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In addition, a theorized creation period is given, as well as the current location of the statue. However, very little other detail is given for this important piece.
Kortum, R. Warrior Vase. No date. East ennessee State University. October 16, 2006 http://faculty.etsu.edu/kortumr/05mycenae/htmdescriptionpages/12vase.htm.
he author, a professor at East ennessee State, gives a brief description of the krater (mixing bowl) pottery from the 12th century BC and now housed in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens. In addition, a black and white image clearly depicting the militaristic scene on the piece is presented. he author makes the point of the differences between Minoan and Mycenaean lifestyles at this point in history, through the different typical pottery motifs.
Lahanas, M. he divine madness of the orgiastic Maenad. 2006. Dr. Michael Lahanas. October 16, 2006. http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/MaenadSkopas.htm.
Dr. Lahanas gives a detailed account of Skopas' Maenads. Using Kallistratos' first hand accounts, he clearly expresses…
The Britannica's concise entry for Scopas is just that - concise. Although the entry gives a very brief detailing on who Scopas was, the discussion of the Maenad in Dresden is even shorter. However, it does note that this is one of his most noteworthy works.
Vermeule, C. "The Weary Herakles of Lysippos." American Journal of Archaeology 79(4) Oct 1975: 323-332.
Vermeule gives a comprehensive detailing of Lysippos' Herakles. Of note is the burden that Lysippos portrays with his sculpture. Herakles had the weight of the heavens upon him, and as such, many humans can empathize with that feeling. In addition to the original creation, Vermeule details the multitudes of replicas that were made of this work. These copies were created in a variety of sizes and materials.
It is only human for cultures to borrow from successful societies. It has been a common practice throughout human history, especially within the context of the Classical periods, where many major nations were developing themselves as world powers. Many of these traditions still live on today either in their own right, or through the perpetuation by other cultures. In fact, Western society owes much of its foundations and philosophies to Classical cultures, such as Greco-oman and Middle Eastern influences. Then, the question remains, how will our current society lend to the future formation of new societies yet to be conceived?
Boeree, C. George. (2000). "An Introuction to Buddhism." Shippensburg University. etrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhaintro.html.
Butler, Chris. (2007). "Bronze Age Greeks: the Minoans and Myceneans." The Flow of History. etrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://www.flowofhistory.com/units/birth/3/FC17.
Hooker, ichard. (1996). "The Persians." World Civilizations. etrieved 24 mar 2009 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/PESIANS.HTM.…
Boeree, C. George. (2000). "An Introuction to Buddhism." Shippensburg University. Retrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhaintro.html .
Butler, Chris. (2007). "Bronze Age Greeks: the Minoans and Myceneans." The Flow of History. Retrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://www.flowofhistory.com/units/birth/3/FC17.
Hooker, Richard. (1996). "The Persians." World Civilizations. Retrieved 24 mar 2009 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/PERSIANS.HTM .
Jayaram, V. (2008). "Chinese Buddhism: An Overview." Hindu Website. Retrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://www.hinduwebsite.com/buddhism/chinese_buddhism.asp .
The geniuses strained the boundaries of the characteristic styles more evidently and more quickly than those of their contemporaries to bring about such seismic changes.
Baroque: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Baroque: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Ludwig van Beethoven." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 2007. 23 Apr 2008. http://plus.aol.com/aol/reference/Beethove/Ludwig_van_Beethoven?flv=1&ncid=fLHHQXUNeT0000000474&icid=rbox_ref_center.M
Posner, Howard. "hat is basso continuo?" Early Music FAQ. 1994. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.medieval.org/emfaq/misc/continuo.html
Sadie, Stanley. "Baroque." The Grove Concise Dictionary of Music. New York: .. Excerpted at Classical Music Pages Homepage. Created by Matt Boynick. 1 Feb 1996. Revised 10 Oct 2000. 23 Apr 2008. http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/g_epoch_baroque.html
Sadie, Stanley. "Classical." The Grove Concise Dictionary of Music. New York: .. Norton, 1994. Excerpted at Classical Music Pages Homepage. Created by Matt…
Baroque: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Baroque: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical and Christian
The sixth century was a time of great transformation in the Western world; it was the time of the end of the Classical Period and the beginning of the Christian Era. ome had fallen to the barbarians, but they had assumed the mantle of oman Emperors. However, these barbarian "emperors," and the empire they ruled, were just a shadow of the real thing. In other words, the remnants of the old oman world still existed, but on top of that foundation was being built a new Christian world. Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy is an example of how the sixth century saw a mixture of the new Christian thought blended with a base of Classical philosophy.
Boethius was a oman aristocrat who had served the Ostrogothic Emperor Theodoric the Great. The Ostrogoths had conquered ome and set themselves up as the inheritors of the oman Empire, even going…
Cooper, W.V. 2009. "The Consolation of Philosophy by Anicius Manlius Severinus
Boethius." The Ex-classics Project. Accessed 15 Sept. 2012.
Desire, Emotion, and Knowledge: Greek Society and Culture in the Classical Period (480-338 .C.)
Following the aftermath of Greeks' victory over Persians during 480-479 .C., Greek society has undergone rapid changes and revival in its political, economic, and cultural structures, called the Classical period of Greek society and culture. This period, 480-338 .C., is characterized by the emergence of new reforms in the society, such as the establishment of a new Athenian democratic government, the gradual assertion of women equal treatment in a patriarchal Greek society, and the flourishing of the arts through philosophy, literature, mathematics, and science.
Indeed, the Classical period is more appropriately described as a time wherein human potential and intelligence is at its highest. As Plato had stated, "Human behavior flows from three main sources: desire, emotion, knowledge." This statement from the Greek philosopher brings into lucidity the important works of literature that had…
Kagan, D., S. Ozment, and F. Turner. (1995). The Western Heritage. NJ: Prentice Hall.
classical era which spanned from approximately 1750 to 1820.I shall discuss the stylistic changes sonata, string quartet and symphony and also the great composers of the time mainly Christoph Willibald Gluck, Johann Bach, and Joseph Haydn.
Sonata form is one, which is usually used as a part of multi-movement scheme, since it involves the musical structure of a single movement.
The basic structure of sonata comprises of the following three sections:
Recapitulation with a Coda added commonly.
The sonatas of Corelli Violin sonatas Op. 3 are a mixture of abstract and dance-type movements.
A string quartet is quite a complex style where the musical structure consists of four movements .It includes four string instruments which are two violins, a viola and cello.
In classical period string quartets were written for those who had a comprehensive knowledge of music since they were quite complex…
CLASSICAL AND POPULAR MUSIC IN 'THE CRYING OF LOT 49'
Thomas Pynchon is known for his complex storylines and weird characters. For this reason it is not easy to comment on the use of music in his novels as it is the very complexity of his plots that obscure the influence or meaning of classical and popular music in his books. Despite this, he is one of the most influential writers of the postmodern era and many singers have cited his work as an inspiration for their music. In our days for example, since the return of popular music, we notice that Thomas Pynchon has become a source of inspiration for many new pop artists. Larry Swindell (1996) says, "Pynchon is an enduring literary cult figure, sainted by proponents of darkest-hued comedy."
It is important to bear in mind that Pynchon's use of music is not limited to just one…
Hans, James S., Emptiness and plenitude in "Bartleby the Scrivener" and 'The Crying of Lot 49.'. Vol. 22, Essays in Literature, 09-22-1995, pp 285(15).
Jamie Diamond, PAGES: THE MYSTERY OF THOMAS PYNCHON LEADS FANS AND SCHOLARS ON A QUEST AS BIZARRE AS HIS PLOTS., People, 01-29-1990, pp 64
Joel Stein, The Case For Thomas Pynchon., Time, 07-09-2001, pp 50.
Joseph Slade, Writers for the 70s: Thomas Pynchon, New York, 1974.
