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This, in turn, will also affect the overall economic situation of the country. A particular country's condition will also affect its neighboring country, hence, everyone is the world is affected.
Usually, children are the common victims of the adverse effects of tobacco. abies of smokers have greater chances of being born pre-maturely or having low birth weight. Moreover, secondhand smoke can trigger sudden infant death syndromes. Cigarette smoke can also handicap children for life. They are the one who are likely to develop acute respiratory illness including heart diseases, ear infection, asthma, bronchial cavity, and chronic respiratory system. In the United Sates, smoking has been considered as the leading preventable cause of premature death (Medscape 2008).
It is said that the susceptibility of the person to become infected with the smoke-related diseases is directly proportional to the length of time that a person continues to smoke as well as the…
Nicotine Addiction, April 13, 2006, Accessed March 25, 2008.
Glover, Dr. Elbert. "Painless therapies to overcome nicotine addiction," Tobacco Research
Center: Mary Babb Cancer Center, West Virginia.
Medscape Today. www.medscape.com/resource/smoking" "Smoking Resource Center," March 10, 2008, Accessed March 25, 2008.
Today, each country implements the quotas it finds most suitable, leading as such to major fluctuations in the taxes, their percentage in the price and the final retail price.
The federal authorities generally explain the high cigarette taxes as a means of reducing the consumption of cigarette, with the ultimate aim of reducing the number of smokers and protecting the health of the individuals. Nevertheless, fact remains that the fares carry a major economic function -- that of gathering money for the state budget. This positive effect on the federal budget has however yet to be observed, as history has shown us that increased taxes reduce demand, rather than create additional income. The situation with the promoted social impact is also blurred, as I believe is the entire debate over smoking and its economic and social implications.
Cordes, J.J., Ebel, .D., Gravelle, 2005, Encyclopedia of Taxation and Tax Policy,…
Cordes, J.J., Ebel, R.D., Gravelle, 2005, Encyclopedia of Taxation and Tax Policy, 2nd Edition, The Urban Institute
Goldman, B., 1998, Meet Joe Black Screenplay, Internet Movie Database, http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/Meet-Joe-Black.htmlGravelle last accessed on November 18, 2009
Williams, J., September 17, 2008, Sibelius' Cigarette Tax Proposal Ignores Economic Realities, The Kansas City Kansas, http://www.nocigtax.com/upload/file/16/20080917-kansascitykansan-editorial.pdf last accessed on November 18, 2009
2008, EU Cigarettes Price and Tax Breakdown -- July 2008, Tobacco Manufacturers' Association, http://www.the-tma.org.uk/page.aspx?page_id=35 last accessed on November 18, 2009
.." (Fleenor, nd) it is related that it did not take long for this to spread into other U.S. states with trucks all around the United States being hijacked and robbed of their cigarette cargo. The following tables lists the state excise tax rates on cigarettes for January 1, 2007.
State Excise Tax Rates on Cigarettes (January 1, 2007
TAX RATE per pack)
CENT PER PACK
New York (1)
Tennessee (1) (2)
Dist. Of Columbia
Babington, Charles (2007) Raising Cigarette Tax to Fund Kids Health Bill Would Hit Poor the Hardest. 30 Sept 2007. seattlepi.com Online available at http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/333772_cigarettetax01.html
Cigarette Sales Fall After Tax Kicks in (2006) the News & Observer 22 Nov 2006. Online available at http://www.newsobserver.com/102/story/513439.html
Fleenor, Patrick (2003) Cigarette Taxes, Black Markets, and Crime: Lessons from New York's 50-Year Losing Battle. Policy Analysis No. 489 6 Feb 2003. Online available at http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa468.pdf
McMahon, Patrick (2002) States Consider Cigarette Tax Hike. 13 Jan 2002. USA Today. Online available at http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2002/01/14/usat-cigtax.htm
Why do people smoke? All of know that smoking is a dangerous, even potentially lethal habit - and one moreover that now carries an increasing weight of social stigma. And yet still people do it. There must therefore be compelling reasons why people should endanger their health to such a degree and the most obvious of these reasons is the one that smokers themselves offer up the most often: Smoking is simply pleasurable. This paper examines why people smoke cigarettes and especially how young people (who have been aware of the dangers of smoking their entire lives) begin their love affair with nicotine.
When it comes to the issue of smoking and young people, it seems that despite numerous advertising campaigns to quell the use of tobacco in those under the age of eighteen, the reality is that these tactics have been highly ineffective. While the use of tobacco…
Biasco, F., & Hartnett, J. (2002, September). College students' attitudes toward smoking. College Student Journal, 36(3), 442-448.
Broers B. "Neural Activity Related to Drug Craving in Cocaine Addiction," Arch Gen Psychiatry, 2001;58:334-341
hen in adulthood, people start smoking because of different reasons, mainly because they encounter various problems in their lives. Smoking is commonly identified as a solution to stress, and, people get a feeling of relaxation after smoking. People that smoke are normally thinner than those that don't, and, accordingly, some overweight persons might take up smoking in hope that it would make them slim. Tobacco smoking reduces appetite and people's capacities of tasting and smelling food.
All in all, after trying it for the first times, people become more attracted in smoking because of the effect that nicotine has on their bodies. It would seem that people that are restless are more receptive to smoking in comparison to their calmer counterparts. Also, smokers are inclined to smoke in larger quantities when going through a hectic period in their lives.
hen hearing that smoking is bad for them people most often…
1. Petrie, Gavin. "Smoking - health risks." Retrieved October 25, 2009, from the Net Doctor Web site: http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/health_advice/facts/smokehealth.htm
2. "Understanding Why People Smoke." Retrieved October 25, 2009, from the Tobacco Freedom Web site: http://www.tobaccofreedom.org/issues/smoking/index.html
Petrie, Gavin. "Smoking - health risks." Retrieved October 25, 2009, from the Net Doctor Web site:
Cigarette Advertising Campaign
If we look at the case of Mary and J there is a contract formed between them for Mary to undertake a year long advertising campaign to present the companies cigarettes in a positive light, her remuneration was to be 25% of the increase in sales that the campaign created. It was also recognised that this was a very vague amount, and may be difficult to assess, as a result an additional clause was put for liquidated damages, which, stated that in a breach by J that Mary would be entitled to $25,000. The contract has been breached after only one month, Mary has incurred costs of $25,000 and J is refusing to make any payment.
The first consideration must be if there was a valid contract in place, and if there was, has it been breached and by whom. For a contract to be valid there…
FDA, (2000), FDA Children and Tobacco Website, [online] accessed at http://www.fda.gov/opacom/campaigns/tobacco/execrule.html
Ivamy ERH, (2000), Mozkley and Whiteley's Law Dictionary, London, Butterworths.
Lexis, (2002), [online] accessed at www.lexis-nexis.com
In basic terms, cigarette smoking entails the inhalation of tobacco smoke. It can be noted that over time, research has indicated that cigarette smoke contains numerous chemicals which have both short-term as well as long-term effects on the body of an individual. In this text, I highlight the adverse effects of cigarette smoking on the body. In so doing, I will mainly concern myself with the impact of smoking on the reproductive system, the immune system, the respiratory system as well as the cardiovascular system.
Cigarette Smoking and Its Effects on the Human Body
Effects on the Cardiovascular System
A smoker's cardiovascular system is affected both in the short-term and in the long-term by a number of substances found in cigarette smoke. It therefore follows that smoking occasions quite a number of cardiovascular diseases. Some of the cardiovascular diseases and conditions occasioned by smoking include but are not…
Cigarette Smoke on Different Populations
By now, it has become common knowledge that cigarette smoke is harmful to one's health. However, what is not as well understood is how cigarette smoke impacts different populations in different ways. Smokers feel more of an impact from cigarette smoke than other groups. Elderly smokers are disproportionately impacted by cigarette smoke. However, even nonsmokers can feel the impact of cigarette smoke through secondhand smoke. This paper will explore and describe the impact of smoking on each of these three populations.
First, cigarette smoke has a tremendous negative impact on smokers. Nearly one in five deaths in the United States are due to smoking (CDC, 2000). In fact, "more deaths are caused each year by tobacco use than by all deaths from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), illegal drug use, alcohol use, motor vehicle injuries, suicides, and murders combined" (CDC, 2000). Smokers have 2 to 4…
American Cancer Society. (2011, November 14). Secondhand smoke. Retrieved from:
Burns, D.M. (2000). Cigarette smoking among the elderly: disease consequences and the benefits of cessation. Am J. Health Promot, 14(6): 357-61.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, January 10). Health effects of cigarette smoking. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov /tobacco/data_statistics / fact_sheets/health_effects/effects_cig_smoking/
cigarette smoking leads to increased incidences of lung cancer. The reason(s) behind the study are twofold; one, to see if there is a decided difference in the number of people who smoke and do not smoke, and two, whether that noted difference in smoking vs. non-smoking leads to a higher or lower number of cancer incidences among the study participants. The study will be large-scale and will include a wide diversity of individuals in order to provide a relatively accurate picture of the overall, and categorized, number of individuals developing cancer when compared to whether they are smokers or not.
