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Both the North and the South had notable female spies; ladies of a certain class simply wouldn't have been heavily scrutinized, nor would it have been thought that they would have any knowledge of essential strategic and political information. This allowed ashington, D.C. socialite Rose O'Neal Greenhow to continue spying for the Confederacy throughout the duration of the war, earning her a place as one of the most productive and renowned spies for the South in the war, male or female (Duke). The North had its spies as well; Sarah E. Thompson continued recruiting for the Union and providing information on Confederate movements around her home in Tennessee even after her husband's death (Duke).
There were also women during the Civil ar who were not content just to aid the war effort from the periphery, or to deal with the effects of war in the aftermath of military hospitals. There…
ACW. "Women of the American Civil War." American Civil War.com. Accessed 15 October 2009. http://americancivilwar.com/women/women.html
Blanton, DeAnne. "Women Soldiers of the Civil War." National Archives. Accessed 15 October 2009. http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1993/spring/women-in-the-civil-war-1.html
Duke. "Civil War Women." Duke University Library. Accessed 15 October 2009. http://library.duke.edu/specialcollections/collections/digitized/civil-war-women/
Stein, Alice. "The North's Unsung Sisters of Mercy." America's Civil War; 12(4) (1999), pp. 38-45.
Civil ar omen
Harriet Tubman: Conductor, Nurse, Cook, Spy, and Scout
Harriet Ross Tubman Davis (c. 1822 -- 1913) was best known for her role as a conductor on the Underground Railroad prior to and during the American Civil ar (Sernett 22). hat many people may not realize is that she was actively involved in the war effort as a Union nurse, cook, spy, and scout (Sernett 75). A remarkable woman in many ways, not only because she engaged in these activities in spite of social norms dictating that women should be passive participants, but also because she was very effective in what she was able to accomplish. This essay will examine the myths and facts surrounding Harriet Tubman's efforts to end slavery in American and reveal that the truth is much more remarkable than the myths could ever be.
Escape from Slavery
Harriet Tubman was born to Benjamin Ross…
Bradford, Sarah H. Scenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman. 1869. Salem, NH: Ayer Company, 1992. Print.
Miller, Anne Fitzhugh and Miller, Elizabeth Smith. Miller NAWSA Suffrage Scrapbooks, 1897-1911. Scrapbook 1905-1906. Library of Congress, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Washington, D.C. Web. 9 Sep. 2013. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D-rbcmillerbib:3:./temp/~ammem_fED1 ::
Tubman, Harriet. "General Affidavit" [Claim of Harriet Tubman: General affidavit of Harriet Tubman Davis regarding payment for services rendered during the Civil War]. The Center for Legislative Archives, National Archives, c. 1898. Web. 9 Sep. 2013. http://www.archives.gov/legislative/features/claim-of-harriet-tubman/ .
Her involvement finally earned her the Medal of Honor, and enduring gratitude for her contribution as a physician to the war effort.
Probably one of the most famous women who worked during the Civil War was Clara Harlowe Barton. Barton was a nurse during the war, who at first simply stockpiled medical supplies and food that she knew the soldiers would need, and later took her supplies into the field where they were most needed. One historian wrote of her right after the war ended, "Her devotion to her work has been remarkable, and her organizing abilities are unsurpassed among her own sex and equaled by very few among the other" (Brockett and Bellows 132). Later, her work in the field and her stockpiling of supplies in warehouses became known as the "Sanitary Commission," which eventually evolved into the worldwide humanitarian organization known as the ed Cross. Clara Barton worked…
Brockett, L.P., and Henry W. Bellows. Woman's Work in the Civil War: A Record of Heroism, Patriotism and Patience. Ed. Mary C. Vaughan. Philadelphia: Zeigler, McCurdy, 1867.
Dumene, Joanne E. "A Woman's Military Service as 'Albert Cashier'." The Washington Times 7 Dec. 2002: B03.
Faust, Drew Gilpin. Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
Johnson, Kellie. "Mary Edwards Walker, Pauline Cushman, Emeline Pigott, and Elizabeth Van Lew." University of San Diego. 20 Nov. 2002. 20 Dec. 2004. http://www.sandiego.edu/~kelliej/women.html
Women of the South During the Civil War
Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War. (New York: Vintage Books, 1997).
Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War is a book about women in the South during the Civil War. The broader issue of this book is how women can empower themselves even in the face of hardship and - although the word is strong - the oppressions that society puts on them.
The preface to Faust's book contains a quote which Faust attributes to her mother:
I am sure that the origins of this book lie somewhere in that youthful experience, and in the continued confrontations with my mother, until the very eve of her death, when I was 19, about the requirements of what she usually called femininity. It's a man's world, sweetie, and the sooner you…
The war and the years that preceded it led to the creation of social classes in our country. These classes consisted of the rich upper-class down to the poor immigrants; and each class had its own rules and regulations by which it lived. To this day, a large part of our society is based on classes. Socially, the war divided races and started what would lead to racism, bigotry, and the separation of black and whites. The war had served as a pathway to change but it would be several decades before the racial views of whites would change and allow for blacks to be treated fairly. Another thing that changed shortly after the war was women's rights. This movement paved the way for women to be considered equal and treated fairly (Ferland, 2009).
Ever since the Civil ar ended there has been great discussion over whether or not the…
"Civil War Overview." 2008. Son of the South. 26 April 2009
Ferland, R.W. 2009. AuthorsDen.com. 26 April 2009
It is estimated that between 1900 and 1967, there were 526 civil wars called throughout the world (Civil pp). Today, there are literally dozens of wars going on around the globe, and dozens more that have ended during recent years, such as the civil wars in Guatemala and Tajikistan.
According to Christopher Cramer, most literature concerning civil wars has highlighted the role of political instability in the relationship between growth and inequality (Cramer pp). Although there are interlinkages between distribution, conflict and growth, these interlinkages are complex and cannot be read off or predicted from any convincing repeated empirical relationship between variables that are often loaded with too much and unclear meaning (Cramer pp). Cramer takes the title to his article, "Civil ar is Not a Stupid Thing: Exploring Growth, Distribution and Conflict Linkages" from a short story by Sicilian writer, Leonardo Sciascia, about a Sicilian dragooned into…
"Civil Wars Throughout the World."
Cramer, Christopher. "Civil War is Not a Stupid Thing: exploring growth, distribution and conflict linkages."
http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:N00ZR7tRHzsJ:mercury.soas.ac.uk/economics/workpap/adobe/wp73.pdf+countries+that+have+had+civil+wars& ; hl=en
Civil War in Alabama
The American civil war was a political turmoil that took place during the later years of the 18th Century, particularly between 1775 to 1783, where 13 British colonies joined together to liberate themselves from the British Empire and unite to from the United States of America (American evolutionary War, 2011). It all began with the rejection of the Parliament of the Great Britain as governing body from overseas without their representation and consequently rejecting and sending away all the royal officials and representatives. In turn they formed Provincial Congress in 1774 which made up the self-governing state. This prompted the British to send troops to America to reinstate the direct rule and in return, the Second Continental Congress was formed in 1775 to wade off the British troops and also to defend their decision towards self-governance. This was what was and still is famously know as…
American Revolutionary War, (2011). American Revolutionary War. Retrieved May 24, 2011
Civil War Trust, (2011). James Longstreet: Lieutenant General. Retrieved May 25, 2011 from http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/biographies/james-longstreet.html
The Alabama Civil War Round Table, (2011). A Discussion on the American Civil War.
Lee decided to run even before Sherman was able to come, and escaped from Petersburg. Grant was able to catch him at Appomattox, and then was the surrendered. There were 360,000 dead on the Union side and 260,000 dead on the Confederate side, but the union continued. This war made United States as a nation and a state. Earlier secession and state veto power had been disturbing the government from the beginning. (United States (History): The South Secedes) From here started econstruction, but that is another story.
