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They restated the chorale melody completely and had a different contrapuntal setting each time."
Two famous variations artists in the aroque era are George Frideric Handel and Johann Sebastian ach (Wikipedia Online).
In the Classical Era, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Ludwig van eethoven, and Franz Schubert, are among the famous variations artists. Following are the types of variations in the Classical Era.
This variation works on a slow tempo with multi-movements.
In contrast to the penultimate variation, the final variation is fast in style.
This variation uses two themes and is played in varied alteration (Wikipedia).
The Romantic Era, however, was where few variations were developed. Johannes rahms was the famous variation artist of this era. Few of his works are Theme of Haydn, Franck's Symphonic Variations for piano solo and orchestra, and Elgar's Enigma Variations (ThinkQuest).
The 20th century also boasts of…
The Baroque Era - Instrumental
ThinkQuest Online. http://library.thinkquest.org/15413/history/history-bar-inst.htm
The Renaissance Era - Instrumental.
ThinkQuest Online. http://library.thinkquest.org/15413/history/history-ren-inst.htm
It seemed less a powerful expression of creative energy than simply a quality piece of music performed to perfection.
One section I did not particularly care for was Tuba Mirum. This section chronologically follows the powerful Dies Irae section, and does so a little weakly, in my opinion. I enjoyed the tenor solo in this section, but felt that overall it was too restrained, and too anticlimactic coming on the heels of a powerful, energetic section. The finale of Lux Aeterna (and thus the piece) was weak and predictable. Granted, this section was not written by Mozart himself, but a stronger finish, and certainly a more creative one, would have benefited the piece.
There was no encore performance for this work. The requiem was performed in its entirety and I can imagine that to throw in some other work at the end would not have been suitable.
The audience appeared…
Mozart's Requiem Mass in D Minor. 1991. British Broadcasting Corporation, London. Youtube. http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=56FE624085F5FE1B
Palau Musica. 2008. Palau Musica de la Catalana. June 27, 2008. http://www.palaumusica.org/
Lemco, Gary. 2006. Mozart: Requiem Mass in D Minor; Mass in C Minor. Audiophile Audition. June 27, 2008. http://www.audaud.com/article.php?ArticleID=1168
Minimalism, "Like serialism, this style uses repeated patterns and series and steady pulsation with gradual changes occurring over time. But whereas serialism is usually atonal, minimalism is usually tonal and more harmonic" (Spielvogel, 942). One could say that minimalism was a reflection of the hippie sixties that rejected the acquisitional tendencies of one's parents in favor of a more streamlined and strategically stark composition.
The advent of modern classical music was invariably a reflection of the bolstering pace of technology at the time. Starting with the 1940s, nearly all Americans had radios in their homes and had for some time; more and more Americans were buying televisions, an influx of appliances of convenience debuted on the market that made domestic life easier and faster. The same was true for the technology that made composers able to create music: "In the 1960s, the technology of tape recording suggested one means of…
Gagne, N.V. Historical Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Classical Music. Plymouth: Scarecrow Press, 2012.
Greenberg, B & Watts, L.S. Social History of the United States, Volume 1. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2009.
Kennedy, J. The Joy of Classical Music: A Guide for You and Your Family. New York: Doubleday, 1994.
Spielvogel, J.J. Western Civilization: Since 1300. Boston: Cengage Learning, 2012.
Cosmos ended the work with a performance of "A Columbus Triptych" by Stephen Main, which it premiered in 2007. Main often makes use of Christian iconography in his work, and one of his most noted compositions is a reinterpretation of "Pie Jesus." ("Stephen Main," Official ebsite, 2008). The setting of the performance in St. John's Evangelical Church of Columbus seemed fitting for the work. The "Columbus Triptych" tries to render religious iconography into a contemporary argot. Columbus refers to Columbus Ohio, the group's and Main's geographical base, while a triptych, most notably deployed in Hieronymus Bosch's "The Garden of Earthly Delights," is a form of Christian medieval altar, with three hinged wooden panels where the artist paints different visual interpretation of the same scriptural theme. The images contained on each panel relate to the content displayed on the other panels. The three panels viewed together are supposed to suggest that…
Biography." Stephen Paulus Website. 2 Sept 2008. http://www.stephenpaulus.com/
Klein, Andrew. "I am: Andrew Boysen. Jr." 2 Sept 2008. http://www.bsu.edu/web/amklein/portfolio/Iamstudentintro.htm
Stephen Main." Official Website. 2 Sept 2008. http://stephenmain.com/page12.html
What's New?" Cosmos Trio.org. 2 Sept 2008. http://cosmostrio.org/WhatsNew/WhatsNewindex.html
The piano plays quick octaves and the urgent bass motive portrays an intense wild ride. This strong galloping is also being formulated by the piano's triplet rhythm which allows for the development of the dramatic storyline's urgency.
5. ) There are four different characters in this piece: the Narrator, the father, the son, and the Erlkonig. Although Schubert uses one singer to portray and sing all of the four parts of the characters, the listener is able to quite clearly differentiate them from one another. The son is sung in the high register in a minor key with dissonant harmonies. On the other hand, the father is sung in low register while the Erlkonig is sung in a coy with pleasant and soft melodies in the major key.
6. ) There are two ways that Schubert builds momentum in his piece. The first way is by using the bass as…
Kamien, R. (2010). Music: An appreciation, brief edition. (7th ed. ). New York: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages.
CLASSICAL AND POPULAR MUSIC IN 'THE CRYING OF LOT 49'
Thomas Pynchon is known for his complex storylines and weird characters. For this reason it is not easy to comment on the use of music in his novels as it is the very complexity of his plots that obscure the influence or meaning of classical and popular music in his books. Despite this, he is one of the most influential writers of the postmodern era and many singers have cited his work as an inspiration for their music. In our days for example, since the return of popular music, we notice that Thomas Pynchon has become a source of inspiration for many new pop artists. Larry Swindell (1996) says, "Pynchon is an enduring literary cult figure, sainted by proponents of darkest-hued comedy."
It is important to bear in mind that Pynchon's use of music is not limited to just one…
Hans, James S., Emptiness and plenitude in "Bartleby the Scrivener" and 'The Crying of Lot 49.'. Vol. 22, Essays in Literature, 09-22-1995, pp 285(15).
Jamie Diamond, PAGES: THE MYSTERY OF THOMAS PYNCHON LEADS FANS AND SCHOLARS ON A QUEST AS BIZARRE AS HIS PLOTS., People, 01-29-1990, pp 64
Joel Stein, The Case For Thomas Pynchon., Time, 07-09-2001, pp 50.
Joseph Slade, Writers for the 70s: Thomas Pynchon, New York, 1974.
Biographical Introduction: Teo Macero
Producers work behind the scenes and are the unsung heroes of music. While some producers receive public notoriety like Brian Eno and George Martin; others like Teo Macero remain known mainly to music scholars and serious audiophiles. In 2008, when Macero died, The New York Times ran an obituary with the tagline: "Teo Macero, 82, ecord Producer," as if readers would need that crucial bit of vocational data. Indeed, Macero is best known for his work on Miles Davis's masterpieces Kind of Blue and Bitches Brew. He was also a composer, whose approach to music takes into account the big picture rather than attention to minute detail.
Macero was ahead of his time. He incorporated electronic effects and electronic media in ways that made Bitches Brew as momentous and groundbreaking an album as it is. The embrace of new technology is therefore a hallmark…
"George Martin," (n.d.). Beatles Bible. Retrieved online: http://www.beatlesbible.com/people/george-martin/
Martin, G. (2012). Interview with Marc Myers. Retrieved online: http://www.jazzwax.com/2012/09/interview-sir-george-martin-pt-1.html
Ratliff, B. (2008). Teo Macero, 82, Record Producer, Dies. The New York Times. 22 Feb, 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/22/arts/music/22macero.html
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (2010). George Martin Biography. Retrieved online: http://rockhall.com/inductees/george-martin/bio/
Since the valuation of a God had been essentially devaluated, what was to be the source of revaluation in the modern world? No answer could satisfy Ives, for his society saw no return to the societal standards and beliefs of the age of Bach, which gave explicit valuation to all things, especially music -- as seen in Bach's mastering of counterpoint. Schoenberg's inverted counterpoint is the antithesis of that old world Germanic culture -- and it is no surprise that Schoenberg settled in America -- all things being equal, and, in a sense, equally meaningless.
