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Obtaining Clean ater in Rural and Developing Regions
In rural areas and in the developing world, supplying clean drinking water is a challenge that institutions and researchers alike face. As The ater Project notes, in developing nations like Africa, "surface water sources are often highly polluted, and infrastructure to pipe water from fresh, clean sources to arid areas is too costly of an endeavor" (Lewis). Thus, adequate funding and proper technological infrastructure combine with naturally arid environments and water pollution to create the four main obstacles to rural/developing areas obtaining clean water.
As Moe et al. of the Institute of Medicine in ashington, DC, indicate, the problems facing the obtainment of clean water in the developing world and in rural areas are due primarily to a balkanization effect, in which all the variables needed to come together to effect a strategy and sufficient infrastructural environment for delivery are broken apart.…
Lewis, Lori. "Rural and Urban Water Issues in Africa." The Water Project. Web. 5
Massoud, M., Al-Abady, A., Jurdi, M., Nuwayhid, I. "The challenges of sustainable access to safe drinking water in rural areas of developing countries." Journal of Environmental Health, vol. 72, no. 10 (2010): 24-30. Print.
Moe, Christine; Institute of Medicine. Global Environmental Health. Washington, DC:
Clean Water Crisis
Every human being on earth necessitates at least 20 to 50 liters of clean, safe water on an everyday basis for the purposes of drinking, cooking, and basically maintaining themselves to be clean. However, there is a significant need for clean water in countries. In the contemporary setting, statistics indicate that 1 in 9 individuals lack accessibility to clean and safe water (Water.org). There are 844 million people across the globe that are presently living without access to clean water. This lack of clean water has resulted in a health crisis as it causes diseases. Notably, access to safe water leads to poor sanitation, which consequently adds to deteriorated health and increases the spread of infectious diseases. The inference of this is that it results in increased child and mortality rates. Statistics further indicate that every 2 minutes in the present day, a child does because…
But after local wastewater plants were "...upgraded and farms' management practices were improved, the amount of phosphorus declined and the copper sulfate was no long considered necessary" (Royte, 2007). The Times' story reports that to prevent the dumping of partially treated sewage water into the waterways, septic tanks need to be upgraded and "cleaning the water in sewage treatments plants even more thoroughly before it is discharged into the watershed..." is necessary. That will be quite a job, because "more than two dozen of the roughly 100 wastewater treatment plants that discharge into the city's watershed use a suboptimal cleaning process."
TO: The flooding problem. hy has it become a more serious problem in recent years? Taking New York City as an example of the problem and its roots, the New York Times article alluded to in the previous section points out that recently, as developers began clearing more and…
Clausen, Jan. (2000). Northwest Tribes Fight Against Formidable Odds to Save Endangered
Salmon. Nation. 270(3), 22-24.
Gelt, Joe. (2005). Managing the Interconnecting Waters: The Groundwater-Surface Water
Dilemma. University of Arizona. Retrieved Oct. 16, 2007, at http://cals.arizona.edu/axwater/arroyo/081con.html .
With this information, people can make informed decisions regarding the water they consume. Which additives are healthful? Which are not? These are examples of only some of the questions responsible consumers should have when choosing their water. Regarding the use of plastics, the solution is simple. By simply changing their habits from plastic water bottles to stainless steel or any of the other alternatives, not only is the consumer choosing something that supports of the well-being of the planet, but also supports the well-being of themselves.
This is merely one solution of many meant to work towards a more sustainable lifestyle across the globe. That the consumption of water increased so quickly, all over the world, signifies the impact of advertising on consumer choices. This can be a reason for hope, since just as quickly the use of stainless steel water bottles and clean water can be brought into individual…