Coming of the Civil War: An Overview. etrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Bleeding Kansas. etrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Bleeding-KansasAccessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Missouri Compromise. etrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Missouri-CompromiseAccessed on 26 May, 2005
The Compromise of 1850. etrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
United States (History): Bleeding Kansas. etrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html#s85Accessed on 26 May, 2005
United States (History):…
Coming of the Civil War: An Overview. Retrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Bleeding Kansas. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Bleeding-KansasAccessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Missouri Compromise. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Missouri-CompromiseAccessed on 26 May, 2005
The Compromise of 1850. Retrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
Proponent of Slavery
As a Southerner, I believe I know and understand the peculiar institution better than any Northerner ever can. We live and breathe our way of life. The Yankee only presumes to know what is best for us in a way some might call arrogant. While the Northerner looks down upon us from the ivory towers of New England, the Southerner works hard in the fields, training and beating slaves so that the price of cotton and tobacco remains at market rates. We Southerners have provided the bread and butter of the American economy for generations, and suddenly, abolitionists formed of groups of women want to destroy our way of life, tell us what to do, and moralize? We pay good money to keep alive our slaves, but the Yankee wants to exploit us.
The Northerner would envision a world in which miscegenation sullied the racial soil of…
Foner, E. (2012). Give Me Liberty: An American History (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Norton.
Foner, E. (2012). Voices of Freedom: A Documentary History (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Norton.
Harris, L.M. (n.d.). The New York City draft riots of 1863. Retrieved online: http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/317749.html
The women whose husbands did serve the pro-Union cause (often Republicans) did not necessarily take over the farm work and other "male tasks" on the farm. Instead, the work was done with the "same kind of neighborhood and extended-kin support" that was in use prior to the Civil ar (Rodgers, 112).
Also, many soldiers wrote letters home "…virtually micromanaging their farms from the front," Rodgers continues (113). ives received a "steady flow of letters" with specific advice not only on how to run the farm, but on "how their children were to behave and be taught," Rodgers explained (113). And moreover, male farm laborers were available to harvest crops, and the women either paid them to harvest the wheat, or she gave them "a percentage of the crop" (Rodgers, 113). As for urban women in Indiana during the Civil ar, Rodgers explains that letters between wives and soldiers showed "gossip…
Brown, Alexis Girardin. "The Women Left Behind: Transformation of the Southern Belle,
1840-1880." The Historian. 62.4 (2000): 759-779.
Rodgers, Thomas E. "Hoosier Women and the Civil War Home Front." Indiana Magazine of History, 97.2 (2001): 105-128.
Walker, Henry. "Power, Sex, and Gender Roles: The Transformation of an Alabama Planter
Despite representing half of the human population, until very recently women were not afforded the same rights and freedoms as men. Furthermore, in much of the world today women remain marginalized, disenfranchised, and disempowered, and even women in the United States continue to face undue discrimination, whether in the workplace, at home, or in popular culture. However, this should not be taken as a disregarding of the hard-fought accomplishments of women since 1865, because over the course of intervening years, women have managed to gain a number of important rights and advantages. In particular, after spending the nineteenth century largely isolated within the domestic sphere, over the course of the twentieth century women won the right to vote, the right to equal pay and housing, and freedom over their own bodies in the form of birth control. By examining the history of these important developments, one is able…
Adams, C. (2003). Women's suffrage: A primary source history of the women's rights movement in america. New York: Rosen Publishing Group.
Chen, L.Y., & Kleiner, B.H. (1998). New developments concerning the equal pay act.
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 17(1), 13-20.
Gordon, L. (2002). The moral property of women: A history of birth control politics in america.
Women's History Questions
After reading the introductory texts, how has your understanding of women's history changed? What did you think women's history was before your enrolled in the course and compare that to how these historians define women's history? Do you agree or disagree with them?
Do women benefit from the American Revolution?
In developing your answer, recognize there is no single "woman" that encompasses all women in America. As a result, you must be sure to fully defend why your examples demonstrate the benefits or detriments of the Revolution for women.
The results of the American Revolution created a situation in which the treatment of individuals as property was challenged. The treatment of individuals as property carried real ramifications for women. One salient example is the freedom to use your power is a slave owner to coerce women into sexual relationships against their will. Many minority women that were…
In some ways, the Civil War was the analogue of the Terror for Americans: It was the bloodthirsty incestuous violence that allowed the nation to move onward to a full embrace of democracy, joining itself to Europe as the world began to tip toward democratic ideas and ideals.
Stephen Kantrowitz's biography of Benjamin Tillman demonstrates how he can be seen as a symbol for an entire cohort of Southerners of his generation, people (mostly but not exclusively men) who could neither understand nor tolerate the new order that had formally instituted itself after Emancipation. They could not understand a world in which black men were suddenly their legal equals. Tillman, and others like him, lived in a world that told them that blacks had to be treated like equals even though many white Southerners did not see their black compatriots as even being fully human.
This set up…
Sarah's first filed duty occurred in February 1864, when the 153d marched 700 miles to join the Red River campaign in Louisiana (Sarah pp). As the campaign was nearing the end, Sarah was stricken with dysentery and died in the Marine Hospital of New Orleans on May 22, 1864 (Sarah pp). Her identity remained undiscovered for more than a hundred years, until the letters she had written home during the war surfaced (Sarah pp). She had left behind a ring, on which was engraved her regiment and name (Sarah pp). She is buried in Louisiana in a grave marked Lyons (Sarah pp).
Cathay illiams was born into slavery in 1842 near Independence, Missouri (omen pp). She grew up and worked as a house-girl for illiam Johnson, a wealthy planter in Jefferson City, Missouri (omen pp). During the Civil ar, Union soldiers liberated Cathay and she spent the remainder of the…
Women Were There." http://userpages.aug.com/captbarb/femvets2.html
Sarah Emma Edmonds: 1842-1898." http://www.civilwarhome.com/edmondsbio.htm
Clara Barton:1821-1912." http://www.americancivilwar.com/women/cb.html
American Civil War Women." http://intellit.muskingum.edu/civwar_folder/civwarunwomen.html
Death brings the poet closer to a sense of peace with life. As part of the earth, death will return him back to the earth. He writes:
depart as air -- I shake my white locks at the runaway sun; effuse my flesh in eddies, and drift it in lacy jags.
A bequeathe myself to the dirt, to grow from the grass I love;
If you want me again, look for me under your boot-soles. (1334-7)
Here the poet is expressing that he is comfortable with death and dying and it seems as though he is encouraging the reader to be at peace with death as well.
Being at peace with death does not always mean being immune to the pain it brings. e see the poet's reaction to death in "hen Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd." Abraham Lincoln is forever connected to the Civil ar and in this…
Folsom, Ed. "Antebellum Writers in New York." Dictionary of Literary Biography. GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed July 16, 2008. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Spiller, Robert, et al. Literary History of the United States. New York: MacMillan Publishing Company. Inc. 1974.
Whitman, Walt. "Song of Myself." Leaves of Grass. New York: Signet Classics. 1958.
So Long." Leaves of Grass. New York: Signet Classics. 1958.
During this time he was known for allowing his troops to engage in tactics that were considered to be brutal. This is because he felt that the constant Indian attacks on the railroads and settlers were unacceptable. As a result, he allowed soldiers to attack women, children and men when they were sweeping villages. At the same time, he helped to establish the Command and General Staff College along with writing his autobiography called Memoires. Once he retired from the army he was inducted into the Kappa Psi fraternity and the Irving Literary Society. Upon his death in 1891, Sherman was remembered for being brilliant military tactician and as someone who was willing to give something back to society. This is significant, because it is showing how Sherman's life was focused on military and public service after the end of the Civil War. The answers the question we are studying,…
"George Meade." History of War, 2007. Web. 20 Nov. 2011
"Joshua Chamberlin." Defense Media Network, 2011. Web. 20 Nov. 2011
Lanning, Michael. The Civil War 100. Naperville, IL: Source Books, 2006. Print.
MLA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
When more territories were acquired by the U.S. As a result of the Mexican Wars, another uneasy 'Compromise Measure of 1850' was reached that admitted California as a 'free state' and allowed the rest of the states, i.e., Texas, New Mexico and Arizona to decide for themselves whether to permit slavery or not. The tensions between the North and the South went up another notch when the Senate passed the 'Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854' which repealed the prohibition of slavery in the territories north of 36° 30' latitude previously agreed in the 'Missouri Compromise.' In reaction to the repealing of the Missouri Compromise, antislavery groups formed a new party (called the epublican Party) that was committed to containing slavery (Gallagher, 2006).