In conclusion, what was once considered light and understood, orthodox, hierarchical, and whole -- in terms of both estern culture and estern classical music in the time of Bach -- had, by the time of Ives and Schoenberg, drifted into a kind of relativistic self-importance/self-worthlessness that had no moorings whatsoever. Notes and attitudes shifted without…
Barker, Dan. "Brahms the Freethinker." Works Without Faith. 17 May 2007. Web. 25
Heiner, Stephen. Interview with Bp. Williamson. 1 October 2006. Web. 25 March
I especially appreciate the opportunity to place musical compositions and composers within a historical context. Placing music within a historical context illuminates some of the variables that characterize a piece like "ite of Spring." Understanding the cultural, political, and military events taking place during the composer's lifetime is essential to understanding the music. Although analyzing classical pieces can prove difficult because of shifting time signatures, counterpoint, and layering of sounds, I am now much more able to distinguish between different styles and composers. The course content has awoken my mind and my ears to rhythms and melodies and I look forward to exploring Western classical music more in-depth. For example, pieces like "ite of Spring" have made their way into movies and therefore continue to have an impact on musical culture.
Alsop, M. (2008). "Getting Hooked on the 'ite' Sound." NP MUSIC. etrieved Dec 19, 2008 at http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=9041627
Alsop, M. (2008). "Getting Hooked on the 'Rite' Sound." NPR MUSIC. Retrieved Dec 19, 2008 at http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=9041627
Kelly, T. (1999). "Igor Stravinsky's "The Rite of Spring." NPR Online. Retrieved Dec 19, 2008 from Igor Stravinsky's "The Rite of Spring"
Revolutions in Music: Stravinsky's Rite of Spring." (2006). PBS.org. Retrieved Dec 19, 2008 at http://www.pbs.org/keepingscore/topicfeature2.html
Thomas, M.T. (2006). "Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring." San Francisco Symphony. Retrieved Dec 19, 2008 at http://www.keepingscore.org/flash/stravinsky/index.html
. . which fascinates by the mass of its beauties" (Goulding, 1995, 256). Much like Wagner, Tchaikovsky was influenced by several love affairs, first with Desiree Artot, an opera singer who deserted him to marry someone else and Nadezhda von Meck, a patroness of the arts. Thus, the relationship with Ms. Von Meck provided the stimulation Tchaikovsky needed for the completion of omeo and Juliet; she also was obviously his Juliet, a woman from a contrasting family (she provided him with much financial support) and someone that was out of reach for a simple composer.
The piece known as Clouds is part of Debussy's Three Nocturnes for orchestra and as described by Debussy himself, Clouds represents "the unchanging aspect of the sky, and the slow, solemn movement of the clouds, dissolving into gray tints, lightly touched with white" (Goulding, 1995, 315). All of this is symbolized by the…
Goulding, Phillip G. (1995). Classical Music: The 50 Greatest Composers and Their 1000 Greatest Works. Westminster, MD: Ballantine Books.
MUSIC & ENVIRONMENT
Suddenly Western Music no longer needed to follow all the old rules. Just as the abstract painters dispensed with the traditional canon of art at just the same time, so also men like Bartok and Stravinsky take a fresh look at what constituted good music.
According to Bartok, the aesthetic success of this new homophonic-polyphonic music would depend upon the "harmonic entity" that results from the rise and fall of the "horizontal line" formed by the many discrete tone patches.... "an architectonic or similar scheme is not absolutely necessary; the construction of the line born out of the different degrees of intensity that are inherent in the tonal succession would be completely satisfactory," and by his likening of such constructions to works written in prose rather than verse (Gillies, 2000, p. 55)
Stravinsky too made his own way in the musical world. Working alongside Diaghilev and his Ballet usses he…
Gillies, M. (2000). 4 Analyzing Bart k's Works of 1918-1922 Motives, Tone Patches, and Tonal Mosaics. In Bartok Perspectives: Man, Composer, and Ethnomusicologist, Antokoletz, E., Fischer, V., & Suchoff, B. (Eds.) (pp. 43-56). Oxford: Oxford U.S..
Maconie, R. (1997). The Science of Music. New York: Oxford University Press.
The geniuses strained the boundaries of the characteristic styles more evidently and more quickly than those of their contemporaries to bring about such seismic changes.
Baroque: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Baroque: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Ludwig van Beethoven." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 2007. 23 Apr 2008. http://plus.aol.com/aol/reference/Beethove/Ludwig_van_Beethoven?flv=1&ncid=fLHHQXUNeT0000000474&icid=rbox_ref_center.M
Posner, Howard. "hat is basso continuo?" Early Music FAQ. 1994. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.medieval.org/emfaq/misc/continuo.html
Sadie, Stanley. "Baroque." The Grove Concise Dictionary of Music. New York: .. Excerpted at Classical Music Pages Homepage. Created by Matt Boynick. 1 Feb 1996. Revised 10 Oct 2000. 23 Apr 2008. http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/g_epoch_baroque.html
Sadie, Stanley. "Classical." The Grove Concise Dictionary of Music. New York: .. Norton, 1994. Excerpted at Classical Music Pages Homepage. Created by Matt…
Baroque: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Baroque: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
As far as epertoirethe following web site www.kith.org/jimmosk/piano.html, listed the following: Feinberg, Aleksandrov, Medtner, Tcherepnin, Mompou, Friedman, Tausig, Persichetti, Blumenfeld, Sinding, Sitsky, Nielsen. When you click on one of the name provided it gives you more information. For example Feinberg, Samuil Evgenevich (1890-1972).
A pianist of the very first rank, a pedagogue responsible for the Soviet theory of legato playing, and a composer who stood in the vanguard of 1920s futurism, S.E. Feinberg was one of the major figures of ussian music eclipsed by Soviet cultural insularity. A 1911 graduate of the Moscow Conservatory, studying with a. Goldenweiser, he combined his teacher's love of J.S. Bach and the art of counterpoint with a fascination for the synthetic harmony of a. Scriabin. He composed Sonata #1. Moscow: Muzykalnyi Sektor, 1924. Library of Congress, Sonata #2. Moscow: Muzykalnyi Sektor, 1926. Library of Congress, Sonata #4. Moscow: Muzykalnyi Sektor, 1923. Library of Congress.…
Australia Pictures (2006). Travel to Australia Pictures. Retrieved 06/21/07, at http://www.travel-australia.org/melbourne/pianist.html
Blue Book of Pianos (2005). Blue Book of Pianos. The ages and Historical Records of Pianos sold in America, VI,. Retrieved 06/21/07, at http://www.bluebookofpianos.com
Cello.Org (2005). Famous Orchestras of the World. Retrieved 06/21/07, at http://www.cello.org/heaven/orchs.htm
Classical Archives (2007). Mozart Music Files. Retrieved 06/21/07, at www.classicalarchives.com/mozart.html#mozart_piano_son
Music and Cognitive Theory
Music tends to have a phenomenal power over the human mind and emotions. A movie without a soundtrack would seem so dull and boring. If you try closing your eyes and picture a scene with music, it gives a completely different mood and emotion to it. Even before the music culture that exists today, human beings were still making some kind of music. They made flutes with the bones and jaw harps. Music has always had an innate appreciation for humans. Pleasant sounds lure a person to identify its source, whereas a shrill, unpleasant sound makes a person uncomfortable.
Studies show that while an orchestral concert, the pleasure centers of a human brain are activated. These are also active while a person has chocolate, engages in sexual acts or during the intake of stimulants like hash and cocaine. hen a baby is being formed inside a…
Mursell, J. (1970). The Psychology of Music. New York: Prentice Hall.
Schlaug, G.L. Jancke, Y. Huang, and H. Steinmetz. 1995. In vivo evidence of structural brain asymmetry in musicians. Science 267: 699-701.