7. Fluoride Action Network, Health Effects, ( http://www.fluoridealert.org/health ...)
8. Fluoridation/Flouride, Toxic Chemicals in Your Water, ( http://www.holisticmed.com/fluoride/ )
9. Worth Health Organization, Water Related Diseases, ( http://www.who.int/water_sanitation ...)
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
Other areas of water engineering include flood prevention and a multitude of environmental specialties, many of which relate to other areas of water engineering. Finding ways to divert runoff to prevent erosion, for example, has both civil and environmental applications, and involves identical principles in most situations (Kalle 2009). Effective strategies for collecting and draining runoff water in a way that doesn't simply divert the problem can be a lot more complex than it might at first seem, especially in environmental situations, and this is precisely why water engineers remain must have a comprehensive view of many different areas of engineering, including fluid mechanics, a knowledge of different materials for conducting water, effective ways of filtering and/or treating water, etc. The amount of knowledge required to take on any major water engineering project virtually guarantees that the engineer will have the knowledge and skill set for other jobs, too, meaning…
BLS. (2009). "Engineers." Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics. Accessed 17 November 2009. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos027.htm
DOT (2003). "Civil Engineering Occupations." Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Accessed 17 November 2009. http://www.occupationalinfo.org/defset1_880.html
Kalle, M. (2009). "Water engineer: Job description and activities." Accessed 17 November 2009. http://www.prospects.ac.uk/p/types_of_job/water_engineer_job_description.jsp
NACE (2009). "New & Emerging Occupations: Science and Engineering Occupations." National Association of Colleges and Employers. Accessed 17 November 2009. http://www.jobweb.org/studentarticles.aspx?id=1795
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
Water in Sub-Saharan Africa is of special interest because of my background but water is a fascinating issue in general, one that I think will play an increasingly large role in the 21st century, as the effects of population growth and climate change bring about significant changes to our water usage and availability. A lack of water in particular has a substantial destabilizing effect.
Water as a social issue combines a lot of different elements. As an issue, water sits at the intersection of social justice, politics, economics and agriculture are all areas weather. This is probably because water is so essential to human life. We drink it, we use in for domestic purposes, agricultural, industrial, transportation. Yet clean water is not always easy to come by. Some feel that access to clean water is a human right. So there is a significant importance attached to water in most parts…
Acerman, M. & Hollis, G. (1996). Water management and wetlands in sub-Saharan Africa. IUCN: Switzerland.
Bayliss, K. & Fine, B. (2007). Privatization and alternative public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa: Delivering on electricity and water. Palgrave MacMillan.
Bojo, J. (1996). The costs of land degradation in sub-Saharan Africa. Ecological Economics. Vol. 16 (2) 161-173.
Conway, D., Persechino, A., Ardoin, S., Hamandawana, H., Dieulin, C. & Mahe, G. (2008). Rainfall and water resources variability in sub-Saharan Africa during the 20th century. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Retrieved April 18, 2014 from http://tyndall.ac.uk/sites/default/files/wp119.pdf
water in your area? ("Your perspective on water differs whether you live near the Great Lakes, in the arid west, or by the coast."(McCarthy, 2009)
Outline a brief water conservation plan for your own daily use. How will these changes affect your personal life? What impact will it have on your local water supply?
There is plentiful water in my region (I live in the Great Lakes region). Nonetheless, a brief water conservation plan is the following:
To use water for just its needs and to ensure that tap water is not left running in between those needs.
To double used bathwater as water that can be used for washing the floor.
To, as much as possible, use rainwater for gardening
In order to supply water to humans certain technologies must be utilized.
Desalination is one of the methods that are used for promoting pure water supply. It literally means…
FAO report reveals GM crops not needed to feed the world http://www.psrast.org/faonowohu.htm
Forbes.com (11/03/2012) GMO Food Debate in the National Spotlight http://www.forbes.com/sites/rachelhennessey/2012/11/03/gmo-food-debate-in-the-national-spotlight/ )
Greenopolis. Top 10 Environmental Success Stories and 10 Future Challenges. http://greenopolis.com/goblog/joe-laur/top-10-environmental-success-stories-and-10-future-challenges
Groves, J (19 December 2009 ) Climate change summit accepts 'toothless' U.S.-backed agreement - but deal is not legally binding DailMail.com http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1236659/Copenhagen-climate-change-conference-World-leaders-reach-Copenhagen-agreement -- officials-admit-enough.html#ixzz2Cg3714zQ
The role of community in achieving proper water and sanitation standards in times of disaster
It is important to note that whenever a natural or manmade disaster hits a particular region, the entire community is put at risk since it is them who suffer the direct results of the disaster. These negative outcomes of the disaster could be social, economic and even psychological. It is therefore necessary to properly educate the entire community on how they can cope with water shortage and sanitation problems that are as a result of either flooding or hurricanes. The various community drinking water treatment plants should have elaborate emergency plans that are to be put in action should there be a disruption of the service. It is integral that the community water treatment facilities comply with the stringent requirements that are laid down by both the federal and state regulations.
