about, but it goes back much farther than Jesus Christ. Most information that deals with the beginning of Christianity starts out with Jesus and his followers, but Enslin does not get to that until Chapter 10, which is in part II of the book. The first part looks at the rule of Herod and an understanding of Judaism. While these are not specifically Christian in nature, they had to do with the beginnings of Christianity and they must be understood before the rise of Christianity is understood. The first part of the book talks about this understanding of what happened before Christianity came about, and the second part of the book is more familiar to Christians and those that have heard various teachings of the Christian…
Christian-Based Ethics in Business
Having strong ethics is vital to the success of an organization but often that component is bypassed in the name of profit. With a strong ethical foundation, an organization will perhaps face more obstacles but will also have a better opportunity for success and longevity. Society, particularly American society, has changed greatly within the past 50 years, and continues to evolve. And with those changes, value systems and the emphasis placed on them changes as well. At the same time, society has dealt with large technological advances. And of course, as knowledge and technology increase, new questions and situations arise to challenge society's morals and ethics. Inadvertent disclosure of information becomes more prevalent as more people become involved in document handling. And the more documents that are handled by more people, conflict of interest may arise, with the potential to threaten the organization.
Bagley, C.E., & Savage, D.W. (2010). Managers and the Legal Environment. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Harmeling, S., Sarasvathy, S., & Freeman, R. (2009). Related debates in ethics and entrepreneurship: Values, opportunities, and contingency. Journal of Business Ethics, 84(3), 341-365. doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9713-4.
Lee, S. (2009). Guiding your small-business clients through the downturn maze. Journal of Financial Planning, 22(5), 24-29. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.
Madsen, A. (2009). Navigating tough conflict of interest situations. Nonprofit World, 27(1), 18-19. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.
The moment when the line first cut into his hands in similar to the one when Christ's hands were nailed to the cross. Most readers are likely to make a connection between the two images at this point as the stigmata is an element which is present in both Santiago and in Christ.
Hemingway himself wants readers to be certain that the injured hand is an essential factor working as support to the comparison made between Christ and Santiago. The "Ay" exclamation also reinforces this belief. "There is no translation for this word and perhaps it is just a noise such a man might make, involuntarily, feeling the nail go through his hands and into the wood" (Hemingway, 1984, p. 82). Both the sufferings experienced by Christ and by Santiago have been made so that life will go on in peace.
Santiago stands as a living martyr (if such a…
1. Clark Pratt, John "My Pilgrimage: Fishing for Religion with Hemingway," The Hemingway Review 21.1 (2001).
2. Hemingway, Ernest. (1984). The old man and the sea. Barron's Educational Series.
3. Dunlavy Valenti, Patricia ed., Understanding the Old Man and the Sea: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002).
John Clark Pratt, "My Pilgrimage: Fishing for Religion with Hemingway," The Hemingway Review 21.1 (2001).
Christian Spiritual Revival
From the time of creation rivals have been the greatest force in history. hrough revival human beings are brought out of darkness to live in the light. Revival in the Christian life is essentially a renewal of heart; a time of turning away from sin, which brings death, and a turning toward Jesus, who brings life. he word revival means to "live again," derived from two Latin roots re- (again), and vivere (to live). Just as an EM zaps the heart of his patient back to life with a surge of electricity, so to the Holy Spirit works in the life of individuals, and, at times, in whole Christian Communities to bring the back lost vitality; reawakening faith in God, and restores one's commitment to being His disciple. his paper will briefly explore four condition of an authentic spiritual revival found in II Chronicles 7:14, and comment…
The first two conditions for revival are humility and prayer. The word "humility" is derived from the Latin word humus, which means earth or ground. To be humble, then, suggest lowering oneself, toward the ground. It is necessary for revival because in making oneself, and one's opinions, lower or less important, one recognizes the One who is higher -- namely, Almighty God. After humility, prayer naturally follows. A great example of humility and prayer today comes from John Hamilton, a Texas Ranger outfielder, who recently admitted that his addiction to drugs and alcohol came about because he "took God out of first place."[footnoteRef:2] Now in recovery, Mr. Hamilton shares his story and tells people, "when you fail, God wants you to respond to it by coming to Him and asking for help."[footnoteRef:3] [2: Audrey Barrick, "Josh Hamilton Tells Megachurch 'God First,'" The Christian Post (November 8, 2008), http://www.christianpost.com/article/20101108/josh-hamilton-tells-megachurch-god-first (accessed November 2010).] [3: Ibid.]
The next two conditions for revival are seeking God and repentance. In order to live again, God says that one must seek his face and turn from their wicked ways. These two conditions show one motion, a turn, which has two effects. It calls the soul to turn away from evil and toward good. The revival of career criminal, Mark Rowan, sheds light on the awesome power of such a turn. According to his autobiography,[footnoteRef:4] Rowan led a dark life of crime and lawlessness until one day he came to Christ. He now leads hundreds of people to Christ through his dynamic testimony of faith. [4: Mark Rowan, Condemned: The Transformation of a Violent Gang Leader, (Monarch Books, 2008)]
As long as there is human frailty and weakness, there will be a need to heal, to be restored, and to live again. I experience this need for revival in my own life. I find myself being prideful, when I should be humble. At times, I pray only when I need things instead of out of love for the One who made me. I seek my own will instead of searching for God's face. And I do not always turn away from my wickedness. However, there are moments when the Holy Spirit's voice in my heart is discernable and I am able to be humble, prayerful, and close to God. I pray that these moments increase so that I can live again and again in the light of God's grace.
Greek bishops could also marry, although such alliances prevent them from rising in position in the church, where Roman priests took celibacy vows. Regarding doctrine, some could Latin approach as more practical and judicial, while the Greek was more speculative about the nature of the Godhead.
Martin Luther founded the Lutheran branch of Protestant Christianity. Luther rejected the authority of the Catholic Pope. The Bible alone was the ultimate authority for Luther. Salvation was by grace and by faith alone in Jesus Christ. Luther retained the sacraments of baptism, penance and Holy Communion and he held that in the Holy Communion the consecrated bread and wine are the Body and Blood of Christ
However, he rejected the ideas of purgatory, indulgences, invocation of the Saints, and prayers for the dead.
In contrast, while John Calvin also rejected the Pope, he believed that God alone could dispense salvation, holding to…
' At that moment, I came to realize that I have to set a good example for him by being strong and facing up to my circumstances. Remembering the special times that my mother and I shared as a little girl in our worship, I started going to church again and prayed to Him for help and guidance. Even today, I remember very clearly how I cried out to Him for help and asked Him what I should do in order to be saved. This was a turning point in my life because I felt so empty and lost but I knew in my heart that things were going to be okay.