Ratey, J. (2002). A Users Guide to the Brain. New York: Vintage.
Strickland, S. (2001). Music and the Brain in Childhood Development. Childhood Education, 78(2), 98-109.
There is more to it than meets the eye (or ear), and repeated listenings make that even more apparent.
Great music also depends on great performances, and that is another reason to listen to it more than once. Each artist interprets music a bit differently, and so, no performance will be exactly alike. This is true of all types of music, even classical. Even though the scores are the same, each musician, director, and arranger sees the work differently, and adds a bit of their own interpretation or personality into the piece. Thus, the same song sung decades ago by the Beach Boys does not sound like the same song today sung by a young rap or hip hop artist.
Do these theories apply to pop music, as well? In many aspects, yes, they do. There are certainly many songs in pop music that are complex and detailed, with different…
Features to Listen for in Classical Music." Classicism and Classical Music. 123-124.
She is both subordinate to, and a supporter of Erisbe. The continuous repetition of the same phrases also serves to weave a kind of emotional melody, one that impresses the audience with the meaning and depth of Erisbe's feelings.
Laments fulfill an... integral role in the works of...Cavalli. All Cavalli's operas include at least one lament, and some of them several. Moreover, these threnodies fulfill their task admirably: they 'purge' the passions in the Aristotelian sense...they act as an effective foil for the lieto fine -- and they provide opportunities for good solo singing and for good music to boot. Since twenty-seven operatic scores of Cavalli survive, it is of course much easier to generalize about him [than about other composers of his time].... Everything...is fairly formulaic: the descending tetrachord in the minor mode; the cadential extension; intensification by the repetition of words.
hile in the above example, Erisbe's and…
Boehm, Christopher. Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=3474489
Schweitzer, Peter R. "Chapter 1 Russian Anthropology, Western Hunter-Gatherer Debates, and Siberian Peoples." Hunters and Gatherers in the Modern World: Conflict, Resistance, and Self-Determination. Eds. Schweitzer, Peter P., Megan Biesele, and Robert K. Hitchcock. New York: Berghahn Books, 2000. 29-51.
W. Sternfeld, the Birth of Opera (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995) 31. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=26320960
People are now looking ways to fight this problem of stress. Some people take help of drugs to control the stress issue but the side effects of drugs create more problems rather than solving one. Exercise has been proven as a natural solution to the problem of stress with no side effects. In certain cases of other psychological problems combining exercise and music can be helpful.
Effects on Mental Performance: esearches have also shown that both music and exercise combined together have positive effects on cognitive abilities. In a research including 33 men and women in the final weeks of a cardiac rehabilitation program after bypass surgery, angioplasty or cardiac catheterization, the effects of classical music and exercise were studied. All participants were asked to complete a verbal fluency test before and after two separate sessions of exercising on a treadmill. Vivaldi's 'The Four Seasons', a classical music piece, was…
Henderson, S. (August, 2005). The Rhythm of Capoeira: Aerobic Workout Combines Cultural Music and Dance for an Effective Exercise. Ebony. 60(10): 94+.
The Effect of Music on Exercise', Retrieved on September 26, 2007 at http://www.anselm.edu/internet/psych/theses/2004/hall/webpage/
Morris, a. Myers, S. Schaumburg, L. Schrage, K. And Veasey, M. (2006). The Perceived Effects of Music on Exercise Performance. Retrieved on September 26, 2007 at http://clearinghouse.missouriwestern.edu/manuscripts/541.asp
Little Music with Exercise Boosts Brain Power, Study Suggests' Retrieved on September 26, 2007 at http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/hartsong.htm
Additionally, with seven different movements in this one composition, this 'song' had the time and the build-up to really work through some climaxes. I believe that the sixth movement of this piece, Nocturne 2, actually did resemble the feel of the night. The types of strings that I typically appreciate are certainly indicative of night time, with their dark, spooky feeling. Although Dutilleux's Nocturne 2 was not quite as scary sounding as some of the modern day compositions I like, it certainly sounded good and came the closet to the type of music that I usually listen to.
Oddly enough, while Ainsi la' nuit was the piece that had elements in it that moved me the most, it also contained movements that helped to alienate me from the music -- and from this type of music -- the most as well. I found both of the litanies in this composition…
Just as we can be sure that once we cross the border out of the United States the laws that we are governed by will not be our own; so, too, can we be sure that our cultural tastes in estern music will differ too amongst the people whose culture we enter as we leave the United States.
Like Byrne, Jeff Todd (ed., 1992), emphasizes the point that each culture will have its own music; Mexico and Latin America have Salsa, and other cultural music as we move south through South America, and into the Caribbean islands, like Cuba. In each of these places, we find folk and cultural variations of music that, in the context of their culture, are easy to enjoy, but not necessarily what we would choose to listen to at home instead of Bob Seger or Joe Cocker. Even the way in which music is referred…
Byrne, David. Crossing Music's Borders: 'I Hate World Music,' New York Times,
October 3, 1999.
Nettl, Bruno (ed). Excursions in World Music, Up Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall, 2004.
Slobin, Mark, Titon, Jeff, Todd, Jeff (ed). Worlds of Music, Chapter I, the Music
classical era which spanned from approximately 1750 to 1820.I shall discuss the stylistic changes sonata, string quartet and symphony and also the great composers of the time mainly Christoph Willibald Gluck, Johann Bach, and Joseph Haydn.
Sonata form is one, which is usually used as a part of multi-movement scheme, since it involves the musical structure of a single movement.
The basic structure of sonata comprises of the following three sections:
Recapitulation with a Coda added commonly.
The sonatas of Corelli Violin sonatas Op. 3 are a mixture of abstract and dance-type movements.
A string quartet is quite a complex style where the musical structure consists of four movements .It includes four string instruments which are two violins, a viola and cello.
In classical period string quartets were written for those who had a comprehensive knowledge of music since they were quite complex…
music of the Twentieth entury. Specifically, it will compare music of the Twentieth entury to the music of a previous period, and include information about the significance of composers in society, the role of music in the societal landscape, and the evolution of musical forms through the centuries.
Twentieth entury music embodies so many different forms and types that it is difficult to lump it together under one heading. In the United States, the Twentieth entury brought music listeners everything from Gershwin to rap and blues to headbanging. Just as America is a rich cultural melting pot, her music is just as rich and varied, and this is nowhere more evident than in the Twentieth entury.
At the turn of the Twentieth entury, most of America listened to opera and classical music - much of it from some of Europe's most famous composers of the previous centuries, such as Bach,…
Composers have always been revered by society, and the part they play in the social fabric of a time is incredibly significant. The music of Copland and Gershwin embodies an age in American culture, just as the music of Duke Ellington and Benny Goodman embodies another time and place. Good composers can "feel" the time and place, and create music that embodies the spirit of the country and the people. This was never more evident than after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, when people suddenly wanted to hear patriotic melodies, and several composers complied by writing touching tributes to America and the victims of the attacks. Composers have always created music that spoke of the people and the times, and as such, they are mirrors of society, and change in society. Jazz came about because the lifestyle of the people was changing, and they needed music that reflected these changes. Rap came about for the same reason, and so did rock and roll. All of these forms of music came about at the right time. Composers recognized the societal changes, and were not afraid to change with them.
Music can touch a place in a person's soul, and this is another reason composers who can feel what the people are feeling are so important. Music is woven into the fabric of our lives. We marry to special music, are buried with special music, and remember certain music of the past by the memories it evokes. Music, and the people who write it, are a vital part of society at every level, and at every stage in a person's life. We tend to look back at the music of our youth with fondness, which is one reason music of the past can sometimes resurge, such as the current cult popularity of swing bands, such as Big Bad Voo Doo Daddies, Manhattan Transfer, and the Brian Setzer Orchestra.
In conclusion, music has always evolved and changed how we listen to it. One critic said, "Reviewing the popular music of the twentieth century as a whole, most people would probably agree that some of it is excellent, some unbearable, and most of it very indifferent" (Van der Merwe 3). This continues to be the case.
