794+ documents containing “cigarette”.
This, in turn, will also affect the overall economic situation of the country. A particular country's condition will also affect its neighboring country, hence, everyone is the world is affected.
Usually, children are the common victims of the adverse effects of tobacco. abies of smokers have greater chances of being born pre-maturely or having low birth weight. Moreover, secondhand smoke can trigger sudden infant death syndromes. Cigarette smoke can also handicap children for life. They are the one who are likely to develop acute respiratory illness including heart diseases, ear infection, asthma, bronchial cavity, and chronic respiratory system. In the United Sates, smoking has been considered as the leading preventable cause of premature death (Medscape 2008).
It is said that the susceptibility of the person to become infected with the smoke-related diseases is directly proportional to the length of time that a person continues to smoke as well as the amount….
Nicotine Addiction, April 13, 2006, Accessed March 25, 2008.
Glover, Dr. Elbert. "Painless therapies to overcome nicotine addiction," Tobacco Research
Center: Mary Babb Cancer Center, West Virginia.
Medscape Today. www.medscape.com/resource/smoking" "Smoking Resource Center," March 10, 2008, Accessed March 25, 2008.
Today, each country implements the quotas it finds most suitable, leading as such to major fluctuations in the taxes, their percentage in the price and the final retail price.
The federal authorities generally explain the high cigarette taxes as a means of reducing the consumption of cigarette, with the ultimate aim of reducing the number of smokers and protecting the health of the individuals. Nevertheless, fact remains that the fares carry a major economic function -- that of gathering money for the state budget. This positive effect on the federal budget has however yet to be observed, as history has shown us that increased taxes reduce demand, rather than create additional income. The situation with the promoted social impact is also blurred, as I believe is the entire debate over smoking and its economic and social implications.
Cordes, J.J., Ebel, .D., Gravelle, 2005, Encyclopedia of Taxation and Tax Policy, 2nd Edition,….
Cordes, J.J., Ebel, R.D., Gravelle, 2005, Encyclopedia of Taxation and Tax Policy, 2nd Edition, The Urban Institute
Goldman, B., 1998, Meet Joe Black Screenplay, Internet Movie Database, http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/Meet-Joe-Black.htmlGravelle last accessed on November 18, 2009
Williams, J., September 17, 2008, Sibelius' Cigarette Tax Proposal Ignores Economic Realities, The Kansas City Kansas, http://www.nocigtax.com/upload/file/16/20080917-kansascitykansan-editorial.pdf last accessed on November 18, 2009
2008, EU Cigarettes Price and Tax Breakdown -- July 2008, Tobacco Manufacturers' Association, http://www.the-tma.org.uk/page.aspx?page_id=35 last accessed on November 18, 2009
.." (Fleenor, nd) it is related that it did not take long for this to spread into other U.S. states with trucks all around the United States being hijacked and robbed of their cigarette cargo. The following tables lists the state excise tax rates on cigarettes for January 1, 2007.
State Excise Tax Rates on Cigarettes (January 1, 2007
TAX RATE per pack)
CENT PER PACK
New York (1)
Tennessee (1) (2)
Dist. Of Columbia
III. CIGARETTE TAX: A REGRESSIVE FORM of REVENUE
abington (2007) in the report entitled: "Raising Cigarette Tax to Fund Kids Health ill Would Hit Poor the Hardest" states that: "Congressional Democrats have chosen an unlikely source to pay for the bulk of their proposed $35 billion increase in children's health coverage: people with relatively little money and education." (abington, 2007) This proposed program….