One day not too long after this turning point in my life, I met a man who completely blew me away. At the time, I was with my friends visiting Las Vegas (I was not drinking anymore). We…
As to whether it makes a substantive difference whether a Christian enters into a partnership or a corporation with a non-Christian, Scripture does not offer a clear-cut answer to this. Paul advises in 2 Corinthians 6:14 "Be ye not equally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? And what communion hath light with darkness?" This might legitimately be construed to mean that one should not enter into a business partnership because this implies a relationship of equality. However, it is equally valid to come to the conclusion that the equality that Paul is referring to here is a spiritual one. So long as a Christian does not try to engage on an equal level in spiritual matters with a non-Christian, then she or he can engage in matters of the world.
James 4:4-5 offers some important insight into these questions. The key questions that the Christian…
Storms, S. (2008). The Life of the Church in the World vs. The Life of the World in the Church (2 Cor. 6:14-16a). Retrieved from http://www.enjoyinggodministries.com/article/the-life-of-the-church-in-the-world-vs.-the-life-of-the-world-in-the-church-2-cor-614-16a/
The book of Joshua opens with an anecdote of a pivotal moment in the evolution of the Jewish people. Moses is now dead, and the people need a new, strong, and holy leader. The son of Moses's aide Nun is chosen. His name is Joshua. God chooses Joshua as Moses's successor for a reason. The Lord recognizes in Joshua the ability to keep the commandments sacred, to keep the covenant with God sacred, and to also manage and lead the Israelites. The Lord tells Joshua, "Be strong and courageous, because you will lead these people to inherit the land I swore to their ancestors to give them," (Joshua 1:6). However, God does not simply appoint Joshua as the new leader of the Jewish people and let him fend for himself. God is with Joshua, and promises to guide him as long as he remains a servant of God.…
Holy Bible. New International Version.
McDonald, M. (2008). Joshua 1:9. Retrieved online: http://peebles.wordpress.com/2008/11/13/joshua-19-niv-have-i-not-commanded-you-be-strong-and-courageous-do-not-be-terrified-do-not-be-discouraged-for-the-lord-your-god-will-be-with-you-wherever-you-go/
This is why seeking out the advice and counseling of a sex therapist is not only tolerable according to Christian dogma, but could even be seen as essential in many instances. God does not create problems simply so that human beings can sit back and pray that God fixes them -- there are always things that humans can do to improve their situation. We our responsible for feeding ourselves; if we accept that responsibility, God will make sure we do not starve. The same is true of sexual health -- taking an active step to correct or address any sexual problems that might arise invites God's assistance into the problem as well, and can be an opportunity to strengthen faith in God and religion even more.
This does not even touch upon the procreative aspect of sex, and although sexuality and sex itself is important for more than simple procreative…
Cahill, L. (1996). Sex, gender, and Christian ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
De La Torre, M. (2007). A Lily Among the Thorns: Imagining a New Christian Sexuality. San Francisco: Wiley.
Foster, L. (1984). Religion and sexuality: the Shakers, the Mormons, and the Oneida Community. New York: Oxford University Press.
Grenz, S. (1997). Sexual ethics: An Evangelical perspective. Louisville, KY: Knox.
Luther feels that it is through Christ that man can attain salvation and not through soul or spiritual deeds alone. By Christ, he was probably referring to one's faith in Lord. He writes: He writes:
One thing, and only one thing, is necessary for Christian life, righteousness, and freedom. That one thing is the most holy Word of God, the gospel of Christ, as Christ says, John 11[:25], "I am the resurrection and the life: he who believes in me, though he die yet shall he live"; and John 8[:36], "So if the Son makes you free, you will be free indeed."
Luther maintained that Christian liberty is prescribed in the word of God which is "the gospel of God concerning his Son, who was made flesh, suffered, rose from the dead, and was glorified through the Spirit who sanctifies." Luther felt that one must have immense faith in the…
Lutheran Book of Worship (Minneapolis: Augsburg; Philadelphia: Board of Publication, LCA, 1978)
The Freedom of a Christian (1520), LW 31:344.
Karl Marx, Critique of Hegel's "Philosophy of Right," ed. Joseph O'Malley (Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1970) 138.
The Bondage of the Will (1525), LW 33:67.
At the same time, Jesus offered human beings hope for salvation. It was not just through his miracles and his teachings that Jesus proved he was the true son of God. Through his death and resurrection, Jesus illustrated that mankind is in dire need of divine assistance in overcoming evil. I look to Jesus as both role model and as symbol of hope, especially in times of darkness and despair. Jesus is all that is good in humanity: unconditional love, compassion, and kindness.
I have found that if I look to Jesus and take Him into my heart, I can overcome temptation and ill will and experience a taste of salvation. Salvation involves as much grace as it does hard work. Salvation always entails faith and unwavering belief. I believe that some suffering is essential for all human beings and that if we are willing to endure our suffering and…
Human beings, while being superior, are nonetheless part of the physical world and subject to its laws.
Mankind is made in His image and is therefore distinct from the rest of creation
This belief is central to the dichotomy outlined above: human beings are part of the physical world, but also part of God. On the basis of this inner divinity, humankind is given the right to claim superiority to their nonhuman surroundings.
Mankind is to rule over God's earthly creation
This belief is central to the concept of humankind's separation from and superiority to nature. Nature is to be manipulated according to the needs and requirements of humanity. Technology instead of agriculture plays a large role in this manipulation. In terms of early Christianity, the use of technological tools to manipulate nature is seen as part of the divine directive to rule over creation.
Time is diachronic and headed…
S/he must therefore implement correction and rehabilitation measures as the courts of the country see fit for the convicted individual. However, the compromise would be the kind of treatment the convicted individual gets from the Christian practitioner. As a person of faith, s/he must recognize also that the person is an individual who might have shown deviant behavior to society, but s/he is nevertheless a person who must be treated equally despite his/her unfortunate circumstance (i.e., incarceration) (McCrudden, 2008:659).
Preservation of human dignity in the face of legal punishment is the compromise that is developed as the Christian practitioner tries to achieve the balance of maintaining criminal justice as both a profession and a vocation. And what about love and forgiveness, which also comes into play as one tries to understand the unfortunate circumstances of other people who are punished by the legal system? Convicted individuals deserve the love and…
Bottoms, A. And J. Tankebe. (2012). "Beyond procedural justice: a dialogic approach to legitimacy in criminal justice." The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, Vol. 102, No. 1.
McCrudden, C. (2008). "Human dignity and judicial interpretation of human rights." The European Journal of International Law, Vol. 19, No. 4.