He has also learned to appreciate an even wider and more eclectic variety of music than even his mother enjoyed. But without an early musical foundation and exposure to music as a part of life, he does not think he would be nearly as adventurous. The pairing of certain musical styles against one another, like posh vs. common, classical vs. contemporary, and Mod vs. Rock, has more to do with personal, class-based and aesthetic self-definition, he felt, than the fact that one musical style is inherently superior to another musical style.
As he has grown older, Martin says that he listens more for personal taste, rather than to suit his tastes to a particular style because of personal self-definition. He attributes this to being more secure in his own identity. He says that he likes to listen to the music of his youth, although he also listens to a great…
relationship of music and culture and history in Japan. The music of Japan is as rich and diverse as the culture of Japan's people, and it has a long place in Japan's history. Several different musical forms and instruments make up Japan's musical history, and it has ancient beginnings in the earliest history of Japan in many cases. While the Japanese have held on to their musical past, they are also not afraid to create new musical traditions, such as the karaoke fad that swept the world in the 1990s and beyond.
Ancient Japanese Music
Many scholars believe that Japanese music has its roots in the music of China, an ancient culture that dominated Asian culture from the earliest recorded history. However, studies indicate this is really not the case. Japanese music historian Egon Wellesz notes, "It might be expected that Japanese music would exhibit considerable Chinese influence; but it…
Asai, S.M. (1999). Nomai dance drama: A surviving spirit of medieval Japan. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Malm, W.P. (2000). Traditional Japanese music and musical instruments. Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha International.
Tokita, A. & Hughes, D.W. (2008). Ashgate research companion to Japanese music. Surry, UK: Ashgate Publishing.
Wellesz, E. (Ed.). (1999). Ancient and oriental music. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Although the music is not hip-shaking, it is head-bopping and finger-snapping.
31.Hari Naam Ka Pyala
Anup Jalota (India)
Aisi Laagi Lagan
This Indian music is at once accessible and mystical. It is neither Indian classical music nor Indian pop like Bangra. Instead, "Hari Naam Ka Pyala" sounds like Indian devotional or religious music for a popular audience. There is a nice low-register string instrument throughout as well as the Indian drums, which may or may not be tabla. There is also the surprising addition of an accordion-like instrument but most of the instrumentation is strings and percussion. The male vocals are sweet, devotional, and melodic. The sounds or phonemes of the language seem to blend well with the instrumentation as well as the beats. Thus, the vocals both stand alone and blend with the music as if another instrument. I enjoyed listening to this.
In the music field, Germany boasts of some of the world's most renowned producers, composers and performers. Germany is the third largest music market in the world and the largest in Europe. The earliest roots of the music culture in Germany are within monastic chants and religious music. The 12th century saw the mystic abbess Hildegard who was from Bingen writing storing compositions and hymns. These were sought to be free musical expressions coming from narrow conventions. Between the 12th and 14th century, minnesingers who were wandering nobles and knights wrote and recited love poems in country version in the tradition of French trovers and troubadours. Out of the many minnesingers during that period of time, einmar Von Hagenau and Walther Von de Vogelweide were the most famous ones. Apart from the minnesingers there was also the development of a secular folk music tradition. There are collections of…
Joseph, A. (2012). Ten Reasons to love German culture: German Giants of classical Music. Retrieved September, 26 2014 from http://theculturetrip.com/europe/germany/articles/ten-reasons-to-love-german-culture-german-giants-of-classical-music-/
InterNations.org. (2014). The German Music scene. Retrieved September, 26 2014 from http://www.internations.org/germany-expats/guide/16030-culture-shopping-recreation/the-german-music-scene-16028
Countriesquest. (2009). Culture, Music. Retrieved September 26, 2014 from http://www.countriesquest.com/europe/germany/culture/music.htm
Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
EFFETIVENESS OF MUSI ON VOABULARY
The Effectiveness of Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
Most English language learners in high schools show poor vocabulary competence. The main reason for this is the limited level of exposure to the language. It is generally understood and practically acknowledged that words form the basic unit of language structure. Therefore lack of sufficient vocabulary constrains students from effectively communicating and freely expressing their ideas.
Vocabulary competence is critical to developing reading comprehension skills. Lack of vocabulary development is detrimental to the development of metacognitive skill that is important in comprehending advanced texts. omprehension is a major component of development of vocabulary, reading to learn. Therefore, reading comprehension it is quite challenging for students lacking adequate knowledge of meaning of words.…
Chapter IV: Results and Evaluation
The main purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of using music on vocabulary competence, writing, reading comprehension and motivation in English Language Learning in High school students as a part of the learning process in the classroom. Many teachers of English as a second language as well as the learners consider vocabulary as a critical factor in learning the language. Therefore it is important to develop creative and interesting ways of teaching vocabulary in English class. A qualitative study was appropriate for the research for the reason that the objective was exploratory (Creswell, 1998). The significance that was recognized to the singularities of teaching was examined with hermeneutic methods (Creswell, 2002).
In order to give a reply to the answer of the three research questions, mean scores and standard deviations were computed for each of the two groups on each of the three dependent measures at the ending of study. All three of the dependent measures are considered to be the evaluation of the sight-reading, the evaluation of the playing abilit, and the
Discussion Forum: Because I have read about how certain types of music are good to listen to while studying, I am interested in the cognitive functions of music. I am also interested in the potential for music to make the brain function better, or at least differently.
esearch shows the one of the most important functions of music is improving human perception and cognition. One experiment shows that listening to music, even while doing other things, made the participants "more positive, more alert, and more focused in the present," (Sloboda, O'Neill & Ivaldi, 2001). This finding was especially true among participants who selected their own music (Sloboda, O'Neill & Ivaldi). Thompson (n.d.) notes that music plays a very important role in the psychological development of infants, "at a stage when a range of social and cognitive skills can be explored, tested, and developed," (p. 28). Specific skills that are…
North, A.C., Hargreaves, D.J. & Hargreaves, J.J. (2004). Uses of music in everyday life. Music Perception 22(1): 41-77.
Sloboda, J.A., O'Neill, S.A. & Ivaldi, A. (2001). Functions of music in everyday life: An exploratory study using the Experience Sampling Method. Musicae Scientae 5(1): 9-29.
Thompson (n.d.). Chapter 2: Origins of music.
Whether the particular piece was rough and rapid or soft and romantic, McDonald seemed to simply flow along with the music, letting it guide him as he guided it out of the piano and to our ears in with a full, natural and inspiring sound.
I was also impressed by McDonald's ease with the crowd. Though there were no other musicians or anyone else onstage with him, he was perfectly comfortable both when delivering his lecture and while playing. This is not too surprising; according to the program notes, he's been playing since he was for and made his orchestral debut at the age of eleven. Still, the way he talked to the crowd and connected to the piano made it clear that not only is Alex McDonald very good at what he does, he also really cares about music and our relationship to it. Attending this concert definitely strengthened…
Fake books with jazz notation might look as if they are intended for amateurs. However, although beginners may use the simplified notation to practice music, the fake book's original intention was to provide a stepping-stone for a musician or an ensemble to create their own, unique rendering of the music. Thus jazz notation reflects the stress in this musical tradition upon the musician or the band's individual style. The musician, rather than the composer is the star, when using jazz notation. Rather than attempt to slavishly recreate a performance from the past, which is impossible, as every audience, every musical context changes from night to night, jazz notation empowers the musician to create a living and vibrant performance on the stage, with his or her fellow musicians. ("Fake Books," ikipedia, 2006)
Fake books and jazz notation originated with illegal transcriptions of overheard music, although most fake books today copyrighted with…
Fake Book." Wikipedia. [6 Jun 2006]
Marsalis, Wynton. "On a slave's need for improvisation." From Jazz: A PBS documentary by Ken Burns.2001. Companion Website. [6 Jun 2006] http://www.pbs.org/jazz/time/time_slavery.htm
Musical notation." Wikipedia. [6 Jun 2006] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musical_notation
Music Since 1900
A Survey of hree Works by Ives, Schoenberg, and Barber
In the film Legend of 1900, im Roth plays an orphan who grows up aboard the SS Virginian, where he becomes a virtuoso piano player, whose styling rivals the greatest Jazz pianists of the early twentieth century. he Italian film is supposed to represent the impermanence of art and the cheapness of capturing a live performance on a record. However, what cannot be achieved in the film is actually achieved by the film, as the New Orleans jazz artist is surpassed by the glorious skills of an orphan who has spent his entire life aboard a steam liner. What it says is that music may be recorded, but what is even greater than the recording is the music itself and the story that inspired it. his paper will compare and contrast three different works of musical art…
Tornatore G. 1999 The Legend of 1900 Fine Line Features Los Angeles
White DA. 2000 Lecture on Music Theory St. [sound recording] Thomas Aquinas
From the research I know he was a ladies man. In Joan Peyser's book (The Memory of All That: The Life of George Gershwin) it is 1927 and Gershwin is discovered in bed with one of the attractive women from a show he and Harry Richman were working on. Caught with his shirt and pants still in his hand, Gershwin offered: "Mr. Richman, what can I say to you? I'm waiting for a streetcar?" (Peyser, 2007, p. 136).