Babington, Charles (2007) Raising Cigarette Tax to Fund Kids Health Bill Would Hit Poor the Hardest. 30 Sept 2007. seattlepi.com Online available at http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/333772_cigarettetax01.html
Cigarette Sales Fall After Tax Kicks in (2006) the News & Observer 22 Nov 2006. Online available at http://www.newsobserver.com/102/story/513439.html
Fleenor, Patrick (2003) Cigarette Taxes, Black Markets, and Crime: Lessons from New York's 50-Year Losing Battle. Policy Analysis No. 489 6 Feb 2003. Online available at http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa468.pdf
McMahon, Patrick (2002) States Consider Cigarette Tax Hike. 13 Jan 2002. USA Today. Online available at http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2002/01/14/usat-cigtax.htm
Why do people smoke? All of know that smoking is a dangerous, even potentially lethal habit - and one moreover that now carries an increasing weight of social stigma. And yet still people do it. There must therefore be compelling reasons why people should endanger their health to such a degree and the most obvious of these reasons is the one that smokers themselves offer up the most often: Smoking is simply pleasurable. This paper examines why people smoke cigarettes and especially how young people (who have been aware of the dangers of smoking their entire lives) begin their love affair with nicotine.
When it comes to the issue of smoking and young people, it seems that despite numerous advertising campaigns to quell the use of tobacco in those under the age of eighteen, the reality is that these tactics have been highly ineffective. While the use of tobacco amongst North….
Biasco, F., & Hartnett, J. (2002, September). College students' attitudes toward smoking. College Student Journal, 36(3), 442-448.
Broers B. "Neural Activity Related to Drug Craving in Cocaine Addiction," Arch Gen Psychiatry, 2001;58:334-341
hen in adulthood, people start smoking because of different reasons, mainly because they encounter various problems in their lives. Smoking is commonly identified as a solution to stress, and, people get a feeling of relaxation after smoking. People that smoke are normally thinner than those that don't, and, accordingly, some overweight persons might take up smoking in hope that it would make them slim. Tobacco smoking reduces appetite and people's capacities of tasting and smelling food.
All in all, after trying it for the first times, people become more attracted in smoking because of the effect that nicotine has on their bodies. It would seem that people that are restless are more receptive to smoking in comparison to their calmer counterparts. Also, smokers are inclined to smoke in larger quantities when going through a hectic period in their lives.
hen hearing that smoking is bad for them people most often relate to….
1. Petrie, Gavin. "Smoking - health risks." Retrieved October 25, 2009, from the Net Doctor Web site: http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/health_advice/facts/smokehealth.htm
2. "Understanding Why People Smoke." Retrieved October 25, 2009, from the Tobacco Freedom Web site: http://www.tobaccofreedom.org/issues/smoking/index.html
Petrie, Gavin. "Smoking - health risks." Retrieved October 25, 2009, from the Net Doctor Web site:
Cigarette Advertising Campaign
If we look at the case of Mary and J there is a contract formed between them for Mary to undertake a year long advertising campaign to present the companies cigarettes in a positive light, her remuneration was to be 25% of the increase in sales that the campaign created. It was also recognised that this was a very vague amount, and may be difficult to assess, as a result an additional clause was put for liquidated damages, which, stated that in a breach by J that Mary would be entitled to $25,000. The contract has been breached after only one month, Mary has incurred costs of $25,000 and J is refusing to make any payment.
The first consideration must be if there was a valid contract in place, and if there was, has it been breached and by whom. For a contract to be valid there has to….
In basic terms, cigarette smoking entails the inhalation of tobacco smoke. It can be noted that over time, research has indicated that cigarette smoke contains numerous chemicals which have both short-term as well as long-term effects on the body of an individual. In this text, I highlight the adverse effects of cigarette smoking on the body. In so doing, I will mainly concern myself with the impact of smoking on the reproductive system, the immune system, the respiratory system as well as the cardiovascular system.
Cigarette Smoking and Its Effects on the Human Body
Effects on the Cardiovascular System
A smoker's cardiovascular system is affected both in the short-term and in the long-term by a number of substances found in cigarette smoke. It therefore follows that smoking occasions quite a number of cardiovascular diseases. Some of the cardiovascular diseases and conditions occasioned by smoking include but are not limited to peripheral….