"Responsibility, rehabilitation, and restoration: a Catholic perspective on crime and criminal justice." United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Official Website. Accessed on April 19, 2014. Accessed at: http://www.usccb.org/issues-and-action/human-life-and-dignity/criminal-justice-restorative-justice/crime-and-criminal-justice.cfm
Biblical quotes/verses. Open Bible Official Website. Accessed on April 19, 2014. Accessed at: http://www.openbible.info/
" (Polkinghorne, p. 4)
As with Lewis before him in our discussion, Polkinghorne supplies a reason for the certainty of God's presence in scientific affairs most simply because he believes there is no other more likely or rational explanation for certain accomplishments. Like Lewis, Polkinghorne simply places beyond the grasp of human capacity a certain loosely defined category of things that must inherently be accounted for by the unseen power of a higher being called God. This premise is a surprising one to extend from a discussion extolling the beauty of scientific accomplishments in that it satisfies itself on the basis of highly unempirical arguments. The central premise of Polkinghorne's text mirrors both in the blindness of its faith and the flaws in its presentation the central premise of Lewis' assertion. Namely, both proceed from the idea that because there are remarkable things for which explanations appear to be so…
Lewis, C.S. (2001). Mere Christianity. Harper San Francisco.
McGrath, A.E. (2004). Theology: The Basics. Wiley-Blackewell; 1st edition.
Polkinghorne, J. (2003). Belief in God in an Age of Science. Yale University Press.
Human Qualities of the Theologian
The task of the theologian is that of utter responsibility and the necessity of having a connection to his church and the world outside of it. It is definitely not a task for the faint of heart. Among the many intricate and often overlapping tasks of a theologian is the necessity of fostering a sense of understanding with faith and theology. "Christians want to understand what they believe, what they can hope for, and what they ought to love" (Migliore, 2004). Thus, while Christianity is able to have trust and obedience in the hope and love of God, theology has to struggle with some of the more difficult issues connected to this journey, via reflection, inquiry and the pursuit of truth (Migliore, 2004). Thus, the theologian must pursue truth and keep asking questions while instilling his work and his journey with a certain amount of…
Dore, T. (2003, April 8). The Responsibility and Tasks of Theology in the Church and the World Today. Retrieved from cua.edu: http://publicaffairs.cua.edu/RDSpeeches/03DoreLecture.cfm
McGrath, A. (2011). Christian Theology. Walden: John Wiley.
Migliore, D. (2004). Faith Seeking Understanding: An Introduction . Grand Rapids: Eerdman Publishing.
Tynan, T. (2014). The Role of the Theologian. Retrieved from gonzaga.edu: http://guweb2.gonzaga.edu/metz/job.html
Environment and Globalization
Christine Burke calls for a Christina response to the issue of environment and globalization in her essay entitled Globalization and Ecology. She sets forth her estimation of the steps that the Christian world needs to take to change the current affects of globalization on the earth and the societies that inhabit it. Burke calls for "active participation'42 by the Christian community in understanding, "ecological awareness'42 to shape that action, and a "new participation'42 by "creative leadership'42 to engage in action. The goal she stresses is to move from the "individualistic mindset'42 toward one that is "holistic and inclusive."
The Christian community needs to understand the narrow focus of the global community. It is a focus, according to Burke, which idealizes only income and wealth vs. social responsibility. In turn, individual societies suffer as global corporate interests destroy their ecologies. Because corporations operate in what seems to…
Burke, Christine E. "Globalization and Ecology." Earth Revealing, Earth Healing Ecology and Christian Theology. Ed. Denis Edwards. 2001 by The Order of St. Benedict, Inc.: Collegeville, Minnesotta.
As Jeffrey Stout has it, following James' "Will-to-Believe," "We need not agree on all matters of moral importance to agree on many, and where our judgments happen to coincide we need not reach them for the same reasons." (Fackre, 2003)
Fackre states that there are five pluralist views as follows:
View 1: Common Core. At the center of all the great religions of humankind is found a common core of divine (however conceived) doing, disclosing and delivering. Each faith approaches it through its own heroes, expresses it in its own language, celebrates it in its own rituals, formulates it in its own rules of behavior, and passes it on in its own communal forms. While the rhetoric of each religion may claim that its way, truth and life are for all, these absolutist professions are, in fact, "love talk," the metaphors of commitment, not the metaphysics of reality. Jesus is,…
Marmion, Declan (2005) Rahner and His Critics: Revisiting the Dialogue. Australian EJournal of Theology. February 2005, Issue 4. Online available at: http://dlibrary.acu.edu.au/research/theology/ejournal/aejt_4/marmion.htm
Thiselton, Anthony C. (2007) the Hermenutics of Doctrine. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing 2007.
Th, Anthony C. (2007) the Hermenutics of Doctrine. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing 2007
To combat subjectivity, he called for interpretation to be subject to church authority, which was the voice of reason. Reardon (1981) echoes this interpretation: "Hooker sets out to refute the puritan contention that in religion holy scripture affords the sole and absolute authority and rule" (p. 280). Hooker shows that the narrow principle of sola scriptura "disregards the larger context of the divine law in creation within which even the scriptural revelation must be placed if we are to understand its proper scope and purpose" (Reardon, 1981, p. 280). Not far from the Reformers, they upheld the idea that the directly inspired written word contains supernatural revelation. There is perhaps less emphasis on preaching and proclamation in the Anglicans than in the Reformers.
hat is the status of the creeds and traditions? In Anglicanism, the Nicene, the Athanasius, and the Apostle's creeds are stressed as true because they are taken…
Aland, K. (Ed.). (2004). Martin Luther's 95 theses. Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.
Avis, P. (2007). The identity of Anglicanism: essentials of Anglican ecclesiology. London and New York: T & T. Clark.
Bayer, Oswald. (2008). Martin Luther's theology: a contemporary interpretation (Trans T.H. Trapp). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Beckwith, R.T. (1988). "Anglicanism." In New dictionary of theology (S. B. Ferguson & D.F. Wright, Eds.), pp. 21-23. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
faith, theology, belief, and spirituality?
hen considering the difference between belief, faith, theology, and spirituality, it is helpful to consider these terms in their commonly expressed linguistic forms, as they occur in our daily lives. In other words, in ordinary parlance, how does one usually use the words of belief, faith, theology, and spirituality? By examining such common usage, often one may find clues as to the subtle or not so subtle differences between the terms.
Take, for example, the notion of belief. I might say that I believe in evolution, that I believe that human beings evolved from primates. In other words, one can believe in a supposition that may or may not be correct that has nothing to do with conventional religious structures and institutions, or even, if one accepts fundamentalist interpretations of Genesis, goes against such religious suppositions. I might also say that I believe that my…
Hodge, Charles (2002) Systematic Theology. Retrieved online in full text 25 Jan 2005 at http://www.dabar.org/Theology/Hodge/HodgeV1/Int_C02.htm
Hyperdictionary. (2005) "Spirituality." Online dictionary. Retrieved online in 25 Jan 2005 at http://www.hyperdictionary.com/dictionary/spirituality
evangelical theology terms assertion Grenz Olson. Your essay explore God's transcendence immanence relation evangelical theology.