Question #3: Music is far, far more than entertainment. A soft playing of Pieces (8) for Piano, Opus 76, by Johannes Brahms is the healing salve that helps a widow relate to the passing of her 88-year-old husband of 58 years. The Piano Sonata in E Minor D. 566 by Franz Schubert is the ideal theme to be played respectfully in the background as a new artist shows her latest abstract art…
Butterton, Mary. (2004). Music and Meaning: Opening Minds in the Caring and Healing
Professions. Oxon, UK: Radcliffe Publishing.
Peyser, Joan. (2007). The Memory of All That: The Life of George Gershwin. Milwaukee, WI:
Hal Leonard Corporation.
His father agreed to teach him music if he would marry his daughter. The man agreed, but the girl was so ugly that they never spoke. They continued to learn music with the father's strict teaching. The man leaves and does not marry the daughter. She is coming to the river to purify herself and to rid herself of desire. The narrator in the story is at the same river to rid him of worldly desires, just as the daughter is trying to.
The moral of this story is that music and its spiritual connection is better than any earthly desire. e see the same portrayal of music and spirituality in Dante's work as well. Music is used in Dante's work to signal the reader that something wonderful and beyond normal human experience is happening. Music is used to set the mood in Dante's work. For instance, the use…
Aligheri, Dante. Paradise. The Divine Comedy. Tanscribed by Judith Smith and Natalie
Salter. Project Gutenburg. Trans Rev. H.F. Cary. Online at http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1007/1007.txt .
King James Bible. Ezekiel I (17-2210.
Mehta, Gita. A River Sutra (New York N.A. Talese, 1993)
Music therapy involves incorporating music into therapist-patient relationship development for promoting the latter's physiological, psychological, emotional and social health. One can consider music therapy to be a part of creative arts treatment, clinical treatment, or supplementary treatment relative to the conventional medical model. It encompasses numerous techniques such as playing a musical instrument, singing a song, listening to music and improvisation (McCaffrey 42). Autism spectrum disorder represents a lasting developmental disability which evolves at different levels of severity. The condition has been marked by the following three key characteristics: challenges when it comes to forging social bonds; intense limited fanatic interests; and issues when communicating verbally and non-verbally (National Autistic Society 1)
The Benefits of Music Therapy for Children with Autism
Autistic kids depict greater sensitivity to anxiety as compared to non-autistic ones, since they cannot effectively filter out any triggering stimulus. Steady rhythmic music or classical songs are considered…
Autism Science Foundation. "Music Therapy May Help Children with Autism." ASF Blog. N.p., 30 Aug. 2013. Web. 27 June 2017.
Manfred, Theodoros. "Music Therapy for Autistic Children." HealthGuidance.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 27 June 2017.
McCaffrey, Triona. "Music Therapy Hits Right Note." Irish Medical Times, vol. 40, no. 49, 2006, pp. 42, Business Premium Collection.
National Autistic Society: National Autism Charities Join Forces to Fight for Autism during the General Election Campaign." M2 Presswire, Apr 18, 2005, pp. 1, Business Premium Collection.
Music and Dance in Indian Films
In sheer quantity, INDIA produces more movies than any other country in the world-over 900 feature-length films in at least 16 languages, according to a recent industry survey. This productivity is explained by several factors: the size of the Indian audience, low literacy rates, the limited diffusion of television in India, and well-developed export markets in both hemispheres. (http://worldfilm.about.com/cs/booksbolly/)
In its historical development, India's film industry paralleled that of the West. Dadasaheb Phalke's Raja Harishchandra, the first silent film for popular consumption, appeared in 1913; Alam Ara, the first "talkie," was released in 1931. ut the Indian cinema derived its unique flavor from the older Indian musical theater-particularly from the Urdu poetic dramas of the late nineteenth century. The influence of this tradition ensured that Indian movies would favor mythological or legendary-historical stories, that their dialogue would carry an Urdu flavor even in languages…
National Identity in Indian Popular Cinema 1947-1987 (Texas Film Studies) by Sumita S. Chakravarty Univ of Texas Pr; (December 1993)
Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema by Ashish Rajadhyaksha (Editor), Paul Willemen (Editor) British Film Inst; Revised edition (September 1999)
Cinema of Interruptions: Action Genres in Contemporary Indian Cinema by Lalitha Gopalan British Film Inst; (July 1, 2002)
Music Valence and Gender Influence Word ecall Task
A person's state of arousal can determine how well their memory functions. This phenomenon is readily apparent when persons experiencing a traumatic event find it difficult to ever escape these memories, memories that can recur unbidden in people suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. ecent research examining the influence of relaxing music found a similar effect, such that relaxing music impairs memory coding and consolidation. Towards the goal expanding on these results, an experiment was conducted that tested the influence of classical (relaxing), rock (stimulating), and no music on word recall performance, but stratified by gender. The results indicated that overall, classical music significantly impaired recall performance when compared to subjects listening to rock music or no music, but rock music provided no benefit. What is novel about these findings is that significant differences in memory performance were found between genders.…
Field, Andy. (2012). Discovering statistics: Experimental project. DiscoveringStatistics.com. Retrieved 9 Dec. 2012 from http://discoveringstatistics.com/docs/project1.pdf .
Hoskins, Tanya. (n.d.). Parametric and nonparametric: Demystifying the terms. Mayo.edu. Retrieved 9 Dec. 2012 from http://www.mayo.edu/mayo-edu-docs/center-for-translational-science-activities-documents/berd-5-6.pdf .
Lifeson, Alex, Lee, Geddy, and Peart, Neil. (2007). The Main Monkey Business. On Snakes & Arrows [CD]. New York: Atlantic Records.
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. (1788). Symphony No. 40 in G minor (KV. 550) [Recorded by Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra with Leonard Bernstein on 19 Sep. 1995]. On Mozart: Symphonies Nos. 40 & 41 [CD]. Berlin: Deutsche Grammophon.
Song of Love
Music is a universal language shared and understood across all countries and cultures. It can help express emotions and create an array of reactions, ranging from relaxed feelings to the most motivated ones. Apart from this, music can be used therapeutically for people who face difficulties physically, emotionally, cognitively or socially (Bodner). There is some difficulty when defining the concept of music therapy because there are numerous definitions out there concerning to this practice. According to the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) "Music therapy is an established health profession in which music is used in a therapeutic relationship to address physical, emotional, cognitive and social needs of individuals" (Ronna). This includes addressing mental and physical problems such as: self-awareness, spiritual enhancement, social and interpersonal development, and motor skills (Ronna). This type of therapy is used in many settings, such as schools, hospitals, nursing homes, rehabilitation centers, and…
Bodner M, M.. "Music Therapy." American Cancer Society. Cancer.org, 2008. Web. 19 Apr 2013..
Darnley-Smith, Rachel, and Helen Patey. Music Therapy. London: SAGE Publications Ltd., 2003. Print.
Davis, William Charles, Kate Gfeller, and Michael Thaut. An Introduction to Music Therapy: Theory and Practice. 2nd . Boston Burr Ridge: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999. Print.