Cigarette Smoke on Different Populations
By now, it has become common knowledge that cigarette smoke is harmful to one's health. However, what is not as well understood is how cigarette smoke impacts different populations in different ways. Smokers feel more of an impact from cigarette smoke than other groups. Elderly smokers are disproportionately impacted by cigarette smoke. However, even nonsmokers can feel the impact of cigarette smoke through secondhand smoke. This paper will explore and describe the impact of smoking on each of these three populations.
First, cigarette smoke has a tremendous negative impact on smokers. Nearly one in five deaths in the United States are due to smoking (CDC, 2000). In fact, "more deaths are caused each year by tobacco use than by all deaths from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), illegal drug use, alcohol use, motor vehicle injuries, suicides, and murders combined" (CDC, 2000). Smokers have 2 to 4 times….
American Cancer Society. (2011, November 14). Secondhand smoke. Retrieved from:
Burns, D.M. (2000). Cigarette smoking among the elderly: disease consequences and the benefits of cessation. Am J. Health Promot, 14(6): 357-61.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, January 10). Health effects of cigarette smoking. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics / fact_sheets/health_effects/effects_cig_smoking/
cigarette smoking leads to increased incidences of lung cancer. The reason(s) behind the study are twofold; one, to see if there is a decided difference in the number of people who smoke and do not smoke, and two, whether that noted difference in smoking vs. non-smoking leads to a higher or lower number of cancer incidences among the study participants. The study will be large-scale and will include a wide diversity of individuals in order to provide a relatively accurate picture of the overall, and categorized, number of individuals developing cancer when compared to whether they are smokers or not.
Since this will be a cross-sectional study it will completed with little expense to the researcher and may provide data that can be useful in determining future processes. The funding for this study is rather limited, and because of that (along with other reasons), the cross-sectional study is the most….
The 2016 article concerns cigarette smoking, its potential numerous connections with disease and its impact in the current international healthcare system. The researchers state smoking impacts adaptive and innate immunity, playing a dual role in regulation of immunity via attenuation of defensive immunity or pathogenic immune responses. The types of adaptive immune cells that feel the impact from cigarette smoking are "T helper cells (Th1/Th2/Th17), CD4+CD25+ regulatory T. cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells and memory T/B lymphocytes while innate immune cells impacted by smoking are mostly DCs, macrophages and NK cells" (Qiu et al., 2015, p. 1). The changes in these cells due to smoking can lead to numerous chronic or acute diseases like autoimmune diseases, cancers and transplant rejection, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and allergies.
The researchers note past studies connect smoking with specific diseases such as lung cancer and emphysema, however not enough updated reviews are performed to….
Cigarette smoking kills, and where it does not, it still inflicts significant harm upon both the smoker and those in his or her vicinity, the victims of so-called second-hand smoke. Cigarette smoke is harmful to virtually every organ in the human body, and is directly or indirectly responsible for numerous diseases. The National Cancer Institute stated that "cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death and disability in developed countries (Johnson, 2011)." For those who smoke over the course of a lifetime, approximately one half will eventually lose their lives to this habit, most frequently during their middle-age years. According to The Center for Disease Control (CDC, 2011), nearly one half million deaths per year, or twenty percent of the overall annual mortality in the United States can be traced directly to cigarette smoking as the primary cause. This exceeds the combined mortality from all other causes including substance….
Plain Packaging on the Cigarette Market Demand and Supply in Australia
The Australian cigarette market is reported to be a "subset of the global industry." (Carter, 2003) There are three companies operating in Australia including: (1) ritish American Tobacco Australia (ATA); (2) Philip Morris International (Australia) PMA and (3) Imperial Tobacco Australia (ITA) all whom are wholly owned subsidiaries of their overseas parent. While the Australian tobacco market is a mature market with per capita consumption in decline the tobacco companies "remain highly profitable entities and business is strong…the equivalent of 1100 packs of 25 cigarettes are sold in Australia every minute." (Carter, 2003) ecause the tobacco companies are owned by overseas companies, none of them are listed on the Australian Stock Exchange and that means that the information available on the specific local company operations is limited.