Since this will be a cross-sectional study it will completed with little expense to the researcher and may provide data that can be useful in determining future processes. The funding for this study is rather limited, and because of that (along with other reasons), the cross-sectional study is the most…
The 2016 article concerns cigarette smoking, its potential numerous connections with disease and its impact in the current international healthcare system. The researchers state smoking impacts adaptive and innate immunity, playing a dual role in regulation of immunity via attenuation of defensive immunity or pathogenic immune responses. The types of adaptive immune cells that feel the impact from cigarette smoking are "T helper cells (Th1/Th2/Th17), CD4+CD25+ regulatory T. cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells and memory T/B lymphocytes while innate immune cells impacted by smoking are mostly DCs, macrophages and NK cells" (Qiu et al., 2015, p. 1). The changes in these cells due to smoking can lead to numerous chronic or acute diseases like autoimmune diseases, cancers and transplant rejection, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and allergies.
The researchers note past studies connect smoking with specific diseases such as lung cancer and emphysema, however not enough updated reviews are performed…
Qiu, F., Liang, C., Liu, H., Zeng, Y., Hou, S., Huang, S., . . . Dai, Z. (2015). Impacts of cigarette smoking on immune responsiveness: Up and down or upside down? Oncotarget. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.13613
Cigarette smoking kills, and where it does not, it still inflicts significant harm upon both the smoker and those in his or her vicinity, the victims of so-called second-hand smoke. Cigarette smoke is harmful to virtually every organ in the human body, and is directly or indirectly responsible for numerous diseases. The National Cancer Institute stated that "cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death and disability in developed countries (Johnson, 2011)." For those who smoke over the course of a lifetime, approximately one half will eventually lose their lives to this habit, most frequently during their middle-age years. According to The Center for Disease Control (CDC, 2011), nearly one half million deaths per year, or twenty percent of the overall annual mortality in the United States can be traced directly to cigarette smoking as the primary cause. This exceeds the combined mortality from all other causes including substance…
CDC - Fact Sheet - Smoking & Tobacco Use. (2011, March 21). Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking. Retrieved May 30, 2011, from http://www.cdc.gov /tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/effects_cig_smoking/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Plain Packaging on the Cigarette Market Demand and Supply in Australia
The Australian cigarette market is reported to be a "subset of the global industry." (Carter, 2003) There are three companies operating in Australia including: (1) ritish American Tobacco Australia (ATA); (2) Philip Morris International (Australia) PMA and (3) Imperial Tobacco Australia (ITA) all whom are wholly owned subsidiaries of their overseas parent. While the Australian tobacco market is a mature market with per capita consumption in decline the tobacco companies "remain highly profitable entities and business is strong…the equivalent of 1100 packs of 25 cigarettes are sold in Australia every minute." (Carter, 2003) ecause the tobacco companies are owned by overseas companies, none of them are listed on the Australian Stock Exchange and that means that the information available on the specific local company operations is limited.
Australian Cigarette rand Examined
Carter (2003) examines brand identity in Australian cigarette…
8 Review of Literature (nd) Economic and Social Development Department. FAO Corporate Document Repository. Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y4997e/y4997e0l.htm
Carter, S (2003) From Legitimate Consumers to Public Relations Pawns: the Tobacco Industry and Young Australians. Tob Control 2003 December. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1766123/
Carter, SM (2003) The Australian Cigarette Brand as Product, Person and Symbol. Tob Control 2003;12. Retrieved from: http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/12/suppl_3/iii79.full
Cigarettes and Price Inelastic (2012) Plain Sense Economics. Retrieved from: http://www.plain-sense.com/2009/04/04/cigarettes-are-price-inelastic/
Graphic Warnings on Cigarette Packages: When Public Health Depends on Public Knowledge
The principles of liberty and personal freedom upon which this country was founded and to which it has ostensibly been dedicated over the course of its history have continually and increasingly come into conflict with other principles, primarily the principle of protection. If it is not the government's job to ensure the protection of its people from both internal and external threats, then there really isn't much of a point to that government. According to liberalist theories, the smallest amount of personal freedoms should be given up in order to obtain the best possible protection, and finding the balance between these two competing ideals can be seen as the fundamental cause of debate and progress in law making and policy enforcement. Some cases are clear-cut -- we have rules of the road that limit personal freedom…
Borland, R., Wilson, N., Fong, G., Hammond, D…. & McNeill, A. (2009). Impact of graphic and text warnings on cigarette packs: findings from four countries over five years. Tobacco Control 18(5): 358-64.
CDC. (2012). Tobacco use. Accessed 26 April 2012. http://www.cdc.gov /chronicdisease/resources/publications/aag/osh.htm
FDA. (2012). Cigarette health warnings. Accessed 26 April 2012. http://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/Labeling/CigaretteWarningLabels/default.htm
Koch, W. (2011). Graphic images on cigarette packs delayed by ruling. Accessed 26 April 2012. http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/story/health/story/2011-11-07/Judge-blocks-graphic-images-on-cigarette-packages/51108576/1
In practice, Du aurier brand stands on a safer position compared to the overall position of the group. For example, in 2007, Imperial Tobacco Canada has reported a
276 million profit, 4 million lower than the profit reported in the previous year. However, this was due to exchange rates.
The main financial objective for Du aurier is to increase its profits by 10%. However, prices must be kept at approximately the same level as before. This means that sales volume must increase.
3.2. arketing Objectives
The main objective that must be attained in the future period of time consists in increasing the number of customers. Du aurier already is the most popular brand on the Canadian tobacco market by far. However, there is still room for improvements.
In order to attract more customers, Du aurier should orient its marketing strategy towards younger segments of customers. One of the segments that…
Modern tobacco marketing (2008). British American Tobacco. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.bat.com/group/sites/uk__3mnfen.nsf/vwPagesWebLive/DO78BDW6?opendocument&SKN=1&TMP=1 .
Cigarette Brands Sold in Canada (2004). Physicians for a Smoke-Free Canada. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.smoke-free.ca/factsheets/pdf/brands.pdf.
Tobacco advertisements at points of sale (2002). Health Canada. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs./pubs/tobac-tabac/eval-2002/advertisements-publicite2_e.html .
Cigarettes Should be Illegal
In today's modern world, we have discovered many things about the workings of our bodies which were know known just a few decades ago. The human genome has been mapped, making it possible to engineer plants, and design medications for specific diseases. The need for a balance between exercise, food intake, and the kind of foods has been clearly documented. Products which were glamorized just a few decades ago have been targeted for extinction by consumer groups. As medical data has accumulated, mountains of evidence demonstrate that these products, which once were considered a part of a socially elite lifestyle, are dangerous, if not deadly, to human life. One such product is the cigarette.
The production and use of cigarettes have been a part of the American culture since we discovered the plants with the help of Native Americans 400 years ago. Once the dried…
But can a society which calls itself moral and just continue to exploit the desires of its citizens, and continue to make profit on a product which is harmful to those who use it? In the 1970's, the Ford Motor Company encumbered significant fines for producing the Ford Pinto automobile. Consumers discovered that in specific circumstances, the gas tank exploded, and causing serious harm to the car's passengers. In the late 20th century, Bridgestone Firestone was found legally liable for rollover accidents when their poorly designed tires fragmented, and failed prematurely. Warehouses are still filled with defective tires as the company struggles with the aftermath of the most expensive product recall in the country's history.
Shouldn't a product which kills people slowly, but just as surely as an exploding gas tank and a rollover accident, also be banned form the consumer marketplace? Shouldn't a government which regulates the age at which its members can drink and drive also set limits on dangerous products? In other industries, products have warnings, or are distributed only through certified professionals. The country agrees that other drugs, such as marijuana, are illegal because of the detrimental effects these products cause. Why won't the government and society apply the same standard to another deadly product, and outlaw its use as well?
History repeats itself when we don't learn from it, and the history of cigarette use is repeating itself in new generations. Cigarettes are no longer the choice of the rich and affluent. Rather the poor and lower class choose to use cigarettes. Today, just as in colonial times, the cigarettes make money for those who produce them, and create even more revenue for the government which taxes their sale and distribution. Just as the poor produced the products on plantations, and wealthy land owners amassed fortunes at their expense, today government and corporations amass fortunes of the poor who still chose to enjoy a dangerous, legal product. Again I ask, shouldn't a government which seeks to be just, and watch over the welfare of its citizens outlaw a proven dangerous product?
