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Civilization or Brutalism?
Capital Punishment in North Carolina
The threat of capital punishment has stood the test of time as the ultimate solution for any civilization to treat its unwanted criminals and enemies. As societies became more progressive, the form in which capital punishment took progressed as well, from poisons, nooses, electric shocks, firing squads, or even the good old axe to the neck, to modern chemicals whose sole intent is to stop the heart from beating. The way in which people may be executed has also developed, and with a modern court system has come the ability to seek several appeals to the justice system in order to delay and review cases for years. Because of the burden of the modern state, as terrible as some crime may be, capital punishment simply no longer makes economic sense. Also, psychologists have proven that the threat of capital punishment in no…
Charbonneau, Mark. "Death Penalty Debate Moves To Governor's Mansion:: WRAL.com." WRAL.com. Web. 31 Dec. 2011. .
"Death Penalty Cost." Amnesty International USA | Protect Human Rights. Web. 31 Dec. 2011. .
"Offenders on Death Row." North Carolina Department of Corrections. Web. 31 Dec. 2011. .
Smith, Justin E. "Ending the Death Penalty." Counterpunch: Tells the Facts, Names the Names. Web. 31 Dec. 2011. .
For most the idea was the anonymous nature of the village, and how easy it was for anyone to commit an atrocity against another, if given the official sanction to do so.
Stanley Edgar Hyman believed that the nature and purpose of his wife's work were misunderstood because her "fierce visions of dissociation and madness, of alienation and withdrawal, of cruelty and terror" were interpreted as "personal, even neurotic, fantasies." Hyman insisted that instead these visions were "a sensitive and faithful anatomy of our times, fitting symbols for our distressing world of the concentration camp and the Bomb." (6)
Jackson seeks again, as so many before her have, to point out to the modern world, that we are never far from our barbarous past, no matter how civilized we pretend to be, even the victim of the lottery, had not failed to finish doing the families dishes before…
Hague, Angela. "A Faithful Anatomy of Our Times": Reassessing Shirley Jackson." Frontiers - a Journal of Women's Studies 26.2 (2005): 73.
Jackson, Shirley the Lottery. Retrieved October 15, 2007 at http://fiction.eserver.org/short/the_lottery.html
Kravits, Bennett. "Reinventing the World and Reinventing the Self in Huck Finn." Papers on Language & Literature 40.1 (2004): 3.
London, Jack to Build a Fire. Retrieved October 15, 2007 at http://www.pagebypagebooks.com/Jack_London/To_Build_a_Fire/To_Build_a_Fire_p1.html
Civilization in the High Middle Ages
It is said that the University of Oxford was not created, that rather it emerged. Universities in general, and the University of Oxford in particular, are among one of the many contributions of Medieval civilization to the present day. The University of Oxford was not the earliest university in the world - Paris and ologna were founded before it - but it is the oldest English-speaking university in the world, and has eight centuries of history behind it. The development of the University of Oxford took place against a wider backdrop of the revolution that was shaking 12th century Europe: a zest for intellectual discovery, which the existing cathedral and monastic schools could not meet (Green, 1974). Oxford University was a by-product of this intellectual revolution.
As I said, there is no clear date of foundation for the university, but teaching existed in Oxford…
Brodrick, G.C. (1900). A History of Oxford University. London: Longman.
Catto, J.I. et al. (1992). The History of the University of Oxford. Volume II: late Medieval Oxford. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Green, V.H.H. (1974). A History of Oxford University. London: Batsford.
Prest, J. (ed.) (1993). The Illustrated History of Oxford University. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
By "civilization of the mind" Barlow clearly means that the Internet will be and must be a free medium for the same reason that private thoughts of individuals are not appropriately subject to government control. In Barlow's view at the time, the cyber medium would be nothing more than a community of individuals sharing the product of their private and sovereign thoughts.
Practical Limitations of the Civilization of the Mind Concept
In so far as Barlow meant the freedom to communicate thoughts and the freedom of access to information, his criticisms and his expectations of what the civilization of the mind would (and should) become were accurate. Today, free societies fully recognize that their citizens have every right to communicate freely and to access information via the cyber medium. Barlow was also accurate in his expectation that cyberspace would also provide a new social medium and in that respect, his…
Secondly, the relations that were created at the level of the social groups and of the human establishments gave rise to a surplus of products and inevitably of wealth. This was a natural consequence of the fact that the specialization of labor determined a larger quantity of products being made and of better quality. This is seen as the first revolution, the predecessor of events such as the industrial revolution of the 18th century or the informational one in the 20th century. The specialization of work offered the producers the possibility to exchange goods and to create the first good markets. In turn this led to an equal distribution of the profit because some of the goods traded had a higher or lower value on the respective market.
This trend can also characterize today's civilized world. In this sense, despite the fact that we live in a world that is…
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994.
Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses, 1998.
Mumford, Lewis. The transformations of man. New York: Collier Books, 1966.
Myers, Van Ness. Ancient History, Revised Edition. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1904, pp. 1-12. Available online at http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Sciences/Lifescience/PhysicalAnthropology/PrehistoricTimes/PrehistoricTimes.htm
Civilization and Barbarism and Cruelty
The works of Esteban Echeverria's El Matadero/The Slaughterhouse and Domingo Faustino Sarmiento's Facundo two classic works Argentinean 19th century literature
How does one behave like a civilized human being when one is confronted with a brutal dictator and what causes a dictator to rise to power in a land such as Argentina? These are the central questions posed both by the literature of the poet Esteban Echeverria (1805 -- 51) in his work El Matadero/The Slaughterhouse and that of the educator and writer, Domingo Faustino Sarmiento. The latter author was President of Argentina from 1868 to 1874, while the author Echeverria was an early proponent of romanticism in Latin America. Echeverria's earlier text suggested that Argentina's reversion to a dictatorship was simply the result of a brutal man's tyranny upon a pure and uncomplicated land, while Sarmiento suggests a more complicated cause at oppression's roots,…
"Echeverria." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. Columbia University Press. 2005. http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/people/A0816688.html
'Echeverria, Esteban." Censorship, A World Encyclopedia. Edited by D. Jones. 2004.
Echeverria, Esteban. El Matadero / The Slaughterhouse.
Civilization Historical Analysis
The daring voyages made by explorers from Spain and Portuguese resulted in exploration and discovery of new lands as well as new routes between various regions. It was by these endeavors that Aristotle's 350 BC idea of a round Earth was validated and the world witnessed tremendous progress and development in trade. Europe saw much more development in this era relating to new techniques in navigation, ship building and metallurgy.
Initially the reason for these voyages was the need to discover an alternate route to Asia, known as Indies back then. The land route was blocked and made dangerous to travel on by ruling Muslims hence the alternate sea route was around Africa or set sail towards the west in a hope to reach Indies by going around the globe. It was Christopher Columbus who sailed west looking for an alternate route but he landed in Americas…
Cohen, J.M. (1992). The Four Voyages: Being His Own Log-Book, Letters and Dispatches with Connecting Narratives. Penguin Classics, Print.
Hamdani, Abbas. (1979). "Columbus and the Recovery of Jerusalem." Journal of the American Oriental Society 99(1): 39-48. Print.
