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Civil Society -- a Definition and Defense of this Critical Aspect of Modern Life
What is a civil society? To answer this question, what is the nature and composition of a civil society, one must first answer the question -- what is a society? A society may be defined as a conglomeration or an association of individuals greater than and representing a wider and more diverse range of interests than 'the one.' In other words, a society is more than an individual. And, although a family or at least an extended family could be perceived as a kind of microcosm of society, technically a family is not equated with a society by sociologists because of its relative singularity of interests, emotional and social, and economic. In contrast, the nature and components of the civil societies such as trade unions, churches, and interest groups of various political colors are voluntary in…
Civil Society and the ights of Individuals
Through the years, civil society and the rights of man have come to know many things. Many philosophers have helped lay the groundwork for how we govern ourselves today. We have words like democracy, autocracy, dictatorship, and other ways of defining a society and rules that determine what the rights of individuals will be. It was in the hands of philosophers like ousseau and Burke who began the discussions concerning what governs a society. These philosophers studied society and defined very particular beliefs concerning social, political, and economic ideas that were present in society. These philosophers tackled questions such as what the state of Man actually is, social regimes, religion, and other forms of nature. ousseau and Burke were philosophers with conflicting views on man and civil society. This paper will discuss their beliefs and how they are seemingly trying to teach the…
Burke, "Reflections on the Revolution in France," ed Pocock (Hackett)
Rousseau, "Basic Political Writing," tr Kress, intro P. Gay (Hackett)
Civil society leader is a person who takes a role to engage a group of individual in pushing for a common agenda trying to improve or promote the quality of life within a society (Van Til, 2000). A civil society leader develops a combination of information into working knowledge to uplift the moral within a group in a bid to make a difference about a prevailing situation. The civil society leader undertakes both political and non-political measure to afford an understanding to the members of the society and push for changes within the society (Slaby, 2011).
Edmond Yakin is a civil society leader in Sudan a newly formed republic struggling to uplift itself from over a decade-long civil unrest. The leader Edmond Yakani is well-known for condemning the newly formed government ignorance to the injustices to the locals and disregard for human life. As a civil society leader,…
Slaby, K. (2011). Providing a direction on leadership. [Review of the book On leadership, J. w. Gardner].
Van Til, J. (2000). Growing Civil Society: From Nonprofit Sector to Third Space. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Civil Society Through "Legalize Marijuana" Organizations
As microcosms of civil society, collective action groups operate with processes used by civil society but with uniquely tailored processes and results. The National Organization for Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) is one example of a collective action group that has used these processes to establish itself, grow, survive and currently flourish. Through intelligent framing, effective resource mobilization and wise use of political opportunity, NORML's 40+year history has resulted in growth from an idea supported by a few people to a well-funded and assertive national movement. This work will attempt to show NORML'S accurate reflection of successful civil society by reviewing research on civil society and collective action groups, reviewing NORML's history, and applying the research to NORML.
Collective Action Group as a Microcosm of Civil Society
Framing processes are a central dynamic, along with resource mobilization and political opportunity processes, for understanding…
Arat, Y. (1994). Toward a democratic society: The women's movement in Turkey in the 1980s. Womenh's Studies Int. Forum, 17(2/3), 241-248.
Benford, R.D., & Snow, D.A. (2000). Framing processes and social movements: An overview and assessment. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 611-639. Retrieved on June 13, 2012 from www.jstor.org Web site: http://www.jstor.org/stable/223459
California Choices. (2010). Prop 19. Retrieved on June 13, 2012 from californiachoices.org Web site: http://californiachoices.org/ballot-measures/proposition-19
McCarthy, J.D., & Zald, M.N. (May 1977). Resource mobilization and social movements: A partial theory. The American Journal of Sociology, 82(6), 1212-1241.
At the same time, as compared to Ukraine, in Poland "the hard budget constraint on state enterprises, together with sufficient standards of corporate governance" were the main governmental instruments to avoid a "large-scale asset stripping before privatization"
. This was one of the key reasons for which the economic rebound started quite early for Poland, as compared to Ukraine. The privatization process did not take the chaotic characteristics it had in Ukraine, where the state assets were often simply divided between groups of interests and individuals close to the decision factors and power leverages. The rational privatization process in Poland meant that many of these assets, still functional, could be used to resume economic growth. Further along, the fact that there was a rational privatization of these assets meant that the direct foreign investment could gradually start during the early 1990s.
There was another explanation for the economic evolution in…
1. The World Bank. 2002. Transition - The First Ten Years Analysis and Lessons for Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union.
2. Fritz, Verena. 2008. State-Building: A Comparative Study of Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, and Russia. Central European University Press. Page 113
3. Snelbeckker, David. June 2005. Pension Reform in Eastern Europe and Eurasia: Experiences and Lessons Learned. The Services Group.
4. From Howard, Marc. 2003. Weaknesses of Civil Society in Post Communist Europe. Cambridge University Press
Social Equality & Equity
Insights: As you read the resources, create bullet points that capture what you have learned about the relationship between equality and social equity, and critical insights you gained from each article. Summarize these key points and insights by using APA format.
One thing that stands out is that equality is something that is easy to say but hard to enforce or truly define. Many assert that people should NOT be equal, should not given the right on the same footing as others and so forth. However, when the "rich get richer," such as has been happening for years now, that is a hard principle to defend (Hacker & Pierson).
Equality and equity of access are the two main perspectives, it would seem, when it comes to people's lot in life. The author of this response would side with the latter. So long as everyone has an…
ALA. (2015). Equality and Equity of Access: What's the Difference? | Offices of the American Library Association. Ala.org. Retrieved 30 July 2015, from http://www.ala.org/offices/oif/iftoolkits/toolkitrelatedlinks/equalityequity
Cooper, T.L. (2012). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role (6th ed.). New York, NY: Jossey-Bass. Chapter 9, "Applying
the Design Approach to Public Administration Ethics" (pp. 243 -- 254)
Frederickson, H.G. (2005). The state of social equity in American public administration.
What must however be noted is that globalization has sadly enough also had some negative impacts. Probably the most relevant example in this sense has been the emergence of a war on terrorism in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks. Such actions are indeed linked to international law, which did stir up controversy but did not prevent the emergence of the war. "Terror can be regarded as a direct attack on global civil society, a way of creating fear and insecurity that are the opposite of civil society" (Kaldor, 2003). The final impact is that of major disruption in the consolidation of a strong global civil society.
Kaldor, M., 2003, the Idea of Global Civil Society, International Affairs, Vol.…
Kaldor, M., 2003, the Idea of Global Civil Society, International Affairs, Vol. 79, No. 3, pp. 583-593
However in those days, the progress was even slower and there was deeper concern about the possibility of complete transition. Samuel Huntington's path-breaking book, Political Order in Changing Societies (1968) has been by far the most well received and comprehensive book on the subject of civilian military relations. Huntington studied the conditions in Latin America and found that in underdeveloped countries, militaries were usually more powerful because society cannot access the government and hence support military's interference. Middle classes then "compel the military to oppose the government" and restore the status quo ante. Military may be powerful but Huntington felt that it was the organizational structure that can be blamed for coups but instead the social structure and thus "Military explanations do not explain military intervention," he argued.