After the emergency for…
Associated Contents,(2010) The Importance of Water to Health and to Human Life
Copeland, C (2005). Hurricane-Damaged Drinking Water and Wastewater Facilities:Impacts,
Needs, and Response
Operation and Data Management at the Water-Authority: will there be a sustainable water supply for the next century. A case study of Water Infrastructure Management in the Caribbean. As the research problem implies, I intend to conduct a case study examining water infrastructure management in the Caribbean with the goal of determining whether existing water infrastructure management will provide sustainable water usage for the next century. The nature of the research problem requires a comparison of the currently available water resources, the renewable water resources, current water usage, and projected water demand over the coming century to determine if the water resources are adequate and will continue to be adequate for the foreseeable time period. Although the question could be approached from a quantitative perspective or a mixed-methods perspective, I believe that water usage and water management are as much about perceptions and beliefs as they are about quantitative analysis…
Brikci, N., Green, J. 2007. A guide to using qualitative research methodology. Available from:
. [2 September 2014].
Shah, A. 2010. 'Water and Development', Global Issues. Available from:
. [2 September 2014].
The World Water Council estimates that approximately 1.1 billion people, which translates to one-sixth of the world population, lacks access to safe drinking water. Another 2.6 billion lack access to proper sanitation facilities (World Water Council, n.d.). It is estimated that by 2025, almost 3 billion people will be finding it almost impossible to meet their basic water needs (Concern Worldwide, 2012). This text discusses the potential causes of the current water scarcity problem, its implications on the environment, and the various strategies that could be used to ease or eliminate the problem.
Population growth, industrialization, and inefficient agricultural/food supply systems are the main causes of water scarcity in the world today. Population increases that are not matched with concurrent increases in the available resources put a strain on the existing resource base and increase the risk of faster depletion. Forests are cleared to create more room for…
Concern Worldwide. (2012). Water: How can we Improve the World's Access to Clean Water? Concern Worldwide. Retrieved April 22, 2015 from http://gcc.concernusa.org/content/uploads/2014/08/Water.pdf
The World Water Council. (n.d.). Water Crisis: Towards a Way to Improve the Situation. The World Water Council. Retrieved April 22, 2015 from http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/index.php?id=25
Toledo, V.J. & Harvey, M. (2015). Thirsty Crops Cause Water Shortages and Pollution. WWF Global. Retrieved April 22, 105 from http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/freshwater_problems/thirsty_crops/
Water infrastructure and safety issues are far more pressing in the developing world, and large numbers of research teams and laboratories are engaged in developing better and safer water system in Africa and much of Latin America (Helmholz 2009). A lack of clean drinking water and reliable systems is a growing problem in much of the world, and so attention is shifted away from infrastructure issues in the developed world to where there is a greater need (Helmholz 2009). This leads to a lack of research in domestic water supply infrastructure issues.
Briscoe, J. (1983). "Selective primary health care revisited: water supply and health in developing countries." Arlington, Virginia, Water and Sanitation for Health Project NO. 28, pp. 18. Accessed 11 October 2009. http://www.popline.org/docs/0627/023354.html
Helmholz. (2009). "esearch to secure a safe water supply." Helmholz association of German research centres. Accessed 11 October 2009. http://esciencenews.com/articles/2009/03/20/research.secure.a.safe.water.supply
Briscoe, J. (1983). "Selective primary health care revisited: water supply and health in developing countries." Arlington, Virginia, Water and Sanitation for Health Project NO. 28, pp. 18. Accessed 11 October 2009. http://www.popline.org/docs/0627/023354.html
Helmholz. (2009). "Research to secure a safe water supply." Helmholz association of German research centres. Accessed 11 October 2009. http://esciencenews.com/articles/2009/03/20/research.secure.a.safe.water.supply
The solution that Hardin proposes is that of a coercive method; as always he gives a lucid example to support the point that he proposes. Hardin reminds the reader that society mutually agreed to make it illegal to rob banks, rather than appeal to the sense of responsibility to those who wish to rob banks as a means of deterring them. Bank robbers (real and potential) know that very immediate consequences await them, such as police chases which could end in injuries or fatalities, jail time and other comparable results. These consequences are real and immediate because they're reinforced by the state, the judicial system and by the police force. This form of coercion prevents more people from attempting to rob banks. Our natural resources of water need to be treated as though they're as valuable as banks filled with money. Dumping chemicals such as fertilizers, pharmaceuticals and personal care…
Environmentalgraffitti, n.d. 7 Extinct Animals: Rare Photographs. [Online]
Available at: http://www.environmentalgraffiti.com/featured/rare-photographs-
Magnuson, M.L. et al., 2005. Responding to Water Contamination Threats. [Online]
More than 90% of California's population which is estimated to be 33 million residing in areas having bad air quality? The CAB in concert with the local air pollution control districts are in the process of regulating fresh and existing sources of pollution with the aim to control emissions. The Enforcement Division -- ED of the Board has included more and more serious responsibilities in every area of the State inspecting heavy duty vehicles, smoke emissions. Besides, it prevents school buses running on diesel from idling for too long a period very close to the tender lungs of children.