Policy Position for Electronic Cigarettes in Public Area
Electronic cigarettes, which are commonly known as e-cigarettes, can be described as battery-powered devices that are packed with liquid nicotine. The liquid nicotine is a highly addictive chemical which is dissolved in a combination of propylene glycol and water. These devices are usually designed in a way that they look like real cigarettes and are availed in different colors such as brown filter, cylindrical tube, and red-glowing tip. While an individual who takes e-cigarette does not really smoke, he/she feels a sensation of smoke in the lungs and mouth. Electronic cigarettes have several advantages and disadvantages that have contributed to the numerous controversies they have generated. This has contributed to the emergence of the need for policy makers to establish a position for e-cigarettes in a public area.
Evolution of the Issue
Electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes are battery-operated devices that are created…
"Electronic Cigarettes." (2015, April 6). U.S. Food and Drug Administration - Protecting and Promoting Your Health. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services website: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/PublicHealthFocus/ucm172906.htm
Johnson, M. & Pennington, N. (2014, December 16). Adolescent Use of Electronic Cigarettes: An Emergent Health Concern for Pediatric Nurses. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 11.
Hepp, R. (2014, November 24). E-cigarettes: A Policy Statement. Retrieved May 6, 2015, from http://nursing.advanceweb.com/Heart-Health-Resource-Center/Features/Articles/E-Cigarettes-A-Policy-Statement.aspx
Leader, D. (2014, December 10). The Pros and Cons of E-cigarettes. Retrieved May 6, 2015,
initiative 12-0018, the Cigarette Tax to Fund Student Financial Aid at University of California and California State University Initiative Statute.
According to the State of California the initiative has been proposed in the following method; "The Attorney General of California has prepared the following title and summary of the chief purpose and points of the proposed measure:
CIGARETTE TAX TO FUND STUDENT FINANCIAL AID AT UNIVERSITY OF
CALIFORNIA AND CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY. INITIATIVE STATUTE.
Increases cigarette tax by $1.00 per pack. Allocates revenues to expand financial aid for California residents enrolled at UC or CSU. If new tax causes decreased tobacco consumption, thus reducing existing tobacco-tax revenues, current tobacco funding for tobacco health education/research, medical care, environment, breast cancer research/services, early childhood development, and General Fund will be maintained by transferring new tax revenues to offset decrease. Requires annual independent audit and accounting. Establishes five-member oversight committee. Summary of estimate…
California Secretary of State Debra Bowen Website. Initiatives and Referenda Cleared for Circulation." Cigarette Tax to Fund Student Financial Aid at University of California and California State University. Initiative Statute." Viewed 2 March 2013. Retrieved from http://www.sos.ca.gov/elections/ballot-measures/cleared-for-circulation.htm
City News Service (2013). Statewide Cigarette Tax Sought-Again. KCET.com 28 Feb 2013. Retrieved from http://www.kcet.org/news/ballotbrief/ballot-measures/statewide - cigarette-tax-sought-again.html
This graph shows that some adolescents start to smoke as early as 11 years, but "in general the ages 13 through 18" are the years when most adolescents start. The facts according to "The Teenager's Guide to the Real orld" are that "No one starts smoking after age 20." So if a person can make it to the age of 20 without lighting up that first cigarette, he or she might be tobacco-free for the rest of his or her life (www.bygpub.com).
The leading factors as to why boys and girls start smoking as adolescents have been presented in this paper through the available literature. There are many reasons to quit smoking, but more importantly there are more reasons not to start, since habits in the adolescent years are very hard to break. Also, parents, teachers, counselors and other adults in girls' lives should work with them to avoid…
Banerjee, Smita C., and Greene, Kathryn. "Sensation Seeking and Adolescent Cigarette
Smoking: Examining Multiple Pathways in Cross-Sectional Data.." The Open Addiction
Journal, Vol. 2, (2009): 12-20.
Hendry, Joene. "Multiple factors impact adolescent smoking risk." Reuters Health. Retrieved May 8, 2011, from http://www.reuters.com .
Surely, if relatively harmless things like playing music and being naked can be prohibited in public, then anything actually capable of causing serious disease to non- participants should be, even more so.
In some respects, there are good reasons for outlawing cigarette smoking altogether, the exact same way smoking marijuana is already illegal. Like cigarettes, marijuana is only harmful to the smoker or to others who breath in second-hand smoke. Nevertheless, it is illegal to smoke marijuana, even in absolute private in one's own home. It is difficult to understand why smoking one type of vegetation should be perfectly legal, (even in public where others are exposed to its harms), while it is illegal to smoke another type of vegetation, even in private.
If anything, the manner in which typical cigarette smokers consume 10 or 20 or even 30 or 40 cigarettes every day is much more harmful to the…
Some states like New York and California have banned smoking in bars and restaurants and in outdoor public places such as parks (Harris, 2012). That also makes a lot of sense because when customers sit next to smokers, they have no choice but to inhale their smoke. Various smokers' rights groups have objected to these types of bans and complained that their rights are being interfered with (Harris, 2012). It is difficult to view that position as reasonable because there are no restrictions on smoking except where other people have to breathe their smoke whether they want to or not. Because of the health risks of second hand smoke, those restrictions are perfectly reasonable. The right of nonsmokers not to breathe dangerous cigarette smoke if they do not want to is obviously greater than the right of smokers to smoke anywhere they want to smoke.
Smoking is a habit that…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Smoking and Tobacco Use: Health
Effects of Cigarette Smoking. Retrieved online:
Irving Penn's Cigarettes Exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art"
Irving Penn's exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in 1975 showed "14 platinum print photographs of cigarette butts" which were described by the Museum's Director of the Department of Photography "as works of art."[footnoteRef:1] The exhibition marked a departure for Irving, the renowned photographer for Vogue, whose stylish work with actors and actresses and other models had been a mainstay of his career over the years. His cigarette butt exhibition, however, pushed photography in a new direction -- one in which "subject matter" was both identified as controversial and inconsequential; but then that was the essence of modern art: as Gene Thornton pointed out, it was the "contrast between Mr. Penn's impeccable technique and his revolting subject matter" that made the impact on the viewer -- and that impact that would not have been as sharp had the subject…
Belford, Paul. "The Pennis mightier." Creative Review 35, no. 6 (June 2015): 90. Art & Architecture Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed April 3, 2016).
Edwards, Owen. "Dazzle by the Dozen." Smithsonian 35, no. 4 (2004): 17-18.
Kramer, Hilton. "Notes on Irving Penn." New Republic 177, no. 18 (1977): 27-29.
"Recent Work by Irving Penn on View at Museum of Modern Art." Press Release, May
(Covey) Setting goals is important but sponsoring such goals is even more important. According to the book "Approximately 80% of smokers express a desire to quit smoking and a substantial number have attempted to quit. In addition to the consumer-induced demand, increasing yet still insufficient numbers of clinicians and provider organizations are referring patients to cessation services or developing their own cessation programs." (Covey)
The scarcity of such programs and the cost association with participating in these programs is all the more reason why government sponsored programs are essential. The book also explains that many health insurance plans do not cover smoking cessation programs. (Covey)
This places more of the financial burden on the addict and makes it more difficult to quit. Some government sponsored cessation programs exist. In addition, there have been bills that encourage government sponsored cessation programs. (Center for Tobacco Cessation) One such bill is the MCH…
The Benefits of Quitting. 2004. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 29 November 2004; http://www.cdc.gov /tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/posters/benefits.htm
You Can Quit Smoking Now. 2004. Smoke Free Initiative. 29 November 2004; http://www.smokefree.gov/
Covey, Lirio S. 1998. Helping the Hard-Core Smoker: A Clinician's Guide. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, NJ.
Dean, M. 18, September 1996. TEENS LOST in SMOKE: Cigarettes Easy to Buy and Difficult to Kick for Underage Youths. The Washington Times. Page Number: 8.