Other Causes of the Civil War: Apart from slavery, the American Civil War was also fought over the issue of preservation of the rights of the individual states. The…
Berkowitz, C. And Moran, K.B. (2006). "Slavery In The U.S. Constitution." Worcester Women's History Project. Retrieved on September 5, 2006 at http://www.wwhp.org/Resources/Slavery/constitution.html
Epperson, J.F. (2003). "The Causes." The American Civil War. Retrieved on September 5, 2006 at http://www.swcivilwar.com/cw_causes.html
Gallagher, G. (2006). "American Civil War." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved on September 5, 2006 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761567354/Civil_War.html
Spicer, J. (2004). "The Cause of the American Civil War: John Spicer Judges That Slavery Was the Key Factor in Producing the Conflict." History Review, (49), 45+.
Support like this was not uncommon. omen were demonstrating how useful they could become and by asserting their knowledge along with their feminine nature, they were showing men they could be a positive influence on society. As the effort grew, it became more organized and it gained momentum. In 1869, Lucy Stone helped establish the American oman Suffrage Association (ASA), which worked for women's right to vote. The association became a powerful force behind the women's movement. Its main goal was to force individual states to grant women the right to vote to women. In 1890, the ASA joined with the National oman Suffrage Association, which Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton formed in 1869. The new organization was called the National American oman Suffrage Association, and it held conventions, waged voting campaigns and distributed literature in support of women's voting rights.
The Equal Rights amendment was passed in 1972.…
Anthony, Susan B. "Declaration of Rights of the Women of the United States 4 July 1876."
Rutgers University Online Database. 06 May, 2010. Web.
Binder, Frederick. The Way We Lived D.C. Heath and Company. 1994. Print.
The passing of time does not necessarily denote progress: women made little noticeable social and economic advancement and almost no political or legal advancements between the European settlements of Jamestown in 1607 until the end of the Reconstruction era in 1877. In fact, most Native American women lost a considerable degree of power and status due to the imposition of European social values on their traditional cultures. African women, brought to the New World against their will and in bondage, likewise did not enjoy the fruits of social progress. White women of European descent, however, did make some progress over the course of more than two centuries of early American history. Divorce laws became more favorable toward women, who over the course of these few centuries were increasingly able to extricate themselves from violent, abusive, or unsatisfying unions. However, divorce laws were one of the only legal progress…
Primary Source Material Analysis: Harriet Tubman
Mrs. Sarah H. Bradford wrote a small book in 1868 for the purpose of raising funds to benefit Harriet Tubman's efforts to buy a house and support herself and her aging parents (Introduction). This book was composed immediately before Bradford set sail for Europe in 1868 and its publication costs were covered by several benefactors. The book is remarkable because it is written by a hite abolitionist and suffragist who had become acquainted with Harriet's work on the Underground Railroad through friends and associates.
The stories that Bradford included in the book were corroborated through independent sources and therefore represent a collection of accounts detailing Harriet's struggle to move her family and other slaves north to freedom in Canada along the Underground Railroad. To substantiate the veracity of these accounts Bradford includes in the preface several letters attesting to Harriet's contributions, including one from…
Bradford, Sarah H. Scenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman. 1869. Salem, NH: Ayer Company, 1992. Print.
Miller, Anne Fitzhugh and Miller, Elizabeth Smith. Miller NAWSA Suffrage Scrapbooks, 1897-1911. Scrapbook 1905-1906. Library of Congress, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Washington, D.C. Web. 9 Sep. 2013. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D-rbcmillerbib:3:./temp/~ammem_fED1 ::
Tubman, Harriet. "General Affidavit" [Claim of Harriet Tubman: General affidavit of Harriet Tubman Davis regarding payment for services rendered during the Civil War]. The Center for Legislative Archives, National Archives, c. 1898. Web. 9 Sep. 2013. http://www.archives.gov/legislative/features/claim-of-harriet-tubman/ .
Therefore, the South felt she could count on the aid of France and Great Britain at some time during the war. This of course, did not happen, and so, the South did not have the luxury of external support that the United States had enjoyed during the evolutionary War (Donald, 1996, p. 15-16).
The South also had over 3 million slaves they could conscript into the Army, but these slaves could also stay behind and work, while the whites fought the war, and this gave the South a distinct advantage over the North. While she did not have more manpower, their operations were smaller, and they could move more effectively. They were also on the defensive, which gave additional impetus to their cause, and their coastline was short and sheltered, which held off blockading of supplies they needed (Donald, 1996, p.16). In addition, they were more attuned to the war…
Donald, DH Why the north won the Civil War.
McPherson, J.M. (2001). Ordeal by fire: The Civil War and reconstruction. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Real Harriet Tubman
Harriet Tubman -- Journal Article Review
The stories, myths, and facts surrounding Harriet Tubman's Underground Railroad may seem to be a settled matter to the public, but this is far from true (Larson 9). Over the past several decades, historians have been sifting through primary source material for additional information about Tubman's contributions to the Underground Railroad during the Pre-Civil ar period. The routes that Tubman used ran through Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New York to St. Catharines in Canada. This journal article will examine this new evidence and the arguments presented by Kate Larson to justify her findings and conclusions.
A New Perspective
Larson lists various types of primary source material documenting the Underground Railroad and sounds surprised that historians had, until recently, largely ignored this wealth of information (9-10). These sources revealed that there were scores of men and women who took great risks to…
Larson, Kate Clifford. "Racing for Freedom: Harriet Tubman's Underground Railroad Network through New York." Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 36.1 (2012): 7-33.
Civil War Tensions
The American Civil War was not the culmination of one specific issue, which tore North and South, but rather the culmination of a perfect storm of issues and incidents that formed together to make war between the states "inevitable" (Foote, 1958, p. 29). The issues were various and complex: among them was the primacy of "states' rights" in the Constitution, and the usurpation of those rights (so it was felt by many a Southerner) by the Central government. This feeling was directly tied to the outcome of the Mexican-American War, which resulted in the annexing of large territories to the West. Would they be slave states or free states? If one followed the Missouri Compromise line, there should be no question. Slave states were below, free above. But with John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry and the frenzy of the abolitionist caused at fever pitch, the issue…
Economy in the Civil War. (2014). The Civil War. Shmoop.
Egnal, M. (2001). The Beards Were Right: Parties in the North, 1840-1860. Civil War
History 47(1): 30-56.
Foote, S. (1958). The Civil War: Ft. Sumter to Perryville. NY: Random House.
After the last shots of Civil ar were heard, and following the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation by President Lincoln, the South had been humiliated and devastated. The repercussions of war included loss of life, land, and livelihood. Patriarchy and racism remained entrenched, but the emancipation of slaves significantly transformed the social landscape of the South. Liberated slaves started from scratch without access to cultural or social capital, and many eventually migrated North. African-American culture was able to emerge, and in many cases, to flourish. Meanwhile, the white power structures in the South resigned themselves to ignorance, causing the South to remain the most backwards, uneducated, and poor region of the United States for over a century. Far from inspiring the South to transform its social, cultural, economic, and political institutions, the entrenched plantation society and Confederate identity took deep root there. Jim Crow symbolizes the extent to…
American Civil War Center (2014). Legacies of the Civil War. Retrieved online: http://www.tredegar.org/legacies-civil-war.aspx
Blight, David W. Race and Reunion.
Faust, Drew Gilpin. Mothers of Invention. University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
Lincoln, Abraham. "Emancipation Proclamation." 22 Sept, 1862. Retrieved online: http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/primarysources/emancipation.html
Nursing & omen's Roles Pre-and-Post Civil ar
The student focusing on 19th century history in the United States in most cases studies the Civil ar and the causes that led to the war. But there are a number of very important aspects to 19th century American history that relate to women's roles, including nursing and volunteering to help the war wounded and others in need of care. This paper delves into the role nurses played in the Civil ar (both Caucasian and Black nurses), the way in which the Civil ar changed the woman's work roles, the role women (both Black and Caucasian) played before, during, and after the war, and the terrible injustices thrust on women of color in a number of instances throughout the 19th century.
The oman's role in America prior to the Civil ar
"A woman's work is never done," is an old maxim but it…
Brockett, Linus Pierpont, and Vaughan, Mary C. (1867). Woman's Work in the Civil War: A
Record of Heroism, Patriotism and Patience. Chicago, IL: Zeigler, McCurdy & Co.