By the end of the 1970s, even more literature appeared on the scene to explain civil military relations and to study the…
In some ways, the Civil War was the analogue of the Terror for Americans: It was the bloodthirsty incestuous violence that allowed the nation to move onward to a full embrace of democracy, joining itself to Europe as the world began to tip toward democratic ideas and ideals.
Stephen Kantrowitz's biography of Benjamin Tillman demonstrates how he can be seen as a symbol for an entire cohort of Southerners of his generation, people (mostly but not exclusively men) who could neither understand nor tolerate the new order that had formally instituted itself after Emancipation. They could not understand a world in which black men were suddenly their legal equals. Tillman, and others like him, lived in a world that told them that blacks had to be treated like equals even though many white Southerners did not see their black compatriots as even being fully human.
This set up…
Society and Culture
The heirloom of the sixties era has been significant and decidedly pivotal for the advancement of culture and society in nations, an aspect that is referred to as civilization. These changes and modifications that the society went through made the 1960s decade to be one of the fundamental and vital periods of the twentieth century and a landmark that is forever etched. The 1960s era can be revered and given admiration as revolutionary. These changes had a major influence on not only nations in South America and Africa that were developing, but it also had a great influence in civilized nations and we choose to concentrate on Belgium (MacDonald, 2007).
The changes that the society experienced and went through at that time made the 1960s one of the fundamental transition periods of the twentieth century and significant to how culture had fashioned society to what we see…
Donnelly, M. (2014). Sixties Britain: culture, society and politics. Routledge.
Gammond, P. (1993). The Oxford Companion to Popular Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Grossberg, L. (1984). Another boring day in paradise: Rock and roll and the empowerment of everyday life. Popular Music, 4, 225-258.
Helc, R. (2006). The Beatles and Their Influence on Culture. Brno: Masaryk University.
The war and the years that preceded it led to the creation of social classes in our country. These classes consisted of the rich upper-class down to the poor immigrants; and each class had its own rules and regulations by which it lived. To this day, a large part of our society is based on classes. Socially, the war divided races and started what would lead to racism, bigotry, and the separation of black and whites. The war had served as a pathway to change but it would be several decades before the racial views of whites would change and allow for blacks to be treated fairly. Another thing that changed shortly after the war was women's rights. This movement paved the way for women to be considered equal and treated fairly (Ferland, 2009).
Ever since the Civil ar ended there has been great discussion over whether or not the…
"Civil War Overview." 2008. Son of the South. 26 April 2009
Ferland, R.W. 2009. AuthorsDen.com. 26 April 2009
Civil war is the most momentous and crucial period in the history of America. Not only did this war bring an end to slavery in the country but also paved way for numerous social and political changes. The country had already been torn by the negative trend in race relations and numerous cases of slave uprisings were taking their toll on the country's political and social structure. While slavery is cited as the most common cause of the Civil War, it is believed that there were several other factors involved. In other words, though slavery was the major cause it was certainly not the only cause.
Though slavery was the major cause of the Civil War, it was the issues of states rights that played the second most important role. We must understand here Confederation was created with 13 colonies coming together and forming central government. But it…
In the North, however, abolitionists groups began to see slavery another way. Finally, when Lincoln -- who was perceived as anti-slavery -- was elected, the South fought to exercise what it believed were its states rights by seceding.
After the war concluded, these cultural and economic differences were not gone with the wind. Instead, they were prominent during reconstruction and continue to characterize the culture of the North and South today. McElrath's timeline of reconstruction shows several attempts at making the South racially equal, which can be defined as one of the goals of reconstruction. The Civil Rights Bill and 14th amendment were methods by which this was accomplished. However, Civil ar era culture has left such an impact on the region as to make race relations in the American South still stereotypically tenacious.
Kelly, Martin. "Top Five Causes of the Civil ar." About.com 2009. 26 July 2009.…
Kelly, Martin. "Top Five Causes of the Civil War." About.com 2009. 26 July 2009.
McElrath, Jessica. "Timeline of the Reconstruction Era." About.com. 2009. 26 July 2009.
Acceptance must be made by an intended party to the contract and must be understood by the offerer before he withdraws or retracts the offer.
And consideration is some forebearance on the part of both sides to make a contract enforceable. For instance, a simple promise is not enforceable. However, when a grandfather promises to pay his grandson $5 for every 'A' in school, and the grandson agrees, there is an enforceable contract in that both sides are giving up something: The student is working hard for grades and gives up his right to slack off, and the grandfather is giving up $5.
Consideration usually cannot be nominal, in that you generally cannot have $1 consideration for sale of a house.
Many other rules apply to contract law, like mutual mistake, unilateral mistake, the mailbox rule that defines when offers and acceptance are valid through the mail, impossibility, frustration of…
Lee decided to run even before Sherman was able to come, and escaped from Petersburg. Grant was able to catch him at Appomattox, and then was the surrendered. There were 360,000 dead on the Union side and 260,000 dead on the Confederate side, but the union continued. This war made United States as a nation and a state. Earlier secession and state veto power had been disturbing the government from the beginning. (United States (History): The South Secedes) From here started econstruction, but that is another story.
Coming of the Civil War: An Overview. etrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Bleeding Kansas. etrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Bleeding-KansasAccessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Missouri Compromise. etrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Missouri-CompromiseAccessed on 26 May, 2005
The Compromise of 1850. etrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
United States (History): Bleeding Kansas. etrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html#s85Accessed on 26 May, 2005
United States (History):…
Coming of the Civil War: An Overview. Retrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Bleeding Kansas. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Bleeding-KansasAccessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Missouri Compromise. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Missouri-CompromiseAccessed on 26 May, 2005
The Compromise of 1850. Retrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
The book, Civil Action, is based on a true case and it highlights the suffering of a small community in Boston in 1970s. The story revolves around the case of Ms. Anne Anderson, a resident of Woburn in 1970s, who discovered much to her horror that her child, a three-year-old boy was suffering from leukemia. While the disease itself was not that strange or uncommon, what aroused her suspicions was the fact that many children had suffered from the same illness in her area in a relatively short period of time. Woburn was an industrial town and the exposure to chemicals was believed to be the cause of this tragedy.
During this period, many other children had exhibited the same signs and symptoms and thus the people of the town decided to raise a voice against industries that would dump chemical waste in water hubs of the town.…
The belief was that eventually the North would have to give up, as long as the South could maintain a unified defense (McPherson). The Confederate Army was not well organized in the beginning, however, and the widespread and largely independent militias defending the Confederate borders were stretched too thin in places, allowing the Union Army to break through (McPherson). Technological advancements had large effects on the strategies of both the Union and Confederate armies as well.
The railroad was one of the most important advancements of the time; it was used to ship troops and supplies, and the destruction of railroad lines was common practice by both armies.
McPherson, James. Battle Cry of Freedom. Accessed 10 May 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/confederatestrategy.htm
Smith, Page. Trial By Fire, A People's History of the Civil War and econstruction. Accessed 10 May 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/unionstrategy.htm
McPherson, James. Battle Cry of Freedom. Accessed 10 May 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/confederatestrategy.htm
Smith, Page. Trial By Fire, A People's History of the Civil War and Reconstruction. Accessed 10 May 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/unionstrategy.htm
If there is ever a case where the courts cannot determine what the original intention of the parties was, the country with the most logical connection to the contract is often chosen as the country of law for deciding the dispute. The place of performance of the contractual duties; the place of residence of the contractual parties; the nature of the subject matter of the contract -- all of these have been used to decide contract jurisdiction.