Upshur, Jiu-Hwa, et al. (2011). World History: Advantage Edition. Cengage Learning, Print.
civilization? Is it right to say that France begins with the Gauls, or should we really speak more about France since the French Revolution since that is when the Republic began? These are questions that go through my mind every time I get ready to teach this class. Does knowing about the Gauls help us understand France today?
When do you feel that you are from? How far do you feel it is worthwhile/interesting to trace your heritage?
Briefly respond to each for the below person response to the above prompt. Feel free to add your own information. Remember to say where the information came from.
We should go as far back as we are able to when it comes to history. The more we find out about the past, the more we know about ourselves. With that said, I believe that France begins with the Gauls, as that is…
Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents
Socrates on Freud's Civilization and its Discontents:
Religion, the nature of man and the value of inquiry
According to Sigmund Freud's Civilization and its Discontents, certain aspects of human nature are immutable. In some ways I do agree with this: I believe that every human being has a certain, innate tendency or ability to do something uniquely well. That is why I devised my vision of an ideal society as a philosophic kingdom, in which those deemed most fit to rule will rule; those who are most fit to defend the body politic are charged with protecting it, and those most fit to perform trades are charged with these manual laboring tasks. However, Freud seems to suppose that everyone is driven by the same urges, namely that of sex, and all other aspects of culture, including the drive for philosophical knowledge are actually a displacement…
Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its Discontents. Buckinghamshire, UK: Chrysoma.
Originally published 1929. [3 Mar 2014]
Hammurabi is well-known for the code of laws which he created. What is significant about this code of laws is that it was the first body of laws that was publicly announced to the people of the city. It was arranged in a fashion where it could be understood easily. The trick to understanding the code's relation to the people's values and culture is to look at the stone upon which the code was delivered. The code was carved into a black stone around eight feet in height. The large size was designed for accessibility in the city.
This stone upon which the code lay was found in 1901 in a city in the Persian mountains. When looking at the text, one skilled in ancient texts will note that the code begins and ends with proclamation to the gods. This shows a link between the people's culture, religious…
art and show how they revealed the accomplishments of their respective civilizations. The three works are Perseus with the Head of Medusa by Antonio Canova (1804-6), the marble column from the Temple of Artemis at Sardis (300 BC), and the Fascinus phallus-deity of ancient Rome. Each is a work that reflects the style and culture of its time.
Canova's Perseus is much more "lyrical" than other representations of the Gorgon-slaying demigod ("Perseus with the Head of Medusa"). A marble statue standing at 220 cm. high, Perseus' pose is rather sweeping as though he were caught in mid side-step in a dance. His left arm is held aloft and in its hand is the head of Medusa, but one could easily imagine the hand holding the hand of a dancing partner. The right arm is down and its hand holds the sword that killed the Gorgon. All the weight appears to…
Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. NY: Harcourt, 2003. Print.
"Marble column from the Temple of Artemis at Sardis." MetMuseum. Web. 22 Apr
"Perseus with the Head of Medusa." MetMuseum. Web. 22 Apr 2015.
Liberalism introduced a very appealing idealistic perspective of the world, wishing for universal freedom and equality. Historical events, such as the French revolution or the industrial revolution seemed to change the world in this exact direction, but the truth is that liberalism failed to keep its promise regarding progress.
Society did undergo fundamental changes. Absolutist regimes were brought down. The industrial advancements allowed for the creation of a new social order with the middle class acquiring a better living standard and easier access to knowledge. However, all these positive changes had their own price that was paid dearly.
Modernism had the purpose of renewing all the important aspects of society (social, political, cultural, etc.) under the circumstances in which the entirely industrialized world served as a proof to demonstrate that the power is in man's hands while it is our actions which create the future and not the will…
Rogers, Perry M. "Aspects of western civilization: problems and sources in history." Volume one. Prentice Hall, 6th edition, 2007
Rogers, Perry M. "Aspects of western civilization: problems and sources in history." Volume two. Prentice Hall, 6th edition, 2007
Shelley, Mary. "Frankenstein or the modern Prometheus." Simon and Schuster. 2004
Wright, Patrick. Enemy alien in "The Guardian," February 2, 2008 retrieved march 20 from http://books.guardian.co.uk/review/story/0,,2250759,00.html#article_continue
A civilization in simple terms is the development of human potential in all dimensions including physical, intellectual, spiritual, moral and psychological. In order for the potential to be developed, civilizations have to work to utilize the resources that are available to them, benefits of which should reach the entire society and bring a positive effect on to the whole world. It is a manifestation of beliefs that are present in every aspect of human life. A civilization is a collective effort which is undertaken by a whole society and benefits are not only restricted to a particular group or people or individuals, even if those individuals are not directly a part of the civilization. Civilizations have to maintain duration and continuation. They do not emerge simply to disappear. They can spread to other societies and spread throughout the world.
The Islamic civilization is the manifestation of the Islamic…
Arberry, A. Aspects of Islamic Civilization: As Depicted in the Original Texts. University of Michigan Press,
Donner, Fred McGraw. Muhammad and the Believers, At the Origins of Islam. Belknap Press, 2011.
Ernst, Carl W. Following Muhammad, Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World. The University of North Carolina Press, 2006.
Ihya al-Ulum. 97.
Hispanic (Spanish and Portugese) Civilization
History has proven that, regardless of the way in which civilization managed to overcome centuries of historical practices, there is a certain foundation in terms of defining elements that characterize the different cultures. The simple split between the European and the African cultures is relevant in this sense. Despite the fact that it is the European force that created Africa as it looks today, with origins in the French, the British or the Italian and German cultures, there is a clear distinction between the European in France and the European in Morocco for instance. Yet, a great number of cultural aspects are somewhat common and defined the perspective of French Africa as opposed to British Africa. The same applies in the case of the Hispanic culture. There are common elements that define Hispanic nations, despite differences in culture and history. Yet, to this day, the…
Alves, Abel A. Brutality and Benevolence: Human Ethnology, Culture, and the Birth of Mexico. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1996.
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994
Dept. Of Transportation. "49 Cfr Transportation, Subtitle A, Office Of The Secretary Of Transportation, Part 26 -- Participation By Disadvantaged Business Enterprises In Department Of Transportation Financial Assistance Programs" in Office of Planning, Environment, and Realty (HEP), available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/hep/guidance/superseded/49cfr26.cfm
Mexico E-magazine. Mexico's History: the Spanish Conquest. 2008. http://www.mexperience.com/history/conquest.htm
Survival of Civilization and Personal Survival Following a Large-Scale Nuclear Disaster
This study operates from the viewpoint of a disaster situation and in this scenario the disaster chosen is a nuclear disaster. The purpose of this study is to choose three objects that will ensure civilization continues. A nuclear disaster would result in many deaths in addition to the destruction of property, plants, animals, and if the disaster were on a large enough scale, life as it is known would cease to exist.