Moreover, they saw religious faith as critical to promoting moral stability in the community (Breslin, 2004). Here we see how federalists adhere in the idea of liberalism by siding with sovereign nation-states where a central type of government is a political strategy. Moreover, Federalists side with the Hobbesian doctrine of liberalism where no religious power should be exercised among people as Anti-Federalists argued that religious faith is crucial is the stability of communities. For Federalists, political rule is the only legitimate rule of power, at least in the socio-political sense.
Berkowitz, P. (1996). Intellectual History of Classical Liberalism. etrieved from www.dailyrepublican.com/liberalhistory.html. onMarch 12.
Breslin, B. (2004). The Communitarian Constitution. etrieved from www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt/lpbr/subpages/reviews/breslin904.htm. onMarch 12.
Moseley, a. (2006). Political Philosophy. etrieved at http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/p/polphil.htm#SH3aonMarch 12, 2009.
Mount, S. (2007). Constitutional Topic: The Federalists and Anti-Federalists. etrieved at http://www.usconstitution.net/consttop_faf.html. onMarch 12, 2009.
New World Encyclopedia. (2008). Age of Enlightenment. etrieved from www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Age_of_EnlightenmentonMarch…
Berkowitz, P. (1996). Intellectual History of Classical Liberalism. Retrieved from www.dailyrepublican.com/liberalhistory.html. onMarch 12.
Breslin, B. (2004). The Communitarian Constitution. Retrieved from www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt/lpbr/subpages/reviews/breslin904.htm. onMarch 12.
Moseley, a. (2006). Political Philosophy. Retrieved at http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/p/polphil.htm#SH3aonMarch 12, 2009.
Mount, S. (2007). Constitutional Topic: The Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Retrieved at http://www.usconstitution.net/consttop_faf.html . onMarch 12, 2009.
. . which fascinates by the mass of its beauties" (Goulding, 1995, 256). Much like Wagner, Tchaikovsky was influenced by several love affairs, first with Desiree Artot, an opera singer who deserted him to marry someone else and Nadezhda von Meck, a patroness of the arts. Thus, the relationship with Ms. Von Meck provided the stimulation Tchaikovsky needed for the completion of omeo and Juliet; she also was obviously his Juliet, a woman from a contrasting family (she provided him with much financial support) and someone that was out of reach for a simple composer.
The piece known as Clouds is part of Debussy's Three Nocturnes for orchestra and as described by Debussy himself, Clouds represents "the unchanging aspect of the sky, and the slow, solemn movement of the clouds, dissolving into gray tints, lightly touched with white" (Goulding, 1995, 315). All of this is symbolized by the…
Goulding, Phillip G. (1995). Classical Music: The 50 Greatest Composers and Their 1000 Greatest Works. Westminster, MD: Ballantine Books.
MUSIC & ENVIRONMENT
Art has always been used as a means of expression and of confirmation of events and movements that take place in the society in that respective period of time. The Neo-Classical and Romanticist art makes no exception to this rule and the two periods have been considered in the history of artistic art as two of the most representative for the expressivity they brought to the world of the arts as well as through the painters they inspired. Jacques-Louis David and Eugene Delacroix are two of the most representative painters of the New Classical period and the Romanticist art and their paintings are significant for the symbols and ideals these two periods provided for the artistic world.
Neo-classical art must be seen in the wider context of the 18th century and the era of Enlightenment when the new perceptions on the role of reason were redefined against the concepts of…
art period's styles represent a theme art. Your comparison focus artists period styles. The pair choose drawn period styles. For essay, I compare a High Classical Greek artwork Early Italian Renaissance artwork.
The Artemision ronze vs. Donatello's bronze David
While most people are inclined to look at the Italia Renaissance as being innovative and as bringing new concepts to society, the artistic movement actually inspired from Ancient Greece. y looking at the Early Renaissance period and at the Classical Greek artistic movement one is likely to observe a series of parallels, as the more recent artists did not hesitate to inspire themselves from individuals that they considered to be particularly refined in producing artwork. To a certain degree, one can consider the two movements to have had a similar effect in individuals living contemporary to them, considering that they both brought on artistic revolutions. The Artemision ronze and Donatello's bronze…
Kleiner, Fred S. "Gardner's Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective," (Cengage Learning, 2009)
Mattusch, Carol C. "Greek Bronze Statuary: From the Beginnings Through the Fifth Century B.C.," (Cornell University Press, 1988)
Shaked, Guy, "Masters of Italian Sculpture," (Lulu.com, 2007)
"Donatello's David," Retrieved May 11, 2012, from the Suny Oneonta Website: http://employees.oneonta.edu/farberas/arth/arth213/donatello_david.html
Greek Classical Era on Christian Art
The fifth century B.C.E. initiated a new philosophy in Greek art. hile before this era, Greek representations of the human form tended to be static and relatively stylized (much like Egyptian art), the Classical era exhibited a notable break with previous artistic images. Representations of the human form became much more realistic. Knowledge of anatomy combined with an ideology that celebrated and idealized the human form (while still keeping it recognizably human) characterized the style of this era, as can be seen in one of the wonders of the ancient world, the Tomb of Mausolus (Asia Minor, 359-351 B.C.E.). One famous relief on the Tomb depicts Greek warriors and Amazon women in combat. Both the soldiers and the women are intricately detailed in terms of the folds of their clothing and musculature. Both sides are also perfectly proportioned and while all look recognizably human,…
"Art of the Crusades Era." University of Michigan. 8 Dec 1997. Web 28 Dec 2015.
Boardman, John. "The Classical period (5th - 4th century BC)." Classical Art Research Centre.
Oxford University. 26 Oct 2012. Web 28 Dec 2015.
Cartwright, Mark. "Ara Pacis Augustae." The Ancient History Encyclopedia. Web 28 Dec 2015.
He stated that, "I mean printed works produced ostensibly to give children spontaneous pleasure and not primarily to teach them, nor solely to make them good, nor to keep them profitably quiet." (Darton 1932/1982:1) So here the quest is for the capture and promotion of children's imagination through stories and fables that please as well as enlighten. There is always the fallout that once a child learns to love to read he or she will read many more things with greater enthusiasm than before.
The children's literature genres developed in Mesopotamia and in Egypt over a roughly 1,500-year period - proverbs, fables, animal stories, debates, myths, instructions (wisdom literature), adventure and magic tales, school stories, hymns and poems - pass down to the Hebrews and the Greeks. The Old Testament owes much to both Mesopotamian and Egyptian literature (Adams 2004:230)
One can see that, as stated previously, children's literature is…
Adams, Gillian. 2004. "16 Ancient and Medieval Children's Texts." pp. 225-238 in International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature, vol. 1, edited by Hunt, Peter. London: Routledge.
Ancient Babylonia - Gilgamesh Tablet. 2009. Bible History. Retrieved 2 August 2010 ( http://www.bible-history.com/babylonia/BabyloniaGilgamesh_Tablet.htm .).
Bell, Robert H. 2005. "Inside the Wardrobe: Is 'Narnia' a Christian Allegory?." Commonweal, December 16, pp. 12-15
Bible Maps. 2009. Genisis Files. Retrieved on 6 August 2010 ( http://www.genesisfiles.com/Mtararat.htm )
art from three different cultures. Specifically it will discuss pieces from the Classical Greek, Indian Civilizations, and Egyptian Civilizations, including the meaning of the work and an art analysis of the work. Each of these different cultures produced very different works of art that were meant to entertain, enlighten, and be viewed for enjoyment. They used different techniques, but there were commonalities, as well. They represent some of the best and most beautiful artwork the world has ever seen.
The Classic Greek work of art I have chosen is the marble sculpture the Venus of Arles, which now resides in the Musee du Louvre in Paris. It is made of Hymettus marble and is thought to be as old as the third century BC. It is thought that the Venus was created by the sculptor Praxiteles, in an attempt to recapture his sculpting career. It is often called the Aphrodite…
Bens, K. (2009). Aphrodite of Arles. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Museum of Antiques Web site: http://www.usask.ca/antiquities/collection/classicalgreek/aphroditearles.html .