Torts -- wrongs done to others -- are the domain of civil law. s with contracts, there is a "proper law of the tort," which country has the most significant relationship with the event or the parties. The law of that country applies. Therefore, the place where the wrong occurs is usually which law applies. This is similar to the way tort cases work in the United States. The state in which…
Australian courts can also decline to hear a case if it doesn't believe it is the right forum.
Since 2004 and the introduction of European SE companies, some interesting conflicts of jurisdiction have ensued. If the company was first registered in a single country, it is subject to those laws. As an SE company, the corporation is also subject to additional regulations of the Union. The corporation doesn't have to abide by all the laws of all the countries of the Union, just the specific SE rules and the rules of their country. This can be a distinct advantage for SE companies at they can forum shop and choose the country which best suits the business' needs before making a choice about where to base its operations. The company can then operate both under the jurisdiction of the country with the most favorable laws and have the privileged position of an SE throughout the Union. This kind of behaviour will continue for the foreseeable future; there has been some consistency of law across the Union recently, but there are still distinct differences from country to country. It is worth a corporation's time and effort to do its research before deciding where to incorporate.
ho can join the Cadet Program for CAP aerospace? Candidates must be between 13 to 18 years of age, or have at least finished the sixth grade, no matter what their age is. The cadets in the aerospace program get immersed in leadership programs, educational activities, "moral leadership and physical fitness." Along the way to getting their training, the aerospace cadets can earn advanced ranks (just like the regular military enlistees do), they can get awards and certificates, and they "may become eligible for CAP national or international special activities" and compete for scholarships," the article continues.
hat are the requirements for individuals to become an airborne part of the regular CAP? They have to have a private pilot license, journalist Phillips writes in Aviation eek & Space Technology magazine. They also have to have accumulated 200 hours of flying time, but they can begin training for missions after 175…
About.com. (2005). Air Force Fact Sheets: Civil Air Patrol. Retrieved 2 Dec, 2006, at http://usmilitary.about.com/library/milinfo/affacts/blcivilairpatrol.htm .
Air Force Print News Today. (2005). Air Force Search and Rescue Crews Combing Coast, Civil
Air Patrol Assessing Damage. Retrieved 2 Dec. 2006 at http://www.af.mil/pressreleases/story_print.asp?storyID=123011923 .
Air Force Print News Today (2006). Civil Air Patrol honored for hurricane relief contributions. Retrieved 2 Dec. 2006 at http://www.af.mil/news/story_print.asp?storyID=123027420 .
Civil ights Historical Journal Entry
Tonight I awoke to the unmistakable sounds of long restrained rage being freed from its cage. My neighbors are in the street below the grocery store I've owned for nearly two decades, decent folks who are simply trying to earn a living and raise their families the right way. While most of them are Black, and have been since the bigoted practice of "blockbusting" drove most of the Whites to migrate en masse from the neighborhood of Watts (Simpson, 2012), these people are my neighbors, and in most cases, my dear friends. Tonight though, they have become an angry mob growing larger by the minute, a constellation of fierce eyes flashing amidst the darkness, orbiting slowly around a police car, the White cop driving it, and the young Black man he is trying to arrest. As the screams and shouts become more pitched, and the…
Reitman, V., & Landsberg, M. (2005, August 11). Watts riots, 40 years later. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/news/la-me-watts11aug11,0,673501.story
Simpson, K. (2012, February 15). The great migration: Creating a new black identity in los angeles. KCET Connected, Retrieved from http://www.kcet.org/socal/departures/landofsunshine/portraits/the-great-migration - creating-a-new-black-identity.html
They would subsequently call them at home, leave literature and fetus dolls at their door, and even call families and distant relatives of the patients to inform them of the patients' plans to ask them to intercede. The Pro-Life advocates argued that they were lawfully exercising their right of free speech on public property (such as across the street fro doctors' offices) to verbally attack patients by name as they exercise their equally important right to personal physical autonomy under the recognized privacy penumbras.
The Value of the Legal Approach Suggested by the Article
The Yale Law Journal article (Clapman, 2003) explained various ways that the general right of free speech is limited by more important privacy rights. For example, truth is ordinarily an affirmative defense to defamation. However, existing law already recognizes that certain statements, despite being truthful, serve no valid purpose besides injuring another person, such as by…
Clapman, A. "Privacy rights and abortion outing: a proposal for using common-law torts to protect abortion patients and staff." The Yale Law Journal. Yale University,
School of Law. 2003. Retrieved May 25, 2010 from HighBeam Research:
Dershowitz, A. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Civil War Freedmen: Freedmen's Bureau ecords In The Aftermath
In the years following the American Civil war, fought between 1961 and1965, many freedmen lost their homes, got separated from their families, and lost all claim to the little property they had. Although nearly four million slaves were freed, towns and cities in the region lay in ruins and the economy was destroyed. Faced with the challenge of restoring social order and providing assistance to the distressed freedmen, the U.S. government came up with the Freedmen's Bureau, also known as the Bureau of efugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands. Established in March 1965 by President Abraham Lincoln, the main aim of this Bureau was to provide relief effort to the former slaves from the south; and to facilitate the social reconstruction that would make the freedmen full citizens. The Bureau also helped them reunite with families, purchase land, establish schools, and even…
The Valley of the Shadow (1865-1870). Freedmen's Bureau Records: Race Relation, Family, Education. The Aftermath. Retrieved 9 April 2015 from http://vshadow.vcdh.virginia.edu/fbureau/bureau_topics_race.html
Instead of being a source of "organized social power" (Elkins 28) the church had "undergone a relentless process of fragmentation." People were religious, but Elkins asserts that people were seeking "individual satisfaction" rather than building "institutional needs." Elkins (150) delves into the Transcendentalists' view of the church, which was very cynical; "the church as an institution was corrupt..." The two author views are radically different one from the other.
SLAVES & MASTERS: Elkins explains that Southerners had "...a paternal affection of the good master for his blacks" and there were "warm sentiments" in southern Society for "faithful slave" (Elkins 61). However, on page 57 Elkins reports a case where a Virginia Judge in 1827 declined to punish the master who had cruelly battered his slave. Slaves had no legal rights and hence masters could take total control over their lives. Elkins does assert that a master could not kill his…
Elkins, Stanley M. (1968). Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life.
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
McPherson, James M. (1982). Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction. New York:
Alfred a. Knopf.
He encounters this fascination with the war throughout the South, and as his book shows, it colors how the South views the North, blacks, and perhaps worst of all, it colors how the rest of the country views the South.
As the South continues to cling to their Confederacy, it adds to misunderstandings, stereotypes, and unflattering assessments of the people that make up the South. Many of Horwitz's descriptions sound as if they could be stereotypes, (such as "Tony Cool"), and another writer notes, "And, like it or not, many Americans accept that the trailer-park-trash types are usually Southern. It is an extremely unfortunate stereotype, but it exists" (Begone). By re-creating the Civil War and the South's devastating loss, southerners are simply perpetuating the worst of their society, and these authors all agree on that point.