Child, Lydia. (1837). The Family Nurse [or] Companion of the American Frugal Housewife.
Bedford, MA: Applewood Books (originally published by Charles Hendee in Boston).
Northern and Southern Colonies before the Civil War
In the middle of the 19th century, the industrial revolution that was growing depicted the presence of the two countries all of the most progressive independent states. The symbolic status in England laid the foundation of working class exploitation, urbanization and industrialization and the other one based on village, farmhouse, agriculture, and trustworthy relations between tenants and squires in 1845. egarding the census of the 1850, the population of the United States was about twenty-three million; this was a rise from thirteen million in the year 1830. As of 1850, the North saw increased populations of immigrants incoming. The census that was carried out in 1860 showed the population of the United States to be about thirty-one million. This represented a thirty-nine percent increase in a span of ten years where the South only had eighth million whites compared to twenty million…
Fitzhugh, George. Cannibals All! Or, Slaves Without Master. (Port Royal, Caroline, VA: 1857). A. Morris, Publisher, chapter 1, 1-4
Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs and Gjerde Jon "Commercial development and immigration in the North at midcentury" in Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs and Gjerde Jon. Major Problems in American History: To 1877. (Boston, Massachusetts: 2007). Houghton Mifflin Company, chapter 11, 304-334
Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs, and Gjerde Jon. "Agriculture and Slavery in the South at Midcetury" in Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs and Gjerde Jon. Major Problems in American History: To 1877. (Boston, Massachusetts: 2007). Houghton Mifflin Company, chapter 12, 335-360
McPherson James M. "The United States at Midcetury" in McPherson James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. (Oxford: 1988). Oxford University Press, Chapter 1, 7-46
The decisive moment in the Virginia theater came down to this: on the first day of the ilderness, the new commander Grant stood behind the line and met Union troops that had been routed. Rather than ordering them to return to ashington as McClellan might have, admitting defeat, he merely sent them back down a transverse road to attack at another point. All that was left was a battle of attrition which the South could never hope to win.
Ambrose Bierce was one of the leading American literary figures of his generation, approaching the rank of his contemporary, Mark Twain. He was the only first class author to fight in the Civil ar and to write extensively about it in both fiction and non-fiction genres. He enlisted as a private a few days after Fort Sumter fell and served until wounded in early 1865, reaching the rank of major. Decorated…
Bierce, Ambrose. n. d. "The Nature of War," in Russell Duncan and David J. Klooster, eds. 2002. Phantoms of a Blood-Stained period: the Complete Civil War Writings of Ambrose Bierce. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 309-10.
Elmer Ellsworth and the Zouave Craze. 2000. http://184.108.40.206/craze.html (Accessed Apr. 26, 2008).
Famous American Duels. 2005. http://www.law.gwu.edu/Burns/rarebooks/exhibits/duel_american.htm (Accessed Apr. 26, 2008).
Keegan, John. 1987. The Mask of Command. New York: Viking.
Industrialization after U.S. Civil War
AMERICAN INDUSTRIALIZATION AFTER THE U.S. CIVIL WAR (1865-1920)
It is a truism that large-scale warfare tends to increase industrial production and innovation, and that societies benefit from this industrialization after the war is over. In America, the Civil War was followed by the economic prosperity of the Gilded Age -- I would like to argue that the chief effect of this prosperity was to cause new conflicts in American society, which had to be settled by reform rather than Civil War. This is in some ways a counterintuitive argument, when in 2014 many have been conditioned to believe that a prosperous economy benefits everyone, when (in the words of the old cliche) a rising tide lifts all boats. But did the booming economy of America between the end of the Civil War and the onset of the First World War actually benefit child laborers or…
Artistic Analysis of "The Weeping Woman": A Plan to Develop a New Work
The meaning of artistic work continues to evolve to mold into new forms and shapes. The current sociological and economic developments are significantly influencing the artistic creations. Women have the power in the society, and, therefore, they have the freedom to do jobs, own businesses, and at a personal level, they now possess the option of sexual orientation. The modern era remained quite merciful towards women who had a role of sexual slaves in the past. The omans along with the Greeks considered the females as toys that had a function of providing comfort to warriors. Females were responsible for taking care of domestic chores, and they had no right of receiving payments against their services. However, males identified and treated them as trophies, and they collected them according to their level of bravery in the battlefield.…
Barnes, M., Davis, A., & Rogers, H. (2006). Women's voices, Women's choices: Experiences and creativity in consulting women users of mental health services. Journal of Mental Health 15 (3), 329-341.
Gonzalez-Ruibal, A. (2007). Making things public: Archaeologies of the Spanish Civil War. Public Archaeology Vol 6 (4), 203-226 .
Picasso, P (1937).The Weeping Woman . Tate. Tate Modern, London.
The American Civil War (1861-1865)
The American Civil War was the war between the southern and northern regions of the country, wherein the main conflict that was contested were the continued practice and legalization of black slavery. As the war broke out, the two factions that were created for the war were the United States of America or Union and the Confederate States of America or the Confederacy.
The war had numerous battles in various areas of the country; the first was the Battle of Shiloh in Tennessee 1862. In this battle, the Confederates carried an offensive attack against the Union forces, headed by General A. Johnston. However, Johnston's death during battle halted the war, as the command of the forces was transferred to General Beauregard. This short period of ceasefire allowed the Union to effectively create a defense strategy, eventually driving out the Confederates to Mississippi. Another…
Other key battles fought between the Union and Confederates was the Battle of Bull Run in June 1862, wherein the Confederates won the battle after it offensively attacked the Union forces in Virginia, specifically, in Manassas. Right after the Battle of Bull Run, the Battle of Antietam in Maryland was one of the major battles that determined the Union's success in the Civil War. This battle became significant for both factions because it ultimately determined whether the Confederates were capable of handling and controlling the northern region. For the Union, meanwhile, this battle was crucial in that it determined whether the Union was able to defend its territory, as well as fight for control of the southern region as well. Thus, the battle involved numerous casualties and deaths; though the battle did not determine who won the conflict, the Confederates' failure to capture and gain control of the territory determined the Union's capability to control its region. Due to the battle of Antietam, succeeding battles between the Union and Confederates showed the former as being more aggressive; the battles of Perryville, Kentucky and Fredericksburg, Virginia showed Union success and eventual conflict among the Confederate leaders.
From this pattern of battle victories by the Union forces and considerable support from the Administration, the Civil War was immediately won by the North. The Confederates' failure to capture Washington D.C. proved that indeed, the war was already won by the Union forces.
The Civil War had caused detriment to both the northern and southern regions of the country. Human casualties significantly affected both regions, while economic loss from the Union was estimated at $1 billion, while the Confederates, $2 billion. However, the war also benefited American society, especially its marginalized sectors, such as women and black slaves. Black slaves helped the Union efforts in the war and claimed their freedom after it, thereby legally abolishing black slavery practice as well as social discrimination against them. Women, meanwhile, assumed a significant role during the war, serving as nurses, government employees, and manufacturing employees as the male population participated in the war.
The Civil War was one of the most defining events in the nation’s history, and at the time was the most important event since the American Revolution. Whereas the Revolution embodied the ideals, values, and principles of the new nation, setting it apart from the British Crown and forever altering the geopolitical landscape, the Civil War revealed the persistent hypocrisy that continues to plague American society. Unresolved conflicts left brewing in the American psyche led to built-up tensions, exposing fissures in the society along the lines of culture, ethnicity, religion, race, gender, and socioeconomic class. The causes of the Civil War can be traced in fact to the inability of the original framers to take a firm stance on slavery, and to divest too much of the federal government’s power to the states. At the same time, protecting states’ rights was critical in the late eighteenth century when the nation…
American Civil War
Give a brief overview of the causes of the Civil War.