Editors. (2009). Kishangarh miniatures - In quest of divine love. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the India Profile Web site: http://www.indiaprofile.com/art-crafts/kishangarhminiatures.htm .
Nalubwama, E. (2009). Ancient Egyptian papyrus. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the University of Minnesota Web site: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/dailylife/papyrus.html.
Sikander, N. (2009). Bani Thani paintings. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Ethnic Paintings Web site: http://www.ethnicpaintings.com/indian_painting_styles/miniature/rajput/bani_thani/.
Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and ome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and ome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and ome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the oman Empire. The arts of the enaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in enaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and ome are…
Castelijn, D. (2012). The Influence of Classical Antiquity on the Renaissance. Oxford Department for Continuing Education. Retrieved online: http://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/courses/details.php?id=V350-130#pagetop
"Classical Antiquity in the Middle Ages," (n.d.). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved online: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/anti/hd_anti.htm
"Greek Art," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.ancient-greece.org/art.html
"Jacques-Louis David," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.jacqueslouisdavid.org/
.. discretion as a practical matter" (1988, p. 78).
Wildavsky's was not critical of classical budgeting theory. He was more in favor of the concept of incrementalism that was a vital part of classical budgeting. He felt that incrementalism was superior to other budgeting approaches because it "increases agreement among the participants" (1984, p. 136) and also because it could reduce "burden of calculation" (1984, p. 136). Wildavsky went on to say that: "Clinging to last year's agreements is enormously economical of critical resources . . . which would be seriously depleted if all or most past agreements were reexamined yearly." (1984, p. 217).
The classical budgeting model proved efficient and practical for many decades but it lost its appeal in mid-20th century when a general trend towards excessive spending took over. This trend was observed all over the world and the main reason for the scope of government's responsibilities…
1. Caiden, Naomi. 1982. "The Myth of the Annual Budget." Public Administration Review 42 (6):516 -- 523.
2. Meyers, Roy T. 1997, Late Appropriations and Government shutdowns: Frequency causes, consensus and remedies. Public Budgeting and Finance. 25:38-45
3. Schick, Allen. 1980. Congress and Your Money. Washington: Urban Institute.
4. Schick, Allen. 1990. The Capacity to Budget. Washington: Urban Institute.
As Amun, he also wears a flat-topped crown, which was his signature. The figure is carrying and ankh in one hand and a scimitar in the other which is laid across his chest.
The gold represents the sun in ancient Egyptian culture, and so it is the only fitting
The Hellenistic period began in 323 BC, after the death of one of ancient Greece's great heroes, Alexander the Great. Alexander had conquered vast expanses of the ancient world, which opened up great cultural influences on the people of Greece (National Museum of Athens 2010). During this era, the people speak a multitude of different languages, and there are cultural influences from around the ancient world parading through the streets, which might I add, have all been recently paved. The city itself looks strikingly similar to more modern day cities. The culture is ripe with artistic expression and acceptance.…
American Institute of Pyramidology. "Part One: The Ancient Mystery Unraveled." The Great Pyramid. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://greatpyramid.org/aip/gr-pyr1.htm
Inter-City Oz. "About Ancient Egypt." Tour Egypt. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://touregypt.net/egyptantiquities/
Metropolotan Museum of Art. "Statuette of Amun." Works of Art: Egyptian Art. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/works_of_art/collection_database/egyptian_art/statuette_of_amun/objectview.aspx?page=2&sort=5&sortdir=asc&keyword=&fp=1&dd1=10&dd2=31&vw=1&collID=31&OID=100001249&vT=1
Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Statue of Eros Sleeping." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. 2010. Retrieved 19 Fed 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/04/eusb/ho_43.11.4.htm
A context of economic stability strengthens the country's status in the world, increases the value of the national currency and attracts foreign investors. But there should also exist a certain level of flexibility in order to encourage investors to open businesses within the country. Foreign investors need both security but also the promises of adaptability and flexibility, which will help them conduct organizational operations.
Stability should be offered by most industries and sectors, as well as national institutions. Among the sectors which reveal increased importance in offering stability are the financial sector and the banking sector. The financial sector, supervised by the country's central bank, must be stable as to develop and implement fair financial regulations, maintain an appropriate value of the national currency and reduce inflation. The banking sector has to be stable as to offer numerous credit and savings opportunities for entrepreneurs.
Benito, C.A., Neo-Classical Growth Model,…
Benito, C.A., Neo-Classical Growth Model, Development Economics Sonoma State University, retrieved from www.sonoma.edu/users/b/benito/econ403/units/NeoClassical.ppton February 7, 2008
Elbaum, B., Lazonick, W., 1984, the Decline of the British Economy: An Institutional Perspective, the Journal of Economic History, Volume 44, Number 2
Gourvish, T., 2000, Entrepreneurship in Britain 1870-1914 - Failure or Adaptation, London School of Economics, Retrieved at http://www.dieboldinstitute.org/paper3b.pdfon February 7, 2008
Meade, J.E., 1962, a Neoclassical Theory of Economic Growth, Retrieved at http://www.economyprofessor.com/economictheories/neo-classical-growth-theory.phpon February 7, 2008
I Ching Classical Understand vs. Aleister Crowley
Any belief, whether it is a self-made system or is bestowed upon us from above, can be taken as a religious view, for how does one define religion except as a system which sets upon humans a certain lifestyle to follow. The definition might seem vague at the least, but to define religion is becoming increasingly difficult, as more and more new sources of religious believes emerge. In all sense of the world, there is a message, however it may or may not be from an omnipotent, invisible God; it can be from a messiah or a man who has been raised to the level of a Messiah by his/her followers, as is the case of Buddha. [1: END NOTES Connelly, Paul. Definition of Religion and Relates Terms. 1996. 23rd March 2012 .]
The same has been the fate of many of the…
Enlightenment-era, Neo-Classical works with Romantic overtones 'Tartuffe," Candide, and Frankenstein all use unnatural forms of character representation to question the common conceptions of what is natural and of human and environmental 'nature.' Moliere uses highly artificial ways of representing characters in dramatic forms to show the unnatural nature of an older man becoming attracted to a younger woman. Voltaire uses unnatural and absurd situations to question the unnatural belief of Professor Pangloss that this is the best of all possible worlds. Mary Shelley creates a fantastic or unnatural scenario to show the unnatural nature of a human scientist's attempt to turn himself into a kind of God-like creator through the use of reason and science alone.
"Tartuffe" is the most obviously unnatural of the three works in terms of its style. It is a play, and the characters do not really develop as human beings because of the compressed nature…
The medieval period in English history spans across some 800 years. The Anglo-Saxon period consisted of literature that was retained in memory. The major influence of the literature up until the Norman Conquest was mainly of the religious kind. "Distinguished, highly literate churchmen (Abrams 4) the Ecclesiastical History of England remains our "most important source of knowledge about the Anglo-Saxon period" (4).
The Anglo-Saxons were primarily known for their contribution to poetry. Their alliterative form was, of course, how poetry survived. Sine they wrote nothing down until they were "Christianized," Abrams suggest that that Christian ideals influenced how things were recorded and it would also explain why some non-Christian literature did not survive. Beowulf is what Abrams refers to as the "greatest" German epic, even though it appears to many pre-Christian ideas. (4) Another example of the Anglo-Saxon writing movement would be Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Chaucer brilliantly weaves…
Abrams, M.H., ed. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986.
Encyclopedia Britannica. Chicago: William Benton Publisher. 1959.
Wright, Meg. Early English Writers. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation. 1989.
expansive period, important force change development evolution world civilizations preclassical era middle ages ? agricultural developments, technology, industrial development .