Begone, Jonah. "Advancing the Southern Cause." WesClark.com. 2006. 12 Aug. 2006. http://www.wesclark.com/jw/southern_cause.html
Begone, Jonah. "Advancing the Southern Cause." WesClark.com. 2006. 12 Aug. 2006. http://www.wesclark.com/jw/southern_cause.html
Horwitz, Tony. Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches from the Unfinished Civil War. New York: Pantheon, 1998.
Rider, Shawn. "Coping Through History: Tony Horwitz's 'Confederates in the Attic,' History, and Reconciliation." Personal Web Page. 1999. 12 Aug. 2006. http://www.wdog.com/rider/writings/horwitz.htm
The work Gemeinschaft is translated as "community" and is a reference to the "closeness of holistic social relationships said to be found in pre-industrial communities, and imputed to the community as moral worth." (Hughes, nd, p.1) Gemeinschaft is reported to be dependent in terms of its existence upon the member's "subjective will" and as stated in the work of Tonnies (1925) "The very existence of Gemeinschaft rests in the consciousness of belonging together and the affirmation of the condition of mutual dependence." (p.69) While a similar association exists in what is known as Gesellschaft, this society or association is based on unity based on "common traits and activities and other external phenomena." (Tonnies, 1925, p.67) Such as the "ethnic community, community of speech and community of work" are not Gemeinschaft since they are lacking the critical factor of "shared feeling which is essential to Gemeinschaft." (Hughes, nd, p.1)…
Hughes, I. (nd) Gemeinschaft (community) and Gesellschaft (society). Retrieved from: http://foster.20megsfree.com/544.htm
Tonnies F (1925) "The Concept of Gemeinschaft," in Cahnman WJ & Heberle R (Eds) Ferdinand Tonnies on Sociology: Pure, applied and empirical. Selected writings, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp62-72.
Tonnies, F. (nd) Community and Civil Society. Cambridge University Press. (eds) Jose Harris. (Trans) Jose Harris and Margaret Hollis. Retrieved from: http://www.tlu.ee/files/arts/10245/T%C3%B6nn31a3d7f11826a4143580359cbb9fb159.pdf
Moral Basis of Capitalism
Positive Moral Basis for Capitalist Society
The theory of property right is probably society's turning point towards capitalism. Locke's theory on civil society and government is centered around individuals' natural right to property. In the Second Treatise, the author's justification of individuals uniting into developing governments, societies, is represented by their intention of preserving property. In Locke's view, it is the preservation of property that draws the limits, rights and obligations of governments and civil society. The issue here is Locke's definition of property. The interesting point is that Locke seems to differently categorize property within the Second Treatise. For example, property in Locke's view is individual's life, liberty and estate in some parts of the writing, while in other parts property is represented by persons and goods. Although specialists in the field have found this view on property as confusing, I think it should not…
1. John Locke (2012). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 10, 2013 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke/ .
This is inherently different than the consociational approach, which attempts to broker deals between factions without truly bridging the divide, but this does not mean that the two approaches cannot be used in tandem and in fact Byrne makes an excellent case that just such a dual approach is necessary to achieve true and lasting conflict resolution. Byrne identifies several barriers to the civil society approach in Northern Ireland, primarily noting that the British focus on faction elites as the means to achieving peace in the nation has led to a lack of grassroots attention and broader efforts at reducing aggression and tension in the populous.
Civil society approaches to conflict resolution are quite specifically not governmental in their ultimate structure -- government-sponsored and even -operated programs could very well be a part of actual civil society approaches, but such approaches and individual methods and mechanisms within them do not…
S. government analysts report that the Sudanese have violated the border with the Central African Republic during various military expeditions (Sudan 2). Furthermore, although millions of Sudanese have been displaced by these civil wars, so too has it been forced to deal with large numbers of refugees from neighboring countries, primarily Ethiopia and Chad, seeking refuge from their respective conflicts as well (Sudan 3). According to these analysts, "Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations" (Sudan 2).
The Aftermath of the Discovery of Oil.
In their book, Africa's Thirty Years ar: Libya, Chad, and the Sudan, 1963-1993, Burr and Collins (1999) report that on the on hand, the Sudan is blessed with abundant natural resources, but on the other hand, the nation has been unable to exploit these to their maximum advantage for a variety of…
Burr, J. Millard and Robert O. Collins. Africa's Thirty Years War: Libya, Chad, and the Sudan, 1963-1993. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999.
Cypher, J.M. And J.L. Dietz. The Process of Economic Development. London: Routledge, 1997.
Dupraz, Emily. (2002). "The Oils of War: Conflict in the Sudan." Harvard International Review 24(1):10.
El-Tigani, Mahgoub. (2001). "Solving the Crisis of Sudan: The Right of Self-Determination vs. State Torture." Arab Studies Quarterly 23(2):41.
Martin Luther King & George Orwell
Martin Luther King and George Orwell's representations of an ethical society
Civil rights movement leader Martin Luther King and novelist George Orwell had been known for their political discourses regarding the extent of the government's responsibility to civil society. In the essay "My Pilgrimage to Nonviolence" by King and "Shooting an Elephant" by Orwell, each author's discourse contemplated the kind of ethical society that humanity should have. Their discussion centered on their experiences as members of a society where civil strife and inequality were the norm, devoid of each author's standards in an ethical (i.e., 'ideal') society. In King's "My Pilgrimage," he shared with readers the path he took and underwent in order to achieve his "intellectual odyssey to nonviolence." Citing famous works on the Enlightenment and Capitalism, such as Bentham, Mill, Rousseau, Marx, and Nietzsche, he realized that for him, an ethical society…
role of prisons in the society. I have included the theories of deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, incapacitation, non-interventionism and restoration to support my discussion along with their positive and negative aspects. In the conclusion, I have given my preferred theory of imprisonment as the most effective and important ones.
A prison can be defined as a protected and locked institution where juvenile and grown-up offenders are housed with punishments that vary from a year to life. Such facilities hold the objective of accomplishing the verdict that the courts impose on the offenders and also of protecting the community and civil society by taking measures to prevent escapes. These facilities are also liable to provide programs and services that are important for taking care of the convicted population under their custody (Sumter 2007).
The issue of imprisonment has constantly been an intense experience for every individual found guilty of committing offenses. Sometimes…
Banks, C. (2004). The Purpose of Criminal Punishment. In: Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publicaton, pp 103-126.
Mauer, M. (2004). Thinking About Prison and its Impact in the Twenty-First Century. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law [online].2, p.607-618. Available from: . [Accessed February 17, 2013].
Macionis, J.J. & Plummer, K. (2008). Control, Crime and Deviance. In Sociology: A Global Introduction (5th edition), New York: Pearson Prentice Hall, pp591-592.
MacKenzie, D.L. (1996). Criminal Justice and Crime Prevention. Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice University of Maryland, Maryland. Available from: . [Accessed February 17, 2013].