Oak, M.. "Effects of Music on the Mind and Brain." Buzzle. Buzzle.com, 2012. Web. 19 Apr 2013. .
Pop is tomorrow's Classical"- Paul McCartney. Discuss this contention within the context of rock/classical music collaborations since the early 1950s.
Classical Rock and Popular Prophecy
To the average music-listener, musical genres are easily divided into homogenous groupings without any danger of overlapping one another. Certainly, there are rare occurrences of "cross-over" hits on the radio that find airplay on both Adult Contemporary and Country stations, or those releases which find an audience among both Easy Listening and Rock fans. Another seemingly strange occurrence that may be observed by the slightly more alert music consumer is that time shifts musical pieces from one genre to another, and yesterday's Alternative Rock is today's Easy Listening, yet even this phenomenon is considered an anomaly of the music industry. A simplicity is desired among musical elitists that preserves some musical forms as valid, labeling others as mere fads. However, the deep impact of musical…
"Classical Music." Heart & Soul. World Book. 2004. http://www2.worldbook.com/features/aamusic/html/classical.htm
Duxbury, Janell R. "The Nexus of Classical and Rock." Progression, no. 39, p70-74. Summer, 2001. http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/8660/article.html
Duxbury, Janell R. Rockin' the Classics and Classicizin' the Rock: A Selectively Annotated Discography. Greenwood Press, 1991.
Fissinger, Laura. "Jim Steinman: To 'Hell' & Back." BMI MusicWorld. Spring 1994. http://jimsteinman.com/bmi.htm
Undoubtedly many Beatles songs will be around far longer than many pieces labeled as "classical," but we would still never call "Yesterday" a work of classical music. Similarly, songs like "Yesterday" can be considered as musical masterpieces just as Beethoven's 9th, but the term "classical" can still only be applied to Beethoven, not the Beatles.
Therefore, pop music can be "classic" but not "classical." Classical music is a category; the term does not mean that the music was composed in the eighteenth century; nor does it mean that the music will endure in time as a masterpiece. Music called "classical" can be composed in the 21st century; much of it will not stand the test of time. Nevertheless, it can be labeled as classical if it can be classified into that genre, for instance by the type of instruments being played and the overall impact of the composition.
Classical." Entry in Dictionary.com. http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=classical .
Popular Music and Identity
Sound Clash-Popular Music and American Culture
Identifying through music is fantastic and creates social movements. People find music to be liberating, relaxing, and calming. Identifying oneself through music a person is able to have direct experiences in their body. This allows a person to place them self in an imaginary cultural narrative. Popular music has been analyzed as though it is a classical composition, which makes the analysts neglect the improvisational and performative aspects of popular music. Analyzing how audiences respond to popular music and how they identify with this kind of music is vital. This would allow people to better understand how different people identify with certain popular songs. Theodor Adorno viewed popular music as a culture industry, which is designed to appeal to society by creating a false need for entertainment. Simon Frith views popular music as a complex world where that values and…
Adorno, Theodor W, and George Simpson. On Popular Music. Institute of Social Research, 1942. Print.
Frith, Simon. "Music and Identity." Questions of cultural identity (1996): 108-27. Print.
Hill, S., and B. Fenner. Media and Cultural Theory. London: Bookboon. Print.
The twenty-one pieces of the work, minus the Overture, are divided into two acts, 8 pieces in the First Act, and 13 in the Second. 8 to 13 is an example of the Golden Ratio. There are also 49 entrances in The Magic Flute, divided up as 19 in Act I and 30 in Act II. This too is an example of the Golden Ratio. Furthermore, the Overture contains a division between 81 bars and 130, yet another Golden Ratio.
Golden Ratio is thus contained within Golden Ratio, an image of the endless repetition of the primordial forms. Each individual part of the Creation is complete unto itself. One can take apart the Cosmos and find perfect miniature "worlds" that can be put back together to form a coherent whole. According to the Classical canon of art, the human body is built upon the Golden Ratio. By drawing lines through…
Benstock, Seymour L., ed. Johann Sebastian: A Tercentenary Celebration. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992.
Boyd, Malcolm, and John Butt, eds. J.S. Bach. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Chua, Daniel K.L. Absolute Music and the Construction of Meaning. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Faulkner, Quentin. Wiser Than Despair: The Evolution of Ideas in the Relationship of Music and the Christian Church. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996..
Ethnic Music Humanities
a) Origin and Development of Traditional and Contemporary Ethnic Music
My personal experience in learning this subtopic reveals to me that music is a global cultural practice found in every known culture, both in the past and present, but with a wide variation with regards to time and place of practicing it. Since every ethnic group around the world, including some of the most secluded tribal groups, depicts their own forms of musical practices, I conclude that music might have been present among the ancestral populations prior to the dispersion of human populations around the world. This confirms that music must have been existing and evolving into different forms for over 50,000 years, and the first music might had been invented in Africa, which is regarded as the cradle of humankind. Then the music evolved through diverse parts of the world during human dispersion to become the…
There is an old cliche that contemporary music, especially popular music, is without lasting significance or quality. The truth is just the opposite. Contemporary music is extremely creative, and employs a wide range of styles and draws on many traditions around the world. In fact, contemporary composers and singers encompass all the known traditions and rich styles of the past, in both western and eastern cultures, in mainstream society as well as indigenous groups. Contemporary music is all music -- from string quartets like the Kronos Quartet, whose classically trained string quartet offers jagged, minimalist, modern music that has won many fans, to the seminal and groundbreaking work of popular singer/composers like Paul Simon, who in his Rhythm of the Saints album, employed African and tribal percussion. Contemporary music can be rock and roll, rap, classical, gospel, jazz, country western, or world music (music of other cultures).
Dylan, Bob. Lyrics 1962-2002. Simon & Schuster (2002).
Dylan, Bob and Ellison, James. Younger Than That Now: The Collected Interviews With Bob Dylan Thunders Mouth Press (2002).
Grout, Donald J. And Palisca, Claude. A History of Western Music, 6th Edition. W.W. Norton & Company (2000).
Kostka, Stefan. Tonal Harmony, With an Introduction to 20th Century Music. McGraw-Hill. (2000).
Music on Emotions and Behavior
Music and education
The effect of music on word recall
Several studies have been dedicated to the study of the effect of music on the memory. Most of the studies have been dedicated to the analysis of the way the human mind processes information. The brain has been indicated to be made up of a very complex system of neurons that is actively involved with the transfer of information from one part to the other. A study of the neural networks .The study of the effects of music on the human memory is still ongoing (Kirkweg 2001). Several factors have been found to affect the memory of a person. The most common ones being music, attention, emotion, stress as well as aging.
The mechanism involved
The human memory has been pointed out to be a mental system that is involved with the reception,…
Ashcraft, Mark H. Learning and Remembering. In J. Mosher, & M. Richardson (Eds.), Cognition (pp.211-257). New Jersey:Pearson Prentice Hall,2006
Carruth, Ellen K., "The Effects of Singing and the Spaced Retrieval Technique on Improving Face-Name Recognition in Nursing Home Residents with Memory Loss, Journal of Music Therapy, 34 (3), 165-186,1997
Coon, Dennis. Essentials of Psychology. New York: Brooks/Cole Publishing,1997
Krumhans, Carol.L. Music: A link between cognition and emotion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(2) 45-50,2002
For those who are deeply interested an option as choice may be given as elective or additional subject. Earlier, music was the domain of the elite and aristocrats and music and art that was cherished in the western world related to the classical music styles and that has ever since undergone a lot of change. Music education in schools began in the 1960s. For the person willing to take music as a career, or art as the main goal in life, schooling and colleges in these subjects will be a blessing. For others it would become a tool whereby they can enjoy music and art better and by teaching the rudiment in schools and colleges we can create better artists and critics for the future. (Walker, 2007)
3. What is your opinion of today's music?
Western music has a rich tradition that was based on the classical composers and was…
Benardete, Seth. (1992) "Socrates' Second Sailing: On Plato's Republic" University of Chicago Press.
Landy, Leigh. (1991) "What's the matter with today's experimental music?: Organized
sound too rarely heard" Routledge.