From approximately 3500 BCE to 1500 CE, in this expansive period, what has been the most important force of change in the development and evolution of world civilizations from the pre-classical era through the middle ages and why?
The most important force of change during the vast span of years from 3500 BCE to 1500 CE was the development of the modern, bureaucratic state. Only with an effectively-organized government could a nation martial a fighting force to defend its borders, protecting the intellectual and artistic treasures of its civilization from ruin. And only with an effectively-organized state government could empires have been built. The building of empires, and the trade and cultural exchanges they fostered, created what today we would call the modern world. In the absence of effectively-organized state…
Bentley, Jerry H. (et al.) Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past.
5th Edition. McGraw-Hill New York, 2011
He argues that there is a duty resting on convention, which he considers in a deep and morally weighty sense, based on an implied but nonetheless binding contract between the individual and the state:
It is a fact, then," they would say, "that you are breaking covenants and undertakings made with us, although you mad them under no compulsion of misunderstanding, and were not compelled to decide in a limited time; you had seventy years in which you could have left the country, if you were not satisfied with us of felt that the agreements were unjust (Plato, 1993, p. 89).
In other words, Socrates has enjoyed the benefit of the laws all his life and cannot now break them without breaking an implicit agreement he has made with the state based on his acceptance of the law over his lifetime.
Plato's ideal state is not a democracy, and…
Burn, a.R. (1949). Pericles and Athens. New York: Macmillan.
Kimball, R. (2002). Freedom and Duty: Pericles and Our Times. The National Interest, 81-85.
Lakoff, S.A. (1996). Democracy: History, Theory, Practice. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Plutarch (1909). Plutarch's Lives: Volume 12. New York: P.F. Collier & Son.
Impressionism vs. Post-Impressionism
Impressionism vs. Post
This paper will explore impressionism vs. post-impressionism including the influences of each on each other and society, and the effects of each other on the 19th century. The paper will ascertain how one period revived or continued the style and characteristics of the other, or how one period originated in reaction to the other. Impressionist paintings tended to focus less on detail and more on making impressions of form and figure, as the name implies. The brush strokes were less inclined to add detail and structure or order. Post-impressionists considered this trivial, and created artistic work that was decidedly more expressive according to some; more organized and structured, the Post-Impressionist movement could be best described as a response to the Impressionist movement. Some focused on methods including Pointillism, or the use of dots of color, whereas others used bright fresh colors used by Impressionists…
Brettell, R. 2000. Impression: Painting quickly in France, 1860-1890. New Haven and London: Yale
Denvir, B. 1990. The Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia of Impressionism. London: Thames and Hudson.
Sweeny, J.J. 1996. Post-Impressionism. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, Microsoft Corp.
Tinterow, G. And Henri Loyrette. 1994. Origins of Impressionism. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Baghdad (Importance in Abbasid Period as a Muslim Cultural Center)
The Muslim world is comprised of various ethnic groups, nationalities, customs and traditions, languages and races. Muslims all over the world have a common belief in the Oneness and Supremacy of Allah, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), and the Holy Quran. On the contrary, they all have different versions and interpretations of their religion, Islam. Thus, the theological traditions they follow are dissimilar. The Muslim world possesses an extensive political, social, economic, and geographical landscape which signifies a "kaleidoscope of historical and cultural experiences." Despite of the differences, however, the contemporary Muslim world today has inherited a highly triumphant and exultant civilization. Muslims are the heirs of a successful civilization that was larger and more productive than the greatest empires in the history including Greek, oman, Byzantine, and Sassanid (Ahmad 2007).
After the demise of the prophet Muhammad (peace…
Abbasid. 2009, In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press, Retrieved December 30, 2011, from Questia database: .
Ahmad, I. 2007 The Muslim World: Its Time, Continuity and Change, Social Studies Review, 46, 33+. Retrieved December 29, 2011, from Questia database: .
Background Note #3: The Philosophical/Scientific Contribution. 2007, Pattern in Islamic Art [online], accessed December 31, 2011 from: .
Baghdad. 2009, In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.), New York: Columbia University Press, Retrieved December 30, 2011, from Questia database: .
History of Judaism: From biblical origins to the modern period." It discusses Genesis 1-11 and what these texts tell us about the origins of Israelite religion? What do the major episodes in these 11 chapters of the Torah tell us about the differences between classical Mesopotamian paganism and the origins of Israelite thought and religion?
History of Judaism: From biblical origins to the modern period
Genesis is the book of beginnings. That is what the word itself means, and it takes us back into the very dawn of human history. It opens with an awareness of the greatest material fact in all human life; a fact that we are all subconsciously aware of almost every waking moment, that is, that we are living in a universe. Then this galaxy itself is moving at incredible speed through the vastness of space in conjunction with millions of other galaxies like ours. It…
Langer, Ruth, Jewish understandings of the religious other., Theological Studies, 06-01-2003, pp 255.
Clifford, Richard, A History of Israelite Religion in the Old Testament Period, vol. 1: From the Beginnings to the End of the Monarchy.(book reviews). Vol. 56, Theological Studies, 09-01-1995, pp 566(2).
Nahum Sarna, "Understanding Creation in Genesis" in Frye, Is God a Creationist?, pp 155-173.
Classical theory elucidates crime as a creation and outcome of beliefs that advantages of committing crimes are extremely greater than normative, socially acceptable behavior. The foundation of this school of thought on criminology is that crime is a rational choice and that many individuals have the capacity to resort to crime. In addition, individuals will commit crime subsequent to the comparison of prospective advantages and disadvantages of such actions. The positivist school of criminology tries to ascribe crime causation to understood, contemplative assertion of advantages that criminal activities carry. Next, sociological school of criminology asserts that crime comes about due to manifold factors that can be split into mental, biological, and social factors. Therefore, it implies that crime is a result of social factors and elements that influence the behavior of human beings.
eek 2 Discussion
Siegel delineates the three different ways crime is recorded in our country. The…
Boston University Metropolitan College. Reintegrative Shaming & Restorative Justice, 2016. Web. Retrieved: https://learn.bu.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-1942479-dt-content-rid-6162758_1/courses/14sprgmetcj602_ol/week06/metcj602_W06L01T04_Reintegrative.html
Criminal Justice. Similarities and Differences Between Social Control Theories and Other Major Theories of Crime. Social Control Theory, 2016. Web. Retrieved http://criminal-justice.iresearchnet.com/criminology/theories/social-control-theory/7/
Mongold, Jennifer L., and Bradley D. Edwards. "Reintegrative Shaming: Theory into Practice." Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Criminology 6.3 (2014): 205.
Podgor, Ellen S. "The challenge of white collar sentencing." The Journal of criminal law and criminology (2007): 731-759.
The Financial Year/Accounting Period Concept
Application of Literature eview into practice for IKEA's 3-year (2009-2010-2011) financial reports
What is missing and ok in the reports? The good and bad points of eports based on Literature eview.
103-year comparative ratio analysis and their interpretations
Literature eview of "Strategic Management Accounting Concept" and its application to facilitate the IKEA's ambitions for the future.
The concept of financial reporting is important to each and every organization. The information contained in financial reports is important since it helps in the reduction of financial risks while also acting as a tool for corporate governance (Kothari,2000; Berndt,2007).Financial report must have a series of desirable characteristics. In this paper, we use IKEA's financial reports in evaluating the desirable characteristics of financial reports. Also discussed is the possible effects of using the concepts of strategic management accounting and its methods in the promotion and facilitation…
Beuselinck, C. & Manigart, S. (2007). Financial Reporting Quality in Private Equity Backed Companies: The Impact of Ownership Concentration. Small Business Economics, 29, 261-274.