Smoking Ban on College Campuses
Colleges and universities across the country should institute a non-smoking or smoke-free campus. The act of smoking tobacco products and its effects on health are clear -- smoking is harmful. Not only is it harmful to the actual smoker, but second hand smoke is harmful to anyone in the near vicinity of the person smoking. Currently on many college campuses students will huddle together by doorways or other common areas such as outdoor benches to feed their habits. They inadvertently create an unsafe environment for many innocent by-standers. Besides the health risks associated with second hand smoke, college and university campuses should also send a clear message to smokers about the importance of health; not only their health, but also the health of others. Universities and colleges are supposed to be a beacon of learning and higher education in society. This position would be strengthened…
American Cancer Society. (N.d.). What is Secondhand Smoke? Retrieved from American Cancer Society: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/tobaccocancer/secondhand-smoke
Dale, L. (2014, July 10). What is thirdhand smoke, and why is it a concern? Retrieved from The Mayo Clinic: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/adult-health/expert-answers/third-hand-smoke/faq-20057791
Fichtenberg, C. (2002, March 21). Effect of smoke-free workplaces on smoking behaviour: systematic review. Retrieved from The BMJ: http://www.bmj.com/content/325/7357/188?variant=full-text&referer=www.clickfind.com.au
Long-Term Health Effects of E-Cigarettes
Electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes have emerged as popular tobacco products, which are relatively different from conventional cigarettes. These new tobacco products include e-pipes, e-pens, and e-hookahs that are increasingly used as electronic systems for nicotine delivery. Electronic cigarettes are electronic devices that enable users to inhale vapor that contains nicotine and other substances. These devices are battery-operated and contain a heating component to heat electronic liquid from a cartridge that can be refilled and release aerosol or vapor that is filled with chemicals. Despite their increased popularity, the long-term health effects of electronic cigarettes remain largely unknown. The individual and public health effects of e-cigarettes remain largely unknown, which is the reason why these tobacco products are unregulated in the United States and across the globe. This research proposal is for a study that seeks to examine the long-term health of electronic cigarettes.
Callahan-Lyon, P. (2014, February 12). Electronic Cigarettes: Human Health Effects. Tobacco Control, 23(2), ii36-ii40. Retrieved from http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/23/suppl_2/ii36.full
"E-cigarettes and Lung Health." (n.d.). Lung USA. Retrieved May 3, 2016, from http://www.lung.org/stop-smoking/smoking-facts/e-cigarettes-and-lung-health.html
Public Health Achievements
hat factors accounted for the control of tobacco in the U.S. Currently, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about 42.1 million Americans smoke cigarettes, which is about 18.1% of all adults (18 or over). About 20.5% of men smoke cigarettes and 15.8% of women smoke cigarettes (Liss, 2013).
the information environment -- mass media and counter-advertising. There is no doubt that media campaigns have a positive impact when it comes to anti-smoking campaigns. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that the first year of the federal government's national advertising campaign called "Tips from Former Smokers" "exceeded expectations; an estimated 1.6 million cigarette smokers attempted to stop smoking. Of those, about 100,000 actually succeeded in quitting, and that information came from a study published by the medical journal, The Lancet. Moreover, the campaign run by the CDC reportedly "inspired millions of nonsmokers to encourage…
Centers for Disease Control. (2011). Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States. Retrieved April 11, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov .
Liss, S.M. (2013). CDC's Anti-Smoking Ad Campaign Spurred Over 100,000 Smokers to Quit;
Media Campaigns Must be Expanded Nationally and in the States. Center for Disease
Controls. Retrieved April 12, 2014, from http://www.tobaccofreekids.org .
battle against cigarettes and tobacco has been around for a long time. As the authors A. Lee Fritschler and James M. Hoefler point out in their book Smoking and Politics there has always been a tug of war over the "golden leaf," the paradox that strict regulation of the business meant a windfall for the government.
Concern about the health consequences of smoking predates the "modern era" by nearly four centuries. In 1604, for example, King James I of England lambasted smoking as, "a custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the Nose, harmeful to the braine, dangerous to the Lungs, and in the blacke stinking fume thereof, nearest resembling the horrible Stigian smoke of the pit that is bottomless" (as quoted in Sullum, 1998, p 18). King James subsequently raised the tax on tobacco by 1000%, deriving significant revenues for his coffers. This illustrates the profound dilemma that has…
American Cancer Society, et al. (2002) "Critical Elements of Any Legislation to Grant FDA
Authority to Regulate Tobacco Products." Viewed online on 11/25/2002 at http://www.tobaccofreekids.org /research/factsheets/pdf/0181.pdf
Center for Disease Control: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health
Promotion (2002) "Chronology of Significant Developments Related to Smoking and Health." Viewed on 11/27/2002 at http://www.cdc.gov /tobacco/overview/chron96.htm
Military personnel must achieve and maintain the best physical conditioning of they are reasonably able to reach for the duration of their enlistment as a fundamental obligation of being fit for duty. Smoking makes that impossible. Likewise, the American taxpayer has a justifiable interest in reducing the costs of fielding a military by eliminating unnecessary costs. Smoking invariably adds to the already substantial costs of providing medical care to armed services personnel, both during their active service as well as throughout their lives afterwards to the extent they rely on veteran's services for medical care.
Military personnel already understand that the privilege and benefits associated with military service entail various restrictions on rights enjoyed by civilians. In this case, military justice must catch up to the manner in which civilian society has already incorporated the understanding of the risks of smoking into American life.
Dershowitz, Alan. (2002). Shouting Fire:…
Dershowitz, Alan. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
O'Neill, Xana and Lite, Jordan. "Real Estate Companies Making it Tougher for Smokers
in Their Homes" The New York Daily News, March 30, 2008. Retrieved February
Electronic Cigarettes International Group (ECIG) is an international producer, distributer and retailer of e-cigarettes, e-liquids, and vaporizers with outlets and kiosks in several countries around the world as well as online stores. The company has steadily been growing over the past two years with sales approaching $20 million per quarter in 2016 (SA Transcripts, 2015).
Dan O'Neill replaced Brent Willis as CEO and President of ECIG on January 9, 2015. Dan O'Neill's record of experience as CEO of Molson's and top leadership positions at Heinz and Star-Kist suggests that ECIG is positioned under uniquely qualified leadership for the first time since its creation (it was under Willis that company's share price plummeted to its current record lows). With the reduction of debt and the one-time write-off of losses taken by O'Neill in his first year as President, the company has pivoted for better years (Hoogervorst, 2012).
The electronic cigarette and…
Aaker, D, Biel, A (2013) Brand Equity and Advertising: Advertising's Role in Building
Strong Brands, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
Allen, J., Flanigan, S., LeBlanc, M. et al. (2015). Flavoring chemicals in E-Cigarettes.
Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(12): 23-29.
Developmental perspective was the concept that the nursing students participating in this study were typically younger than they patients they were caring for. This made it difficult for them to ask the "older" patient questions about a lifestyle they had been practicing for many years.
Environmental constraints were noted that prevented the participants in the study from fully implementing best practice guidelines. The primary of which was time. They noted that because of other duties and paper keeping requirements, they had little time to properly present the best practice guidelines. Some noted that they had little time to do expected things such as breathing, much less introduce the patient properly to best practice guidelines.
During their third year of training the nurses were introduced to a comprehensive program concerning cigarettes and cessation programs. In addition they had already been taught more efficient time management training. With these new tools they…
10) Sanders, D., Fowler, G., Mant, D., Fuller, a., Jones, L., & Marziller, j.
Randomized controlled trial of anti-smoking advice by nurses in General practice. Journal of the Royal College of General
Practitioners, 1989, 39, pp 273-276.
What is meant by the term "arbitrage"?
Arbitrage is a term used in economics that means taking advantage of differences in price of a single item. The author references a padre who would purchase items sold for lesser amounts within one group of POWs and then re-sell it for a greater profit within another group of POWs. For example, buying coffee from the ritish at a small number of cigarettes and then selling it to the Russian prisoners for a much larger number of cigarettes. Generally, arbitrage should involve zero risk, because the two transactions should occur simultaneously, but this was not an option in the POW camps. According to Aswath Damodoran in Corporate Finance Theory and Practice, this form of arbitrage is classified as near arbitrage. Pure arbitrage requires that you invest no money, take no risk and walk away with sure profits. Unless the transactions can be completed…
Brown, P.J., (1982). "Constitution or Competition? Alternative Views on Monetary Reform." Literature of Liberty. Vol. v, no. 3, pp. 7-52. Arlington, VA: Institute for Humane Studies.
Damodoran a., (2001). Corporate Finance: Theory and Practice. NY: John Wiley & Sons. pp.12-30.
Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. Entrepreneurs and the Economy. Retrieved from http://www.dallasfed.org/educate/everyday/ev3.html .
This act enlarged the labels on the cigarettes, and required that the labels on cigarettes and cigarette ads say things like,."..Cause lung cancer...may complicate pregnancy...quitting smoking now greatly reduces hazards to your health... may result in low birth weight and fetal injury." Yet despite all these attempts to educate, all the package warnings and all the public service ads, we still see that despite the millions of dollars spent on smoking prevention each year, every year sees more and more people taking up the habit, until today death from cardiovascular disease remains the number one killer in the United States, contributed in a great part by smoking. And yet we keep legislating, when then proof shows that what we are doing is not working.