Though Antigone is certainly the protagonist of the play, she makes her decision very early in the action -- she chooses to bury her brother despite the civil disobedience and disrespect of the State that it shows. Ismene, on the other hand, wavers between the two duties. hen Antigone is caught, her sister tries to take the blame with her: "But now you're in trouble, I'm not ashamed / of suffering, too, as your companion" (Sophocles, 540-1). Though Ismene's motives might be somewhat questionable, she is at least claiming a sense of duty and companionship with her sister -- and a desire to honor her brother -- by joining in the guilt of the act against the State. Antigone will not let her, again for reasons that could be put under debate. One possible explanation for Antigone's refusal to let Ismene share the punishment for the act would be her…
Sophocles. Antigone. Ian Johnston, trans. Accessed 5 March 2009. http://records.viu.ca/~johnstoi/sophocles/antigone.htm
In years before, America was a collection of Chinese, Germans, Italians, Scots, Croats, etc., all craving freedom. Today, even the simple concept of an English-speaking nation is fading off the continent. In the past, immigrants were taught in English in the public schools. In America today, children are taught in German, Italian, Polish, and 108 other languages and dialects. Most of these schools are funded by 139 million federal dollars. "The linguist's egalitarian attitude toward dialect has evolved into the multicultural notion that dialect as a cultural feature is part of one's identity as a member of that culture."
Due to their ethnic or cultural heterogeneity, multiethnic societies in general are more fragile and have a higher risk of conflicts. In the worst case such conflicts can cause the breakdown of these societies. Recent examples of this were the violent breakdown of Yugoslavia and the peaceful separation of Czechoslovakia. Forced…
Cruz, Barbara C. Multiethnic Teens and Cultural Identity: A Hot Issue. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2001.
Dawisha, Adeed. Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century: From Triumph to Despair. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.
Francis, Samuel. "The Other Face of Multiculturalism." Chronicles. April 1998.
Huggins, Nathan I. Revelations: American History, American Myths. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
That premise states a core value that the framers intended to protect. The intentionalist judge must then supply the minor premise in order to protect the constitutional freedom in circumstances the framers could not foresee. (Bork 15)
Bork's approach was recently critiqued by Daniel Ortiz and some others, one of whom noted, with reference to the Griswold decision on privacy, that Bork saw the decision as "unprincipled" "because [e]very clash between a minority claiming freedom and a majority claiming power to regulate involves a choice between the gratifications of the two groups.
hen the Constitution has not spoken [under an originalist theory of interpretation], the Court will be able to find no scale, other than its own value preferences, upon which to weigh the respective claims to pleasure. (Bork Neutral Principles and Some First Amendment Problems).
Bork thus supports community rights over individual rights to a greater extent than has…
Bork, Robert H. "Original Intent." The Judges' Journal (Summer 1987), 13-17.
Bork, Robert H.
Neutral Principles and Some First Amendment Problems, 47 IND. L.J. 1 (1971).
Giddens, Anthony. Social Theory and Modern Sociology. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1987.
Federalism and Religious Freedoms: The Importance of and the Adherence to the Separation of Church and State in a Multicultural Environment
Although it is clear that many religious concepts were embedded into the original drafting of the Constriction and the Nation's laws, maintaining a separation of church and state in the official capacity allowed the country to prosper in many ways. Having civil laws that govern beyond religious controls allows for a level of stability that can accommodate many difference ideologies.
Federalism and Religious Freedoms
A Federalist design works to protect religion and religious leaders by allowing them to operate freely without any state intervention.
• Although religions receive many protections, there are many issues that put the church and state at odds when the religious ideology conflicts with the secular freedoms which have been present since the founding in varying forms and degrees; obvious examples in today's…
During this time he was known for allowing his troops to engage in tactics that were considered to be brutal. This is because he felt that the constant Indian attacks on the railroads and settlers were unacceptable. As a result, he allowed soldiers to attack women, children and men when they were sweeping villages. At the same time, he helped to establish the Command and General Staff College along with writing his autobiography called Memoires. Once he retired from the army he was inducted into the Kappa Psi fraternity and the Irving Literary Society. Upon his death in 1891, Sherman was remembered for being brilliant military tactician and as someone who was willing to give something back to society. This is significant, because it is showing how Sherman's life was focused on military and public service after the end of the Civil War. The answers the question we are studying,…
"George Meade." History of War, 2007. Web. 20 Nov. 2011
"Joshua Chamberlin." Defense Media Network, 2011. Web. 20 Nov. 2011
Lanning, Michael. The Civil War 100. Naperville, IL: Source Books, 2006. Print.
MLA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
In 1834, the British Empire abolished slavery (the Civil War Home Page, 2009). Great Britain had remained one of the United States' largest trading partners and was, at that time, still the most influential nation in the world. Moreover, Great Britain had retained slavery after many other countries ended the practice. The end of slavery in Great Britain also meant that those in the North who wanted the abolition of slavery could support their assertions that the world viewed the United States as backwards and barbarous because of the practice of slavery. Moreover, it certainly changed the potential for allies in the Civil War. Though not a monarchy, the South was an aristocracy and both Britain and France were then-ruled by monarchies. As long as the struggle was about a states-right government rebellion, the root cause of that rebellion, slavery, could be ignored and European countries could provide aid to…
Brotherly Love. (unk.). Historical document: Missouri Compromise. Retrieved February 22,
2011 from PBS.org website: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3h511.html
The Civil War Home Page. (2009). Events leading to war- a Civil War timeline. Retrieved from http://www.civil-war.net/pages/timeline.asp
Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857).
Firstly secession could not be allowed as it would divide the country politically, morally and economically. This aspect tended to highlight the differences between North and South. The differences in terms of labor and ethics presented two almost diametrically opposed systems.
With two fundamentally different labor systems at their base, the economic and social changes across the nation's geographical regions - based on wage labor in the North and on slavery in the South - underlay distinct visions of society that had emerged by the mid-nineteenth century in the North and in the South.
Secondly, the war was inevitable due to one word - slavery. While there are many complex issues, such as independence and economics that can be debated, yet the importance of the slavery issue was a factor that was morally and ethically the main element that made the civil war inevitable and a factor that…
African-American Civil War History in the National Park System. September 20, 2005. http://www.it'd.nps.gov/cwss/history/aa_cw_parks.htm
American Civil war: Wikipedia. September 20, 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Civil_War
Causes of the Civil War: A Balanced Answer. October 1, 2005. http://members.tripod.com/~greatamericanhistory/gr02013.htm
Higham, Robin, and Steven E. Woodworth, eds. The American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.
civil rights since Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated. There are three references used for this paper.
Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in Memphis in 1968 as he was fighting for civil rights in America. Since that time, the country has seen changes in how minorities are treated.
Some of these changes have been positive, while others have had a negative effect on the progression of the civil rights movement.
The Civil Rights movement has seen some positive changes since the death of Martin Luther King, Jr. There are no longer segregated drinking fountains or waiting rooms in public areas. The Black community no longer fears being evicted from their homes because they chose to vote (unknown 1997).
Congressman John Lewis stated on the 40th Anniversary of the Civil Rights movement that "because of the work and sacrifices of many, we are a better people (unknown 1997)."…
Williams III, Joe. The Death of the Civil Rights Movement. Precinct Reporter. (1994):
Williams, Leaford C. Remembering Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Washington Informer.