Dabor, EL., Adeyemi, SB (2009).Corporate Governance and the credibility of financial statements in Nigeria. Journal of Business Systems, Governance and Ethics. Vol 4, (1)
Datamonitor (2012). Ikea Group. http://www.datamonitor.com/store/Product/ikea_group?productid=6878C795-4BCB-4C85-A319-6F33C508FD80
Dechow, P.M., Sloan, R.G. & Sweeney, A.P. (1996). Causes and consequences of earnings manipulation: An analysis of firms subject to enforcement actions by the SEC. Contemporary Accounting Research, 13(1), 1-36.
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…
Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.
Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.
Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.
Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
estern Classical Music
The concert chosen for this paper was a piano recital that consisted of various students that took place this April 2016. The reason I chose this recital to attend was that I knew one of the performers in the show and I wanted to both support her performance by my attendance in the audience and I wanted to expose myself to a diversity of performances for the purpose of this paper. The pieces ranged in period from modern (Bartok -- "Suite, Op. 14: Allegretto-Scherzo-Allegro molto-Sostenuto") to classical (Mozart -- "Adagio in b minor, K. 540"). The students were young adults of a variety of ethnicities, from Asian to European. It was overall a very eclectic mix of musical pieces performed by a diverse number of students. Unfortunately, there were not many people in the audience -- barely a dozen -- so it was difficult for the performers…
"Beethoven Pathetique Sonata." All About Beethoven. Web. 18 Apr 2016.
Nicholas, Jeremy. Chopin: His Life and Music. IL: Sourcebook MediaFusion, 2007.
Spitta, Philip. Johann Sebastian Bach: his work and influence on the music of Germany.
One of the major problems faced by Charlemagne in his efforts to extend the level of education was the fact that there were very few educated persons available to teach others. Years of neglect had left the educational field with few individuals possessing the background necessary to teach others. hat little scholarship that still existed in Europe was concentrated in and around Rome and Charlemagne initiated an aggressive program to attract the leading Italian scholars to his court. By recruiting these scholars to his court, Charlemagne ensured that the full body of available knowledge would be made available to himself and his subjects. From this pool of scholars, Charlemagne built his program of learning and began slowly to establish his own body of Frankish scholars. From this group, the future European learning environment would be built (Einhard) and the future of the European educational system would be ensured.
Barbero, Alessandro. Charlemagne: Father of the Continent. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.
Brown, A.R. "Feudalism." 15 June 2010. Encyclopedia Brittanica Online. 18 July 2011 .
Butzer, P.L. Science in Western and Eastern Civilization in Carolingian Times. Barcelona: Birkhauser Verlag, 1993.
Cantor, N.F. The Civilization of the Middle Ages: a completely revised and expanded edition of Medieval History, the life and death of a civilization. New York: Harper Collins, 1993.
Renaissance humanism refers to a period of history where there was a move away from the ideas of State and religion as the basis of society and a move towards human experience and interaction. It was a rebirth in that it rejected the ideas of the Middle Ages and reinvented the ideas of the ancient philosophers. The basis of it was a return to the study of the humanities which included music, art, poetry, science, and virtue. The one thing that underlined both the ideas of the ancient philosophers and the ideas of the Renaissance humanists was that the importance of humans lay in their ability to interact as individuals with the world around them and extract meaning from it. Man himself became the measure of all things.
It is first worth noting that the humanist ideas were the ideas of scholars. For this reason, much emphasis was put on…
Greek Project 1272
ART204 Formal Research Project Summer Term 2012
Ancient Greek sculpture is one of the most famous historical forms of art. Three main forms of life are represented by this sculpture; war, mythology, and rulers of the land of ancient Greece. The main aim of the paper is to revisit the history of the art of sculpturing in ancient Greece and different steps of its development within different time periods. Some of the main developments in Greek sculpture included depiction of changes in forms, depiction of female and male figures, degrees of present realism, and how sculpturing was used to achieve these effects.
Developments in Greek Sculpturing techniques
There are four main periods in which main developments and changes in the Greek sculpturing took place. The first period is referred to as the geometric period; second period is the archaic period, the third one being the classic and…
Dillon, Sheila. Ancient Greek Portrait Sculpture: Contexts, Subjects, And Styles. Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Dillon, Sheila. The Female Portrait Statue in the Greek World. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Giannakopoulou, Liana. The Power of Pygmalion: Ancient Greek Sculpture in Modern Greek Poetry, 1860-1960, Volume 3 of Byzantine and Neohellenic Studies. Peter Lang, 2007.
artists creations. I NEED TO STRESS THAT THIS ASSIGNMENT ILL BE SUBMITTED
My apologies for the delayed response; I just now saw this request.
The instructions state that the paper is to be 750 words, which is why I wrote that amount.
They also state that the only source to be used is the YouTube one you provided of Soltes' lecture, which is why I assumed you would know what the orks Cited were. Here is the one source that you requested in the instructions.
Soltes, Ori. "Continuity and Transformation -- hat is Art. www.youtube.com 2011. eb. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZfxSp_4SZII
I hope this is not too late to help.
There were several ways that Geometric Greek art evolved into Classical Greek art, the culmination of which is perhaps evinced in the artwork decorating the Parthenon. The key word in explaining this phenomenon is evolution, because there was not necessarily a direct alteration…
Soltes, Ori. "Continuity and Transformation -- What is Art. www.youtube.com 2011. Web. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZfxSp_4SZII
music and their relationship to either the Baroque or Classical Period. The two pieces of music to be analyzed are Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 by Karl Munchinger performed by the Stuttgart Chamber Orchestra and Jeffery Tate's Allegro con brio performed by the English Chamber Orchestra. A brief discussion of the comparison of the two periods of music will be presented to help contextualize the argument before describing both pieces as products of either of those periods.
Baroque Period Vs. Classical Period
The Baroque Period of Music began in 1600 and lasted until 1750. Philosophically, this period's music aligned with much of the social and intellectual enlightenment that was occurring at the same time. The musical styles of this era demonstrated complex layers of melody and appealed to an upper elite class of thought. The orchestra concept began in this period and large booming productions like many operas of the…
Wolf Schubert Goethe
It is often useful to compare artists within certain styles and forms in order to gain a greater understanding of those artists. Judging and comparing art is a beneficial method in determining what is good and acceptable within the academic standards of music and art. Three such artists deserving of such a comparisons and evaluations compose the theme of this essay. Essentially, the purpose of this essay is to compare the musical compositions of Franz Schubert and Hugo Wolf through their interpretations of the lieder, or poems of, the author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
To make this comparison of these great Classical period artists it is necessary to examine each composer's take on a series or settings of Goethe's poems. Also it is important to examine the history and context of each composer to better understand their allure to these topics and their sincere and deep attraction…
Emmanuel, B. (2008). "The chaos of classicism: Goethe's classicism as a feature of romanticism" 1 Jan 2008, ETD Collection for Wayne State University Paper. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/dissertations/AAI1460263/
Goethe, J.(1829). Erlkong. Translated by Walter Meyer, 1995. Retrieved from http://www.recmusic.org/lieder/get_text.html?TextId=6382
Goethe, J. (1829) "Harfenspieler." Translated by Herbert Nehrlish, 2006. Retrieved from http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/goethe-translated-harfenspieler/
Heller, M. (1949). Goethe and Music. The German Quarterly, 22 (4) Nov 1949. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/402099?uid=3739656&uid=2129&uid=2134&uid =2&uid=70&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21102615971991
Feminists, like Christine Pizan, who stressed the importance of female education and some of her male feminist contemporaries would mainly remain on the fringes as the classical form of education was reaffirmed as the standard.
In the 1970s, much of the challenge to female education was answered as the tradition of educating all people was accepted early in the development of the U.S. educations system, though it was not an easy transition and according to most inequalities still existed even in the late modern era. In fact there was no official federal department of education until 1979, yet this did not stop the progress of education.