Three Items to Ensure Civilization's Survival
Three items that would be chosen to ensure that civilization survives would be: (1) a packet of seeds; (2) a bag of medicine; and (3) a book on survival. While infrastructure might still be in place, the necessary manpower to operate the infrastructure would likely not be in existence. Therefore, this type of disaster, on a large enough scale would result…
As already discussed, the Indus Valley Civilization managed to live peacefully while the other Mesopotamian cultures were entrenched in war, although Cork (2005) questions this based on the presence of weapons in the excavation. Even with the presence of weapons, however, the culture is generally thought to be more peaceful than that of its counterparts. Additionally, that the culture exhibited a cosmopolitan multiculturalism (Cork, 2005: 411) makes it comparable to the ideal model of today's world. Furthermore, evidence suggests that the Indus Valley Civilization managed to survive, for a time, a climate change similar to that which is currently affecting the modern world (Lawler, 2007: 979). In addition to facing problems similar to those faced in today's modern civilizations, the Harappan Culture virtually mimicked the modern culture of the geographic area. This suggests that the Indus Valley Civilization was just as advanced as the other Mesopotamian cultures, not just in…
This drought was explicated as a "[s]olar activity -- including varying sunspot numbers and the brightness of the sun -- is recorded in the abundance of cosmic ray -- produced radioactive carbon-14 preserved in tree rings. Solar activity also varies in a "bicentennial oscillation" with a period variously reported to be between 206 and 208 years." This extraordinary occurrence also led to extreme ramifications, such as the sudden scarcity of the basic needs, particular food and water supply, of the people. Without these essential needs, Mayan civilization ceased to thrive and survive, eventually resulting to its end as its people died due to the "megadrought."
Another perspective offered about the sudden disappearance of the Mayan civilization was that instead of a drought, a probable cause to the vanishing of the civilization was due to the occurrence of a great diaspora, an internal collapse of Mayan culture and society due to…
DeMallie, R. (1996). North American Indian anthropology: essays on society and culture. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press.
'History in the media." (2003). History Today, 53 (6).
Kerr, R. (2001). "A variable sun and the Maya collapse." Science, 292 (5520).
Sabloff, J. (1996). The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. C. Beck (Ed.). NY: Oxford UP.
In some cultures, however, dance is also used for spiritual purposes. The art of creating dances is known as choreography.
Outside of the performing arts, one of the most important features of the humanities is philosophy. Philosophy is derived from an ancient Greek term that means "the love of wisdom." Philosophy studies life, the nature of existence, and what it means to use one's reason. Philosophy is one of the oldest subjects of study that our civilization knows. In the sixteenth century, philosophy led to the study of physics, while in the nineteenth century, philosophy would branch out into the newly emergent field of psychology. According to Immanuel Kant, "Ancient Greek philosophy was divided into three sciences: physics, ethics, and logic." Today, philosophy in inclusive of many more branches of thought, including cognitive science, wherein scholars attempt to determine the nature of systems of intelligent and understand modes of thought,…
Austin, John. The Province of Jurisprudence Determined. New York: Prometheus Books, 2000. Dworkin, Ronald. Law's Empire. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986.
Fiero, Gloria K. The Humanistic Tradition. New York: McGraw Hill, 2002.
Hart, H.L.A. The Concept of Law. New York: Oxford University Press, 1961.
Kant, Immanuel. Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. Allen W. Wood, tr. New Haven:
History Of Western Civilization
Explain the formation of the Peloponnesian League. What it is, and what city- states are involved in it?
The Peloponnesian League was formed circa 51-500 BC. Sparta was an oligarchy dominating the southern Peloponnese region, a peninsula in southern Greece which, despite being in a position to dominate the Ionian Sea and with allies in position on the Aegean Sea, preferred building a large and well-trained army to assure its place in the world at the time.
The major city-states in the League were Corinth, which controlled the Isthmus of Corinth, linking the Peloponnesian Peninsula to the mainland above Athens, Thebes and Plataea. The league was formed because Sparta wanted to protect itself against Athens, which was a sea power, and because the city-states in the league mistrusted the city-state of Argos. The philosophy of governing was also part of the reason; Sparta and its allies…
They also helped create the notion of irrigation and water management, as they built aqueducts and ditches to carry water to farmers far removed from the Nile iver. Their technologies helped develop the idea of moving water to where it was needed, something in use today with the massive aqueducts in California that carry water from Northern California and the Colorado iver to Southern California's major cities.
The Egyptians were extremely advanced in the field of medicine, as well. Surviving papyri indicate the Egyptians studied and wrote about medicine, dental medicine, and even veterinary medicine and they became quite accomplished at many aspects of these sciences. In fact, Alexandria also housed a medical school, one of the first ever noted in history (uiz 190). These early medical findings have helped build a foundation of medical knowledge that continues to grow today, and has helped humankind survive and conquer many diseases…
David, Rosalie. The Experience of Ancient Egypt. London: Routledge, 2000.
My-liwiec, Karol. The Twilight of Ancient Egypt: First Millennium B.C.E. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000.
Nimis, Stephen. "Egypt in Greco-Roman History and Fiction." Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics (2004): 34+.
Ruiz, Ana. The Spirit of Ancient Egypt. New York: Algora, 2001.
The roads connected two hierarchical clusters of towns and villages, each with a ceremonial center and satellite towns, precisely oriented in terms of the center. According to the author, it is likely that the towns held 1,000 or even more citizens. In total, Heckenberger notes that the total regional population could have been some 30,000 to 50,000 inhabitants. However, the number is difficult to determine accurately, as a large part of the region is still to be studied.
In his article, Charles C. Mann addresses the find of "geoglyphs" in Acre, Brazil during the 1970s. This find was the first to lead to an acknowledgement of more than small civilizations in the ancient Amazon (Man 1148). Although the purpose of the geoglyphs is unclear, they do suggest a sophisticated civilization as recently as 1250 C.E., according to carbon dating. Indeed, researchers suggest that indigenous people lived in the region in…
Heckenberger, Michael J. Lost Cities of the Amazon: The Amazon tropical forest is not as wild as it looks. The Scientific American, Oct. 2009.
Mann, Charles C. Ancient Earthmovers of the Amazon. Science, Vo 321. 29 Aug. 2008.
civilizations have often resulted in dramatic changes to both sides. Peaceful encounters bring transfers to new goods, new technologies and new ideas, while encounters built on conflict can change outlooks, governments and ways of life. A violent culture clash occurred with the Crusades, while a more peaceful meeting of the cultures occurred with traders from Europe (especially Venetians) heading eastward to Asia. These two encounters between civilizations would lead to much of what we see in the geopolitical world today. We have conflict in the Middle East between the Arab world and the Western world. We also see global trade as a major driving force in the world. This trade also would eventually lead to the age of exploration and mass colonization.
The rise of Islam and the response of Christian Europe during the Crusades not only characterized its era, being one of the most important events of the time,…
The topic is religious and social life in the Achaemenid Empire. The purpose of the project is to learn more about this subject and dispel some of the myths in today's media. I will use books on the subject to learn about what this empire was like, and what their religion was like. I expect that I will be able to come to some conclusions about the Achaemenid Empire. Furthermore, I believe that I will demonstrate that the rulers of this empire were enlightened and had a high level of tolerance for the customs of those over whom they ruled.
The subject of this report will be the Achaemenid Empire that flourished in ancient Persia, from 550-330 BCE. This empire is interesting for several reasons, not the least of which was its Zoroastrian religion and general religious tolerance. This empire has been cast as villain in popular…
Armayor, O. (1979). Herodotus' catalogues of the Persian Empire in the light of the monuments and the Greek literary tradition. Transactions of the American Philological Association. Vol. 108 (1979) 1-9.