The Bible presents God as both transcendent and immanent. Let us take a look at what both of these concepts incorporate. In a symbolic Biblical sense, the name Yahveh expresses the transcendent nature of God while Immanuel refers to God's immanence. Yahveh was considered by the Jewish people so holy a name, that they would even avoid pronouncing it. They sought to protect God's name from what they feared would become an irreverent familiarity and so the name was reduced to the four consonants YHVH. Literally, the word is translated as "the one who will be." The interpretation given to God's transcendence is that God is unlike his creation, that he stands above and beyond everything as the only one who is truly transcendent, thus holly.
Immanuel or "God is with us" is used in…
Grenz, S.J. & Olson, R.E. (1992). 20th-Century Theology: God and the World in a Transitional Age. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press
Grenz, S.J. (1994). Theology for the Community of God. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans
Viola, F. (2012, November 30). [Interview with Roger Olson]. Beyond Evangelical: The Blog of Frank Viola. Retrieved June 9, 2013, from http://frankviola.org/2012/11/30/rogerolson/
Classical and Christian
The sixth century was a time of great transformation in the Western world; it was the time of the end of the Classical Period and the beginning of the Christian Era. ome had fallen to the barbarians, but they had assumed the mantle of oman Emperors. However, these barbarian "emperors," and the empire they ruled, were just a shadow of the real thing. In other words, the remnants of the old oman world still existed, but on top of that foundation was being built a new Christian world. Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy is an example of how the sixth century saw a mixture of the new Christian thought blended with a base of Classical philosophy.
Boethius was a oman aristocrat who had served the Ostrogothic Emperor Theodoric the Great. The Ostrogoths had conquered ome and set themselves up as the inheritors of the oman Empire, even going…
Cooper, W.V. 2009. "The Consolation of Philosophy by Anicius Manlius Severinus
Boethius." The Ex-classics Project. Accessed 15 Sept. 2012.
What is the author's main point or theme?
The author's main point or theme is that Christian Theology should continue to encourage Christian marriage for Christian couples because Christian marriage is vital.
Comment on how effective the thesis is based on the evidence that follows.
The thesis is effective based on the evidence that follows, provided the reader accepts all the writer's statements as accurate. The reader must accept the writer's concept of sin and limited Christian-focused reasons and benefits of Christian marriage in order to accept his position that Christian marriage is vital. If, on the other hand, the reader does not accept the writer's Church-centric reasons, benefits and/or reliance on the Church-espoused concept of "sin," then the writer's thesis is ineffective.
What aspects of the argument do you find particularly interesting? What is so interesting about them?
Perhaps the most interesting aspect of the writer's argument…
Rather, in Orthodox Gnosiology, the words within the Scriptures become the essential facilitator for an individual and personal journey of their interpretation. It becomes a very personal process to interpret the Scriptures, and thus there is more emphasis placed on the power of our nous, or our intellect. As such, Lossky states that Orthodox Gnosiology is "anchored in the experience of all to the degree of each one's spiritual faculties" (Lossky in the Image and Likeness of God 64). e come to these conclusions, rather than having a person of Papal or religious authority guides us there without room for our own personal interpretations. Here, Lossky writes that it is our "analysis [that] leads us finally towards the Truth and the Spirit, the ord and the Holy Spirit" (Lossky in the Image and Likeness of God 153). It is important in Orthodox Gnosiology to unite tradition and Scripture in order…
Kelly, J.N.D. Early Christian Doctrines. Continuum International Publishing Group. 2000.
Lossky, Vladimir & Erickson, John H. In the Image and Likeness of God. St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. 1974.
Lossky, Vladimir. The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church. St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. 1976.
Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"
Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…
American people and society. (2015). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html.
Bassett, R.L. (2013, Winter). An empirical consideration of grace and legalism within Christian experience. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 32(1), 43-49.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bobgan, M. & Bobgan, D. (1987). PsychoHeresy: The psychological seduction of Christianity.
Paul’s writings are naturally cosmopolitan, his being influenced by Hellenistic culture and philosophy as well as Judaism. As a result, Paul’s contributions indelibly and significantly transformed the mode, meaning, and implications of Christ’s message. As Scholz (2013) points out, Paul penned almost half of all New Testament texts: thirteen books. Paul’s theology is “one of the cornerstones upon which the Christian Church is built,” (Zetterholm, 2009, p. 1). What also makes Pauline texts different is that unlike the synoptic gospels, Pauline letters reflect the author’s own theology. Reading and re-reading Pauline theology offers insight into how early Christian theology evolved and was influenced inevitably by historical, cultural, and contextual variables. Moreover, the Pauline letters show how later Christian theologians would revise and reinterpret the teachings of Jesus and his disciples.
Most likely, Paul viewed himself as a theologian, one who felt an intense personal responsibility to travel, preach, and teach…
After taking the course and learning a lot of different concepts, I have asked myself at least a 100 times, what does it mean to be a Christian? Does being a Christian mean just going to church on Sunday mornings? Or bible study on Wednesday nights, and then after that you take a break from being a Christian and go on a week vacation? I bring this up because I have seen this behavior more and more, particularly in close friends. Many people are going around wearing the "What Would Jesus Do?" bracelet on their wrists and wearing the Jesus shirts, nevertheless in my opinion where is the change process? Are these people living their lives like a Christian? Is there an obvious alteration in them after they have acknowledged Christ? With that said, I will address the following principles that I have learned throughout this course that have…
Ethical Dilemmas: Pornography
Biblically, God requires Christians to please Him in everything they do. Whether it is in secret or overtly, in thoughts or behaviour, Christians have a duty to portray Christ-like behaviour every moment of their life (Hiles & Smith, n.d.). Nonetheless, compliance with biblical teachings is not always as easy as portrayed by the Bible. In the course of their Christian walk, Christians often encounter situations of dilemma. These are basically situations in which it is not exactly clear whether doing something is right or wrong. Such situations especially arise when the Bible does not offer a straightforward solution or when the act in question appears to harm no one. Pornography is one of the issues that may present a dilemma for a Christian. Does the Bible allow pornography? Is engaging in pornography morally right given that it does not harm others? This essay discusses the ethical dilemmas…
Anderson (2000) converses spiritual oppression and how Satan and his fallen angels are in the process of trying to overpower the believers will. He also provides the phases to independence, for example: fake vs. factual, dishonesty vs. truth, resentment vs. tolerance, revolt vs. obedience, arrogance vs. self-effacement, and oppression vs. lack of restrictions. Fake vs. real step show how we need to absorb to recognize God's certainty so we do not fall into Satan's trap. If fall for these tricks of deception then we automatically give up God's truth for what is considered a lie. Dishonesty vs. truth shows that we should battle Satan's trickery with God's reality. If we become deceived then we must do away with any misleading views for the truth that will bring us our liberation.