From April 12, 1861 to April 9, 1865; America became engrossed in a bloody civil war. It was fought for many reasons, which came together to create increased hostilities and carnage. First, the influx of immigration in the 1850s brought a new labor force to the Northern states. This offered them with an alternative pool of cheap labor. While the South still believed, that slavery was an ethical practice and did not want to end it. (Kennedy, 2012)
A second cause was the Supreme Court case Dred Scott vs. Stanford. Dred Scott was a slave who wanted to seek citizenship through the American legal system. His case was denied in 1857. It was based the legal interpretation that anyone who descended from Africa could not become American citizens. It also overturned the Missouri Compromise of 1820.…
Graber, M.A. (2006). Dred Scott and the problem of constitutional evil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Kennedy, A. (2012). The Brief American Pageant The History of the Republic. Boston MA: Wadsworth
Massey, M.E. (1966). Women in the civil war. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Civil ar many people from both sides of the battle lines (the Unions and the Confederates) endured hardships. hile men fought, women worked in various ways to help the cause. hether they assisted in the home, as nurses, or in other positions, the women of the Civil ar were an important part of its history. Some women like Clara Barton went to the field and worked as a nurse, tending to soldiers. Born December 25, 1821, she founded the American Red Cross and took on the job of patent clerk and teacher.
In a poem she wrote of her experiences as a nurse during the Civil ar, she highlights the reactions some had when seeing blood. 'They would faint at the first drop of blood, in their sight.' (Barton) She also shares how the women were the, 'consolers, saviors of men', always there to help and heal. omen's roles in…
Barton, Clara. "The Women Who Went to The Field." Civilwar.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 16 Apr. 2016.
Carter, Sue. Valley.lib.virginia.edu. N.p., 2016. Web. 16 Apr. 2016.
Emerson, Nancy. Valley.lib.virginia.edu. N.p., 2016. Web. 16 Apr. 2016.
The reason for such volunteer support for a war against fascism was born from the economic calamity and the political turmoil of the 1930's (Sills pp). Thus, like many during the Great Depression, the young volunteers had experienced with deprivation and injustice, leading them to join the "burgeoning student, unemployed, union, and cultural movements that were influenced by the Communist Party and other Left organizations" (Sills pp). These groups had exposed the volunteers to a Marxist and internationalist perspective, and with their successes in bringing people to conscious, political action led to a revolutionary spirit (Sills pp).
American radicalism was spurred by the appearance of pro-fascist groups like the Liberty League, and the expansion of fascism abroad (Sills pp). ith Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931, Hitler's rise to power in 1933, and Italy's assault on Ethiopia in 1934, (all accomplished without hindrance from estern governments), the Communist Party responded…
Hemingway, Ernest. For Whom the Bell Tolls. Scribner. 1995.
Nelson, Cary. The Spanish Civil War: An Overview. Retrieved August 15, 2005 from http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/scw/overview.htm
Rosemont, Franklin. Spanish Revolution of 1936. Retrieved August 15, 2005 from http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/88/spain-overview.html
Sills, Sam. The Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Retrieved August 15, 2005 at http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/88/abe-brigade.html
Industrialization After the Civil War
The United States economy grew to unprecedented levels and very quickly, after the American Civil War. This economic and industrial growth comprised of a number of causative factors such as technological innovation, westward expansion, and immigration to the United States that have witnessed tremendous development over the years. American economic and industrial growth was a kind of mixed blessing; but at the same time, it raised the living standard of some Americans, made certain goods easily accessible, and equally helped the United States become world military and economic power. These same forces, on the other hand and at the same time, increased the gap between the rich and the poor, enhanced and reduced political corruption at different levels of government, and also created some lasting legacy for environmental destruction (Shultz, 2014).
This paper contends to most effect, that industrialization was nothing more than a mere…
Campbell, B.C. (1999). Understanding Economic Changes in the Gilded Age. OAH Magazine of History.
Hofstadter, R. (1989). The American Political Tradition. New York: Vintage.
Karson, M. (1958). American Labor Unions and Politics, 1900-1918. Carbondale: Southern
Oshinsky, D. (1997). Worse Than Slavery: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow
" (Stoyle, 2005)
While the hope was that following the retreat of the Scots was the "...resurgence of English power" would ensue, these hopes were in vain because in October 1641 "Ireland - whose inhabitants were simultaneously appalled by the prospect of a puritan Parliament achieving political dominance in England...burst into rebellion." (Stoyle, 2005) Resulting was that in just a few weeks the power of the English in Ireland "had been reduced to a handful of coastal enclaves." (Stoyle, 2005)
The English government was "paralyzed by internal quarrels" and nothing was left that could remedy the situation. Stoyle writes that "by early 1642 both Scotland and Ireland had achieved a de facto independence, and English power in the Atlantic archipelago was weaker than it had been for centuries." (2005) the self-confidence of the English is stated to have "crumpled beneath the impact of these successive hammer-blows and, as they watched…
Ashton, Robert and Parry, Raymond Howard (1970) the Civil War and After, 1642-1658. University of California Press, 1970.
Donogan, Barbara (2008) Civil War in Three Kingdoms: Huntington Library Quarterly. Vol. 71 No. 3, September 2008.
Gelderen, M.V. And Skinner, Q. (2002) Classical Liberty and the English Civil War. Cambridge University Press 2002.
Hughes, Ann (1998) the Causes of the English Civil War. Macmillan, 1998.
Industrialization After the Civil War
In the aftermath of the Civil War, the United States developed and emerged as an increasingly industrialized society. The emergence and development of the United States as a much more industrialized society after the Civil War was largely because of the significant and dramatic change in the American industry. Moreover, the increased industrialization in America was brought by increased availability of huge supplies of raw materials, emergence of a huge workforce due to immigration, development of new technologies and invention, and the emergence of highly talented business leaders. While industrialization enhanced American life in numerous ways, it also generated considerable problems for the American society. These benefits and problems of industrialization are evident in the events that took place between 1865 and 1920 i.e. after the Civil War.
Part I -- Thesis Statement
Industrialization is basically the large scale introduction of manufacturing, enhanced technical expertise…
"American Society Adjusts to Industrialization 1865-1920." (n.d.). Lower Dauphin School District. Retrieved October 15, 2015, from http://www.ldsd.org/cms/lib/PA09000083/Centricity/Domain/93/American%20Society%20Adjusts%20to%20Industrialization.pptx
"Industrialization and Reform (1870-1916)." (n.d.). The U.S.A. Online. Retrieved October 15, 2015, from http://www.theusaonline.com/history/industrialization.htm
Kelly, M. (n.d.). Overview of the Industrial Revolution. Retrieved October 15, 2015, from http://americanhistory.about.com/od/industrialrev/a/indrevoverview.htm
generation to consider what the Civil War must have been like. Horrible fighting conditions, brother against brother, massive loss of human life - it was a bloody war on American soil. The wonderful, informative website, The Valley of the Shadow, takes an in depth look at two communities, close in proximity, fighting against each other during our nation's battle against each other.
The website is enormous - it offers pre-war information, war information, and post-war information for both the Staunton, Virginia region as well as the Franklins County, Pennsylvania region. There are countless photographs, documents, letters, journals, church records, government records, newspapers, and maps. All of these items collectively offer faces and names to associate with a war that happened so many years ago. As a college student, learning about the Civil War is somewhat tedious - it is hard to put yourself into something that happened so long ago,…
Josiah Bloss, a Union soldier from Pennsylvania, wrote letters to his sister in 1864 as the war was nearing an end. It is uncanny how similar the men from the Union and the Confederacy seem to be - loyal to their troops and countrymen, missing their families, and wanting the war to conclude. Josiah writes of Union victories, how the Confederate army is in shambles, and how the death of Lincoln, a "sad catastrophy," will most likely prevent any "quick restoration of our union, and peace." No doubt it was a tough blow to learn of the death of the man that so many Union soldiers admired and looked up to - Lincoln was whom many were fighting for.
The letters are many, and all are of great importance - I could sit here and quote from them all day long. There isn't a single letter that doesn't express some sort of desire for the war to be over - whether from the Union soldiers or Confederate soldiers. The similarities between the two are amazing. The Union soldiers offer victorious praises for their military successes, and that is pretty much the only difference that can be really be seen between the two camps. Again, it just proves that the Americans of that time were not so far from each other politically or emotionally.
This website is amazing. It must have taken many long, hard hours to put together so concisely the materials that are cataloged. I think that every student, college and high school, should have to spend at least five or six hours browsing the site's contents. The history here, the real history, is priceless. This sort of history, the intimate nature of it, cannot be found in history books. It not only allows the student to feel like they are in the minds of those involved in the war, it puts faces, names, emotions to the Civil War. The ability to gain valuable insight into the lives of these men and women is crucial for a full understanding of the impact the war had on both the Union soldiers and the Confederacy.