The CAB Enforcement Program during 1997 speaks of its illustrious achievement. These are (i) Closure of citations in 3442 cases (ii) Total penalties collected is $29,850,475 (iii) 3253 cases of mobile source / citations closed for more than $8.7M. (iv) 50 diesel fleet cases terminated for more than $3.1M. (v) 12…
Air Resources Board. 2007 Annual Enforcement Report. 2008.
Bellenger, Gail. What is the Clean Water Act? 2002.
The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether one of two methods of cleaning murky water is efficient or better than the other. The two methods used are capillary action method and filtration method. Capillary action uses a clean cloth to drip water into a dish and filtration uses a filter to catch debris from water poured through.
Methods and Materials
Materials needed for this experiment include a jar filled with murky water consisting of water and soil (a teaspoon of dirt in a quart of water). Two empty dishes of at least 3 inches in height are needed to test the first method. A clean cloth (such as a cloth dish towel) is also required. A jar, sand, and a filtration system with a filter (such as a coffee filter) are needed to test the second method.
The method of using capillary action requires the receiving container…
Gray Water System
As the world's population continues to grow, there will be an ever greater need for potable or purified water. Most people are completely unaware of just how big the problem of world water consumption is because they never think past turning on their sink or sprinkler system. Take into consideration the demands on the water supply by less obvious factors such as livestock and farming. There is an economy of scale: those massive agricultural irrigation systems that suck water out of rivers, lakes, streams and ponds consume hefty amounts of water that cannot then be used for any other purpose. Farms, cities, industry and the many other levels of human consumption place a great deal of pressure on Mother Nature. Globalization has actually increased the demand for water and has strained many regionally dry areas into even worse water deficits. For example, "industries and communities located in…
Controlling water infrastructure
Much contemporary research and literature over the need for water include recognition of ethical issues for example water like a public good assert Gleick (2004) and Tipping et al. (2005). Hence, overall scope of management should be extended to incorporate the social size of water systems; which means all stakeholders have to be informed and incorporated in making decisions for the development and use of long-term sustainability water systems. Exterior systems or water stresses could possibly be the primary change motivators for controlling water systems. Global warming might be one particular example heavily affecting water systems because of elevated frequency of extreme weather for example flooding, storms and droughts (Clemitt, 2007). Around Australia, droughts and water stress within the primary metropolitan areas forced the adoption of an entire new selection of methods to controlling water. Water sector is facing institutional changes that need modernization as well…
Ashley, R. And Cashman, A. (2006). The impacts of change on the long-term future demand for water sector infrastructure. Infrastructure to 2030, Chapter 5 OECD, pp. 241 -- 349.
Clemitt, M. (2007). Ageing infrastructure: is neglected maintenance putting Americans in danger? Congressional Quarterly Researcher, 17 (34), pp. 793 -- 816.
Copeland C, Tiemann M. (2008). Water infrastructure needs and investment: review and analysis of key issues. Congregational research service report, RL31116.
Doshi, V., Schulman, G. And Gabaldon, D. (2007). Lights! water! motion! Booz Allen Hamilton.