Stallings 677) the marked entrance of women into higher education is thought by most people to be the beginning of the end for male exclusive education but pre-secondary education was available for women from the early part of the foundation of education as a…
Brown-Grant, Rosalind. Christine de Pizan and the Moral Defence of Women: Reading beyond Gender. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Clark, Donald Lemen. John Milton at St. Paul's School: A Study of Ancient Rhetoric in English Renaissance Education. New York: Columbia University Press, 1948.
Clinton, Catherine, and Christine Lunardini. The Columbia Guide to American Women in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
Furniss, W. Todd, and Patricia Albjerg Graham, eds. Women in Higher Education. Washington, DC: American Council on Education, 1974.
He is faster in every movement than any other of the above mentioned conductors and yet he scarcely sounds rushed" (Laurson 2008).
Even without an extensive knowledge of the history of Brahms symphonic compositions, the modern, 21th century nature of the Janowski approach becomes clear when comparing it to an older recording, that of Leonard Bernstein's. Bernstein's is slower, more ponderous, especially at the beginning, although it should be noted that the Bernstein sounds less like a Beethoven work than the Janowski. It sounds more like a unique, albeit slower-paced composer, more distinctly like Brahms although for some that might not be a 'good thing.' Difficult to love, personally and musically, the fact that Brahms can be an 'acquired taste' and his acceptance may vary with conductor's intentions does not reduce his important contributions in musical variation and creating a fusion between the Classical and Romantic genres of music.
Brahms, Johannes. "Symphony No.1" Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra. Conducted by Marek
Janowski. Pentatone 2007.
Brahms, Johannes. "Symphonies." Conducted by Leonard Bernstein. Vienna Philharmonic.
Deutsche Gramophone. 2007.
Most large cities have a symphony orchestra, which may perform a dozen times during a season. Jazz and the blues, however, are usually available most of the time in small venues like bars and clubs, and often during the year at large festivals, such as the Monterey Jazz Festival in Monterey, California. Jazz is gaining in popularity on the radio too, and most larger cities have at least one jazz station, while they might not have a classical station. Classical music is accessible in a number of areas, but jazz and the blues are accessible in many more, and that is why today's listener has a wide choice of options when looking for live jazz and blues concerts.
Any trained musician knows all musical genres have similarities. They all use a distinct language of notes and rhythms, and they all use meter, tempo, and harmony. In this, jazz and blues…
Gioia, Ted. "The History of Jazz." WashingtonPost.com. 1997. 18 July 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/books/chap1/historyofjazz.htm
Knight, Richard. "All That JAZZ." Geographical Oct. 2001: 14.
Porter, Eric. What Is This Thing Called Jazz? African-American Musicians as Artists, Critics, and Activists. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.
Shepard, T. Brooks. "Music Notes Earworthy." American Visions Oct. 1999: 48.
As if to say scientific achievement and technological advancement work together with agriculture and mining to produce. Each complements and supports the other with Integrity watching over all. There was a speech given by Ayn Rand about the New York Stock Exchange about money from Atlas Shrugged?
The interpretation was if you think money is the "root of all evil," think again. hy would someone make such a statement. hy not say "what is the root of money" instead. Money is nothing of itself, it is a tool used by men in exchange for goods and services. Money cannot exists without man. It is the principles of man that determine how money is traded. They give money power or value based on the decisions they apply to the tool. He further states that "Money is not the tool of the moochers, who claim your product by tears, or of the…
Durante, Diane. "Integrity Protecting the Works of Man." < http://www.forgottendelights.com/NYCsculpture/salute/SalutesApril.htm#Integrity > April 2011.
Johnson, A. "Reviewing the Pediment of the NYSE." Reyte on Publishing. 2010.
"Museum Planet." NYSE. Federal Hall and Vicinity. < http://www.museumplanet.com/tour.php/nyc/fh/15 > 10 December 2011
"New York Stock Exchange." NYX.com. NYSE Euronext. Web. 5 Nov. 2011.
Humanities Related Library Internet Resources
Pierce, James Smith and H Janson. From Abacus to Zeus: A Handbook of Art History, 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.
There are several factors that make arts to be valuable or not. Art value is assessed via several ways including comparison to existing market standards of similar arts before they are taken for auctions. According to this article, hypothetical methods based on market values are used to find the value of arts taken for auctions. The most important factor used during the valuation is the artist who designed the art. Artists who are well-known and highly regarded have high value associated with their works. Paintings like Matisse's call for higher price than those of little known artists. The other factor vital during the valuation is the uniqueness, type and copies of the work. Art pieces produced in…
Erich, Duetsch Otto. Mozart: A Documentary Biography. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1965.
Pierce, James Smith and HW Janson. From Abacus to Zeus: A Handbook of Art History, 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.
Saint, Andrew. "Frank Lloyd Wright and Paul Mueller: The Architect and his Builder of Choice." Architectural Research Quarterly (2004): 157-167.
Vlastos, Gregory. Socrates: Ironist and Moral Philosopher. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991.
The religious architecture of Filippo Brunelleschi in Florence in the early 1400s established a new Renaissance aesthetic by blending religious symbolism with mathematical and classical principles that he drew from visits to ancient ruins of Rome as well as from Vitruvius' De Architectura. This paper will describe how Brunelleschi's unique blend inspired a new movement in Renaissance architecture -- a movement that began with the Dome of the Florence Cathedral and stretched through to the production of the Dome of St. Peter's Basilica under Michelangelo, whose plan was a kind of compromise between the Brunelleschi-inspired plan of Bramante and the more crux-like design of Raphael (Johnson). The Basilica's dome was meant to rival that of the wonder of Florence, created by Brunelleschi, which had essentially pushed the boundaries of Italian architecture into the next phase of greatness.
The phase of grandeur that Brunelleschi heralded with his Dome of…
One the right is a statue of Athena, god of wisdom, light, and the city. On the left is Apollo, sun god, holding a lyre. Arching over the top of the painting is a great, wide semi-circle in a space resembling a basilica annex.
Philosophy in the Middle Ages was obsessed with the analytical procedures of Aristotle, whose treatises on many subjects generally worked inductively, determining truth from other truths. A feature of the high Renaissance was the shift towards Platonic thought, but also a continued influence by papal authority. In The School of Athens, Raphael has drawn a portrait of classical philosophy but sanctified it by putting theists and atheists alike in a religious setting.
Thematically, The School of Athens presents Renaissance Humanism, linking the Athenian scene of people together in a fluid, personal picture. The personalities of each philosopher mix in a jumble of activity and motion. Whereas…
(owland, 1953, p. 204) (Hallisey, 2003, p. 696)
The Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] Chronicle (Mah-mvam-sa)) is primarily a history of Buddhism in Ceylon though it gives reliable information on political history. It is perhaps unjust to maintain that India had no sense of history whatever, but what interest she had in her own past was generally concentrated on the fabulous kings of a legendary golden age, rather than the great empires which had risen and fallen in historical times. (Basham, 1954, p. 44)
Literature and art reflected the lives of the ruling class along side those historical narratives of Buddha, as can be seen in the first example. Medieval revivals also attempted to rejoin these depictions through restorative works that demanded the attention of many to the idea of a foreign king effectively expressing the Sinhalese culture. (Holt, 1996, p. 41) the tradition is long standing in the region and…
Basham, a.L. (1954). III History: Ancient and MedievalEmpires. In the Wonder That Was India: A Survey of the Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent before the Coming of the Muslims (pp. 44-78). New York: Grove Press. Retrieved May 13, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6357327
Basham, a.L. (1954). The Wonder That Was India: A Survey of the Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent before the Coming of the Muslims. New York: Grove Press.
This work demonstrates the historical context of the region, in relation to faith and art as well as the political. It demonstrates the modern emphasis on rediscovering treasures of ancient and modern faiths.