Australian Cigarette rand Examined
Carter (2003) examines brand identity in Australian cigarette brands, brand….
8 Review of Literature (nd) Economic and Social Development Department. FAO Corporate Document Repository. Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y4997e/y4997e0l.htm
Carter, S (2003) From Legitimate Consumers to Public Relations Pawns: the Tobacco Industry and Young Australians. Tob Control 2003 December. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1766123/
Carter, SM (2003) The Australian Cigarette Brand as Product, Person and Symbol. Tob Control 2003;12. Retrieved from: http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/12/suppl_3/iii79.full
Cigarettes and Price Inelastic (2012) Plain Sense Economics. Retrieved from: http://www.plain-sense.com/2009/04/04/cigarettes-are-price-inelastic/
In practice, Du aurier brand stands on a safer position compared to the overall position of the group. For example, in 2007, Imperial Tobacco Canada has reported a
276 million profit, 4 million lower than the profit reported in the previous year. However, this was due to exchange rates.
The main financial objective for Du aurier is to increase its profits by 10%. However, prices must be kept at approximately the same level as before. This means that sales volume must increase.
3.2. arketing Objectives
The main objective that must be attained in the future period of time consists in increasing the number of customers. Du aurier already is the most popular brand on the Canadian tobacco market by far. However, there is still room for improvements.
In order to attract more customers, Du aurier should orient its marketing strategy towards younger segments of customers. One of the segments that present great growth potential….
Modern tobacco marketing (2008). British American Tobacco. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.bat.com/group/sites/uk__3mnfen.nsf/vwPagesWebLive/DO78BDW6?opendocument&SKN=1&TMP=1 .
Cigarette Brands Sold in Canada (2004). Physicians for a Smoke-Free Canada. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.smoke-free.ca/factsheets/pdf/brands.pdf.
Tobacco advertisements at points of sale (2002). Health Canada. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs./pubs/tobac-tabac/eval-2002/advertisements-publicite2_e.html .
Graphic Warnings on Cigarette Packages: When Public Health Depends on Public Knowledge
The principles of liberty and personal freedom upon which this country was founded and to which it has ostensibly been dedicated over the course of its history have continually and increasingly come into conflict with other principles, primarily the principle of protection. If it is not the government's job to ensure the protection of its people from both internal and external threats, then there really isn't much of a point to that government. According to liberalist theories, the smallest amount of personal freedoms should be given up in order to obtain the best possible protection, and finding the balance between these two competing ideals can be seen as the fundamental cause of debate and progress in law making and policy enforcement. Some cases are clear-cut -- we have rules of the road that limit personal freedom in order….
Borland, R., Wilson, N., Fong, G., Hammond, D…. & McNeill, A. (2009). Impact of graphic and text warnings on cigarette packs: findings from four countries over five years. Tobacco Control 18(5): 358-64.
CDC. (2012). Tobacco use. Accessed 26 April 2012. http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/aag/osh.htm
FDA. (2012). Cigarette health warnings. Accessed 26 April 2012. http://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/Labeling/CigaretteWarningLabels/default.htm
Koch, W. (2011). Graphic images on cigarette packs delayed by ruling. Accessed 26 April 2012. http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/story/health/story/2011-11-07/Judge-blocks-graphic-images-on-cigarette-packages/51108576/1
Cigarettes Should be Illegal
In today's modern world, we have discovered many things about the workings of our bodies which were know known just a few decades ago. The human genome has been mapped, making it possible to engineer plants, and design medications for specific diseases. The need for a balance between exercise, food intake, and the kind of foods has been clearly documented. Products which were glamorized just a few decades ago have been targeted for extinction by consumer groups. As medical data has accumulated, mountains of evidence demonstrate that these products, which once were considered a part of a socially elite lifestyle, are dangerous, if not deadly, to human life. One such product is the cigarette.
The production and use of cigarettes have been a part of the American culture since we discovered the plants with the help of Native Americans 400 years ago. Once the dried and shredded leaves….