Our discussion of vice-based legislation now brings us to the subject of fattening foods. In 2002, a lawyer in New York filed suit against the four…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking-Attributable Mortality and Years of Potential Life Lost-United States, 1984. MMWR 1997 46:444-51.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing Tobacco Use: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Federal Trade Commission Request for Comments Concerning Regulations Implementing the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986. Accessed [March 7, 2000]. http://www.tobaccolaw.org/Documents/Events/HealthCanadaNewcigarettelabellingmeasures.htm " Health Canada New Cigarette labeling Measures.
National Cancer Institute. Cigars Health Effects and Trends. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 9. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. NIH Publication No. 98-4302, 1998.
Embedded Communication in Advertising
"There is no evidence that advertising can get people to do things contrary to their self-interest." -- JI Fowles, in Advertising's Fifteen asic Appeals
"Good advertising does not just circulate information. It penetrates the public mind with desires and belief." -- Leo urnett, Advertising Executive and Creator of the Marlboro Man
"The ability to attract new smokers and develop them into a young adult franchise is key to brand development." 1999 Philip Morris report
When the preceding collection of opinions regarding the influence of modern advertising are considered in conjunction with the iconic advertising image shown above, it becomes quite clear that, much like advertising itself, forming an informed position on this ubiquitous aspect of modern marketing is simply a matter of perception and perspective (elch 120). Corporate conglomerates and other private enterprises ascribe tremendous value to the persuasive power of advertising, bombarding the general public…
Altman, David G., Michael D. Slater, Cheryl L. Albright, and Nathan Maccoby. "How an unhealthy product is sold: Cigarette advertising in magazines, 1960 -- 1985." Journal of Communication 37, no. 4 (1987): 95-106.
Belch, George E., Michael A. Belch, and Angelina Villarreal. "Effects of advertising communications: Review of research." Research in marketing (1987).
Bovee, Courtland L., and William F. Arens. "The Indictments Against Advertising." Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York, NY: Pearson Higher Education, 2008. 685-691. Print.
De Gregorio, Federico, and Yongjun Sung. "Understanding attitudes toward and behaviors in response to product placement." Journal of Advertising 39, no. 1 (2010): 83-96.
3. Third world countries are more likely to rely more heavily upon excise taxes on gasoline, tobacco, and alcohol because those are products that sell very well around the world. These are also products that are in a number of cases, particularly tobacco, that are cheaper than essential items such as water or food. Taxes on tobacco help poor countries who would rely on the taxes more wealthy and more reliant upon tobacco.
4. People in lower and middle income countries are more likely to react to taxation on tobacco because for the consumers of that product in those countries, they will have less income for food and shelter for example. People in wealthier countries can afford the increase; they may hardly notice the increase and if it bothers them on principle, for example, they can afford other alternatives just as easily.
5. Whether or not a government uses consumptive…
Berlinger, Joshua. "Why Smokers Shouldn't be Scared of the WHO's Global Recommendations for Cigarette Taxes." Business Insider, Web, Available from: http://www.businessinsider.com /who-global-cigarette-tax-2012-9' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Monopolies and Trusts:
Appropriate Areas for Government Intervention?
Capitalism is the economic system that has dominated the United States virtually since the day of its independence. A social and economic system based on the recognition of individual rights; capitalism demands that owners' rights to control, enjoy, and dispose of their own property must be respected. In a capitalist system, the purpose of government is to protect individual economic rights, and to make sure that no one individual, or group may employ physical or coercive force upon any other group or individual. The success of capitalism is well evident. The surpluses that this system produces have enabled individuals to experiment; to create new products, and market new ideas. These private surpluses are traded in a free market in direct competition with other buyers and sellers. Such competition is best represented by the efforts of two or more parties acting independently to…
British American Tobacco Company: Business Ethics
The British American Tobacco company is a multinational company with over 200 brands that they have developed under the guidance; the company is staggeringly successful, selling 694 billion cigarettes in 2012 (bat.com). The worldwide company sees itself, and many would argue, rightfully so, as a powerful forces that has stimulated economies all over the globe in lasting and measurable ways: in 2012, the company's "subsidiaries enabled governments worldwide to gather more than £30 billion in duty, excise and sales taxes on our products, more than seven times the Group's profit after tax" (bat.com). Being a stimulus to the economy and a pillar of economic stability is something that company prides itself on: British American Tobacco has 44 factories in 39 countries, employing 55,000 people worldwide in a massive multicultural workforce (bat.com).
The company claims that it gives each local factory a tremendous amount of…
Bat.com. (n.d.). Homepage. Retrieved from http://www.bat.com/servlet/SPMerge?mainurl=/group/sites/UK__3MNFEN.nsf/vwPages
BBC. (2000, September 20). Uk tobacco firm targets african youth. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/933430.stm
Irin. (2007, November 9). Nigeria: Govt hits tobacco companies with whopping law suit.
New York Times describes how R.J. Reynolds Tobacco was found guilty of breaking its agreement to market cigarette products only to adults. The judge found that the company had pursued an advertising strategy aimed at promoting youth smoking. Important to the ruling, is the judges decision that 'actions speak louder than words' with it being reported that "the judge ruled that 'it does not matter' whether Reynolds intended to single out children and get them to smoke. The fact that it did not adopt 'reasonable measures' to shield young people from its advertisements represented a breach of the company's responsibility to help reduce youth smoking" (Winter).
It is also reported that Reynolds is not the only company accused of specifically targeting young people, a snuff making company is also accused of the same thing.
These issues have several significant implications on nursing practitioners, health practices and on health care.
Winter, Greg. "Tobacco Company Reneged on Youth Ads, Judge Rules." New York Times, 7 June 2002.
Banning Smoking in Cars With Children: Moral and Legal Issues
Five states in America, Arkansas, California, Louisiana, Maine and Oregon, and also Puerto ico -- have made it a crime to smoke in cars when children are there, and more states are considering the adoption of this legislation as well. For instance, other nations such as Canada, South Africa and the United Arab Emirates are also leaning towards such a ban. The ban is viewed as beneficial in the sense that it not only protects children but it also minimizes the amount of accidents which will be derived from cigarette-related distractions, such as lighting, ashing or dropping them while driving (ash.org). However, the biggest impetus for this legislation is the desire to protect all innocent children from exposure to the hazards which are inherently connected to cigarettes and cigarette smoke. One of the inherent necessities of this issue is in…
Ash.org. (n.d.). Smoking Should be Banned in Cars Whenever Children are Present. Retrieved from Ash.org: http://ash.org/carsmoking
Brown, A. (2014, Jan 29). Banning smoking in cars is wrong: where would it end? Retrieved from telegraph.co.uk: http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/andrewmcfbrown/100257222/banning-smoking-in - cars-is-wrong-where-would-it-end/
Healthday. (2013, July 23). Poll: U.S. Adults Support Smoking Ban in Cars With Kids. Retrieved from usnews.com: http://health.usnews.com/health-news/news/articles/2013/07/23/poll- us-adults-support-smoking-ban-in-cars-with-kids
Jarvie, J., & Malone, R. (2008). Children's Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Private Homes and Cars: An Ethical Analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 2140 -- 2145.
Restructuring itself for a better fit with its environment, the company established a Youth Prevention Department, staffed by a senior vice-president in Philip Morris, U.S.A. To look for ways to help reduce smoking among teenagers" (Glover 2008).
The relative lack of sincerity of these claims and the transparent dishonesty of Philip Morris' claim to stop youths from smoking is manifest in the fact that the company recently filed a suit in federal court to overturn a San Francisco ordinance that would ban the sale of tobacco products in convenience drug stores. It proclaims this proudly on a September 2008 press release on its website: "Philip Morris USA sues to overturn controversial San Francisco sales ban on tobacco products." However, teens are more likely than other consumers to use these venues to purchase cigarettes than other consumers. Philip Morris defends its actions as the promotion of freedom for adult consumers, given…
About Altria. (2008). Official Website. Retrieved December 8, 2008 at http://www.altria.com/about_altria/1_2_companiesandbrands.asp
Fisher, Laurie (2000, April.) "Divestment in the tobacco industry." Cancer Causes & Control.
Glover, Willa. (2008). "An exploratory study of key factors of self-organization in organizational systems." Human and Organizational Systems: Fielding Graduate Institute.