Leadership by Gayle C. Avery
In many ways, Gayle C. Avery's Understanding Leadership was written as and functions as a textbook. The author's primary purpose in composing this manuscript was to elucidate the myriad principles of leadership in a highly stratified manner so that its core concepts are readily identifiable and accessible to the average layman. Yet the methodology that the author incorporates into her approach to writing this book is discernibly didactic. Furthermore, what Avery inevitably lacks in detail about many of the principle of leadership elucidated within this work of literature she makes up for by providing a highly comprehensive overview of the topic in general. By contextualizing many of her ideas within a historical framework, the author is actually able to demonstrate the evolution of notions of leadership from classical antiquity to the present time period and debate the effectiveness of these notions (Avery 2004).
Avery, G.C. (2004). Understanding Leadership: Paradigms and Cases. London: Sage
Although little is known about the group, it is clear that they have been able to maintain their identity and lifestyle despite numerous challenges ("Sarakatsani"). Today, they are still known as pastoral Christians. In being able to preserve this identity and history, the group has contributed to society's diversity and spoken to a group's ability to remain isolated and unified in society.
Finally, the Mongols operated as another important and well-known nomadic group who frequently terrorized the sedentary people's nearby. Although they certainly lived a warrior's lifestyle, Guzman writes that the Mongols should receive more credit as to their important role in revitalizing and progressing society, leaving a lasting impact. Thus, nomads have long been a function of history. Their position in relation to their sedentary counterparts has lead to their function of offsetting those counterparts and creating lasting legacies of their own.
Guzman, Gregory G. "Barbarians: Influence…
Guzman, Gregory G. "Barbarians: Influence of Nomads on Civilization." MSN. n.d. 27
Mercer, Billy Jean. "The Ancient Hebrew Culture." The Clarion Call. n.d. 27 July 2009.
The aldstein sonata is considered to be one of the notable piano sonatas that Beethoven ever composed, maybe equaled only by the Appassionata sonata. They are both part of the works between op. 50 and op. 60 that, through their content, form and proportions represent the height of Beethoven's creation" ("aldstein," All about Beethoven, 2006). The first movement entitled "Allegro con brio" opens "with repeated chords, played pianissimo. This initial straightforward, but anxious rhythm is devoid of melody for two bars. It then swiftly ascends and follows with a three-note descent in the middle register and a four-note descent in the upper. More of this teasing rhythm rumbles forward, until 45 seconds later, when the notes seem to almost stumble over themselves," into a "dolce," or sweet choral theme in E major, followed by an ending with a heavy coda ("Piano Sonata No 21," All academic dictionary, 2009).. The short…
Parekh, Nilesh. "Biography of Beethoven." Buzzle.com. 2005.
"Piano Sonata No 21." All academic dictionary. May 17, 2009.
At the same time, it considerably increased the number of books that would reach the masses, allowing them to see outside the teachings of the Church or of the religious preachers. Moreover, the printing machine offered the possibility for those opposing the rule of the Catholic Church to spread their beliefs and convictions. Thus, Gutenberg's invention was the main tool for what would later be called the Reformation, the religious movement which is often associated with the Renaissance and which influenced the artistic movement in the same manner as the Renaissance affected the emergence of the reformist churches.
The hallmarks of the previous era were rather obvious and contrasted to the ones the Renaissance promoted. They manifested themselves at all the levels of the society. Thus, during the middle Ages, the Church represented the highest institution of the state which had as its subjects all political and land owners (Berstein…
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994
Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses, 1998
Culture-Epoch Theory: The fact of Ceaseless Change. N.d. 20 May 2008 http://iws.ccccd.edu/mbailey/culture_epoch_theory.htm
Hispanic Society. Paintings from the Middle Ages. 2006. 20 May 2008 http://www.hispanicsociety.org/hispanic/paintings_medieval.htm
Another work of art using nudes was dated as having been created by the end of the Hellenistic period is that of Laocoon Group. The sculpture was inspired by a legend and it is the depiction of the epic fight between Laoccon, his sons and the snakes. The admiration for the beauty of the human body that can be seen from the sculptures created during the Hellenistic period reflects the attitude the Greeks had toward its reflection in art. Compared to their predecessors, the Greeks appear to be the first to acknowledge the artistic values of the human body, in its bare form. Kenneth Clark even wrote that "the nude is an art form invented by the Greeks in the fifth century" () Naked children are often depicted in the works of ancient Greeks and one of the examples is a Roman reproduction of a boy strangling a goose. The…
Diderot, Goodman. Diderot on Art: The Salon of 1767. 1995. Yale University Press
Sturgis, A. Clayson, Hollis. Understanding Paintings. 2000. Watson-Guptill
"Ancient Greek and Hellenistic Art: Children with Animals." Retrieved: June 17, 2009. Available at: http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/ChildGoose.htm
Blurring the Gap Between Fiction and eal Life
This is a paper that outlines how modern literature integrates personal experiences of the writers into works of fiction. It has 5 sources.
It is quite interesting to note the means by which eminent writers attract attention to their ideas and literary content. On closer examination, we may come to the conclusion that the means by which public attention may be grabbed has followed a definite pattern through the years. While writers like Shakespeare and his contemporaries used fiction to project their literary geniuses, modern day writers strive to catch the attention of the masses by presenting their own personal conflicts and tragedies to the public. The modern writer has lessened the gap between a literary piece of work and real life. However, literature in the classical period is known for its often unnatural and over-dramatized perspectives on life. Today, the stories…
Wright, Richard A., Black Boy, Perennial, September 1, 1998
Williams, Tennessee. The Glass Menagerie, New Directions Publishing; June 1999
Ward, Jerry, M. "Richard Wright-Black Boy," retrieved at http://www.newsreel.org/guides/richardw.htm . On April 2, 2004
King Thomas, L. Irony and distance in the Glass Menagerie in Tennessee Williams. Ed. Harold Bloom, New York: Chelsea house, 1987, 85-94
Charles Van Doren has concluded that the Copernican Revolution is actually the Galilean Revolution because of the scale of change introduced by Galileo's work.
The technological innovation of the Renaissance era started with the invention of the printing press (the Renaissance). Even though the printing press, a mechanical device for printing multiple copies of a text on sheets of paper, was first invented in China, it was reinvented in the West by a German goldsmith and eventual printer, Johann Gutenberg, in the 1450s. Before Gutenberg's invention, each part of metal type for printing presses had to be individually engraved by hand. Gutenberg developed molds that permitted for the mass production of individual pieces of metal type. This permitted a widespread use of movable type, where each character is a separate block, in mirror image, and these blocks are assembled into a frame to form text. Because of his molds, a…
3. Curriculum or Method of the Study
The research methodology that was applied in this study was essentially an inclusive, extensive and comparative overview of the literature on the subject. Various sources were consulted, which included books and scholarly articles on the column in architectural history. Also included in the literature survey was information and data from online databases and verified websites.
The information gleaned about columns and their historical context was extrapolated and then entered into a free-from database for further analysis. This resulted in an overall survey of the progression and evolution of various forms and types of columns, from the Egyptian column to the present day. A comparative method of analysis was employed in order to ascertain the commonalities as well as the differences between the various types and forms of this architectural structure.
What should also be mentioned is that the focus of the research, and…
Ancient Roman Architecture. Retrieved from http://www.crystalinks.com/romearchitecture.html
Architecture of ancient Greece. Retrieved from http://upge.wn.com/?t=ancientgreece/index12.txt
Barry C. What Are the Types of Architectural Columns? Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_5453707_types-architectural-columns.html
Column: New World Encyclopaedia. Retrieved from http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Column
CP.E. Bach's Symphony in D. reflects incredible diversity in mood, character and expression, contrasting rhythm, dynamics and articulation. His juxtaposition of strings and winds in "conversation" with each other is entertaining and creates texture and color. His changes in tempo and theme are done gracefully and skillfully, with additions of trills and small humorous variations. The slow middle movement is serene and mournful with lower register thematic repetition. It is very moving and memorable. The variations that fill the last movement reflect on the first two and complete a fitting ending to the piece. There were several solo pieces that were derived from this symphony that can be played by individuals on various instruments and, as this was the popular thing to do in the late 18th century, the piece became well-known.