Choksy, J. (1989). Purity and pollution in Zoroastrianism: Triumph over evil. University of Texas Press.
Dandamaev, M. (1989). A political history of the Achaemenid Empire. EJ Brill: New York.
Dusinberre, E. (2003). Aspects of Empire in Achaemenid Sardis. University of Michigan: Ann Arbor.
Civilizations of Latin America
Human beings have always expressed themselves through culture; throughout history. The achievements made are a product of continued refinement over the ages. They are an inherited product of a diverse modified and complex evolution from the past through time. The Latin American case is a complex one. There is plenty of diversity exemplified but there are contradictions too. The complication arises from the fact that there is a remarkable cultural diversity in the vast continent; spanning Patagonia to Mesoamerica and from the past to modern day. The Latin American region has been full of controversies, disagreements, legends and mysteries that show the reasons why the continent should exist despite great pressure mounted by the West[footnoteef:1]. In order to understand our existence as unique people, and for a clear coexistence attitude embedded in a social fabric, we must study, live and imagine the cultural orientations of Latin…
Kahn, J.S. El concepto de cultura: Textos fundamentales. Anagrama. (1974)
Nanda, Serena. Antropologia cultural. Adaptaciones socioculturales. Mexico. 1987
Navarrete Orta, Lu's. Literatura e ideas en la Historia hispanoamericana. Cuadernos Lagoven. 1991
Zea, Leopoldo. La esencia de lo americano. Mexico. 1971
Greek History World Civilizations
What made the Greek civilization so great? What made the Greeks so great?
Greeks are the most famous and advance people around the world. There are so many areas and variety of things that makes this country and nation so rich and lively. The Greeks has a great history due to having great philosophers, socialist, wars, kings, food, outfits, culture, and great thinkers.
The history of Greek civilization is very rich and deep, it can be dated back to 300 B.C. The nation is entirely long and vast.
It was the first civilization in Europe. This part of the world was developed near the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea. It is also considered as the birthplace of democracy as per several popular scholars, nations and authors of the world in the history.
The Greek is the first democratic country over the earth. The idea of…
Civilization instills certain necessary checks to contain sexual and aggressive impulses, like feelings of guilt. The original, Oedipal anger of the boy against the father is turned inward, against himself, given that he is taught that it is 'wrong' to want to hurt his father and desire his mother.
Civilization and its Discontents is partially an argument against utopian philosophies like Marxism. Freud's concept is that society is inherently masochistic in nature, dependent upon feelings of guilt and sacrifice to function. A utopia is impossible. The innate impulses of desire and aggressiveness of the individual will always be in conflict with other individuals and the collective. To be truly 'happy' in an ecstatic sense would mean destroying the rights of others. If everyone lived by the law of the id, then only the strongest would survive. Society aims for moderation: a moderate satisfaction of the desires of all people through…
Huntington's Clash Of Civilization
confirm or refute Huntington's clash of civilizations thesis
Huntington's clash of civilization
Scholars, journalists, and policy makers have adopted and popularized the ideas of Samuel P. Huntington, who was a professor of government at Harvard University, to explain the emerging post-cold war world. According to Huntington, the world is divided into a number of distinct civilizations that are irreconcilable because they hold to entirely different value systems (Huntington, 1993, 22-49).
This essay in tends to refute the Huntington's clash of civilizations thesis by first of all looking at the summation of this thesis, before the researcher gives his own perspective of Huntington's theory. In the third section of this study, supporting evidence that draws from the readings from this essay and other accredited outside sources are discussed before the essay concludes.
Summation of Huntington's clash of civilization thesis
Born Samuel P. Huntington in 1927; a political…
Ankerl, Guy. (2008) Global communication without universal civilization Coexisting contemporary civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press. pp 74-89
Blankley, Tony, (2005) The West's Last Chance: Will We Win the Clash of Civilizations?, Washington, D.C., Regnery Publishing, Inc., p 56-88
Djilas, Aleksa: (2006) "Democracy, Destiny, and the Clash of Civilizations": Transitions, the journal on post-communist society's pp 49
Fox, Jonathon, (1994) Ethnic minorities and the clash of civilizations: A quantitative analysis of Huntington's thesis. British Journal of Political Science, pp 415-435.
4. Social and Political Life
There is a general paucity of information about the actual societal and political structure of the Olmec. While there is not much evidence to build a comprehensive picture of the daily and social life of these people, there is enough available data from certain archeological sites to provide some reasonable speculations.
One of the assumptions that is derived from the excavation of sites at San Lorenzo and then at La Venta is that the society was very centralized. This in turn has led to the view that the society was highly structured, with a hierarchical basis of order and class stratification. This also implies the existence of a ruling elite and a system of power and control, which was possibly based on religious beliefs. This view of the structure of the society is summarized as follows: "Olmec society was & #8230;highly centralized, with a…
Griffin Gillett G., the Olmec World: Ritual and Rulership,
http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/olmec / (accessed 8 November, 2010).
Jones, David M. Mythology of the Aztecs and Maya, New York: Lorenz, 2007.
Lemonick M.D., Mystery of the Olmec,( Time Magazine, July 1, 1996, Volume 148, No.
The author points out that there were more commoners than nobles but the commoners were often at the mercy of nobles and were expected to serve them. Although this was the case, it was also true that commoners had a great deal of control over their lives and in most cases they had enough to meet their basic needs and the needs of their family.
One of the most interesting aspects of Aztec civilization is Aztec religious practices. According to an article found in the Journal of the Southwest, the Aztec religious system dominated the way of life for the Aztec people. The research indicates that the religious system of the Aztec people was very much associated with the Aztec Calendar. This calendar was based on the yearly agricultural cycle.
For instance when the winter solstice occurred the Aztec people would participate in fire festivals. The purpose of such…
Ancient Aztec Government. 16 April, 2008 http://www.aztec-history.com/ancient-aztec-government.html
Aztec Society Family. 16 April, 2008 http://www.aztec-history.com/aztec-society-family.html
Hassig Ross. Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control-Book by. University of Oklahoma Press; 1988
James, Susan E. "Some Aspects of the Aztec Religion in the Hopi Kachina Cult." Journal of the Southwest 42.4 (2000): 897.
The second case of cultural reaffirmation that Huntington discusses is that of Muslim societies which have followed a different path towards the reassertion of their cultural identity. In these societies, religion has been the main factor of cultural distinctiveness and influence. Huntington argues that religion is the main factor which distinguishes Muslim societies from the others, and that the resurgence of Islam "embodies the acceptance of modernity, rejection of Western culture, and the recommitment to Islam as the guide to life in the modern world" (Huntington 1998: 110). As far as the causes behind this resurgence, Huntington talks about the failure of state economies, the large and oftentimes rather young population of these countries, as well as the authoritarian political regimes of these nation states.
In light of these arguments, Huntington predicts great clashes will occur among civilizations. However he also identifies a possible cooperation between Islamic and inic cultures…
Simon & Schuster, 1998.
Huntington, Samuel. "The Clash of Civilizations?" Foreign Affairs 72.3 (1993): 22-49.