1996): 17 January.
Civil War in American history [...] why the North won the Civil War, considering how the North and South developed during the 19th century, how the political, economic, and cultural development of the nation placed the North at an advantage and the South at a disadvantage, and finally, how the North ultimately prevailed over the South militarily. The North prevailed in the Civil War for a variety of reasons, from economic to industrial. The South simply did not have the resources the North enjoyed, and they were at a disadvantage from the start of the war. The end was inevitable, but the South resisted much longer than most people had believed, thus dragging the war on and accumulating the losses.
The North won the Civil War not because of wily generals and greater manpower, although that helped. The North won the Civil War for a wide variety of reasons, and…
Woodworth, Steven E. Cultures in Conflict -- The American Civil War. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.
Civil rights can be delineated as the very basic and fundamental rights to be free from unequal treatment, on the basis of particular attributes that are considered important, for instance gender, race, and also disability. The Bill of Rights protects all citizens of the nation against the infringement of their rights and liberties by any entity and even the state, as it is assured in the Constitution. One of the key civil rights discussed and debated in the United States in the present day encompasses the rights of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning community (LGBTQ) (Newton, 2014).
Describe the observed political event in detail, including the environment and people involved
The event I attended was a political protest that covered the annual gay rights march. In particular, the parade was in search of shedding some light on the gay rights. The individuals that participated in the parade…
These decisions certainly paid off, for during the summer of my junior year, I was asked if I would like to return as an engineering intern at the Massachusetts Highway Department as a result of my performance the year before.
Outside of my current academic work, I recently participated in a number of campus activities, such as Relay for Life. I also traveled abroad to the city of Beijing to study and take courses unrelated to my current field of studies; I was also an active member of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) and Alpha Phi Omega as a volunteer in the city of Syracuse, New York. Thus, because of these and other experiences, I have become a very well-rounded person and am confident that I can successfully complete all of the courses at the graduate level for the…
The dead were those that were remembered and martyred in the South, and the survivors had to do just that - survive. Northern soldiers eventually got some kind of pension as a reward for their valor, but the South was in disarray, and Southern soldiers really did not gain anything for their valor. The reactions to this were difficult to read, because many soldiers turned to drugs, alcohol, violence, and many suffered from mental problems. This is an area not often explored, and it made this book more interesting. It would have been nice if the editors had included even more essays and evaluations in this section of the book, because it was definitely the most commanding of all the sections.
This was a difficult book to read, because the essays the editor's chose were extremely academic (and some were very dry), and so it made it more difficult to…
Barton, Michael and Logue, Larry M. The Civil War Veteran: A Historical Reader. New York: New York University Press, 2007.
Three major industries emerged: cotton, tobacco and iron. It's arguable that the cotton and tobacco industries did not stray far from their antebellum roots; however, the majority of the factories were funded by Northern investors. No different was the emerging iron and steel industry of the post-Civil War South - by the early 1900s, the factories were owned almost exclusively by the Northern Andrew Carnegie (Schultz, Tishler).
The emergence of factories did more than impact society as a whole with a race to the cities; race relations were impacted as well. The majority of the new factory jobs were held by whites, with blacks doing only unskilled labor. Mill owners justified the hiring of all whites as making up for the antebellum disparity that had existed when blacks had the majority of agricultural "jobs," if their former slave labor could be called that. At the political level, after the ratification…
Ransom, Roger L. "The Economics of the Civil War." University of California, Riverside, 02-01-2010.
Retrieved from: http:/ / the.net/encyclopedia/article/ransom.civil.war.us
The Reconstruction Acts: 1867. Texas State Library and Archives Commission. Retrieved from:
Because of the fact that they ae Negos, they have been oppessed and intimidated on seveal occasions. Malcolm X also makes some histoical claims when demanding the civil ights. He states that Nego evolt has been going on since 1945 in the whole wold and in 1964 will see that it then emeges to be a black evolution. He claims that this evolution has been happening in Asia, Afica and Latin Ameica fo the not white individuals. The blacks who wee colonized by the Euopeans I Asia have been involved in the stuggle fo since 1945. Fo the Mexican-Ameican stuggle fo equality also involves some histoical statement especially in 1965 when efeing to Cesa Chavez who has had majo contibution fo the La Raza Unida quest fo the ights though non-violent means.
Reason fo the timing of the civil ights demands
In the Montgomey bus boycott, the people ae demanding…
references to his citizenship and the democracy. As for Malcolm the rights are also provided by the constitution. In the Mexican -- American, the rights are provided by the democratic system.
Consequence of failure
The civil rights activists for the Montgomery bus boycott are using non-violent approaches in demanding their rights. This is in line with the approach that Martin Luther King always uses therefore it's expected that the people will continue with the peaceful demonstration until their plights are heard. As for the Malcolm protesting people, they are at this moment peaceful. However if their rights i.e. voting rights are denied, the black man will start using the bullet as a new way to advocate for their rights. They will turn into violent movements and use violence so as to gain their rights.
The civil rights movements in the post was a reaction by most of the war veterans who came from the war hoping to be respected because of the sacrifice that they had given only for them to find that they are still stuck in a segregated and racist nation. This was also in sharp contrast to the freedom principals that they had fought for overseas. Therefore the civil rights seeds were sowed as the as demands were then put forth by the black leaders for equal rights. Martin Luther King was one of the leaders and in this instance he is seen leading the boycott of the Montgomery bus. He advocates for the equal rights of the blacks that they may be respected by their counterpart white citizens particularly in the bus stations. Malcolm X is also advocating for the civil rights of the black people in his expression of the ballot or the bullet. He is expressing the importance of the voting right to be granted because it will be useful in a bloodless revolution. He warns however that the failure to grant the right will lead to retaliation by violence of the bullets. The last incidents considered by the paper is the Mexican-Americans rights group through the faction called La Raza Unida. The members of this group seek to advocate the right of the Mexican-American having realized that there are no equal provisions of opportunities.
Heavy rule will always lead to destruction one way or another. Individuals can only take being oppressed for so long. An ideal society is one where the government and the people are happy.
e see the results of oppression when we look at Martin Luther King's ideas and dreams for a better society. A world apart from Machiavelli's time, King captures the plight of the oppressed individual. He knows all too well what people experience when they are held down by a government that encroaches on everyday freedom. He urges his readers to "rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice" (King). He also sees hope in the future and asks people to "make justice a reality for all of God's children" (King). Justice is part of the government's responsibility to the people. Elizabeth Cady Canton also understood the struggle for independence.…
Elizabeth Cady Stanton. "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolution." Rutgers University Online. Information Retrieved October 1, 2008. http://ecssba.rutgers.edu/docs/seneca.html
Jefferson, Thomas, et al. "The Declaration of Independence." 1776. The Indiana University School of Law Online. Information Retrieved October 1, 2008. http://www.law.indiana.edu/uslawdocs/declaration.html
King, Martin Luther. "I have a Dream." American Rhetoric. Information Retrieved October 1, 2008. http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm
Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 1992.