Retrieved December 8, 2008 at http://www.geocities.com/cmogata/wwglover.html
One of the additional oversights in the Proposed Consent Decree is that it does not address the sensitive matter of cell searches of two-person cells that are focused on one inmate. The cell search conducted by Officer Anderson and Sgt. Belker was conducted in an attempt to locate contraband cigarettes that had been sold by Joe Johnson; however, they were still able to search all of Jack Jones' materials. The Proposed Consent Decree is under-inclusive in that it does not make any mention of protecting the inmate who is not the target of the cell search. As it stands, it is still possible for the cell search to be conducted under the premise of implicating one of the inmates while instead focusing on a separate inmate.
Ultimately, the Proposed Consent Decree fails to squarely address the situation, since it fails to protect the sheet of paper from being confiscated from…
The concentration on action and violence draws larger audiences, yet is not effective in selling products Pechmann, Levine, Loughlin, Leslie, 2005).
esearchers have also found that the brains of pre-adolescents and adolescents have low levels of inhibitory control and therefore pursue reckless and risky activities due to their judgment not being fully developed (Cauffman, Steinberg, 2000). Adolescents who have seen reckless and risky behavior online or on television advertising are 80% more likely to engage in the behavior (Trimpop, udiger, Kerr, Kirkcaldy, 1999). The lack of inhibitory controls when combined with the an abundance of violent content leads quickly to replication of viewed acts of violence, especially in pre-adolescents, as verified through research completed (Trimpop, udiger, Kerr, Kirkcaldy, 1999).
Ethically this raises the question of whether the advertisers are more adept at the selling of violent acts than products, as the brains of the audience members they are selling products…
Charlie Cray (2001). Booze for kids. Multinational Monitor, 22(6), 4. Retrieved February 22, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 74131265).
Cauffman, Elizabeth and Laurence Steinberg (2000), "(Im)maturity of Judgment in Adolescence: Why Adolescents May Be Less Culpable Than Adults," Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 18 (6), 741-60.
Glenn Cummins (2007). Selling Music with Sex: The Content and Effects of Sex in Music Videos on Viewer Enjoyment. Journal of Promotion Management, 13(1/2), 95. Retrieved February 23, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1398611091).
Matthew C. Farrelly, Kevin C. Davis, M Lyndon Haviland, Peter Messeri, Cheryl G. Healton. (2005). Evidence of a Dose-Response Relationship Between "truth" Antismoking Ads and Youth Smoking Prevalence. American Journal of Public Health, 95(3), 425-31. Retrieved February 26, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 820162831).
advertisements for Harley Davidson both have the overall message that Harley Davidson's are for rebellious individuals and that societies rules do not apply to the Harley Davidson owner.
The text of the first ad, "in some circles, paisley and florals have yet to catch on" sets the tone for the ad and also conveys the meaning. Firstly, the text has an air of importance to it as well as an air of indifference. The "in some circles" is patronizing and suggests that these 'some' are not as good as the rest. The humor associated with 'paisley and florals' takes the edge of this patronizing feel, so that overall the text has a humor that means it is not to be taken too seriously. This creates a humorous and ironic tone to the ad. This text, without the picture, also captures the meaning of the ad. These 'circles' that haven't caught…
In addition, smoking is addictive, and the earlier a person starts, the more likely they are to continue, making it more difficult to quit as one ages. Young people do not understand smoking, because they tend to have an "it will not happen to me" mentality, and it should not be available to teens, you should have to be an adult to make the choice to smoke, because it is a health choice, as well as a lifestyle choice.
In conclusion, smoking is hazardous to your health and well-being, and that has been proven. People start to smoke too early in life, and then they find it difficult to quit. The earlier you start smoking, the longer smoke can do damage to your lungs, making it more likely you will develop lung disease such as emphysema or lung cancer. Smoking is no less dangerous than drinking, it can harm others…
Mass Media Influences
It has long been known that the media has a strong influence on the public, and when television and other media presents strong messages on any particular topic, like smoking for example, society is impacted. This paper presents quality references in order to cover important aspects of the media, the issues it promotes, its history, it tactics, and its impacts.
Technological Transitions and Digital Technologies Influence Society
Author Paul Boyer explains that through "mediated communicative processes" individuals help to shape society. In those communicative processes there are to be found "complex interactions of human agency, social institutions," along with the various media-driven communicative processes that are the foundations of society (Boyer, 2012). The media that people use -- including today's Internet, television, print media, and radio -- shape both "national political conversations" and a number of aspects of social relationships (Boyer, 213).
And since the…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Estimates of Current Tobacco Use
Among Youth. Retrieved July 27, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov .
Digital Preservation Management. (2014). Timeline: Digital Technology and Preservation.
Retrieved July 27, 2015, from http://www.dpworkshop.org.
Drug Policies the Legacy of Outdated Moral Values and Moral Panics
A disinterested alien observer who came down to the planet Earth and saw the difference in how legal drugs such as alcohol and cigarettes were treated under the law when compared to illegal drugs would be hard pressed to explain the differential treatment. After all, alcohol and cigarettes cause or contribute to far more deaths, injuries, health problems, and social problems than illegal drugs. In fact, some illegal drugs, such as cannabis, are relatively free of side-effects when compared to those two legal substances. Furthermore, even some of the highly villianized hard drugs, such as heroin, are considered less addictive than nicotine. Therefore, it is difficult to understand why some substances are illegal and others are not. The reasons are not scientific or social; therefore, one must look at the history of drug policy in the Western world and…
Maguire, M., Morgan, R., & Reiner, R. (Eds.). (2007). The Oxford handbook of criminology.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ethics in Marketing
Ethics of Marketing
Ethics in Marketing
In order to realize themselves as socially responsible corporate entities, business organizations have to maintain a sound ethical track record in every aspect of their business (Arnold 2009). They have to formulate their business policies and strategies in such a fashion that no societal values are exploited and no human being is harmed in any way (Crane & Matten 2007). It is essential for organizations to keep themselves on the safest ethical path in their marketing, promotional, and general operational activities (Lamb, Hair, & McDaniel 2012). It cannot only save them from severe criticism by their stakeholders, but also contribute towards a sustainable future in their industry. especting the ethical values and social norms of a society helps an organization in standing on competitive grounds among its competitors and strengthening its public image (Abela & Murphy 2008).
Abela, A.V., & Murphy, P.E., 2008, Marketing with Integrity: Ethics and the Service-Dominant Logic for Marketing, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36 (1): 39-53
Arnold, C., 2009, Ethical Marketing and the New Consumer. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons
Crane, A., & Matten, D. 2007, Business Ethics: Managing Corporate Citizenship and Sustainability in the Age of Globalization. 2nd Edition. Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford University Press
Kurtz, D.L., 2012, Boone & Kurtz Contemporary Marketing. 15th Edition. Mason: South-Western Cengage Learning
Business Marketing Ethics:
Snuff Out Joe Camel
Business Marketing Ethics: Snuff out Joe Camel
Reynolds is acting in an unethical and socially irresponsible manner
R.J. Reynolds' use of Joe Camel smacks of "target marketing" toward children. The use of a "cool" cartoon figure surrounded by admiring friends and an attractive girlfriend seems tailor-made for enticing children, who are drawn to cartoon figures and crave acceptance and "coolness" at least as much as adults crave acceptance and "coolness." The targeting of children for an "adults-only" product is particularly reprehensible because children are a recognized vulnerable group; the vulnerability of children is the reason for so many laws treating them as "infants" who cannot decide for themselves. In the face of our society's treatment of children as a vulnerable group that must be protected, Joe Camel is an anti-social use of marketing.
Marketing to children is particularly harmful when that marketing encourages…
Finally, assuming for argument's sake that R.J. Reynolds did not initially target children, Joe Camel apparently did create hordes of child-addicts and RJ. Reynolds knew or should have known that and reacted as an ethical company. R.J. Reynolds is a wealthy company that probably keeps careful track of who smokes its cigarettes and an ethical company would have stopped using Joe Camel after realizing that: the percentage of smokers under 18 who smoke Camels has risen from less than 1% to nearly 33% since the company began using Joe Camel; nearly one-quarter of Camel's sales are to underage smokers; kids smoke the most heavily advertised brands, and Camel has been the second most advertised brand since 1988. Rather than "pulling the plug" on Joe Camel in the face of all that information, R.J. Reynolds was apparently secretly thrilled with the child-addicts and kept using Mr. Camel quite heavily, even when attorneys' general from more than 27 states petitioned the FTC to sue the company and ban Joe Camel.