Kamrava, Mehran. "Political Culture." In Democracy in the Balance: Culture and Society in the Middle East. New York: Chatham House Publishers, 1998: 201-223.
Cold ar has brought renewed interest in civilizations as a source of identity and conflict. The Cold ar had allowed the world to be divided into two distinct camps: one directed by Communist philosophy and the other directed by democratic ideals. This division often resulted in considerable conflict but at least everyone occupied a definable position. All this changed, however, with the collapse of the Soviet Union.
The collapse of Communism presented the possibility of a more peaceful world. Gone was the constant state of tension between the two ideologies. Democracy was now the prevailing political ideology and the door was open for the growing trend toward globalization to progress in earnest. This feeling of euphoria, however, was short-lived and new barriers soon emerged to construct new walls and barriers between the various worlds' nation-states.
In some cases actual walls have been constructed such as the proposed wall between the…
Eksteins, Modris. Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1989.
Huntington, Samuel. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.
Lewis, Bernard. What Went Wrong?: Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2001.
Freud Civilization and Its Discontents
Sigmund Freud's volume, Civilization and its Discontents, he tackles no less than the broad and ambitious concept of man's place in the world. In this volume, he looks at culture from his unique psychoanalytical perspective, and touches upon a number of important concepts, including aggression, civilization and the individual, organized religion, the death drive and Eros, and the super-ego and conscience. Civilization and its Discontents was written a mere decade before the great psychoanalysts death, and is in many ways an important compilation of many of his most renowned theories on the mind, human nature, and the structure of human society.
First published in German in 1929, Civilization and its Discontents delves deeply into Freud's theories of aggression, the death drive, and its adversary, Eros. In the book, Freud seeks to look into the relationship between man's inner desires, and the establishment of modern civilization.…
Freud, Sigmund. 1989. Civilization and its Discontents. W.W. Norton & Company.
Samuel P. Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations." Foreign Affairs (Summer 1993): 22.
Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations," 22.
Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations," 22.
Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations," 23.
Anatol Lieven, "Analysis: roots of the conflict between Georgia, South Ossetia and Russia." The UK Times Online. (August 11, 2008). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article4498709.ece (accessed September 2, 2009).
Samuel P. Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations," 23-24.
Anatole Lieven, "Analysis."
Anatole Lieven, "Analysis."
Natalia Antelava. "U.S. military will stay in Georgia." C (January 12, 2004). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3406941.stm (accessed September 2, 2009).
Robyn Dixon, "Putin acks U.S. Involvement in Georgia." The LA Times (March 2, 2002). http://articles.latimes.com/2002/mar/02/news/mn-30748 (accessed September 2, 2009).
Antelava, Natalia. "U.S. military will stay in Georgia." C, January 12, 2004,
Dixon, Robyn. "Putin acks U.S. Involvement in Georgia." The LA Times, March 2,
2002, http://articles.latimes.com/2002/mar/02/news/mn-30748 (accessed September 2, 2009).
Lieven, Anatol. "Analysis: roots of the conflict between Georgia, South Ossetia and…
Antelava, Natalia. "U.S. military will stay in Georgia." BBC, January 12, 2004,
Dixon, Robyn. "Putin Backs U.S. Involvement in Georgia." The LA Times, March 2,
2002, http://articles.latimes.com/2002/mar/02/news/mn-30748 (accessed September 2, 2009).
Any of these conflicts might seem limited when they start, but given the cultural differences involved, at any time they could turn into a broader cultural war involving not a small part of the Middle East but all of it, and that sort of war would be a major threat to world civilization, a Huntington shows in his book.
Khater (2004) offers a look at many documents of Middle Eastern history, documents written by participants and observers of events and trends from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. A survey of these documents helps show how the West has gotten the issues wrong numerous times an how the Islamic countries fail to understand the nature of the West at the same time. Of particular note are the many diplomatic cables and other correspondence addressing the situation in Iran before the revolution and the return of Ayatollah Khomeini in the 1970s,…
Cleveland, W.L. (1999). A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Gelvin, J.L. (2008). The Modern Middle East: A History. New York, (2nd Edition) Oxford University Press.
Gumley, F. & Redhead, B. (1992). The Pillars of Islam. London: BBC Books.
Huntington, S.P. (1993, Summer). The Clash of Civilizations? Foreign Affairs, 22-49.
Although they still remain a mystery as to their origin, the Sumerians seem to have appeared as a fully developed society with technology and organizational skills far superior to any other societies of that era. The Sumerians evolved from hunters and gathers to communities of farmers who faced an unpredictable and hostile environment, yet their innovations in writing and recordkeeping influenced future civilizations. Not only are they credited with inventing the wheel, the plow, and timekeeping, but the earliest known literature, the epic of Gilgamesh, is attributed to the Sumerian civilization. Thus, modern civilizations owe much to this mysterious ancient peoples.
Conan, Neal. "Analysis: Tracing the history of Iraq from its earliest days of civilization to the present. Talk of the Nation: National Public Radio. September 19, 2002. Retrieved December 09, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
atkins, Thayer. "Sumer." San Jose State University Economics Department.
Retrieved December 09,…
Conan, Neal. "Analysis: Tracing the history of Iraq from its earliest days of civilization to the present. Talk of the Nation: National Public Radio. September 19, 2002. Retrieved December 09, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Watkins, Thayer. "Sumer." San Jose State University Economics Department.
Retrieved December 09, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library. http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/sumer.htm
Waymire, Gregory B. "Recordkeeping and human evolution." Accounting
Alexander the Great
Western civilization has wide range of historical aspects and it encompasses civilization of ancient Rome, ancient Greece and a Judaic civilization. A civilization is said to exist from Stone Age until today, ranging from China to Egypt, Mesoamerica and Africa.
Alexandros III (356-323 B.C.), Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia, was one of the greatest military geniuses in history. e conquered and governed civilizations of that time, ruled by his great desire to conquer the world and thus laid the foundation of universal world monarchy.
Arrian describes Alexander, as a great leader, always leading his army in enthusiastic way. e was first leader and conqueror who reached Greece, Egypt and Asia. e always led best military formation of the time, the Macedonian Phalanx, which was armed with sarisses, the fearful five and half meter long spears. Alexander created ethnic syncretism between the Macedonians and the conquered populations,…
He was considered an excellent king, general, and conqueror. His innovative empire assisted and improved the way of life in his kingdom in many ways. Victorious conquest of vast area of land stretched Greek traditions and language far and wide and immensely affected western civilization.
Apart from the given source, following site was consulted:
Popovic, J.J. Alexander the Great Macedon. Accessed from World Wide Web: http://1stmuse.com/frames/index.html
" To determine the empathy / entropy paradox is the grave test of our species' aptitude to endure and flourish. At any time a new energy government has congregated with a new communications upheaval, society is pressed toward further difficulty. This time around is serious nevertheless, we may not have sufficient time to change. The Empathic Civilization is rising, but will it happen fast enough to ward off global catastrophe?
The author said, "It is increasing difficult to find anything in the world untouched by globalization" (169). This appears to be a reliable and authoritative theme as the author seems to give modest hope that we will ever come out from a consumerist mindset and way of life. itzer seems to demolish hope that globalization will dwindle and possibly give us glimpses of what once was and no longer will be. There emerges be a core fear of "nothing."