Industrialization After the Civil War
Industrialization was, in all aspects, a game changer in the U.S. because it brought about a complete transformation in people's ways of life. It changed how businesses were run, transformed how people earned money, made transportation easier, and caused a social and economic revolution.
Within four decades (1865-1920), the U.S. had "transformed from a predominantly rural agrarian society to an industrial economy centered in large metropolitan cities" (Hirschman & Mogford, 2009). In addition to the unity that had been created by the uniting states, three other factors played a crucial role in the rapid diffusion of technology during this period. These are;
Legislative representation - the pieces of legislation that furthered the efforts of reconstruction and promoted civil rights for the marginalized. For instance, the 13th, 14th and 15th econstruction Amendments which illegalized slavery, awarded citizenship to all people naturalized or born in the U.S.,…
Berkin, C., Miller, C., Cherny, R. & Gormly, J. (2007). Making America: A History of the United States, Vol. II from 1865 (5th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Hirschman, C. & Mogford, E. (2009). Immigration and the American Industrial Revolution from 1880-1920. Social Science Research, 38(4), 897-920.
Weinberg, M. (2002). Chapter 7: Capitalism Dominant, 1865-1920. A Short History of American Capitalism. Retrieved from http://www.newhistory.org/CH07.htm
This made the United States the only estern nation to criminalize contraception at that time (Time). hile women (and men) continued to illegally access birth control, often using devices labeled differently for contraceptive purposes, it would be decades before birth control could be openly used within the United States. In 1916, Margaret Sanger opens the first birth control clinic in the United States, but it is shut down in 10 days (Time). It was not until 1938 that the federal ban against birth control was lifted by a federal judge (Time).
hile women did not enjoy an abrupt increase in civil rights following the Civil ar, it is important to realize that there was a gradual increase in attention towards civil rights and support for women's rights after the Civil ar. In 1868, the National Labor Union supported equal pay for equal work, which was the first real call for…
A&E Television Networks. "The Fight for Women's Suffrage." History.com. N.p. 2012.
Web. 16 May 2012.
The Prism. "The Path of the Women's Rights Movement: A Timeline of the Women's Rights
Movement 1848-1998." The Prism. N.P. Mar. 1998. Web. 16 May 2012.
S. Constitution, and Susan B. Anthony was very upset at that.
For one thing, the women's suffrage movement had vigorously supported the abolition of slavery well prior to (and, of course, during the Civil War); and now that blacks were free, and were given the right to vote (although many blacks in America didn't really get to vote until the Voting ights Act of 1965 guaranteed their right to cast votes) prior to the women in American having the right to vote.
For another thing, many women were already stretched to the maximum in terms of the patience over their lack of voting rights.
According to an article in www.About.com (Women's History: Susan B. Anthony), "Some of Susan B. Anthony's writings were...quite racist by today's standards." She made the point that "educated white women would be better voters than 'ignorant' black men or immigrant men." In the late 1860s, she…
About.com. "Women's History: Susan B. Anthony; Seneca Falls Convention;
Declaration of Sentiments." 2004. Available
History of the American Suffragist Movement (2004). "Timeline: 1861-1867,"
During the nineteenth century, many accomplishments in women's rights occurred. As a result of these early efforts, women today enjoy many privileges. They are able to vote and become candidates for political elections, as well as own property and enjoy leadership positions.
During the early nineteenth century, the women's rights movement came into effect. omen like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony created many organizations for equality and independence. However, even with these activist groups, victory would not be fast or easy.
Changing social conditions for women during the early nineteenth century, combined with the idea of equality, led to the birth of the woman suffrage movement. For example, women started to receive more education and to take part in reform movements, which involved them in politics. As a result, women started to ask why they were not also allowed to vote.
The Start of the Revolution…
Berg, Barbara. The Remembered Gate: Origins of American Feminism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Degler, Carl N. At Odds: Women and the Family in America from the Revolution to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.
Pessen, Edward. Jacksonian America: Society, Personality, and Politics. Homewood, Illinois: Dorsey Press, 1969, 1978.
Ryan, Mary P. Womanhood in America: From Colonial Times to the Present. New York: New Viewpoints, 1979.
This report discusses how most women who participated in the many reform movements during the late 19th and early 20th century did not intend to solely help their own kind of white middle to upper class women. There is no doubt that the period witnessed an abundance of female activism and this report will incorporate various reform movements of the time such as the Women's Club Movement and the Women's Trade Union League to demonstrate that the interests of these groups were for overall social improvement. The time period in question was dominated by whites so even in the sense of female rights and activism, privilege usually only allowed well to-to white women to rebel. But, since they tried to help underprivileged parts of the entire society, they were clearly thinking of more than just other white women with money.
The women's movements of the late 19th and…
omen in American History
The contribution woman have made to the United States over the years is profoundly important, and probably not recognized to the degree that it should be recognized. This paper reviews and critiques the contributions of women from five periods in history: from 1865 to 1876; from 1877 to 1920; from 1921 to 1945; from 1946 to 1976; and from 1976 to the present day.
omen in America -- 1865 to 1876 -- Sojourner Truth
One of the brightest lights in the movement to free the slaves was Sojourner Truth, likely the best-known person in the abolitionist movement. She was actually very active in the movement to free the slaves before and during the Civil ar, and she helped organize and lead the Underground Railroad movement. The Underground Railroad shepherded runaway slaves away from Southern slave states and up into New York State, Pennsylvania, isconsin, Minnesota and…
Baker, Sara Josephine. (2007). Sara Josephine Baker: Physician and Public Health Worker.
Harvard Square Library / Notable American Unitarians. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/unitarians/baker.html .
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2006). Hull House. Retrieved June 12, 2011, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/275272/Hull-House .
Jewish Virtual Library. (2006). Golda Meir. Retrieved June 13, 2011, from http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/meir.html .
Although she sent her son to school, Zenebu kept her eldest daughter at home to help with her housework, and planned to circumcise all of her daughters, as she was circumcised as a child. (Female circumcision is not only more painful than male circumcision; it can cause life-threatening health complications throughout the circumcised woman's life).
Family planning is not talked about socially in traditional Ethiopian culture, except at local health clinics, and even there the emphasis is on the relatively ineffective rhythm method. Catholic health organizations will not discuss family planning or other means of birth control, and many men still consider a large brood of children both to be a sign of masculinity as well as a necessary source of income and labor. Yet prohibitively large families often become an economic burden upon women and men, and quite often it is the daughters of large families who suffer the…
Implementing the Ethiopian Policy for Women: Institutional and Regulatory Issues, 1998. the
Women's Affairs Office, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, the World Bank.
October 14, 2009. http://www.ethioembassy.org.uk/fact%20file/a-z/women-1.htm
Ofcansky, Thomas P. & LaVerle Berry, editors. Ethiopia: A Country Study. Washington: GPO
S. forces were made to operate on ground and targeted operations were planned against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda fighters. There were significant individually planned battles and skirmishes between the U.S. army and Taliban often resulting in heavy losses to both sides. A tactic that Taliban often used in such conditions was the suicide attacks and planting improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that left the soldier carrying vehicles destroyed. The U.S. utilized an Iraqi style counter insurgency operations in the Afghan region that resulted in some strengthening of the conditions.
3.1.3 Power sharing agreements
In order to enhance the effectiveness of the U.S. presence in Afghanistan the U.S. forged agreements with many warring tribes and factions of the Northern Alliance to enhance the unity of these groups that were to be pitched against the Taliban. These agreements were aimed at removing the support base of Taliban and Al-Qaeda from the Afghan society…
Coll, S. (2005). Ghost wars: The secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin.
Dreyfuss, R. (2005). Devil's game: how the United States helped unleash fundamentalist Islam. Metropolitan Books.
Giustozzi, a. (2008). Koran, Kalashnikov, and laptop: the neo-Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan. Columbia University Press.