Minsky, Marvin. (1981) "Music, Mind, and Meaning" Computer Music Journal, Fall, vol. 5, no. 3, pp: 23-27.
To wit, there has been a "large-scale migration to the big cities, Pohlit explains, and that has "inclined the balance of power in cultural matters in favor of the poor and uneducated." Hence, the intellectual upper class now operates from a "narrow retreat, now itself a pariah," Pohlit continues. And that intellectual upper class of course has all the estern classical music it can possibly listen to, but it remains unable to uphold its esternized "Turkishness" with any degree of impact at all (Pohlit).
Art Music Composers
ilhelm Peterson-Berger (1867-1942) holds the highly respected position as the most popular art music composer in Sweden's history, according to Frederick Key Smith (Smith, 2002). Peterson-Berger thought of himself as more of a "symphonist and composer of agnerian operas than as a composer of miniatures," Smith explains. Peterson-Berger was raised in a home with a lot of culture; his father was fluent in…
Olsen, Dale A., and Sheehy, Daniel E. (2001). "Art Music." In The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: The United States and Canada / Ellen Koskoff, Ed., Oxon, UK: Taylor & Francis.
Pohlit, Stefan. (2010). Musical Life and Westernization in the Republic of Turkey.
Schismogenesis and Cultural Revisioning in Contemporary Music. Retrieved August 14,
2011, from http://www.stefanpohlit.com .
However, it is already clear that the music industry had been irrevocably changed as the revenue potential shifts from traditional sources to those corresponding to the way music is typically enjoyed and shared by youthful consumers today (Halbert & Ingulli, 2007).
egardless of the many ways that modern technology and societies have changed the way music is produced, in many respects, music still provides many of the same functions as it always has. Music continues to be featured prominently in cultural and religious expression and it continues to be an important part of adolescent development and self-expression. Ultimately, music will likely always continue to change in superficial ways and in the manner in which it is produced and disseminated, but in its most fundamental character, it remains unchanged in it significance to human society and culture..
Brownlee S. "Baby Talk" U.S. News & World eport; June 15, 1998:48-55.…
Brownlee S. "Baby Talk" U.S. News & World Report; June 15, 1998:48-55.
Dennet D. (1997). Consciousness Explained. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Marketing Music on Social Media Sites
Social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and others have grown exponentially over the past few years. One of the entertainment genres that has benefited mightily from social media is music, rap, rock, hip-hop, country, and even classical music. This paper explores and analyzes how musicians and groups have exploited social media in their marketing strategies.
Key Reasons Music Marketing Thrives on Social Media
Social Media has carved out an enormous presence in the contemporary entertainment and information scene in the United States. In fact according to a 2010 book -- Facebook Marketing: An Hour a Day -- a Harris Interactive study shows that "…48% of all American adults had either a Facebook or a MySpace account" (Treadaway, et al., 2010, p. 15). Also, as an indication of how extraordinarily fast Facebook has grown, in just eight months the giant social media company went…
Associated Press, 2011, 'Coldplay to livestream Madrid concert on YouTube on Oct. 26, two days after release of 'Milo Xyloto'. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from http://www.nydailynews.com .
CMU, 2011, 'New MySpace owners speak / New look music-focused MySpace set for 2011, retrieved October 7, 2011, from http://www.thecmuwebsite.com .
Hernandez, Brian Anthony, 2011, 'How Lady Gaga Created a Web Marketing Spectacle for Born This Way', Mashable.com. Retrieved October 6, 2011, from http://mashable.com/2011/05/24/lady-gaga-case-study .
Martell, Dan, 2010, 'How Six Hip Hop Artists Use Social Media', Flowtown.com. Retrieved October 6, 2011, from http://www.flowtown.com/blog/how-six-hip-hop-artists-use-social-media.
Blacks in Blues Music
Biographer Lawrence Jackson wrote that author Ralph Ellison was exposed to the blues and classical music from an early age, eventually playing the trumpet and pursuing a degree in music at Tuskegee (McLaren Pp). hen he moved to New York to pursue his writing career, Ellison was exposed to the musical developments in jazz and often attended the Apollo Theater, the Savoy Ballroom, and Cafe Society Downtown, and although he admired such figures as pianist Teddy ilson, Count Basie and Duke Ellington, he did not particularly admired Dizzy Gillespie's Bebop, considering its use of Afro-Cuban influences as a "strategic mistake" (McLaren Pp). Ellison, writes Jackson, was more concerned with the "homegrown idiom" (McLaren Pp). That homegrown idiom that Ellison referred to was the blues, a music born in the fields of the South by black workers who used their African musical heritage to give birth to…
McLaren, Joseph. "Ralph Ellison: Emergence of Genius."
Research in African Literatures; 12/22/2004; Pp.
Southern, Eileen. The Music of Black Americans. W.W. Norton & Company.
1983; pp. 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 336, 338.
Woody Allen's Annie Hall
Music is hardly used at all throughout the course of Woody Allen's classic comedy film Annie Hall. Like the great Ingmar Bergman, a director that Allen has idolized throughout the course of his career, Allen chose to leave a music score out of the film altogether.
Allen has always been known for his unconventional use of music in his films. He has never commissioned an original score for any of his movies; rather, he prefers to use established jazz and classical music recordings. But in a lot of his films, these jazz scores can be heard constantly in the background. Not so in Annie Hall.
One of the few uses of background music to be heard in Annie Hall include a boy's choir Christmas melody that features in a scene where the characters are driving through Los Angeles. In another instance, Mozart's Jupiter Symphony can be…
This piece changed the face of contemporary classical music and allowed other composers much more freedom in composing, since the era of "classical" music had been questioned and all of its preconceived notions had been shattered by Beethoven's 9th Symphony.
Beethoven's 9th is the work of a composer committed to undying self-expression (Swafford, 2003). He turned the classical music world upside down, which was frowned upon at the time, but now seen as a major catalyst for musical evolution in its time. Both Hitler and Mussolini were admirers of Beethoven and Beethoven's 9th Symphony (Buch, 2003). Ironically, The piece initially represented the musical freedom and unbridled expression that Beethoven was known for, but sadly, both Hitler and Mussolini used this piece in their propaganda films, and are now closely associated with much of Beethoven's work. This association has continued through the latter part of the 20th century and into the…
Buch, Esteban. Beethoven's Ninth, A Political History. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2003.
Swafford, Jan. "The Beethoven Mystery:Why haven't we figured out his Ninth Symphony yet?" Slate July, 2003.
Thomas, Jeffrey. "Revisiting the Ninth." American Bach Soloists. 2007.
Personal Response to Beethoven's 9th Symphony
oles of The Program Music
Program music refers to a form of music which tries to deliver an additional musical story musically. This story involved could be rendered to its audience as program notes, causing imaginative comparisons with its music.
This concept of program music enjoys more fame and application in the European classical music world, especially during the height of romantic works in the 1800s. Program music was a very common concept in those times. It was commonly used in reference to solely instrumental music works which are music pieces that doesn't have any lyrics. However, it was also used to describe the lieder and opera music type (odgers, 2009).
The single progression orchestral program music works are symphonic poems and the complete works is produced to be enjoyed and heralded without any external references. The Hector Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique is a suitable instance of program music…
'2016 Summer study: Teaching Music's annual listing of summer music programs' 2016, Teaching Music, 4, p. 51, Academic OneFile, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 June 2017.
Blom, D, Bennett, D, & Stevenson, I 2016, 'The Composer's Program Note for Newly Written Classical Music: Content and Intentions', Frontiers in Psychology, Academic OneFile, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 June 2017.
Garrett, S 2010, 'The Role of Community Music in Helping Disadvantaged Young People in South Wales to Confront Social Exclusion', International Journal Of Community Music, 3, 3, pp. 371-377, ERIC, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 June 2017.
Moss, PJ 2017, 'Program Music', Notes, 3, p. 550, Academic OneFile, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 June 2017.
Lavani was popular in southern Madhya Pradesh, India, and is combination of song and dance. The Thumri also combines song and dance and is generally devotional, depicting the love of a girl for Krishna.