But can a society which calls itself moral and just continue to exploit the desires of its citizens, and continue to make profit on a product which is harmful to those who use it? In the 1970's, the Ford Motor Company encumbered significant fines for producing the Ford Pinto automobile. Consumers discovered that in specific circumstances, the gas tank exploded, and causing serious harm to the car's passengers. In the late 20th century, Bridgestone Firestone was found legally liable for rollover accidents when their poorly designed tires fragmented, and failed prematurely. Warehouses are still filled with defective tires as the company struggles with the aftermath of the most expensive product recall in the country's history.
Shouldn't a product which kills people slowly, but just as surely as an exploding gas tank and a rollover accident, also be banned form the consumer marketplace? Shouldn't a government which regulates the age at which its members can drink and drive also set limits on dangerous products? In other industries, products have warnings, or are distributed only through certified professionals. The country agrees that other drugs, such as marijuana, are illegal because of the detrimental effects these products cause. Why won't the government and society apply the same standard to another deadly product, and outlaw its use as well?
History repeats itself when we don't learn from it, and the history of cigarette use is repeating itself in new generations. Cigarettes are no longer the choice of the rich and affluent. Rather the poor and lower class choose to use cigarettes. Today, just as in colonial times, the cigarettes make money for those who produce them, and create even more revenue for the government which taxes their sale and distribution. Just as the poor produced the products on plantations, and wealthy land owners amassed fortunes at their expense, today government and corporations amass fortunes of the poor who still chose to enjoy a dangerous, legal product. Again I ask, shouldn't a government which seeks to be just, and watch over the welfare of its citizens outlaw a proven dangerous product?
Sports - Drugs
This, in turn, will also affect the overall economic situation of the country. A particular country's condition will also affect its neighboring country, hence, everyone is the world…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Today, each country implements the quotas it finds most suitable, leading as such to major fluctuations in the taxes, their percentage in the price and the final retail…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
.." (Fleenor, nd) it is related that it did not take long for this to spread into other U.S. states with trucks all around the United States being hijacked…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Cigarettes Why do people smoke? All of know that smoking is a dangerous, even potentially lethal habit - and one moreover that now carries an increasing weight of social stigma.…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
hen in adulthood, people start smoking because of different reasons, mainly because they encounter various problems in their lives. Smoking is commonly identified as a solution to stress, and,…Read Full Paper ❯
Cigarette Advertising Campaign If we look at the case of Mary and J there is a contract formed between them for Mary to undertake a year long advertising campaign to…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Cigarette Smoking In basic terms, cigarette smoking entails the inhalation of tobacco smoke. It can be noted that over time, research has indicated that cigarette smoke contains numerous chemicals…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Cigarette Smoke on Different Populations By now, it has become common knowledge that cigarette smoke is harmful to one's health. However, what is not as well understood is how…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
cigarette smoking leads to increased incidences of lung cancer. The reason(s) behind the study are twofold; one, to see if there is a decided difference in the number…Read Full Paper ❯
The 2016 article concerns cigarette smoking, its potential numerous connections with disease and its impact in the current international healthcare system. The researchers state smoking impacts adaptive and innate…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Cigarette smoking kills, and where it does not, it still inflicts significant harm upon both the smoker and those in his or her vicinity, the victims of so-called second-hand…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Plain Packaging on the Cigarette Market Demand and Supply in Australia The Australian cigarette market is reported to be a "subset of the global industry." (Carter, 2003) There are…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Advertising
In practice, Du aurier brand stands on a safer position compared to the overall position of the group. For example, in 2007, Imperial Tobacco Canada has reported a 276…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Graphic Cigs Graphic Warnings on Cigarette Packages: When Public Health Depends on Public Knowledge The principles of liberty and personal freedom upon which this country was founded and to which it…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Progymasmata Cigarettes Should be Illegal In today's modern world, we have discovered many things about the workings of our bodies which were know known just a few decades ago. The human…Read Full Paper ❯