Jones, a. (2013, Jan). Only Three Choices for Afghan Endgame: Compromise, Conflict, or Collapse: Counting down to 2014. TomDispatch.com. Retrieved from: [ http://www.commondreams.org/view/2013/01/28-3 ]
The lack of authority over the slave woman's body is exemplified by an 1850 daguerrotype of a young slave woman named Delia, found in the photo history of the era at the Peabody Museum (Sterling and ashington18). Delia was a slave girl in Columbia, South Carolina, and belonged to an owner named B.F. Taylor (18). She was "ordered" to pose partially dressed, nude to her waist (in the picture in Sterling's book), for purposes of "scientific studies (18-19)." The photographer, Louis Agassiz, a Harvard University professor, wanted to "study the anatomical details of the 'African race' to bolster his theory that blacks were a separate species, separately created (19)." As the authors of the book, e Are Your Sisters: Black omen in the Nineteenth Century, Dorothy Sterling and Mary Helen ashington (1997) note that Delia no doubt experienced humiliation during the photo session, but the photograph portrays a young…
Appleton, Thomas H. And Boswell, Angela. Searching for their Places: Women in the South Across Four Centuries. University of Missouri Press, 2003. Print.
Coontz, Stephanie. The Way We Never Were: American Families and the Nostalgia
Trap. Basic Books, 2000. Print.
Jacobs, Harriet Ann. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. Prestwick House, Inc., 2006.
432). In fact, northwest Indiana became home to several literary and cultural groups for women over the second half of the nineteenth century (Croly). Among these were The Helen Hunt Club of Cambridge City, which originally began as The Two O'clock Club, who stated that "ith an earnest desire to obtain a higher degree of literary culture, a greater fund of knowledge, and a better appreciation of the dignity of womanhood, we associate ourselves together as a club" (Croly, 436). This club did not even restrict itself to esoteric pursuits, but actively engaged in a political and historical study and analysis of the United States, which necessarily colored their perspectives and enlightened them on current political issues such as the suffrage movement (Croly, 436).
No human issue exists in a vacuum. Intermingled with the issue of women's suffrage we find issues of women's education, rights to property, and a host…
J.C. Croly. The History of the Women's Club Movement n America. New York, NY: H.G. Allen & Company, 1898. Accessed online 24 February 2009. http://asp6new.alexanderstreet.com+wam2.object.details.aspx?dorpid=1000672402
Elizabeth Cody Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Matilda Joslyn Gage, eds. History of Woman Suffrage, vol. 1: 1848-1861. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells, Publishers, 1881. Accessed online 24 February 2009. http://asp6new.alexanderstreet.com+wam2.object.details.aspx?dorpid=1000685759
M.G. Stapler, ed. Women's Suffrage Yearbook. New York: National Woman Suffrage Pub. Co., 1917. Accessed online 24 February 2009. www.everydaylife.amdigital.co.uk+Document.aspx?docref=TheWomanSuffrageYearBook1917
The Navy also established institutions to particularly cater for women wishing to enter the service. It recruited women into the Navy Women's eserve, which was known as
Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES), in 1942. More than 80,000 such women served the military in occupations relating to communications, intelligence, supply, medicine and administration. The Marine Corps Women's eserve was created in 1943. Women in this establishment held jobs such as clerks, cooks, mechanics, and drivers. An increasing number of women served in these positions, among others in nursing and the Coast Guard -- there were more than 400,000 American military women serving both in the United States and overseas during the Second World War. Although many of these women served close to combat stations, the work of the majority involved non-combat duties.
After the World Wars
The Korean War
When the Korean Conflict broke out in 1950, President…
Norris, Michelle. Roles for Women in U.S. Army Expand. NPR, Oct. 1, 2007. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14869648
Women in Military Service for America Memorial Foundation, Inc. Highlights of Military Women. 2010. Retrieved from http://www.womensmemorial.org/Education/timeline.html
Women in the U.S. Army. Generations of Women Moving History Forward. 2010. Retrieved from http://www.army.mil/women/index.html
Some artists, such as Aaron Douglas, captured the feeling of Africa in their work because they wanted to show their ancestry through art. Others, like Archibald J. Motley Jr., obtained their inspiration from the surroundings in which they lived in; where jazz was at the forefront and African-Americans were just trying to get by day-to-day like any other Anglo-American. Additionally, some Black American artists felt more comfortable in Europe than they did in America. These artists tended to paint landscapes of different European countries. Most of the latter, however, were ostracized for this because many black politicians felt they should represent more of their African culture in their work (Campbell 1994, Powell and Bailey).
Whatever the case, most African-American artists during this period of time had a similarity that tied them together. Black art was often very colorful and vivacious; having an almost rhythmic feel to it. This was appropriate…
Allego, D. "Margaret Walker: Biographical Note." Modern American Poetry. 1997. Cited in:
Beaulieu, E. Writing African-American Women: An Encyclopedia of Literature by and About
Women of Color. Greenwood Press, 2006.
omen's Lives After American Revolution
hereas the American Revolution has had a significant on people living in the thirteenth American colonies in general, it was also responsible for generating change in domains that appeared to have nothing in common with it. Previous to the ar of Independence, most women in the colonies were relatively accustomed with being discriminated on a daily basis. The American Revolution, however, played a major role in changing the way that women in the colonies behaved, as it presented them with the concept of freedom as being one of the most important values that one could uphold. Thus, ever since the American Revolutionary ar women in the U.S. took on new ideas and engaged in a process that was meant to gradually improve their social status. The American Civil ar was also essential in assisting women in experiencing progress, as, similar to African-Americans, they acknowledged the…
Cherniavsky, Eva Sentimental Discourses and the Imitation of Motherhood in 19th-Century America Sentimental Discourses and the Imitation of Motherhood in 19th-Century America (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1995)
Cogliano, Francis D. Revolutionary America, 1763-1815: A Political History (London: Routledge, 2000)
Martin, Wendy "Women and the American Revolution," Early American Literature11.3 (1976): 322
Under these circumstances, an ethical dilemma is born. Should society control its development or leave it to chance? And in the case that it should control it, which categories should it help?
If the person in the above mentioned example is helped, we could assume that in a certain way, the person who was not helped because he or she already disposed of the necessary means, the latter one might be considered as having been subject to reverse discrimination. Yet we ought to look at the picture from an utilitarian point-of-view. Under these circumstances we might state that society as an overall system has more benefits from helping the categories which are in bigger need of help (for example the ones mentioned in the principles of affirmative action).
ut what are the exact principles of affirmative action: let us take a look at them and analyze them. Title VI, section…
"Access, equity and diversity, American association for affirmative action," Retrieved October 27, 2010 from http://www.affirmativeaction.org/resources.html
Anderson, TH. The pursuit of fairness: a history of affirmative action, Oxford University Press, 2005
"Affirmative action" in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Retrieved October 27, 2010 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/affirmative-action/
"Affirmative action- pros and cons, the origins of, legal treatment of, political and social debates, the future" in Encyclopedia. Jrank. Org., Retrieved October 25, 2010 from http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/5916/Affirmative-Action.html
The distinction between folklore and fact is not always as lucid as it could be when researching the background of a state heroine, and the humble beginnings of Hart are no different in this respect. She was born in Raleigh, North Carolina either in 1846 or 1843 depending on which source is sought, although most popular accounts tend to credit her birth as taking place in 1846 (akeless 1970, 69). y most accounts she was as wild as the Virginian territory she moved to when she arrived in Tazewell county as an infant, and she would never learn to read or write. Descended from Scottish and Irish lineage, Hart was said to have moved in with her sister Mary and her husband William when she was still a child, where she roamed her Roane County environs, perfecting her skill with firearms and horseback riding.
Hart's deadly defiance of Union loyalists…
Lady, Claudia L. "Five Tri-State Women During The Civil War." West Virginia History. Volume 43, Number 3 pp.189-226 and Volume 43, Number 4 pp. 303-321, 1982
Stutler, Boyd B. West Virginia in the Civil War, Charleston, Education Foundation, Inc., pp. 43-48, 1963.
"Roane County Girl Served as Confederate Spy, Scout," Charleston Daily Mail, 4-18- 1963.