Having learned his skill and having inherited his talent from such a noble father as Johann Sebastian Bach,…
Benjamin, Thomas. The Craft of Tonal Counterpoint. New York: Routledge. 2003.
Encyclopedia Britannica. Symphony. Found online at http://www.britannica.com/ eb/article/27481/symphony.
Rosen, Charles. The Classical Style. New York: W.W. Norton, 1972.
Greek sculptures, 'Veiled and Masked Dancer' and 'Hermes and the Infant Dionysos' dating back to the art periods, and their connection to the realm of spirituality.
Is art linked to spirituality in any special way? One might find a number of reasons to answer in the affirmative; there, indeed, appears to be some sort of profuse series of links among the two. Art has always occupied a central position in religion. In religious rituals and houses of worship, one can witness sacred dances, sacred symbols, hymns, sacred pictures, tunes, and chants; these art forms have also been utilized as meditation and prayer aids by all religions. The above examples of art in religion alone make the former discipline appear to be intrinsic to connecting with or expressing the divine (Art and Spirituality 1). eligious art represents a superior art form in both Western medieval Christianity and Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Buddhists…
Ancient Greece - History, mythology, art, war, culture, society, and architecture. (n.d.). Praxiteles - Ancient Greek Sculptor. Retrieved October 16, 2015, from http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/People/Praxiteles/
Ancient Greece. History of Greece: Classical Greece. (n.d.). Retrieved October 16, 2015, from http://ancient-greece.org/history/classical.html
Garcia, A. (n.d.). Endnotes. Endnotes -- Statuette of a veiled and masked dancer this. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from http://mcuhistory.tumblr.com/post/60566947687/statuette-of-a-veiled-and-masked-dancer-this
History Canada -- Videos, TV Schedule & Watch Full Episodes Online. (n.d.). Hellenistic Greece - Ancient History - HISTORY.com. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/hellenistic-greece
Le Grand Hautbois
During the reign of Louis XIII and especially Louis XIV, the courts were alive with new Baroque music and instruments. Many new wind instruments were being created with a variety of innovations and some other instruments were being newly invented. It was a time of experimentation, as these just introduced instruments had to be tried out for their range, sound and quality. Louis XIV from his childhood on throughout his life was always surrounded by music. He and musicians such as Lully would create ballets and compositions (Palisca 1968). During this time, King Louis XIV also revived and updated Le Grand Hautbois with the new instruments. Although little is written about Le Grand Hautbois, with Whitwell the compiler of the information that is available from writers during that period, this does not negate the importance of this twelve-player band to the French royal court and other European…
Anthony, James. French Baroque Music. New York: W.W. Norton, 1974
Bernard, Leon. The Emerging City: Paris in the Age of Louis XIV. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1970
Blunt, Anthony Art and Architecture in France 1500 to 1700. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1980
Buelow, George. History of baroque music. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004
Thompson, James. "What Athenian men said about women." Women in the ancient world. evised July 2010. November 15, 2010.
Figure 1: Michael Lahanas
Figure 2: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 3: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 5: Discus thrower
Figure 5: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 6: Metropolitan Museum of Art
James Thompson, "What Athenian men said about women," Women in the ancient world, evised July 2010, accessed November 15, 2010 at http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/whatathenianmensaid.htm
Lahanas, Michael. "Kore/Korai," Art Gallery, available November 15, 2010 at http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/Kore.htm
"Attributed to Exekias: Neck-amphora (17.230.14a,b_27.16),"in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 athttp://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/17.230.14a,b_27.16 ?
"elief of a dancing maenad [oman copy of a Greek relief attributed to Kallimachos] (35.11.3)," in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 at…
"Attributed to Exekias: Neck-amphora (17.230.14a, b_27.16)." In Heilbrunn Timeline
of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006.
November 15, 2010.
Also, this carving is quite sentimental in appearance, for it reflects "the solemn pathos of the Greek citizen, much like some of the sculptures found on the pediment of the Parthenon" (Seyffert, 245).
Our last artifact is titled Pair of Armbands with Triton and Tritoness Holding Erotes, made in the Hellenistic period, circa 200 .C.E. These jewelry objects were apparently designed for a woman of high Greek culture, for they are made from solid gold and are fashioned in the shape of two loosely-coiled snakes or serpents. Whomever designed these intricate and beautiful objects realized the special properties of gold, for the woman lucky enough to wear these could easily slip her arms through the loops, due to the malleability of solid gold. The two figures located at the tops of each piece are representations of Triton and Tritoness, most closely associated with the Greek god of the sea Poseidon.…
New Greek and Roman Galleries." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Internet. 2007.
Retrieved at http://www.metmuseum.org/special/greek_roman/images.asp .
Seyffert, Oskar. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Religion, Literature and Art.
New York: Gramercy Books, 1995.
Dvorak occasionally said he simply wished to convey the elemental feelings ordinary people for their native art and resented his musical project being used to serve politics: "But what have we two to do with politics? Let us be glad that we are privileged to serve our beautiful art alone" (Hollander 317).
Dvorak vacillated between the importance of politics in the context of art. At the time of the composition of Symphony No.5 in F Major, Op.76. "the composer was faced at that time with the tempting prospect of writing German operas for Dresden and Vienna -- offers that caused him serious misgivings, because if he responded he feared he would be betraying the Czech national cause" (Clapham 1961, p.105). But eventually he returned to the nationalist source of his original inspiration: "The main theme of the symphony was inspired by witnessing the arrival in Prague of an express train…
Clapham, John. "Dvorak and the American Indian." The Musical Times, 107. 1484 (Oct., 1966),
863-867. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/953317 Accessed: November 28, 2009
Clapham, John. "Dvorak's Symphony: The Creative Process." Music & Letters, 42. 2
(Apr., 1961), 103-116. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/731518
Although the most powerful nomadic influence over Eurasian politics, economics, and religion -- it was not the first.
The earlier Turkish nomadic factions coming from Central Asia also had heavy influences on both Asia and the rest of the world. During the Post-Classical Era, the Turks began to regain a new strength that once again threatened the European empires to the est. As the Turks grew more and more powerful, this power began to seriously impact both Asian and European politics during the time. The Middle East was greatly shaped, both politically and religiously, by theinfluence of the Turks, "Turkic groups later known as the Seljuks migrated into the Middle East, where they played an important role in Islamic civilization," (Invictus 1). This group of Turks strengthened the role of Islam as both a religion and a political policy within the region. As the area became increasingly dominated by Islamic…
Invictus, Imperator. "History of Central Asia: An Overview." All Empires. 2006. Retrieved 10 May 2009 at http://www.allempires.com/article/index.php?q=history_central_asia
e can consider 'The School of Athens' as a 'visualization of knowledge.'" in addition to Plato and Aristotle, Euclid and Pythagoras are present among others. Lahanas even suggests that the painting may be a reproduction of Plato's Academy. This concept would emphasize a commitment to learning, as well as an interest in antiquity and classical learning. The architecture depicted is a "modification of Bramante's first design for St. Peter (Lahanas).
The combination of classical scholars, emphasis on learning, and suggestion of St. Peter's draws together all of the relevant characteristics of the Renaissance. First, Raphael most obviously alludes to the Renaissance's interest in antiquity with the identifiable Greek scholars. That two of the most prominent classical philosophers are prominent, suggesting not only their importance, but also the importance of the classical period. In addition, the situation in which the philosophers are located places an emphasis on the importance of learning…
Guisepi, R.A. (nd). The Renaissance. Retrieved December 30, 2008, at http://history- world.org/renaissance.htm
Lahanas, Michael. (nd). School of Athens, "Who is Who?" Puzzle. Retrieved December 30, 2008, at http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/SchoolAthens.htm