Rifkin, Jeremy. 2009. The Empathic Civilization. The Penguin Group. ISBN: 9781585427659.
Ritzer, George. 2007. The Globalization of Nothing. Upper Saddle River, CA: Sage Publications. ISBN: 1412940222
Riggs, Frederick (2006). Global Forces and the Discipline of Public Administration. In Jean-Claude Garcia-Zamor and Renu Khator, eds., Public Administration in the Global Village. Westport, CT: Praeger, 17-44.
Said, Edward (2009). Culture and Imperialism. New York: Alfred a. Knopf.
It is probable that Cameron inspired his film from the traditional conflict between Christianity and Islam. Some of the most influent forces in society have been devoted to impose their power over the rest of the world, similar to how humans did not hesitate to take up arms against the Na'vi when the latter did not want to comply with the former's requests.
In Avatar, the human race is apparently determined to demonstrate that it is unwilling to accept compromise and that it is determined to prove its superior strength despite the consequences. The masses are aware that the new world order is closing in and that they have to be among those who are more powerful in order for safety to be ensured. Cameron's film practically reflects feelings in society today and in the recent years in an apparent attempt to alert people about how it is essential for…
Dir. Cameron, James. Avatar. 20th Century Fox, 2009.
Huntington, Samuel P. (1997). "The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order." Simon and Schuste.
Michael Wood’s “Iraq: The Cradle of Civilization” offers fascinating insight into human civilization, through a narrative of the story of Iraq. Tracing Iraq from the cradle of civilization to its current state of devastation, Wood warns viewers to learn from the mistakes of the past instead of continuing to repeat them. In addition to its overarching message, “Iraq: The Cradle of Civilization” includes some incredible details about the cultural diversity within Iraq and how current customs reveal cultural continuity with the past. Some of the most amazing examples of diversity include the Mandean people, who have cultural practices that are vestiges of Christian times such as a wedding ceremony that includes a full-immersion baptism in a river they refer to as the “Jordan,” even though it is the Euphrates. There is also the Yazidi people, who worship Satan but are not what a European or American would call a Satan…
While the Jews eventually did find a King - King Saul, their king was not a supreme ruler with complete control over the people and the land. Again, the Jews indicated their diversity and divergence from the surrounding cultures. Their king was supposed to be a model Jew, one the people could emulate and admire. This period of the Israelite kingdoms was a time of growth and change that would end in a tumultuous exile of the Jews to Babylonia, one of the first of many Jewish exiles and persecutions. Many scholars believe King Saul helped aid the fall of the Jews by not taking on the nation of Amalek and eradicating it. The nation hated Jews and their religion, and caused many of the early Jewish troubles in the area. Saul did not take them on, and many feel this was his fatal flaw (Spiro). After a brief rule…
Edelheit, Hershel, and Abfaham J. Edelheit. History of Zionism: A Handbook and Dictionary. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.
Spiro, Rabbi Ken. "The Time of the Judges." AISH.com. 2007. 26 March 2007. http://www.aish.com/literacy/jewishhistory/Crash_Course_in_Jewish_History_Part_15_-_The_Time_of_the_Judges.asp
As Amun, he also wears a flat-topped crown, which was his signature. The figure is carrying and ankh in one hand and a scimitar in the other which is laid across his chest.
The gold represents the sun in ancient Egyptian culture, and so it is the only fitting
The Hellenistic period began in 323 BC, after the death of one of ancient Greece's great heroes, Alexander the Great. Alexander had conquered vast expanses of the ancient world, which opened up great cultural influences on the people of Greece (National Museum of Athens 2010). During this era, the people speak a multitude of different languages, and there are cultural influences from around the ancient world parading through the streets, which might I add, have all been recently paved. The city itself looks strikingly similar to more modern day cities. The culture is ripe with artistic expression and acceptance.…
American Institute of Pyramidology. "Part One: The Ancient Mystery Unraveled." The Great Pyramid. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://greatpyramid.org/aip/gr-pyr1.htm
Inter-City Oz. "About Ancient Egypt." Tour Egypt. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://touregypt.net/egyptantiquities/
Metropolotan Museum of Art. "Statuette of Amun." Works of Art: Egyptian Art. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/works_of_art/collection_database/egyptian_art/statuette_of_amun/objectview.aspx?page=2&sort=5&sortdir=asc&keyword=&fp=1&dd1=10&dd2=31&vw=1&collID=31&OID=100001249&vT=1
Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Statue of Eros Sleeping." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. 2010. Retrieved 19 Fed 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/04/eusb/ho_43.11.4.htm
Triumph of estern Civilization
In the book Guns, Germs, and Steel, the historian and New Guinea anthropologist Jared Diamond argues that the geography and the environment of the est played the major role in determining the dominance of estern civilization of the modern world. According to Diamond, although geography and the environment do not automatically lead to dominance over other civilizations, these two factors do make major contributions to the four factors that are responsible for all historical developments. The first of these factors is the widespread availability of potential crops and domestic animals as a sustainable food source. This first factor's importance is followed by the need for a nation's location near the a continental axis in a way that facilitates the sustenance of year-round agriculture and yields the seasonal and climatic advantages for a variety of foodstuffs. Third in importance to holding sway over other nations is an…
Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel W.W. Norton & Company.1999.
Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel, (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1999), pp.93.
Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel, (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1999), pp.321-323.
pottery making art islamic civilization. Please illustrative timeline. Please include outline beginning.
Islamic pottery is an essential part of the Islamic culture
Early beginnings of Islamic pottery
Historical and geographical challenges
Pottery as a necessity, not an art
Islamic pottery transformed from an activity to an art
The periods of the Islamic pottery
Influences of Chinese pottery
Improvements of techniques and materials
ole of calligraphy and technical discoveries
Increase of the value of pottery for the Islamic culture
The Islamic art is one of the most significant parts of the Islamic culture and of the world heritage. Islamic pottery has in this sense an important place in the structure of the Middle Eastern art.
The history and development of Islamic pottery is representative for the development of Islamic art and reflects the influences of external cultures on the evolution of art in the region.
Atwood, R. (2005) "Basra's Inventive Potters" in Archaeology, Vol. 58, No 2, March / April, available at http://www.archaeology.org/0503/reviews/basra.html
Grube. E (n.d.) "The Art of Islamic Pottery." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. Available at http://www.metmuseum.org/pubs/bulletins/1/pdf/3258167.pdf.bannered.pdf
Jenkins, O. (2000). "Emergence and Evolvement of the Islamic Tin-glazed Pottery," The 8th Research Seminar on the History of Middle Eastern Ceramics. Available at http://www.l.u-tokyo.ac.jp/IAS/HP-e2/eventreports/44ceramics8IM.html
Luter, J. (1974) "The Potters of Islam." Saudi Aramco World. Available at http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/197404/the.potters.of.islam.htm
We will look to the representatives of the middle class for advice and help in our good governance.
We will promote a peaceful and non-conflicting approach towards all other empires and countries and will try to sort out the differences we have with some of our enemies. One of the first things in terms of foreign policy is meetings with our enemies and discussion of current problems. We don't believe in wars: wars cost money and we want to spend money doing more useful things, such as building the infrastructure and developing new public use projects. Negotiations will be undertaken, but remain assured that we will not give up on anything that is fundamentally vital for the survival of our great nation.