An inseparable part of traditional Indian music is the often accompanying dance, especially in the folk tradition. The dance gives concrete form to the emotions depicted by the music. Like in folk music, different forms also exist in the traditional Indian dance. One of these is the Kuchipudi, of which a unique traditional feature is male dancers performing female roles. This form survives today in a more fluid and free from than the other classical dances. The form also features graceful body movements and delicate footwork, which makes it ideal for the expression of emotion depicted in the music (India Directory).
Hast, D., Cowdery, J. & cott, . (1999). Exploring the world of music. Dubuque,…
Hast, D., Cowdery, J. & Scott, S. (1999). Exploring the world of music. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
India Directory. "Myriad Emotions." Maps of India. http://india.mapsofindia.com/culture/art-and-culture/myraid-emotions.html
IndianetZone. "Traditional Indian Music. http://www.indianetzone.com/2/traditional_indian_music.htm
estern Classical Music
The concert chosen for this paper was a piano recital that consisted of various students that took place this April 2016. The reason I chose this recital to attend was that I knew one of the performers in the show and I wanted to both support her performance by my attendance in the audience and I wanted to expose myself to a diversity of performances for the purpose of this paper. The pieces ranged in period from modern (Bartok -- "Suite, Op. 14: Allegretto-Scherzo-Allegro molto-Sostenuto") to classical (Mozart -- "Adagio in b minor, K. 540"). The students were young adults of a variety of ethnicities, from Asian to European. It was overall a very eclectic mix of musical pieces performed by a diverse number of students. Unfortunately, there were not many people in the audience -- barely a dozen -- so it was difficult for the performers…
"Beethoven Pathetique Sonata." All About Beethoven. Web. 18 Apr 2016.
Nicholas, Jeremy. Chopin: His Life and Music. IL: Sourcebook MediaFusion, 2007.
Spitta, Philip. Johann Sebastian Bach: his work and influence on the music of Germany.
I have been lucky enough to have attended dozens of different concerts, in many different genres. Most recently I have been interested in electronic music and have seen a few local DJs as well as a few international ones. I have also seen some avant-garde rock, underground hiphop, punk, and "electroclash," like Peaches. I have seen symphony orchestras and arena rock, such as Bruce Springsteen too. hen people ask me what my favorite music is, I usually have a difficult time answering because I enjoy so much music, especially when it is performed live. Live music is special because it is never the same performance twice. hen I see a band or artist live, I am taking part in a moment of history.
People have become accustomed to listening to music with their headphones, which is great, except that headphones offer a limiting sonic experience. Other ways of…
Gilmore, J.J. (n.d.). Why live music? Retrieved online: http://www.ncsymphony.org/images/media/672EB8EC-1D09-64E9-48CCBDA53E6E5FF0.pdf
Janaro, R. & Altshuler, T. (2011). The Art of Being Human. Pearson.
music and their relationship to either the Baroque or Classical Period. The two pieces of music to be analyzed are Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 by Karl Munchinger performed by the Stuttgart Chamber Orchestra and Jeffery Tate's Allegro con brio performed by the English Chamber Orchestra. A brief discussion of the comparison of the two periods of music will be presented to help contextualize the argument before describing both pieces as products of either of those periods.
Baroque Period Vs. Classical Period
The Baroque Period of Music began in 1600 and lasted until 1750. Philosophically, this period's music aligned with much of the social and intellectual enlightenment that was occurring at the same time. The musical styles of this era demonstrated complex layers of melody and appealed to an upper elite class of thought. The orchestra concept began in this period and large booming productions like many operas of the…
All the places we hung out at had jukeboxes.
I don't remember ever going to concerts when I was a kid, but on television they would have like big western hayrides that were really popular. The concerts they had back then did not include such things as mosh pits. Like I said before, the biggest sin you could commit back then was smoking, and drinking was unheard of.
The values have changed so much that sometimes I just get sick thinking about it. I guess I shouldn't generalize, but it sure seems that way to me. Along with the technological progression, has come such things as pornography and those kinds of things, everything nowadays is so accessible.
When did the music start to change? I really did not notice any changes until the late 60's, Woodstock era was a dramatic change, especially with the hippies and all that backwards nonsense.…
music composer Wolfgang Mozart and his life and death. The writer concentrates on the theories that have been put together regarding what may have killed the composer, including bad pork, bad heart and a jealous peer. There wee 12 sources used to complete this paper.
One of the greatest composers in history was composer Wolfgang Mozart. He put together musical marriages that were unheard of in his time and today are still considered genius. Mozart was a man of many traits and was well-known for his quirky personality especially at the end of his life. His death has been shrouded in mystery for many years and theorists still work to try and draw s conclusive picture about what may have happened to the man in his final days. Before one can begin to understand the various theories surrounding his death one must have a grasp on who the man was…
HE ASSOCIATED PRESS, "New Theory on Mozart's Death." Newsday, (2001).pp A18.
Author not available, "Did pork cutlets kill Mozart?.," Reuters, (2001). pp 00
STEPHEN MANNING, Associated Press Writer, "Researcher: Bad Heart Killed Mozart.," AP Online, 92000)..
Joyce Howard Price, "Doctor believes rheumatic fever led to Mozart's death," The Washington Times,(2000). pp A3.
jazz as a musical tradition not only has a bright future ahead of it, but has also had an illustrious past. The reasons for this are its flexibility. This flexibility, as well as its ability to effortlessly mould itself not only to current events, but also to current musical paradigms, ensures that jazz has a past, a present and a future that can be rivaled by few other genres in music.
The flexibility of jazz translates to and from the world around it. We live in a very dynamic world, with overnight change accepted as the order of the day. Jazz then caters to this by being a flexible musical tradition.
Jazz has also become a sort of language; the "English" of the musical world. It crosses all musical boundaries and is likely to appeal to most audiences. The audience for jazz then is the "global village." Jazz can potentially…
Music may be counted among the strongest neurobiological tools at hand for altering individual moods, conduct and attitudes. What effect does it have on us in relation to the promotion of hatred and violent behavior? In what way does it shape people’s explanatory approach and minds? An inherent relationship has been found between mood and music. Scholars constantly attempt at objectively explaining the occurrence of such influences. Research works demonstrate that music engages, within the listener, a broad array of psychology-influencing neurobiological systems (Bergland, 2012).
Music apparently impacts an individual’s physical performance by enhancing vigor with shifting rhythms and diverse tempos, in contrast to the utter absence of music (Belford et al, 2013). This paper will address three distinct models with an aim to gauge the influence or degree of influence of music on individuals working out at gymnasiums.
Observation and Models
Model 1: Concentration represents an attentional practice…
He stated that, "I mean printed works produced ostensibly to give children spontaneous pleasure and not primarily to teach them, nor solely to make them good, nor to keep them profitably quiet." (Darton 1932/1982:1) So here the quest is for the capture and promotion of children's imagination through stories and fables that please as well as enlighten. There is always the fallout that once a child learns to love to read he or she will read many more things with greater enthusiasm than before.
The children's literature genres developed in Mesopotamia and in Egypt over a roughly 1,500-year period - proverbs, fables, animal stories, debates, myths, instructions (wisdom literature), adventure and magic tales, school stories, hymns and poems - pass down to the Hebrews and the Greeks. The Old Testament owes much to both Mesopotamian and Egyptian literature (Adams 2004:230)
One can see that, as stated previously, children's literature is…
Adams, Gillian. 2004. "16 Ancient and Medieval Children's Texts." pp. 225-238 in International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature, vol. 1, edited by Hunt, Peter. London: Routledge.
Ancient Babylonia - Gilgamesh Tablet. 2009. Bible History. Retrieved 2 August 2010 ( http://www.bible-history.com/babylonia/BabyloniaGilgamesh_Tablet.htm .).
Bell, Robert H. 2005. "Inside the Wardrobe: Is 'Narnia' a Christian Allegory?." Commonweal, December 16, pp. 12-15
Bible Maps. 2009. Genisis Files. Retrieved on 6 August 2010 ( http://www.genesisfiles.com/Mtararat.htm )