Bitterness vs. forgiveness is showing us that we do not need to harbor that illness in our hearts because Satan…
A., H.D. (1999). The Anxiety Cure: You Can Find Emotional Tranquility and Wholeness. Thomas Nelson, Inc. .
Adams, E.J. (1986). How to Help People Change: The Four- Step Biblical Process. Grand Rapids: Zondervan .
Anderson, T.N. (1990). The Bondage Breaker: Overcoming Negative Thoughts, Irrational Feelings and Habitual Sins. . Boston: House Publishers, Inc.
Backus, W.C. (1980). Telling Yourself the Truth: Find Your Way Out of Depression, Anxiety, Fear, Anger and Other Common Problems by Applying the Priciples of Misbelief Therapy . Grand Rapids: Bethany Publishing Group.
Christian knows the earliest verses in the ible. The ook of Genesis proclaims powerfully, that man was created in the image of God. We are also told that Man was created so that he could hold "dominion" over all of other God's creation. Yet, soon after, there was the Fall. And God cast Man out of the Garden of Eden to suffer on earth burdened by the pains of the Original Sin. Through Christ's advent and resurrection, we are informed that Christ was also the image of God and also in the image of Man; and, that we have a way out from our sinful ways. The doctrine of the Image of God emerges as a powerful mandate for good Christian Living. The rewards are eternal salvation and the restoration to how we were originally created. As the book of Revelations relates, the consequences of not doing so would consign…
Baker, W.H. (1991). In the image of God: a biblical view of humanity. Chicago: Moody Press.
Edwards, R.B. (1972). Reason and religion; an introduction to the philosophy of religion. New York,: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Kazantzakis, N. (1960). The last temptation of Christ. New York,: Simon and Schuster.
Masson, R. (1982). The Pedagogy of God's image: essays on symbol and the religious imagination. Chico, CA: Scholars Press.
In contrast, the exterior was almost undecorated" (25). Another significant church that was built contemporaneously with the Hagia Sophia was the cruciform Church of the Holy Apostles (536-546), which featured five domes (Nickel).
Figure 3. Cross-domed church. Most important type of ground-plan of the Middle Byzantine period. In addition to the central dome, more elaborate examples have domes over the corner chapels -- quincunx. From the tenth century onwards, the cross-domed church becomes widespread throughout Bulgaria. In Russia it develops into the dominant church type of the Middle Ages, the cruciform domed church. (Church of Theofokos, Monastery of Hosios Lukas, Greece, tenth century)
Source: Nickel 25
Constantine clearly set the architectural bar very high, and Christian architects would be hard pressed to match the Hagia Sophia in terms of size, organization and decorations, but the structure was clearly a model for future efforts. In this regard, Nickel reports that, "Compared…
Curran, John R. Pagan City and Christian Capital: Rome in the Fourth Century. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2000.
Giliberto, Tracy. (2010). Fish Eaters. [Online]. Available: http://www.fisheaters.com/church building.html.
Hodges, Richard. (1996, May). "Aphrodite's Temple at Knidos." History Today 46(5): 61-63.
He says, "The South was right, my friends, there is no doubt about it" (Taft and Holleman). Thus, the Christian Identity movement is strongly connected with one's personal feelings towards Jews and those of non-Anglo-Saxon origin, seeing them as obstacles. Robin succinctly defines these problems when he lists the basic beliefs of the Christian Identity movement. Robin states that the Christian Identity members believe in a "very conservative interpretation of the Christian Bible" in addition to their beliefs about race and descendants" (Fairley para. 21).
Although their beliefs are certainly rooted in ancient history, the Christian Identity movement does not act in a way that truly supports Christian beliefs for two reasons. First, they both ignore the doctrine that Christianity is for everyone and use violence. The fact that Christianity is for everyone is seen not only through the way that many mainstream churches act today, but also through Biblical…
Fairley, Allison. "Christian Identity Movement." The University of Virginia. 1998. The
Religious Movement's Homepage. 5 June 2009.
Ruthven, Malise. Fundamentalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Tuft, Carolyn & Joe Holleman. "Inside the Christian Identity Movement." The Ross
St. Justin was one of the earliest Christian apologists, and his Apology of the second century helps trace the laying of the Christian dogmatic foundation. The faith, as expressed by Justin, contains several of the elements that established the Christian religion as a religion founded by God Himself -- and as Justin composed his Apology as a defense of Christianity against paganism, it takes pains to explain exactly what Christians were expected to believe. Justin is mentioned by Tertullian as being both a philosopher and a Church martyr who, along with a handful of other early Christian martyrs, was slain in ome for defending the Faith. That Faith was largely recorded in Justin's First Apology, one of the earliest records of Church teaching on the subject of the Eucharist. Justin's writings survive today because they like so many others were preserved and collected along by the early faithful and the…
Barnett, P. (2003). Is the New Testament Reliable? IL: InterVarsity Press.
Lindberg, C. (2006). A Brief History of Christianity. UK: Blackwell Publishing.
Robinson, J.A.T. (2000). Redating the New Testament. Eugene, or: Wipf & Stock
This is not necessarily a bad thing, as this might mean that these individuals acknowledge the fact that Christian messages are powerful and refrain from falling victim to prejudice when it comes to being a believer. Acting without considering matters at first can have a damaging effect on individuals because they might fall victim to producing incorrect interpretations of the gospel.
4. People who use intellectual principles in rejecting Christianity are motivated by ration and by their unwillingness to accept unfounded matters. It seems irrational for an intellectual individual to accept the concept of a person dying and coming back to life. Non-religious people who are guided by intellectual principles support science and feel that it directly contradicts religion. They tend to interpret the gospel literally and thus feel that it is similar to a work of fiction. Seeing the overall history of Christianity and the way that many individuals…
Christianity and the Environment
Despite the popular view that many Christians believe environmental issues to be unimportant and indeed incompatible with their core beliefs, there are many more who believe quite the opposite. Many Christians today take environmental issues to heart (McDermott 2011), believing that it is not only the right of the faithful to inhabit and "rule over" the earth, but also their duty to protect this environment. In fact, the majority of Christians have embraced the idea of environmental protection and action to curb climate change without feeling that such action is incompatible with their basic faith. Hence, despite the historic tendency to exploit the earth and its resources under license of their "special" place in creation, Christians today believe that the biblical idea of "mastery" also means protection. Even prominent institutions such as the Vatican believe in the importance of protecting the earth, while the faithful on…
Deem, R. 2009. Is Christianity Anti-Environmental? Evidence for God, Jul. 7. Web. http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/environment.html
DeWitt, Calvin B. And Nash, Robert. 2009. Christains and the Environment: How Should Christians Think About the Environment? Christian Research Institute, Feb 28. Web. http://www.equip.org/articles/christians-and-the-environment-how-should-christians-think-about-the-environment/
DeYoung, Donald. 2012. Should Christians be Concerned About the Environment? Web. https://christiananswers.net/q-eden/edn-c021.html
McDermott, Mat. 2011. Stewardship Over Creation: Christianity & The Environment. TreeHugger. Web. http://www.treehugger.com/culture/stewardship-over-creation-christianity-the-environment.html
Prayer and the Death of Christ
Christian living today entails a number of important doctrines and actions, all aimed towards uplifting the individual's soul to a better relationship with God. As such, the Bible acts as a guide towards better Christian living and having a close and fulfilling relationship with the divine. Particularly, two doctrines that are central to Christian living include prayer and the death of Christ. Particularly, prayer helps the Christian individual to communicate with God on various levels, while Christ's death has profound meaning as the central premise of Christianity.