The competition for resources is a challenge we must all face, but finding alternatives such as wind power can help us become more independent in terms of our…
13th century, the world's civilizations -- by the most accurate of definitions -- were emerging from lower cultural and technological evolution to a higher plane of refinement. Thought, manners, life situations, and the like were being considered as important as survival.
From 1200 to 1600 AD, Europe demonstrated its emergent renaissance; France, Asia, Africa, and the Northern Hemisphere were sending explorers to uncharted territories and discovering wonders not yet conceived. Average citizens took control of personal destinies and global civilizations shrunk the world practically overnight. The end of the period of increased contact ushered the Industrial Revolution into the lifestyles of the largest countries in the world and with it entered competition. Marketplace dominance, intellectual pursuits, quality of life, and a longer life expectancy emerged as one result of ever-increasing contact with other nations.
Examples of Global Contact
In 1275, Marco Polo discovered "burning black rocks" while traveling through China.…
Western Civilization proposal, I would like to research Golda Meir. Meir's life is interesting not only in and of itself, but is also remarkable altogether for its astonishing symbolic associations. Meir shows us (as we perhaps already knew) that the historical bias within Western Civilization that stereotypes women as "the weaker sex" has never really been accurate. There is a long history both mythographically and historically which does permit women a role in both warcraft and statecraft: the Classical tradition offers warrior goddesses such as the Greek Athene and the Roman Bellona, while the Old Testament includes enough vignettes of tough and bloodthirsty women, such as Jael, who assassinates the enemy general Sisera by hammering a tent-peg through his skull. Historically there have been a number of female war leaders as well: Boadicea in Roman-era Britain and Zenobia in the Roman-era Middle East both led successful military uprisings against a…
history of human civilization, the Scientific evolution emerged during the 17th century, which happened right after the enaissance Period. The Scientific evolution is the period in history wherein scientific methods and results where arrived at using experimentation and the use of scientific instruments such as the telescope, microscope, and thermometer (Microsoft Encarta 2002). The Scientific evolution is attributed to Galileo Galilei, who proposed that the universe and its elements can be explained mathematically, while subsisting to the fact the Sun is the center of the solar system. During the enaissance Period, Nicolaus Copernicus had declared that the Sun is the center of the solar system, but his declaration is only descriptive, while Galileo's declaration is verified through experimentation and the scientific method. This important distinction is the main reason why Galileo's time was considered the Scientific evolution, primarily because it uses the scientific method of research and experimentation.
Baber, Z. "Canada Research Chair in Science, Technology, and Social Change." 6 February 2003. University of Saskatchewan Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.usask.ca/crc/profiles/baber.php.
History of Astronomy." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.
Kaiser, T. "French Revolution." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.
Shaffer, B. "Chaos in Space." 7 February 2003. LewRockwell Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.lewrockwell.com .
In ancient Rome, the gladiator games were a popular form of entertainment—but they were also much more than this and served multiple purposes within the Roman civilization. The games were used both by Roman authorities and by the slaves of Rome (the gladiators) as a tool, wielded for a different aim respectively. The Roman religious and the politicians used the games as well for their own ends. While the combats that took place in the arenas dazzled audiences, the violence and spectacle was really but one aspect of the contests, and an examination of the underlying social, political, religious and economic subtexts of the gladiator games reveals much about the nature of ancient Roman society. This paper will identify the four main purposes of the gladiatorial games in ancient Rome—the expression of political influence, the expression of religion, a means of emphasizing the Empire’s power, and grounds for slaves…
Also, this carving is quite sentimental in appearance, for it reflects "the solemn pathos of the Greek citizen, much like some of the sculptures found on the pediment of the Parthenon" (Seyffert, 245).
Our last artifact is titled Pair of Armbands with Triton and Tritoness Holding Erotes, made in the Hellenistic period, circa 200 .C.E. These jewelry objects were apparently designed for a woman of high Greek culture, for they are made from solid gold and are fashioned in the shape of two loosely-coiled snakes or serpents. Whomever designed these intricate and beautiful objects realized the special properties of gold, for the woman lucky enough to wear these could easily slip her arms through the loops, due to the malleability of solid gold. The two figures located at the tops of each piece are representations of Triton and Tritoness, most closely associated with the Greek god of the sea Poseidon.…
New Greek and Roman Galleries." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Internet. 2007.
Retrieved at http://www.metmuseum.org/special/greek_roman/images.asp .
Seyffert, Oskar. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Religion, Literature and Art.
New York: Gramercy Books, 1995.
The degree to which a state could develop a sense of solidarity revolving around homogenous factors contributed to the development of a centralized government in certain countries and the lack thereof in others. Homogenous factors can be found in areas of race, nationality, and in religion in particular, all of which contributes to a sense of a national identity that a centralized authority of government both represents and reinforces. The influence of Catholic Christianity, which was widely based upon the Holy Roman Empire, had the effect of organizing certain countries in Europe under similar forms of authority which were, of course, manifest in a central branch of government. Due to the fact that Christianity as it is widely practiced today, spanned from the authority of the Roman Empire in Italy, the Italian country has frequently had this influence as a centralizing agency upon it government (although it should be noted…
history western civilization a book called THE MAKING OF THE WEST.
Joan of Arc
Prior to becoming made into a saint in the early part of the 20th century, Joan of Arc was one of the primary causes of France's many victories in the Hundred Years War. The woman, who only lived to be 19 before she was eventually burned to death after being captured by the British, helped liberate many parts of France from British occupation during a relatively brief period of time, all of which took place during the 1420's prior to her death. Joan told several members of the French population that she was divinely inspired by visions from God to help her defeat the British and reclaim France's territory. With some dissent from France's military leaders, she was able to play an influential role in the Siege at Orleans, which was largely proceeded by several months'…
estern Civilization latest edition / internet Emmanuel Kant,"The idea a Universal History Cosmopolitan Intent" 1. Describe Kant's conception history? According " motor" history 2. According Kant, end ( goal highest point) history? 3.
Immanuel Kant believed that nature plays an important role in history and that it is largely responsible for providing people with the abilities required for them to make and record history. Nature apparently has a secret plan to create a social order that functions perfectly and it is only in this society that people can make full use of their capabilities, as they have struggled across time to accumulate the information they need in order to improve their condition. Kant emphasized that nature holds great power over people and that even though it is difficult for society to understand this, people are actually working in agreement with a greater plan -- one that they are not directly…
"Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)," Retrieved May 17, 2013, from the Marxists Website: http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/ethics/kant/universal-history.htm
Compare Greek religion in the two different periods in history in the eighth century, the time of Homer, and in the fifth century BCE, according to the following:
The different ways they believed their gods intervened.
During the Epic Age, that of Homer, they believed that the God directly intervened in the lives of human beings. Over time, as the rulers of Greece became more powerful, the population began to feel that although the Gods could control lives, they were mostly observers rather than direct participants.
Whether they believed their gods favored or punished specific individuals for moral reasons.
In the 8th century BC, the people believed that the Gods punished behavior, but that the punishments were more targeted at individuals who disrespected the gods rather than those who committed crimes or sins. As exemplified in Antigone, the people feared that if they defied the gods then they…
, lands useful to man, but according to technical and conspicuous for purposes that each civilization.