2. How my decision will affect the stakeholders of R.J. Reynolds and which stakeholders should be pleased first and second
Using the broadest definition of "stakeholder," the anti-smoking stakeholders such as children, parents, anti-smoking groups, U.S. "society" and the U.S. Healthcare system will be favorably affected by a ban on Joe Camel because the ban will stop this method of marketing an addictive "adults-only" product to a vulnerable group. Meanwhile, the pro-smoking stakeholders such as R.J. Reynolds, its employees and its stockholders, will be harmed by the ban because the ban will stop an effective marketing tool. Parents should be the first stakeholders pleased by the ban because their children are no longer targeted by Joe Camel and are less likely to smoke. Secondly, the U.S. Healthcare system should be pleased because fewer child addicts will mean fewer adult addicts, which should reduce the strain on our health system from smoking.
Strategic, Tactical and Administrative Crime Analysis
Crime analysis is one of the most important processes in the fight against crime and efforts towards enhancing the effectiveness of the criminal justice system in dealing with crime. In the past few years, crime analysis has continued to expand in law enforcement agencies across the globe. This expansion has contributed to the development and use of different methods of crime analysis including strategic, tactical, and administrative strategic analysis. These techniques of crime analysis are utilized when examining different crime incidents and resolve them. This paper provides a review of different crime incidents using different techniques of crime analysis and an analysis of the various factors of crime in these incidents.
Review of the Crime Incidents
When reviewing these incident summaries, the type of analysis being conducted is tactical crime analysis whose main focus is to promote the short-term development of patrol, investigative priorities,…
Marketing to Children
I feel that there should be rules that companies have to follow with respect to marketing to children. Basically, I do not buy into the argument about critical analysis. The way that the brain develops, young children do not, physically, have the capacity for critical analysis. As children age, they will begin to develop the different levels of cognition that allow for critical thought, to the point where a teenager is fully capable of thinking critically (Kuhn, 1999). The problem, even then, is that children do not have much practice in critical thinking at that age. Advertisers use the most up-to-date knowledge of psychology and sociology to sell their products -- most adults can offer little resistance, let alone children. Thus, children are a vulnerable population, psychologically ill-equipped to critically analyze marketing communications. Thus, a young children cannot reasonably draw the line between fast food and obesity…
Watson, B. (2014) "The Tricky business of advertising to children." The Guardian Magazine. Retrieved November 29, 2014 from http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/advertising-to-children-tricky-business-subway
(Bendersky, Alessandri, Gilbert & Lewis, 1996)
Many teratogens, however, have much more subtle effects that may not be noticeable at birth. Sometimes months or even years, pass before the damage is recognized. For example, prenatal infection with the parasite Toxoplasma can lead to subtle visual impairment and/or learning disabilities that may not be detected until school age. A pregnant woman may have no noticeable symptoms from toxoplasma infection or just have nonspecific flu-like symptoms. Since the diagnosis of congenital infection with toxoplasmosis can only be confirmed in the newborn period, it is impossible to make a diagnosis in a school-aged child. Therefore, many children who have suffered brain damage from prenatal exposure to damaging agents will remain undiagnosed. (Strom, 1990, p. 71)
Drugs (or teratogens) produce the greatest danger to prenatal development if they are consumed prior to the 45th day after conception, when cell specialization and organ development are…
Bendersky, M., Alessandri, S., Gilbert, P., & Lewis, M. (1996). Characteristics of Pregnant Substance Abusers in Two Cities in the Northeast. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 22(3), 349.
Boling, P. (Ed.). (1995). Expecting Trouble: Surrogacy, Fetal Abuse, and New Reproductive Technologies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Bopp, J. (Ed.). (1985). Human Life and Health Care Ethics (Vol. 2). Frederick, MD: University Publications of America.
Coull, B.A., Hobert, J.P., Ryan, L.M., & Holmes, L.B. (2001). Crossed Random Effect Models for Multiple Outcomes in a Study of Teratogenesis. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 96(456), 1194.
Research shows that people who switch to lower fat alternatives tend simply to eat more. They end up with the same levels of fat.
Third, it is also known that many individuals have a genetic tendency toward heart problems. Will these people be charged even a greater tax, because they are more prone toward the disease?
Fourth, it is very well recognized that humans in general are reactive. They are going to drink (and where is that added tax on alcohol?), eat and do what they want regardless of cost. The cancer, heart attack, car accident will happen to the guy down the street, "not me!"
Lastly, when will the time come when people have to assume responsibility for their own lives? Legislating what is or is not to be done because of health clearly states that adults have to be treated like children. Perhaps, this is the case. Perhaps…
correspondence bias and why might it occur? Are there cultural variations in the correspondence bias?
In the practice of social psychology, correspondence bias or also known as the theory of fundamental attribution error will refer to the over-valuing of explanations that are based from personality perspective under circumstantial situations. This process can lead into misunderstanding between one or two parties that include communities, societies, and groups that are living within the same area or different area. This can be considered as a form of stereotyping incidents for the reason that there are false beliefs and perceptions regarding a particular individual or group with respect to their daily routines and practices. There are cultural variations in the correspondence bias for the reason that discrimination regardless of age, race, and gender can be a perfect example for this case according with their demographical orientation and capabilities as pointed out by Bundel (2011).…
Aronson, E., Wilson, T.D., and Akert, R.M., (2007). Social Psychology. 6th edition. Uppers Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Brandon, Emeralda (2008). Psychiatric Fundamentals. New York: Academic Press.
Bundel, Maison (2011). Fundamentals of Sociology and Psychology. Detroit: Lavemon Publications, 75, 78, 85-89.
Festinger, L., and Carlsmith, J.M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58,203-210.
This is designed to help support individuals who are dealing with financial challenges. The problem is that select amounts of recipients will use as a way to live off of the government. (Wolf, 2005)
How might a socialist and a capitalist government differ in its treatment of the problem of unemployment?
Socialists want to see massive amounts of government spending to create new jobs, training programs and provide unemployment benefits. A capitalist is opposed to these kinds of programs and believes that charities / private enterprises can address these issues.
In your opinion, should the government have the responsibility of providing health care for every citizen? Why or why not?
Yes, the government should provide health care. The reason why is because prices are increasing exponentially and the number of uninsured is rising. These factors are a sign that there is very little competition inside the sector. To address these…
2012 Puerto Rico Statehood Amendment. (2012). Boards. Retrieved from: http://www.boards.ie/vbulletin/showthread.php?p=77582334
Commerce Clause. (2012). Britannica. Retrieved from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/127865/commerce-clause
Principles of Constitutional Construction. (2010). Constitution.org. Retrieved from: http://constitution.org/cons/prin_cons.htm
Sin Taxes. (2005). Six Taxes. Connecticut Voices for Children. Retrieved from: http://www.ctkidslink.org/publications/bud05sintax02.pdf
West (1997) stated that clinicians, researchers, policy makers and others who work in the area of addiction, with addicts or who have to deal with the consequences of addiction, cannot easily ignore the strong ethical dimension to the problem. Ethics is concerned with determining the nature of normative theories and applying these sets of principles to practical moral problems. It is concerned with how we should live, as individuals and societies, what is right and wrong, what is good and bad and what is just and unjust. The bases on which such judgments can be made have been subject to systematic enquiry since before the time of Plato. Utilitarianism is perhaps the strongest thread running through the analysis of ethical and policy decisions in the field of addiction.
(Weissman, 1997) reported the following findings regarding tobacco companies and their advertising, He reported that the tobacco companies are expected to meet…
Pollack, H., Lantz, P.M., & Frohna, J.G. (2000, March). Maternal Smoking and adverse birth outcomes among singletons and twins. American Journal of Public Health, 90(3), 395-400.
Schwartz-Bickenbach, D., Schulte-Hobein, B., Abt, S., Plum, C., & Nau, H. (1987, January). Smoking and passive smoking during pregnancy and early infancy: effects on birth weight, lactation period, and continue concentrations in mother's milk and infant's urine.. Toxicology Letter, 35(1), 73-81.
Weissman, R. (1997, July/August). The Great Tobacco Bailout. Multinational Monitor, 18(7/8), 9-18.
West, R. (1997, September). Addiction, Ethics and Public Policy. Addiction, 92(9), 1061-1071.
The fact that a guard was able to take information from a prisoner's cell, and give it to prosecutors is a clear violation of basic procedures. As a result, greater amounts of oversight are required to prevent these issues from becoming a problem in the future. ("Deon Christopher Carter v State of Maryland," 2003)
Clearly, the evidence that was collected from Jones' cell is a violation of the Sixth Amendment. This is because the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals found that these searches require providing them with access to defense counsel (according to Deon Christopher Carter v State of Maryland). Therefore, any kind of evidence that is used against Jones in his criminal trial (from this search) is inadmissible in court.