The Bible Encyclopedia (n.d.) defines prayer as a "conversation with God," in which the individual addresses God directly. Prayer can be offered either orally or mentally. A person can be in constant or occasional prayer, and it can be either spontaneous or formal. In the Bible, several phrases have been used to describe prayer, including…
Bible Encyclopedia (n.d.) Prayer. Retrieved from: http://christiananswers.net/dictionary/prayer.html
Bredenhof, W. (2012). The meaning of Christ's Death. Retrieved from: http://www.theseed.info/sermon.php?id=855
Elwell, W.A. (2014). Death of Christ. Bible Study Tools. Retrieved from: http://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionaries/bakers-evangelical-dictionary/death-of-christ.html
Von Buseck, C. (2014). Three Keys To Answered Prayer. Christian Broadcasting Network. Retrieved from: http://www.cbn.com/spirituallife/biblestudyandtheology/discipleship/vonbuseck_threekeysprayer.aspx
Book Chapter: A Theology of Communion for the Contemporary Catholic Parish
The study of ecclesiology is the study of how the Christian church, the ever-expanding body of believers, has evolved over time to respond to new political and social realities. Ecclesiology also takes into account the way organizational structures, hierarchies, and roles within the church have changed and reflect the nuances of a cultural milieu or historical epoch. In addition to all that, the study of ecclesiology also comprises the church’s relationship with surrounding community organizations. How the church forms strategic alliances with secular political, social, and economic institutions is also part of the complex array of issues that impact ecclesiology. Although some aspects of the church must remain stable over time to reflect scripture, church polity and organization remains one of the most dynamic aspects of Christianity and the role it plays in the world.
As MacDougall (2015)…
The books the researcher would first and foremost include the following books which currently constitute the Old and New Testament of the Bible:
Pentateuch - 5 books
Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy
Historical Books - 12 books
Joshua, Judges, Ruth, First Samuel, Second Samuel, First Kings, Second Kings, First Chronicles, Second Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther.
Poetical - 5 books
Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon
Prophetical - 17 books
Major Prophets - Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel
Minor Prophets - Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah
Historical Books - 12 books
Joshua, Judges, Ruth, First Samuel, Second Samuel, First Kings, Second Kings, First Chronicles, Second Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther.
Poetical - 5 books
Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon
Prophetical - 17 books
Major Prophets - Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel
Minor Prophets - Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
Beeby, H. Dan. "No Loose Canon." International Review of Mission. World Council of Churches. 2000. HighBeam Research. 4 May 2009 .
Blue Letter r Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for metathesis (Strong's 3331)." Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2009. 4 May 2009.
Slick, Matthew J. 2008. "What is the Canon?" Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry.
I agree with the author's conclusion that the latest round of troubles is destined not to be the last, though I do not think it is because of anything inherently incompatible between the two religions or cultures, but rather because people tend to dislike outsiders, and territorialism on a societal scale tends to get worse when socio-economic situations worsen, too. This is the current case in India.
I do not think that Indians, Christian or Hindu, are any worse than anyone else in this regard. It is just one of the more depressing aspects of human nature, it seems. The article does not give much information about religion, but a lot…
Indeed, new evidence shows that religious and spiritual interventions can help when everything else has failed" (Elkins). Elkins puts his finger on the most intriguing fact, which is that spirituality produces benefits that are unseen but evident.
One of the most significant aspects of Christianity is prayer and scientists are beginning to realize that prayer has benefits that cannot always be seen. However, the benefits appear to be real. The power of prayer goes beyond words. Armstrong illiams states, "Prayer heals. So say thousands of Americans who use prayer to improve their health" (illiams). illiams' reports findings from a study conducted at Harvard Medical School in which 69% of 2000 individuals surveyed maintained that "prayer greatly improved their health" (illiams). There seems to be a connection with the minds, why people pray, and what people believe those words will do. Prayer is important because people have faith and believe that…
Elkins, David. Spirituality. Psychology Today Online. Site Accessed May 22, 2008. http://www.psychologytoday.com/
Williams, Armstrong. Healing Benefits of Prayer. Newsmax.com Online. Site Accessed May 22, 2008. http://www.newsmax.com
Accoding to the autho, the passage indicates that the authos of the Bible wote unde the inspiation of the Holy Spiit, but that they did not eceive exact dictation fom God. They wee inspied to wite as they wished, but the outcome was still detemined by God's ultimate will: "Fo the pophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they wee moved by the Holy Ghost." (2 Pete 1:21). In the same way, the wods of the pophets wee thei own, but the message behind these wods was inspied by God. This is the natue of the inteaction between God's will and human feedom in tems of the Bible.
In this way, Feinbeg uses the Bible to substantiate eveything he says about divine and human will, and I am theefoe convinced that his aguments ae supeio to those of Reichenbach…
references to God's sovereignty and omnipotence. Clearly, passages such as Psalm 115:2-3 indicates that God imposes no limitations upon his own power or knowledge even in the face of non-belief: "2 Why should the Gentiles say, / 'So where is their God' / 3 but our God is in heaven; / He does whatever He pleases." Psalm 139:16 states that God knows absolutely everything regarding the outcome of events: "...in Your book they all were written, / the days fashioned for me, / When as yet there were none of them."
Surely what Reichenbach attempts to prove is directly in contradiction to the above. In the light of this, therefore, I believe that Feinberg presents a much stronger biblical argument for the manifestation of human freedom and its interaction with God's will. The Bible contains no passages that indicate God's limitations; either self-imposed or otherwise. In contrast to Reichenbach, Feinberg accepts God's unlimited knowledge and power and basis his philosophical arguments upon this rather than attempting to contradict biblical truth. The latter author's argument is therefore stronger in biblical terms.