There is a direct correlation between the lack of clean safe water for drinking and cooking with nutritional problems. The lack of clean drinking water leads to diseases like diarrhea. Nutritional deficiencies are directly related to lack of potable water. This is because a person does not get enough calories, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, or minerals in their body. Undernutrition has been associated with 45 percent of global deaths and nearly 7.4 percent of the world's children are at risk of undernutrition. Malnourished children have weakened immune systems that make them more susceptible to diarrhea when they are exposed to dirty water. The lack of clean water means that individuals will be living in non-sanitized environments and this increases the risk of suffering from diarrhea. People suffering from diarrhea will eat less and they are unable to absorb the nutrients they need from the food they eat, which results in…
Arab-Israeli region is one in which water is a critical problem, and being able to get access to clean, safe water on a regular basis is one element of the ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict. While there may be serious, conflicting views on political and religious issues, along with many other aspects of the way people in the various areas live their lives, it is no secret that they all have to work together if everyone is going to have enough water to enjoy. A report in 2010 indicated that there were a number of challenges with ensuring that everyone in the region received enough clean water for drinking, irrigation, and other needs (Schneider, 2012). In order to attempt to combat that, Israel, Jordan, and Palestine all have water departments who are looking into working with one another. Without that level of cooperation, there will be numerous people in those areas without…
Schneider, V. (2012). Regional water data banks -- Overview of Middle East water resources. USGS International Programs. Retrieved from http://international.usgs.gov/projects/pawc-overview.htm
edland Wastewater Treatment Plant
edland Water is the department of the edland City council that oversees the collection, treatment, and disposal of waste water in edland City. esidential households and commercial premises such as shopping centers, cafes, commercial laundries, butchers, car-washing centers, and restaurants are the main sources of waste water in edland City. Once collected, waste water is stored temporarily in abattoirs, before being released for treatment in one of the seven treatment plants located in Point Lookout, Dunwich, Mount Cotton, Victoria Point, Thorneside, Cleveland, and Capalaba (edland City Council, 2012). The author paid the Capalaba Treatment Plant a visit, and found that the plant had just upgraded to a new waste water treatment technique referred to as the Vetiver Grass System, herein referred to as the VS. The Vetiver system, "a green and environmentally-friendly waste water technology as well as natural recycling method," had just been approved by…
AMPC, 2005. Waste Water. AMPC [online] Available at http://www.ampc.com.au/site/assets/media/reports/Resources/Wastewater-enviromental-best-practice-manual.pdf
Ash, R. And Truong, P., n.d.The Use of Vetiver Grass Wetlands for Sewerage Treatment in Australia. Dokuz Eylul University Library [online] Available at http://web.deu.edu.tr/atiksu/ana58/new80.pdf
Piemonte, V., De Falco, M. And Basile, A. Eds., 2013. Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering: Innovative Technologies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons
Redland City Council, 2010. Waste Water. Redland City Council [online] Available at http://www.redland.qld.gov.au/EnvironmentWaste/Water/Pages/Wastewater.aspx
Synthesis: This quote is similar to a comment Nick makes about the Tom and Daisy Buchanan in F. Scott Fitzgerald's the Great Gatsby: "They were careless people, Tom and Daisy -- they smashed up things and creatures and then retreated back into their money or their vast carelessness or whatever it was that kept them together, and let other people clean up the mess they had made" (188). Though the Buchanans are not exactly like Mama Elena in their motives, and completely unlike her in their "carelessness" because Mama Elena's destructive impulses are controlled and purposeful, both quotes demonstrate the selfishness and amount of control that the characters involved like to exert on the others around them.
Dialectic Journal #2
Quote: "Each person has to discover what will set off these explosions in order to live, since the combustion that occurs when one of them is ignited is what nourishes…
Criteria of buyer/investor on project type and location
A huge variety of CDM project locations, types and sizes exists and these are open to potential CDM investors. The national investment climate plus factors at the national level influence decisions on where, what type of projects to undertake as well as whether they ought to be developed as CDM projects. The investor's role in CDM project influences the physical spread of the CDM market. For instance, a technology provider who is offered payment partly via CE revenues may have a broad list of options of potential areas where to locate the project but a smaller choice of project type to engage in. Some funds set aside and intended for CDM funding have been decided upon as intended for specific project types and specific geographical areas. For example, the Spanish Carbon Fund directs its energies towards establishment of CDM projects in North…
Austin, D. And Faeth, P (2000). Financing Sustainable Development with the Clean
Development Mechanism. World Resource Institute, Washington, D.C.
Banuri, T., Gupta, S., (2000). The Clean Development Mechanism and Sustainable
Development: An Economic Analysis. Asian Development Bank, Manila.