When business needs and adds prestige to urban heritage, religions, however, that mark their territories of pagodas, churches, monasteries, mosques and other places of worship, this singularity is affirmed more, while the forms of urban and rural habitat are specified, they are luxuries or miserable. And civilization, always customary in everyday life acquires additional visibility monumental materializing the skills of craftsmen-artists who enrich the work of the builders.
Added to this are, of course, the wealth and prestige that comes from adding additional, oral traditions of all time, written tradition gradually spread to shops and palaces, and the ideological apparatuses of all kinds, from which they eventually win the depths of peoples. o, the graphics become, like languages, distinctive marks of the various civilizations.
Maturation profoundly affects trade flows of civilization. On the one…
Stocking, George, Victorian Anthropology, Free Press, 1991, ISBN 0-02-931551-4
Trigger, Bruce, Sociocultural Evolution: Calculation and Contingency (New Perspectives on the Past), Blackwell Publishers, 1998, ISBN 1-55786-977-4
Reade, Julian 2001 Assyrian King-Lists, the Royal Tombs of Ur, and Indus Origins. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 60(1):1-29
Islam and the Clash of Civilizations
orld civilization has known in the last decades some of the most important political, economic, and in particular cultural developments of the 20th century. The era after the end of the Cold ar determined a series of events that triggered numerous conflicts around the world, from the war in Kuwait in the early 1990s, to the genocide in Rwanda, human rights abuses and apartheid in South Africa, to the escalation of the terrorist phenomenon to dimensions never attained before.
The peak of the terrorist threat was reached on September 11, 2001 when the attacks on the orld Trade Center in New York fully demonstrated the power, influence, and capacity terrorist groups can master. Along with the terrorist phenomenon, the other regional conflicts still ongoing in parts of the Middle East and Africa, point out the increased differences that exist throughout the world between different…
Baxter, Kylie; Akbarzadeh, Shahram. 2008. "U.S. Foreign Policy in the Middle East." Routledge.
Huntington. S. 1993."The Clash of Civilizations?" Foreign Affairs, Summer.
Inglehart, Ronald, and Norris, Pippa. "The True Clash of Civilizations." Foreign Policy, Mar/Apr2003, Issue 135
Krishna, S. 2008. Globalization and post colonialism. Hegemony and resistance in the twenty first century. Rowman, Littlefield Publishers, New York.
fall of the former Soviet Union in the early 1990s spurred debate among policymakers and intellectuals about the shape of future of world politics, and the role that the U.S. would play in it. One of the greatest early voices in this debate was Samuel Huntington, who through his article, 'The Clash of Civilizations', took difference in civilization as the greatest source of conflict in the international political system in the post Cold-War period. According to Huntington, conflicts between civilizations seeking to gain and maintain influence in a new world order are the leading source of interstate instability in the post-Cold War era. Events such as the 9/11 terrorist attack in New York, as well as the bombings in London, Madrid, and Bali have been interpreted by many scholars as evidence for this particular paradigm. However, other scholars have come out strongly in critique of Huntington's viewpoint. One such scholar…
Ashraf, M. M. (2012). The Clash of Civilizations: A Critique: Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 32(2), 521-527.
Dunn, M. (2006). The Clash of Civilizations and the War on Terror. 49th Parallel, 20(1),1-12.
Huntington, S. P. (1993). The Clash of Civilizations. Foreign Affairs, 72(3), 22-49.
A Brief History of the Mayan Civilization
The Maya are a group of people of southern Mexico and northern Central America with some three thousand years of loaded history. The Maya were a division of the Mesoamerican Pre-Columbian civilizations. Dissimilar to popular belief, the Maya people never vanished completely, there are millions that still live in the area, and a lot of them still speak one of the many Maya languages (A Brief History of the Mayan Civilization, 2011). The Maya are perhaps the most well-known of the traditional civilizations of Mesoamerica. Mayan history began in the Yucatan around 2600 B.C., Mayan history grew to fame around A.D. 250 in contemporary southern Mexico, Guatemala, western Honduras, El Salvador, and northern Belize (Mayan History, n.d.).
Building on the innate inventions and thoughts of previous civilizations such as the Olmec, the Maya advanced astronomy, calendrical systems and hieroglyphic writing. The Maya…
A Brief History of the Mayan Civilization. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.art-poster-
Cecil, Jessica. (2011). The Fall of the Mayan Civilisation. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/cultures/maya_01.shtml
Central America: Connecting Continents, Keeping Oceans Apart. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.globio.org/glossopedia/article.aspx?art_id=46#
" The book argues that the reality of history is a "ludicrously compressed and constricted warfare," Said continues; but indeed Huntington cannot grasp the notion that there are no strictly defined Muslim cultures but to make his book work he has to build a case that there is such a stereotypical, predictable Muslim culture.
Said goes so far as to say that Huntington's book attempted to give his original article a bit more "subtlety" along with "many, many more footnotes." But alas, Said believes that all Huntington did by putting out a whole book on the topic was to "confuse himself and demonstrate what a clumsy writer and inelegant thinker he was." Said has plenty more to say, albeit there is not space in this paper for all of his views; but several more of his themes will be presented. For example, Said compares the likes of Osama bin Laden…
Barder, Christopher. (1999). Professor Huntington's "Clash of Civilizations" and its Bearing on Israel's Security. NATIV, Retrieved March 31, 2008, at http://www.acpr.org.il/nativ/1999-6/barderxs.htm .
Huntington, Samuel P. (1996). The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order.
New York: Simon & Schuster.
Said, Edward W. (2001). The Clash of Ignorance. The Nation. Retrieved March 31, 2008, at http://www.thenation.com/doc/20011022/said .
What is usually unconcealed is that much of the machinery and social prototypes which make up what is distinct as modernization were urbanized in the Western worlds. Whether these technical and social prototypes are essentially part of Western civilization is more complicated to respond. Many would dispute that the query cannot be responded by a reply from science and as an alternative is a worth question which should be answered from a respect scheme. However, much of anthropology these days has shown the close connection between the physical surroundings and daily actions and the configuration of a civilization such as the findings of society's ecology with others. In contrast to many other civilizations in the world, western civilizations lean to highlight the individuals. On the other hand, western societies have usually been more communally cooperative by giving a foremost significance to social preponderance civilization or propensities such as mores, procedures,…
Wikipedia. (December 27, 2007) Western Culture. Retrieved on December 30, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_culture
The global ecological crisis is the largest challenge which humanity has ever had to face (Gare, 2017). Besides, abusing the natural resources, our present method of consumption and production of goods, all modeled on economic production and not based on bio-capability, is jeopardizing the living conditions of humans, yet simultaneously changing the social foundations of human beings. International threats and dangers evolved when the social fabric of the ecological and social system exceeds and supersedes its environmental counterpart. Global environmental or ecological threats and dangers are not just social-psycho constructs created for promoting a new method of social regulation on the people. They are the result of an economic development model wherein environmental deficiencies are being shared by everyone, while the financial benefits would be helpful to some and it shall change our planet for a considerable period. The most probable global cataclysmic threats and dangers seem to emerge from human actions,…