Boyd, Belle. Belle Boyd in Camp and in Prison. Introduction by George Augusta Sala. New York: Blelock & Company, 1865
Born from 1844, died 1892
She had worked as a cook and washerwoman since the age of 17 for soldiers during the American Civil War. Soldiers had captured slaves like her and made them work under them. At 21, when the war ended, she took some odd jobs here and there until she chose to hide her identity by enlisting as Williams Cathay, as a man, and served in a regimen for several years. They only discovered she was a woman when a surgeon examined her. Shortly after enlisting, she had acquired small pox and visited the hospital several times.
Born in 1821, died 1910
Elizabeth Blackwell was America's first female doctor. Born in England then moving to America due to a Cholera outbreak, she lived in Cincinnati. At first she and she opened a school…
Frank, L. (2008). Women in the American Civil War. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO.
Head, J. (1999). America's daughters. Los Angeles, Calif.: Perspective Pub.
Hurl-Eamon, J. (2010). Women's roles in eighteenth-century Europe. Santa Barbara: Greenwood.
Author Goldman continues, "ather than assuming that all women are incapable of performance by virtue of the average woman's lack of capability, specific requirements should serve as the selection criteria, not gender" (Goldman 271). Gender should not matter if it does not matter to the women who want to join.
The government could open up more combat jobs to women to help solve the problem, and women who were interested in combat positions should be encouraged to serve in the armed forces. Indeed, in their own study, the government found that with the right training, women's physical capabilities can increase. Another author notes, "An Army esearch Institute of Environmental Medicine report (January 26, 1996) shows that intensive training of motivated women can increase their physical abilities" (Jernigan 51). Thus, physical limitations are simply an excuse many people use to argue against women in the military. Even the military itself recognizes…
Goldman, Nancy Loring, ed. Female Soldiers -- Combatants or Noncombatants?: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982.
Jernigan, Pat. "Women at War: Gender Issues of Americans in Combat." Minerva: Quarterly Report on Women and the Military 19.1 (2001): 51.
Marley, David John. "Phyllis Schlafly's Battle against the ERA and Women in the Military." Minerva: Quarterly Report on Women and the Military 18.2 (2000):
Toktas, Sule. "Nationalism, Militarism and Gender Politics: Women in the Military." Minerva: Quarterly Report on Women and the Military 20.2 (2002): 29+.
The intended audience is the general reader, scholars and historians. Overall, this work is highly-valuale as a source for all those wishing to understand the complexities of the women's movement in the 20th century.
Google Book Search: (http://ooks.google.com/ooks?vid=ISBN0838632238&id=w9TzuCg-XYC&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&dq=women%27s+rights+movement&sig=7y7B0ojdo7sgtl_agde_B1PdVnE#PPP10,M1).
Law, Cheryl. Suffrage and Power: The Women's Movement, 1918-1928. New York:
I.B. Tauris & Company (Palgrave Macmillan), 1997. 260 pages ISBN
This ook y acclaimed scholar Cheryl Law of New York University examines how the women's movement, through its network of organization and its powerful and widespread campaigning, was transformed and developed into a formidale fighting force which aided in its continuing assault on entrenched positions to secure women's full and equal participation in society -- in politics, commerce, industry and the professions, education, welfare, politics and for franchise extension. It also examines the myths associated with the decline in the women's movement following World War I. It contains eleven major sections…
bibliography and an index. Due to its scholarly nature, this work is not intended for general audiences and would make an excellent addition to a class focusing on the women's movement in early 20th century America.
Google Book Search: ( http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN1860642012&id=C17PslUo1DYC&dq=women%27s+rights+movement ).
omen to History
omen have contributed to the history of the world from the beginning of time. Their stories are found in legends, myths, and history books. Queens, martyrs, saints, and female warriors, usually referred to as Amazon omen, writers, artists, and political and social heroes dot our human history. By 1865, women moved into the public arena, as moral reform became the business of women, as they fought for immigrant settlement housing, fought and struggled for the right to earn living wages, and stood up to the threats of the lynch mobs. The years beginning in 1865 is known as the Civil ar era and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. It was a time of great changes, especially for African-American women such as Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth. omen of all races had to fight for equal rights, even the right to vote (http://women.eb.com/women/nineteenth09.html).omenhave indeed 'come a long…
Women in American History. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. http://women.eb.com/women/nineteenth09.html. http://women.eb.com/women/crossroads05.html. http://women.eb.com/women/crossroads12.html. http://women.eb.com/women/modernamerica06.html. http://women.eb.com/women/modernamerica02.html.
A accessed 07-04-2002).
Bryson, Donna. "MOTHER TERESA LED LIFE OF HARD WORK AND LOVE DIMINUTIVE NUN NEVER WAVERED FROM HER SELF-IMPOSED MISSION TO BRING COMFORT TO THE WORLD." Denver Rocky Mountain News. September 14, 1997, pp 3A. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Denver_Rocky_Mountain_News&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~InsideDenver.com~S~&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Donna+Bryson&title=MOTHER+TERESA+LED+LIFE+OF+HARD+WORK+AND+LOVE+DIMINUTIVE+NUN+NEVER+WAVERED+FROM+HER+SELF%2DIMPOSED+MISSION+TO+BRING+COMFORT+TO+THE+WORLD++&date=09%2D14%2D1997&query=+Mother+Teresa&maxdoc=90&idx=7.(accessed07-04-2002).
Lloyd, Marion. "Nun's Sainthood effort moves fast; Callers report miracles of Mother Teresa." The Washington Times. August 28, 1999, pp A6. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=The_Washington_Times&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.washtimes.com&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Marion+Lloyd&title=Nun%27s+sainthood+effort+moves+fast%3B+Callers+report+miracles+of+Mother+Teresa++&date=08%2D28%2D1999&query=+Mother+Teresa&maxdoc=90&idx=6 accessed 07-04-2002).
War has always affected women, even though combat itself was normally not a part of the female experience. After the Industrial Revolution, the lives of women were increasingly altered in the presence of war. The Industrial Revolution changed the ways women worked and also changed the gender roles in the home. Post-Industrial Revolution wars involved women's voices and women's work far more than pre-Industrial Revolution wars. Early female experiences with wars showed that women served as helpers rather than as front-line fighters. Thus, women's roles within the military were overshadowed by their male counterparts. Women also continued to play into overall gender stereotypes and social norms. For example, the Spanish Civil War in 1898 saw the presence of hundreds of female military nurses. While this showed that women were becoming increasingly viable citizens in pre-suffrage United States, it also illustrates the slow social progress of women. Women's non-military work…
Spheres and Suffrage
During the period of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, there were two spheres which separated men and women in society. This seems incongruous in our modern time where men and women interact freely and females have achieved positions of power in every branch of business, politics, and research. But, for women living in the 1800s and 1900s, they were limited in their potential by their gender. The men were allowed to reside in the external sphere, engaging with other men in business and going to the club in the evening. Only men were given the privilege of power in the outside world. omen were only allowed control in their homes, the domestic sphere. The woman's life was centered on her home and her family. It would be the charge of some very brave women who refused to live their lives separated from the outside and…
Dubois, Ellen. "The Next Generation of Suffragists: Harriot Stanton Blatch and Grassroots
Politics." Creating the State in an Industrialized Nation, 1900-1945. 2002. Print.
McCurry, Stephanie. "Women's Work: The Gender Division of Labor in Yeoman
Households of South Carolina before the Civil War." Creating the State in an Industrialized Nation, 1900-1945. 2002. Print.
Much like African-American leaders and reformers that brought about the end of racial discrimination and segregation via the Civil Rights Movement, in 1866, Stanton created the American Equal Rights Association, aimed at organizing women in the long fight for equal rights. In 1868, the U.S. Congress ratified the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution which "defined citizenship and voters as male" and excluded women; in 1870, Congress ratified the Fifteenth Amendment which also excluded women in favor of African-American males ("The History of Women's Suffrage," Internet).
At this point, the women's movement split into two factions, the National Woman
Suffrage Association, headed by Stanton and Susan . Anthony, and the American Woman Suffrage Association, a more conservative organization headed by Julia Ward Howe and Lucy Stone. y 1890, these two opposing factions joined forces to create the National American Woman Suffrage Association under the leadership of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (Gurko, 145).…
Berkeley, Kathleen C. The Women's Liberation Movement in America. New York:
Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999.
Frederick Powledge. We Shall Overcome: Heroes of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.
Gurko, Miriam. Ladies of Seneca Falls: The Birth of the Women's Rights Movement.