The 1960s was a period that Americans remember as being a period bursting with activities and movements. There was a lot that these years brought out. Some of the things that the period is remembered for are the many movements, including the civil rights and hippies movements, evolution of art and music and a promotion of love and peace with activism against the war in Vietnam. There were many uprisings in the society, especially in terms of culture, with regard to politics and socially as well. As a result of this, a lot of change was experienced in society. The movements for the rights of African-Americans became very strong during this period and forced the then president Lyndon Johnston to push for a Civil Rights Act, which was enacted in 1964 by Congress.
Although the enactment of this Act was welcomed, it was not sufficient and thus, more…
Magill, Frank N. Chron 20c Hist Bus Comer Vol 2. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, 2014. Internet resource.
Mjagkij, Nina. Organizing Black America: An Encyclopaedia of African-American Associations. New York: Garland, 2001. Internet resource.
Grofman, Bernard. Legacies of the 1964 Civil Rights Act: [...papers given at a 1994 Conference..., Held at the Federal Judicial Centre]. Charlottesville, Va. [u.a.: Univ. Press of Virginia, 2000. Print.
Gold, Susan D. The Civil Rights Act of 1964. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2011. Print.
Q3. What was the purpose of Prohibition? Which groups and areas generally supported the movement? Why?
The purpose of Prohibition was ostensibly to reduce alcohol-related crimes and the suffering perpetrated by alcoholism on individuals, families (particularly women and children), and society as a whole. The Temperance Movement was widely supported by women’s rights activists and abolitionists throughout its existence. Yet it was largely made up of rural, native-born Protestants and there was also a strong anti-immigrant sentiment within the movement. The virulently racist Klu Klux Klan, for example, also supported Prohibition.
In urban locations, the sentiment towards Prohibition was far different. In general, religion was less influential in cities, and many people profited from selling alcohol. Also, for European immigrants, particularly those from Catholic countries, alcohol had a very important place in their cultural worldview. Although Prohibition may have seemed like a benign attempt to protect women and children from…
Social equity is concept that can be difficult to grasp, not only because it means different things to different people, but also because people frequently confuse the concept of equity with the concept of equality. While equality is an understandable social goal, it is important to realize that equality tends to be relative. For example, giving someone equal legal rights to a person from a different social, cultural, or financial background may result in very different results, so that facial equality may actually reinforce the basic inequities that drive discrimination. That is why the concept of social equity goes beyond equality and "implies fair access to livelihood, education, and resources; full participation in the political and cultural life of the community; and self-determination in meeting fundamental needs" (Ecotrust, 2014). To achieve those goals, it is clear that social equity necessarily has two faces: civil rights and economic rights.
Ecotrust. (2014). Social equity. Retrieved September 8, 2014 from Reliable Prosperity website:
Hansen, J. (2011). Origins of the state-federal public welfare programs (1932-1935). Retrieved
September 8, 2014 from The Social Welfare History Project website: http://www.socialwelfarehistory.com/programs/origins-of-the-state-federal-public-welfare-programs/
Under the new policy, the United States was committed to keep all commitments to treaties, provide a shield if nuclear power threatens the freedom of an ally or a nation that is important to U.S. security, and, in cases of other aggression, supply military economic assistance in accordance with treaty commitments, but should look to the nation threatened to assume primary responsibility to provide its own manpower for its defense. The goal was to reduce U.S. aid as the other country strengthens its own military for protection against attack.
Each of these movements created feelings that action was needed to force the government to enforce the laws they had created. Some of them took actions in protests, some in advocating for certain rights, and some took actions using violence. Where women took actions to advocate for women's rights, youth took actions of rebellion against traditions and voicing discontent and disagreement…
Civil Rights Movement. (n.d.). Retrieved from John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum: http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK_in_History/Civil-Rights-Movement.aspx
Decades of change: The rise of cultural and ethnic pluralism. (2008, Apr). Retrieved from IIP Digital: http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/publica...80407123655eaifas0.7868769.html#axzz2QNCLypoo
Hill, L. (2007). America Dreaming: How Youth Changed America in the 60s. Boston, NY: Little Brown and Company.
The civil rights movement 1960-1980. (n.d.). Retrieved from Country Studies: http://countrystudies.us/united-states/history-130.htm
When Sogolon is brought to the king by two hunters, he marries her despite her ugliness. When Sogolon becomes pregnant, she is treated with a great deal of favorability because of the prophecy. Maghan's first wife, Sassouma Berete, became jealous of Sogolon's and fears that her child will displace her own eight-year-old son. Sassouma later affects Sogolon's and Sundiata's lives when, following the king's death, she maneuvers to have her son placed on the throne, forcing Sogolon and Sundiata to flee in exile ("Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali").
From reading this document, it is very clear that the society had similarities to today's culture as far as the roles of men and women are concerned. It is believable that in American culture, women appeared to be weaker while maintaining a mental strength, which is the strongest of strengths.
With that, slavery was another issue that American culture had very…
Civil War Tensions
The American Civil War was not the culmination of one specific issue, which tore North and South, but rather the culmination of a perfect storm of issues and incidents that formed together to make war between the states "inevitable" (Foote, 1958, p. 29). The issues were various and complex: among them was the primacy of "states' rights" in the Constitution, and the usurpation of those rights (so it was felt by many a Southerner) by the Central government. This feeling was directly tied to the outcome of the Mexican-American War, which resulted in the annexing of large territories to the West. Would they be slave states or free states? If one followed the Missouri Compromise line, there should be no question. Slave states were below, free above. But with John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry and the frenzy of the abolitionist caused at fever pitch, the issue…
Economy in the Civil War. (2014). The Civil War. Shmoop.
Egnal, M. (2001). The Beards Were Right: Parties in the North, 1840-1860. Civil War
History 47(1): 30-56.
Foote, S. (1958). The Civil War: Ft. Sumter to Perryville. NY: Random House.
African-American and Mexican-American
Civil Rights in Texas
This essay discusses African-American and Mexican-American civil rights in Texas. The goal is to discover what some of the key events was in each the African-American and the Mexican-American battles for their group's civil rights. The secondary objective is to see how these movements resembled each other and how they differed from one another and if one was more effective than the other. As the United States and its individual states like Texas become more racially diverse, all new criteria will arise that may be more closely linked to India's caste system than to what we understand and take for granted here in the United States. Economic barriers and not racial barriers are gradually becoming the underlying motivator of the civil rights movement. In other words, being black or Mexican will not matter in regard to civil rights. If the respective…
Arnoldo De Leon. (1982). "The Tejano Community, 1836-1900." Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Alwyn Barr (1973). "Black Texans: A History of Negroes in Texas, 1528-1971." Austin: Jenkins.
Michael L. Gillette. (1978). "The Rise of the NAACP in Texas." Southwestern Historical Quarterly. 81, April.
David Montejano (1987). "Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836-1986." Austin: University of Texas Press.
After the last shots of Civil ar were heard, and following the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation by President Lincoln, the South had been humiliated and devastated. The repercussions of war included loss of life, land, and livelihood. Patriarchy and racism remained entrenched, but the emancipation of slaves significantly transformed the social landscape of the South. Liberated slaves started from scratch without access to cultural or social capital, and many eventually migrated North. African-American culture was able to emerge, and in many cases, to flourish. Meanwhile, the white power structures in the South resigned themselves to ignorance, causing the South to remain the most backwards, uneducated, and poor region of the United States for over a century. Far from inspiring the South to transform its social, cultural, economic, and political institutions, the entrenched plantation society and Confederate identity took deep root there. Jim Crow symbolizes the extent to…
American Civil War Center (2014). Legacies of the Civil War. Retrieved online: http://www.tredegar.org/legacies-civil-war.aspx
Blight, David W. Race and Reunion.