To prevent these kinds of incidents from happening in the future, the jail needs to have improved procedures for collecting, supervising and analyzing all contraband. This will allow…
Deon Christopher Carter v State of Maryland. (2003)
Meanwhile he is emotionally unavailable and unresponsive in meaningful personal communications and in his interpersonal relationships. Even when he is engaged in a one-on-one conversation and making direct eye contact, he appears to be off somewhere else and thinking about other things besides the immediate conversation. His family and friends report that in addition to being emotionally distant and unavailable, the subject is also unavailable more literally because he refuses to answer their calls on his cell phone even after being informed how much this frustrates them.
Evaluation, Prognosis, and ecommendations
In some respects, this subject appears to have failed to successfully transition into and negotiate Erikson's Young Adulthood (i.e. Intimacy vs. isolation) Stage (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2009). Instead of learning how to form intimate loving interpersonal relationships, he appears to have remained focused on the earlier (i.e. Identity vs. ole Confusion) Stage in which his dedication to his career…
Gerrig, R. And Zimbardo, P. (2009). Psychology and Life. New York, NY: Allyn & Bacon.
Goodman, J., Schlossberg, N.K. And Anderson, M.L. (2006). Counseling Adults in Transition: Linking Practice with Theory. New York: Spring.
Schlossberg, N.K. "A model for analyzing human adaptation to transition." Counseling
Psychologist Vol. 9, No. 2; (1981): 2-18.
The case of "Old Smoke" presents workplace issues involving cigarette smoke, perfume and body odor. The employer is responsible for upholding law and company policy, as well as using common sense and tact to deal with possibly competing employee interests while continuing to effectively meet business requirements. Though laws and company policy sometimes assist in formulating solutions, employers are also charged with creative thinking to deal with some workplace issues uncovered by law and/or policy.
Explain how you would handle this situation if you were Charles Renfold
Charles Renfold has competing problems. Darlene Lambert is an employee entitled to a safe workplace, including freedom from second-hand smoke and the scent of old smoke. Simultaneously, Renfold has a pressing deadline for a report requiring Darlene's assistance with files located in a room that strongly smells of old smoke (Shaw, 2010, p. 339). Darlene rightfully refuses to work in that…
Shaw, W.H. (2010). Business ethics: A textbook with cases, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Winterbauer & Diamond P.L.L.C. (1998). Multiple chemical sensitivity and the ADA: Taking a clear picture of a blurry object. Retrieved on February 23, 2012 from Winterbauerdiamond.com Web site: http://www.winterbauerdiamond.com/inprint/Doc040629.PDF
post, questions How categorize point view [e.g., -person, -person (i.e., "), -person limited, -person omniscient]? Is point view consistent story (told perspective), shift points narrative? (If, make note occur.
The point-of-view of this rendition of "Little Red Riding Hood" could best be characterized as third-person omniscient. The narrator knows everything that is transpiring in the story as it happens, even though certain aspects of the tale (such as the fact that the wolf wants to eat Little Red Riding Hood) are not known to the protagonist in the 'real time' of the storytelling. The narrator knows, for example, that the wolf is wary of the nearby woodsmen, so he does not eat Little Red Riding Hood right away, but instead contrives to locate where the grandmother's house might be. Red Riding Hood is ignorant of this fact and happily directs the wolf to the house.
Midway through the story, the…
The writer of this work assumes the position of Crime Scene Investigator who is responding to a homicide scene at a convenience store/gas station at 3:00 A.M. Upon first arriving the officer who first responded at the scene relates information that there was an additiaonl employee present during the incident in addition to a mother and her 15-year-old son who are both witnesses to the crime. There is a deceased victim with a gunshot wound in the chest. The responsibility fo the Crime Scene Invesetigator includes latent print work and other related tasks.
Upon arrival to the sceneit is noted that the scene was secured prior to the arrival of the Crime Scene Investigator. In additional all crime scene integrity precautions and procedures are in place and the crime scene photographer has taken all necessary on-scene photographs for you. All sketches and measurements have already been taken. Other…
Crime Scene Procedures (2012) National Forensic Science Technology Center. Retrieved from: http://projects.nfstc.org/property_crimes/Crime_Scene_Procedures_III.pdf
Crime-Scene Investigation and Evidence Collection (nd) Chapter 2. Retrieved from: http://www.cengagesites.com/academic/assets/sites/4827/bertino_chapter2.pdf
legalizing activities such as recreational drug use that do not affect anyone other than the person who chooses to engage in the activity. In the sense that one's actions and choices always affect one's family and loved ones, the decision to take drugs impacts on their lives, but that is outside the realm of government legislation. The decision to smoke cigarettes or to skydive can also be said to affect the lives of one's loved ones, yet neither is prohibited by legislation.
Recently, both individual states and the federal government have enacted laws intended to severely limit the rights of tobacco smoking in public areas, in rightful recognition of the distinction between choices to engage in certain behaviors privately and the rights of others not to be subjected to dangers or inconvenience posed by such choices. This is the essential issue that distinguishes justifiable and unjustifiable government paternalism.
On another level, paternalistic legislation might be drafted to disqualify those who engage in certain behaviors from government subsidized medical care, under the theory that one has no right to saddle the rest of society with the financial burden of paying for one's irresponsible choice to persist in behaviors known to be detrimental to health and longevity. Naturally, the same concept would apply equally to those suffering the long-term medical consequences of smoking tobacco, which currently constitutes the largest preventable cause of lung cancer, heart disease, and many other illnesses that drain public resources.
The spectrum of government paternalism spans from complete permissibility, allowing utterly reckless conduct that is injurious to others to comprehensive over- regulation, where legal penalties attach to eating junk food if one is above one's ideal weight. My first disagreement with the current illegal status of recreational drugs is that I believe it represents a position on the spectrum that is too close to over- regulation in that it prohibits activities that are (or that should be) purely matters of personal choice. In my opinion, mandatory seatbelt and motorcycle helmet laws infringe into issues of personal choice where there is no justification based on protecting the public at large. Conversely, I am in favor of prohibiting seemingly innocuous activities such as operating cellular phones while driving, precisely because it increases the risk of collision with innocent people. The difference is seatbelts and helmets protect only the individual who chooses to use them, whereas distracted drivers represent a potential risk to other people as well. I also reject any claim that legalizing recreational drugs would result in an increase in crimes associated with their use, because, as I suggested earlier, the same can be said (and has already been witnessed in this country) in connection with 1920's Prohibition.
Ultimately, my most fundamental objection to the current illegal status of recreational drugs is their unjustified inequality and incongruence, as compared to regulation of tobacco, alcohol, and for that matter, ropeless mountain climbing and junk food. Regardless of any argument as to the appropriate point for anti-drug laws on the legislative spectrum between absolute permissibility and over-legislation, government regulations must, in principle, reflect uniformity and a logical consistency.
(Sussman and Bates-Jensen, 2007)
Assessment data is reported to enable the clear communication among clinicians about the wound and in making the provision for "continuity in the plan of care" as well as allowing for "evaluation of treatment modalities." (Sussman and Bates-Jensen, 2007) Wounds that are classified as red, yellow and black are those that require examination of deep tissue involvement. (Sussman and Bates-Jensen, 2007) The wound must be monitored during the healing process since monitoring provides the means of "checking the wound on a regular and frequent basis for "signs and symptoms that should trigger a full reassessment, such as increased wound exudate or bruising of the adjacent or periwound skin. Included in monitoring is the "gross evaluation for signs and symptoms of wound complications, such as erthema (change in color) or periwound skin and pus, which is indicative of infection." (Sussman and Bates-Jensen, 2007) Included as well should…
Aseptic Technique (2008) Aseptic Technique. Section G. NHS Foundation Trust. Online available at: http://www.cht.nhs.uk/fileadmin/departments/infection_control/policies/Section_G_-_Aseptic_Technique_Issue_2.pdf
Burney, R.E. et al. (1997) Core Outcomes Measures for Inguinal Hernia Repair. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. Vol. 185, Issue 6. Online available at: http://www.journalacs.org/article/S1072-7515%2897%2900108-7/abstract
Issues in Wound Care: Appropriate Use of Dressings. Report from a Wound Academy Expert Forum. Sponsored by the Molnlycke Health Care Wound Academy. September 2007. Online available at: http://www.molnlycke.com/Global/Wound_Care_Products/UK/Wound%20Academy/IssuesAppropriateusefinalSept07.pdf
Khan, Y. And Fitzgerald, P. And Walton, M. (1997) Assessment of the postoperative visit after routine inguinal hernia repair: A prospective randomized trial. Journal of Pediatric Surgery. Vol. 32, Issue 6. June 1997. Online available at: http://www.jpedsurg.org/article/S0022-3468%2897%2990644-8/abstract