(Paul, 2005) In fact, the AAPC survey found that African-Americans, devout evangelicals, people without a college degree, the elderly and people age 18 to 29 are most likely to fear that a professional counselor won't take their religious beliefs into serious consideration when treating them. (Paul, 2005)
People come to Christian counselors for two reasons," commented Randolph Sanders, executive director of the Christian Association for Psychological Studies, an association of Christians in mental health and behavioral sciences. "One is faith perspective; they want a therapist who resonates with their worldview. The second is moral ethics; they want a counselor who understands what guides their decisions." (Paul, 2005)
Christian counseling, more than secular counseling, has the ability to present a starkly positive viewpoint. In fact, the origins of Christian counseling were planted in the clergy, whom parishioners historically consulted about emotional and spiritual well-being and health.
According to Paul, The progenitors…
Tillich, Paul. 1951. Systematic Theology, vol. 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Friedman, Edwin. 1985. Generation to Generation: Family Process in Church and Synagogue. New York: Guilford Press.
Zikmund, Barbara, et al. 1988. Clergy Women: An Uphill Calling. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.
Yust, Karen. 2002. "The Toddler and the Community," in Human Development and Faith, ed. Felicity Kelcourse. St. Louis: Chalice Press.
America a Christian Nation?
During the founding of the new Republic, soon to be the United States of America, the idea of Christianity and the power of God to represent the best will of the people was part of the Founding Fathers' notions. It was inconceivable to them, in fact, to separate the idea of being religious and being political; and the notion of religion was tied with Christianity. The social view of the time was different than it is now, and there was a difference between the cultural heritage of religion and Biblical Christianity. There are examples from both sides of the argument that show America as one founded on the basic principles of Christianity -- the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution being, for their time period, quite egalitarian. In the Declaration of Independence, for instance, there is a clear reference to the "Laws of Nature and of…
7). Still, it seems safe from the seat of scholarship to condemn such exclusive and condemnatory practices as decidedly un-Christian; the oft-quoted (or at least oft-referenced) Biblical passage from John seems to be one of the more direct and unequivocal statements regarding who will be saved: "For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life" (John 3:16). Basically, if you believe in Christ, you are by Biblical (and etymological) definition a Christian.
At this point, it would seem that the argument against fundamentalist Christians being true Christians has been hoisted on its own petard -- certainly, the fundamentalists believe in Christ, regardless of whether or not they seem to be paying attention to his teachings. It is possible, it must be admitted, that fundamentalist Christians must be properly seen as Christians, but they…
Brom, Robert. "Fundamentalism." Accessed 4 May 2009. http://www.catholic.com/library/Fundamentalism.asp
Hendrick, Charles. "What are Major Christian Beliefs?" Accessed 4 May 2009. http://geneva.rutgers.edu/src/christianity/major.html
John. The Bible: New International Version. Accessed 4 May 2009. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=JOHN+3:16
Matthew. The Bible: New International Version. Accessed 4 May 2009. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Matthew+24:36-44
Crabb's Biblical Model Of Counseling Comparison And Discussion
Goal of Christian Counseling
The goal of Christian Counseling differs from private practice counseling in many regards. For example, a Christian community offers a counselor a unique set of resources, often comprised of loving and caring individuals for are members of the local congregation. In private practice the resources that a counselor may have to work with can be comparatively limited by contrast. Furthermore, each Christian is called to help others based on their faith. A private practice counselor can be motivated by a plethora of reasons -- some of them are surly genuine and altruistic however others may be for monetary gain or similar ambitions. Thus, the resources that are available and the motivations behind entering counseling represent two initial and fundamental differences.
Another difference is that the fundamentals of the counseling practices might be starkly different. Many Christian counselors believe…
Crabb, L., & Crabb, L. (1977). Effective Biblical Counseling. Zondervan.
Johnson, W., Ridley, C., & Nielsen, S. (2000). Religiously Sensitive Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Elegant Solutions and Ethical Risks. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 14-20.
Mann, N. (2008). An introduction to cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. Professional Skills, 24-27.
Rogers . (2006). Carl Rogers Info. Retrieved February 26, 2012, from http://www.carlrogers.info/
Moral reasons therefore include one's loyalty to his or her own faith and family traditions. Emotional reasons are similar: a personal conviction in another religious tradition precludes one from accepting the gospel. Intellectual reasons are those used by atheists and usually include arguments such as the existence of God cannot be proven using the scientific method.
3. What can Christians do to address these objections and better communicate the Christian gospel?
Christians can most easily address the objections raised by the materialist or atheist communities. The scientific method has become like a religion in itself. Not everything can be proven using the tools of science. Yet even science can prove that the gospel has had a transformative effect on the lives of individuals and whole communities. Therefore, the best way Christians can address objections to the gospel is to illustrate the glory of the gospel in action,…
Power of the Cross: alter ink and the Nature of Non-Violence in Christianity
alter ink, professor of Biblical Interpretation at Auburn Theological Seminary and well-known international lecturer, discusses in his religious discourses the nature of Christianity in society, particularly in its creation of a different 'worldview' among its followers/believers. ink posits in Engaging the Powers that Christianity successfully creates social transformation by creating a distinct 'worldview' among its followers, manifested through religious institutions, artifacts, and rituals/traditions. In effect, Christianity, as a religious philosophy and ideology, subsists to non-violence in order to establish influence and power in society. ink appropriately terms this phenomenon of Christian dominance as "the power of the cross."
In studying the nature of the Christian worldview, ink traces the origin of Christian dominance in the world. His analysis showed that by portraying an image of a non-violent religion, Christianity has gained power and influence over its people.…
Wink, W. (1992). Engaging the Powers: Discernment and Resistance in a World of Domination. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.
W. Wink official web site: http://www.walterwink.com.
The author of this report is to answer a series of questions about the Byzantine Empire and their practice of iconoclasm. A series of questions shall be answered to that end. The first question is why Leo III installed iconoclasm in the first place and what his motivations were. The second question will be why Constantine V continued the policy. The third question asks whether iconoclasm was a continuation of a few between the orthodox and monophysite Christians. The fourth question asks whether iconoclasm helped paved the way for the Papal/Frankish alliance and the eventual coronation of Charlemagne. The fifth question asks why Leo V newly imposed iconoclasm, the sixth asks for a definition of the roles of Irene and Theodora, the seventh asks about the impacts of Iconoclasm on the Empire from a religious/artistic/cultural standpoint and the eighth asks about the questions that are/were raised…
BBC. "Byzantium: Irene and Iconoclasm." BBC News. BBC, 22 Oct. 2014. Web. 22 Oct. 2014. .
Geanakoplos, Deno John. Constantinople and the West: essays on the late Byzantine (Palaeologan) and Italian Renaissances and the Byzantine and Roman churches. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989. Print.
NWE. "Iconoclasm." - New World Encyclopedia. N.p., 22 Oct. 2014. Web. 22 Oct. 2014. .