Water is the most precious environmental asset and natural resource on earth. Approximately seventy percent of the earth's surface is covered by water and it affects every facet of life and ecology. However, despite this obvious and crucial fact, many rivers, lakes and oceans are becoming increasingly more polluted, creating a serious ecological and environmental problem. Not only is pollution the cause of the death of many organisms essential to ecological balance, but human drinking water has also been affected. This is particularly relevant with regard to the spread of disease. " Estimates suggest that nearly 1.5 billion people lack safe drinking water and that at least 5 million deaths per year can be attributed to waterborne diseases." (Krantz D. And Kifferstein, . )
The waterways and oceans of the world have been seen as an easy dumping ground for refuse and waste. This includes pollution from raw…
Krantz D. And Kifferstein, B. WATER POLLUTION AND SOCIETY. May 22, 2005. http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/waterpollution.htm
Mercury in Fish and Shellfish. May 22, 2005. http://www.oceansalive.org/eat.cfm?subnav=mercury
Rubin K. Sources of Water Pollution. May 21, 2005. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/ASK/waterpol3.html
The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. May 21, 2005. http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/spotlight/spotlight.html
operation and data management of the water-authority with a specific focus on the ability to provide a sustainable water supply for the next century in the Caribbean. This literature review will examine previous studies (both qualitative and quantitative) of water sustainability and specific problems related to water quality, such as the build-up of nitrogen in the water supply. It will also review ways to assess water quality through the use of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) as a feasible tool of water management. The review will conclude with different philosophies of water delivery in the developing world, specifically the use of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and the philosophy's pros and cons.
According to Gleick (1998), the impending water crisis is one which will have seismic political and environmental consequences, if not addressed soon: "as human populations continue to grow, these problems are likely to…
Al-Barqawi, H. & Zayed, T. 2008. Infrastructure management: Integrated AHP/ANN model to evaluate municipal water mains' performance. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 14:305-318.
Aspinall, R. & Pearson, D. 2000. Integrated geographical assessment of environmental condition in water catchments: Linking landscape ecology, environmental modelling and GIS
Journal of Environmental Management (2000) 59, 299 -- 319
Oceans & Waters
Surface runoff is the water that makes its way to water collection sites, streams, rivers, lakes and ultimately to the oceans when the ground itself is beyond the capacity to hold it. If this water works its way through places where many people live, it can pick up various chemical, materials and pollutants, which is what is often referred to as well as urban runoff. Surveys suggest that the public believes industry is mostly responsible for the damaging effects of this process, when in fact it is individual activities that make up the greatest concern (CA EPA 2001).
CONTOL OF PET WASTE: People tend to be misinformed about where the water goes that enters street drains. It does not go to treatment facilities, but usually gets diverted to local water holdings or into ground waters (CA EPA 2001). In waste plants, the waters are cleaned and given…
Bulkheads and Seawalls. Unattributed web posting. No date. .
California EPA. Urban runoff and water pollution. California Environmental Protection Agency, Regional Water Control Agency, Santa Ana Region 8. July 2001. < http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/rwqcb8/water_issues/programs/nps/docs/urbanrunoff.pdf >.
LKBlog. Global warming now threatening marine food chain. Mendo Coast Current. July 28, 2010. < http://mendocoastcurrent.wordpress.com/2010/07/28/global-warming-now-threatening-marine-food-chain/ >.
Puget Sound Shorelines. Bulkheads can change the beach. Department of Ecology. .
Differentiations are always brought up by the contemporary mainstream economists and their theories regarding ontological questions and assumptions or mere recognition regarding conformity of preference structures regarding some rules can be approximated usefully. This is done by the commodities' association or there quantities uses. Taking into account that preference can as well be taken as a usefulness determinant, departing of this conception from the usefulness concept should not take place. Different marginal utilities may occur for diverse people regarding same object for any customary conception.