Faust, Drew Gilpin. Mothers of Invention. University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
Lincoln, Abraham. "Emancipation Proclamation." 22 Sept, 1862. Retrieved online: http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/primarysources/emancipation.html
Civil ights: The ole of Black Churches
The audience will understand the role that black churches played in the ongoing Civil ights Movement.
In this speech, I will show that black churches -- through methods of advocacy, spiritual leadership and active participation -- play a significant role in the ongoing Civil ights Movement that began in the mid-20th century and clearly continues on into today's times.
Everyone knows of Martin Luther King, Jr., and the important role he played in the Civil ights Movement. But how many people know about or realized that King was one of many black pastors to bring black churches into the Movement, providing leadership, spiritual nourishment, and advocacy to African-Americans struggling for equality? Or that black churches continue today to be part of that ongoing struggle? Just as black churches are making an impact in cities around the country where communities are torn by racial…
African-American Registry. (n.d.). The Black Churches: A Brief History. AARegistry.
Retrieved from http://www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/black-church-brief-history
Calhoun-Brown, A. (2000). Upon this rock: The black church, nonviolence, and the Civil Rights Movement. PS: Political Science and Politics, 33(2): 168-174.
Dagan, D. (2015). Black churches led the Civil Rights Movement. Can they do it again? The Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/06/14/baltimore-black-churches-freddie-gray_n_7556560.html
A Fight for Democracy
There are many forms of government that exist in the world. From dictatorships to monarchies to democracies. However, the most challenging form of government by far is democracy. This is because it involves participation by the government and the people.
The word democracy has origins in the Greek language with the meaning 'rule by the people' (Patrick, 2006). ome and Athens represented the precursors to modern democracies and served as the first 'democracies' of antiquity. Democracies were made in order to control the abuse of power people witnessed see from rulers. While democracy has ancient roots, modern democracy was only formulated during the age of Enlightenment, specifically the 17th and 18th centuries.
In this age, philosophers designated fundamental elements of democracy. These are: basic human and civil rights, separation of powers, religious freedom, and separation of church and state (Ostrom, 1997). Modern democracies have…
Burns, K. (2015). The Civil War. The Film. Episode Descriptions. Episode One.Pbs.org. Retrieved 26 May 2016, from http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/film/episode1.html
Jones, T. (2016). Could the South Have Won the War? Opinionator. Retrieved 26 May 2016, from http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/03/16/could-the-south-have-won-the-war/
Kent, Z. (2011). The Civil War. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow.
Ostrom, V. (1997). The meaning of democracy and the vulnerability of democracies. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Civil Order Control
Civil order control has become a necessary aspect of modern day law enforcement. Inherent in civil order control, however, are a number of problems that have to be addressed in order for it to be effectively implemented, such as societal attitudes, law enforcement norms, and so on. As Roberson and Das (2015) point, in civil order control “there is often a strong political component to the activities being controlled” (p. 72). The reason for this is that whenever a situation occurs that is a threat to civil order, it is basically a threat to the government of the society as well. That is why throughout history, any type of civil order control has been met with controversy—whether it was a workers’ strike or protest being put down by military force or a holdout of a religious sect like the Branch Davidians in Waco being smoked out by…
thinkers' contributions society • Each thinkers' personal / social / political environments factors contributed creativity • The problems issues ideas sought solve • A description solutions, ideas implemented • The creative process thinker a comparison creative processes • A critique ideas differently Include references.
hile most people would fail to identify links between Bill Gates and Martin Luther King, it is actually intriguing to compare these two individuals and their accomplishments from the perspective of someone interested in social progress. Both of these individuals were visionaries and both of them focused on having the social order acknowledge that it is essential for it to get actively involved in improving conditions in the world. Even with the fact that one is a businessman while the other was a Civil Rights advocate, these two individuals have had a strong influence on the lives of individuals today and can be considered largely responsible…
Anderson, Cristopher J. "International Journal of Religion and Sport 2009 ," (Mercer University Press, 2009 )
"DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.," retrieved July 23, 2012, from the World Changers Website: http://www.wc.pdx.edu/martinlutherkingjr/mlk.html
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Industrialization After the Civil War
Introduce your paper with your previously crafted thesis statement.
After the Civil War, the United States became a much-industrialized society. The country was characterized by several industrial developments. More investments were put on establishing industries that could facilitate the production capacity of the country. Key policies were laid to drive the growth of industries in many of the sectors leading to the growth of industrialization in the country. These developments took place amidst an agrarian society that characterized America before the civil war. Before the civil war, many investments were made in agriculture with farming being a major economic activity for the American people. However, this affected the growth of the economy as the American population shot up (ees, 2008).
The nation resorted to industrialization after the civil war. This saw a change in lifestyle among many Americans as more people got jobs in the…
Aronowitz, S. (1999). Industrialization: the Shaping of American Working Class Consciousness. New York: SAGE.
Dubofsky, M. (1996). Industrialism and the American worker, 1865-1920. New York: Davidson.
Rees, J. (2008). Industrialization and the Transformation of American Life: A Brief Introduction. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Vapnek, L. (2009). Breadwinners & Industrialization 1865-1920. New York: University of Illinois Press.
Vision for Society: A Just Society
The Vision: A Just Society
It is a moral duty for those in immigration department to ensure that immigrants get free English classes to help them promote their own life. In AACA, there are rules that do not allow employees to help immigrants. For instance, reading letters for immigrants who cannot read and understand English is not a responsibility of AACA staff. In this regard, clients end up going back with unsolved problems because AACA staffs are not obliged to assist them. Although such acts do not form part of the organization's duty, helping these immigrants read bills and solve their problems is a moral duty that calls for commonsense. Commonsensical thoughts from Kant's point-of-view begin with the idea that what is good; is a good will. The thought of good will is a noteworthy reasonable decisive factor that Kant employs all through his…
Foucault, M. (2012). Discipline & Punishment. London: Knopf Doubleday Publishing
Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed: 30th anniversary edition. London:
Continuum International Publishing Group.
ole of Law in Society
The law places a critical role in society, often serving to informally support the same rules and norms that it can formally enforce if someone violates them. The four primary functions of the law are: to ensure that the government, its officials, and private individuals are all accountable for their actions; to protect fundamental rights; to provide fairness; and to ensure justice (The World Justice Project, 2012). The rule of law provides the framework for society, so that all people come to the table with the same understanding of how transactions should work some knowledge of the remedies for wrongdoing, and knowledge of the consequences of inappropriate behavior. In fact, in many ways the presence of the law is prophylactic, preventing wrong behavior simply because that behavior has been made illegal.
One of the most critical uses of the law is to ensure basic human…
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, 558 U.S. 310 (2010).
The World Justice Project. (2012). The Rule of Law. Retrieved May 9, 2013 from http://worldjusticeproject.org/what-rule-law