OCA. "Righteous Theodora, wife of the Emperor Theophilus, the Iconoclast." - Orthodox Church in America. N.p., 22 Oct. 2014. Web. 22 Oct. 2014. .
Divorce and Marriage
Divorce and remarriage
Divorce and Marriage is Permissible
In the current modern society, a breakup of the traditional marriage is the most significant challenge. Prior research on this matter suggests that 43% of first marriages end separation and possible within 15 years. Although these results are disputable, it is undisputable that the divorce is on the rise across the globe. The increase in divorce is the main cause of societal problems such as early pregnancies (teen pregnancies), suicide, alcohol, and substance abuse, and the hesitation of young people to engage in marriage. Therefore, divorce has resulted into many societal problems, and children have to pay the price. Disturbingly, a comparison between the Christians and non-Christians show that Christians are more prone to divorce (Paechter, 2013).
Therefore, it is clear that the divorce is a church problem. Considering that, Christianity teaches that lasting faithful marriages are part of…
Clark, A. (2004). Parallel Classic Commentary on the New Testament. Chattanooga, TN: AMG
Clark, K.D., & Rakestraw, V.R. (1995). Readings in Christian ethics: Issues and applications.
Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Academic Publishers.
Eldredge, R. (2002). Can Divorced Christians Remarry? Camarillo, CA: Choice.
hereas Origen did, to a certain degree, follow Clement's teachings, he introduced his own point-of-view in the matter and provided his followers with less information regarding Christian mysticism. This is most probably caused by his interest in teaching mainstream Christianity. He considered that it was easier for him to promote the religion this way, as the masses were presumably unable to understand mystical concepts if they did not know the difference between material Christianity and spiritual Christianity.
Origen feared that by employing a Gnostic approach at understanding religion, people would realize that it was not obligatory for them to consider Jesus Christ and His crucifixion. Origen believes that it is not that a Gnostic "denies or doubts the truth of the Gospel history, but he feels that events which only happened once can be of no importance, and regards the life, death, and resurrection of Christ as only one manifestation…
Chadwick, Henry Early Christian Thought and the Classical Tradition: Studies in Justin, Clement, and Origen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984)
Horton, Michael S. "Hellenistic or Hebrew? Open Theism and Reformed Theological Method," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 45.2 (2002)
Inge, William Ralph, Christian Mysticism: Considered in Eight Lectures Delivered before the University of Oxford (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1899)
Lardner Carmody, Denise and Carmody, John Tully, Mysticism: Holiness East and West (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996)
Relativist said, 'The world does not exist, England does not exist, Oxford does not exist and I am confident that I do not Exist!' When Lewis was asked to reply, he stood up and said, 'How am I to talk to a man who's not there?'" (Schultz, 1998)
Lewis: A iography
This quote shows how, in truly CS Lewis style, the writer took the everyday questions about religion and faith, tacking them head-on. Lewis was a Christian writer who was deeply influenced by the teachings of God and His Scripture.
CS Lewis was born, in 1898, in elfast, Ireland. He was educated at various schools throughout England (Hooper, 1996). In 1914, he began studying Latin, Greek, French, German and Italian and later moved to Oxford. His education was disrupted by the first World War but within two years, he resumed his studies.
In 1924, Lewis became a teacher of…
Adey, Lionel. C.S. Lewis, Writer, Dreamer, and Mentor W.B. Eerdmans Pub, 1998.
Beversluis, John. C.S. Lewis and the Search for Rational Religion. W.B. Eerdmans, 1985.
C.S. Lewis, Reflections on the Psalms, (1958) New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, (p. 64).
C.S. Lewis, The Problem of Pain. Macmillian, 1962.
worldview is a "mental model of reality -- a framework of ideas & attitudes about the world, ourselves, and life, a comprehensive system of beliefs," (usbult, n.d.). Each person views the world through the lenses created by personality, parental and peer influences, the media, culture, and a host of other internal and external forces. While worldviews can change over time, generally they can remain static throughout one's lifetime, especially when one grows up in a tightly knit or traditional community. A worldview shapes one's outlooks and beliefs to extent that it impacts political opinions, moral views, relationships, and behaviors. A clash in worldviews can create serious miscommunications and misunderstandings, which is why living in a diverse society like ours can present significant challenges.
(1) The Question of Origin: The Bible literally begins with the question of origin because "in the beginning God created the heavens and the earth,"…
Meyer, R.K. (2003). A comparative analysis of the factors contributing to the biblical worldview of students enrolled in a Christian school. Dissertation: Boyce Digital Library.
Newport, J.P. (1998). The New Age Movement and the Biblical Worldview. Cambridge: Eerdmans.
Rusbult, C. (n.d.). What is a worldview? Retrieved online: http://www.asa3.org/ASA/education/views/
Previously, house churches were small and informal.
Constantine also brought the Christian church into government affairs at Constantinople, doing so, according to historians, with the Roman notion "don't dominate, accommodate" in mind (Christianity as a cultural revolution). From 312-320 Constantine was tolerant of paganism, keeping pagan gods on coins and retaining his pagan high priest title. However, from 320-330 he began to attack paganism through the government but in many cases persuaded people to follow the laws by combining pagan worship with Christianity. y the 330s, Constantine has succeeded in extended complete freedom of worship to all Christians.
Christianity as a cultural revolution. The History Guide. Retrieved October 5, 2004 from Web site: http://www.historyguide.org/ancient/lecture15b.html
Constantine converts to Christianity. North Park University. Retrieved October 5, 2004 from Web site: http://campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/EastEurope/ConstantineConverts.html
Christianity as a cultural revolution. The History Guide. Retrieved October 5, 2004 from Web site: http://www.historyguide.org/ancient/lecture15b.html
Constantine converts to Christianity. North Park University. Retrieved October 5, 2004 from Web site: http://campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/EastEurope/ConstantineConverts.html
Faith and reason: Can one Live without the other?
Habitually, faith and reason have respectively been looked at as being the sources of justification for religious faith. For the reason that both can supposedly serve this same epistemic purpose, it has been a question of much interest to theorists and theologians how the two are linked and as a result how the rational agent should treat claims resulting from either basis. Some theologians have held that there can be no struggle between faith and reason -- that reason correctly employed and faith correctly assumed will never create opposing or opposing claims -- whereas others have supported that faith and reason can be in honest disagreement over certain propositions or events (O'Collins, 2003). The Instruction on the Ecclesial Vocation of the Theologian explains, "y its nature, faith appeals to reason because it reveals to man the truth of his destiny…
Murphy, N., 2007. Religion and Science." The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. In: New York: Routledge, pp. 230-236.
Nichols, A. O., 1991. The Shape of Catholic Theology. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press.
O'Collins, G. a. F. M., 2003. Catholicism The story of Catholic Christianity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.