Market price and diminishing marginal utility
In a case whereby the stock flow or the flow of goods and services in a country is of lower marginal utility as compared to the commodities that the same country trade for with other country, then decision to affecting that trade is only upon the country. Evidently, business transaction involves a case of exchange of goods whereby there…
Venkatesh, B. (2003). The diamond-water paradox. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/iw/2003/01/05/stories/2003010500241300.htm
Yousuf, D (1996). Adam Smith and the division of labour. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from
Waste Water Treatment
Inadequately treated waste water poses hazards such as water-borne diseases and water-body pollution. People generate wastewater (sewage) in numerous ways, including laundry and toilet use. To prevent pollution and ensure public health, waste water ought to be treated adequately. Today, waste water is not so much a problem as it was in earlier centuries, a trend that is attributable to the development of efficient sewer lines and treatment plants, otherwise referred to as centralized wastewater collection and treatment facilities. Not long ago, however, these were not as effective as they are today, and worse still, were not available to a majority of the population. People used the conventional decentralized waste systems to take care of, among others, the black waters, and still managed to lead hygienic lives.
Septic Systems: these consisted of a "septic tank, the drain field, and the soil beneath the drain field" (NCSU, 2013).…
NCSU. (2013). Septic Systems and their Maintenance. North Carolina State University. Retrieved 2 May 2014 from http://www.soil.ncsu.edu/publications/Soilfacts/AG-439-13/
Rapaport, D. (1995). Sewage Pollution in Pacific Island Countries and how to Prevent It. Center for Clean Development.
UNL. (2011). A Place in the Country: the Acreage Owner's Guide. University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Retrieved 2 May 2014 from http://lancaster.unl.edu/acreageguide/waste.shtml
Bottled portable water was not a significant product in the beverage industry in the US two decades ago. The industry was dominated and controlled by such giants as Groupe Danone SA’s Evian and Nestle SA’s Perrier. By 2002, the industry was worth $3.5 billion. In 1997, Pepsi made attempts to join the bottled water market. Some of the efforts included buying a spring water company and a shot at selling a brand that was sparkling. However, these efforts did not yield fruit. The management came to the conclusion that the best method to create a successful water brand was to exploit a resource that was already in existence, i.e. the water treatment equipment already at the bottling plant locations. These were being used to purify water for the soft drinks that the company produced (McKay, 2002).
The then Pepsi beverage main CEO along with his team figured out that there…
Though municipal untreated tap water can be used for premix (as opposed to post mix when soda syrup was mixed on site) that comes from the beloved soda fountain in most restaurants the marketing of the Aquafina brand is still likely to be present and bottled Aquafina is often sold there. If on the other hand an individual asks for a cup for water and then pours water from the "water" bypass tap on the soda fountain they are getting municipal tap water, usually unfiltered.
Endorsements are often developed in a similar way to those associated with other types of soft drinks and sports endorsements are common in the bottled water industry as even the Aquafina spin off products that contain the Aquafina (seven step) water and additional flavorings and sweeteners are considered by many to be healthier than soda, but to some degree this remains to be seen. As…
Aquafina (2010) Website Retrieved December 13, 2010 from
Brown, Bruce. The Skinny on Bad Bottled Water: Due diligence reveals why America drinks Coke & Pepsi. (January 2005) Web. Retrieved December 13, 2010 from
"Factory Accident Risks and Injuries" (November 2010) Web. Retrieved December 13, 2010 from
Quantus Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Drinking Water Alternatives & Consumer Beverage Consumption in North America (February 2010) Web. Retrieved December 13, 2010 from < http://beveragelcafootprint.com/?page_id=102// >
The Flint, Michigan water crisis has become a poster child for environmental injustice, environmental racism, and inequitable resource distribution in the United States. It has also represented a case of bleak mismanagement of precious natural resources and the inability of the United States to adequately respond to the most basic human needs. The water crisis was but a grim manifestation of decades of racist land use policies and political realities, which can be traced back to periods of segregation and the white flight to the suburban sprawl. Moreover, the Flint water crisis showcases the role government plays in colluding with polluters, with issues related to the not in my back yard (NIMBY) phenomenon also relevant in this case. As Bell (2012:28) points out, “environmental justice...concerns patterns of inequality in the distribution of environmental goods.” Flint residents lacked access to environmental “goods,” such as clean drinking water given the long-term contamination…
ater conservation can only provide so much of the resource. Other resources need to be developed to keep up with demand. The Clavey-ards Ferry project will create a reservoir that will provide an extra 12,000 acre of water for supply to the growing population needs of the San Francisco Bay area (Ibid, 3)
2) Due to the energy crisis, all sources of clean energy must be exploited. Hydroelectric power emits no air pollution. The increased energy needs of the state are graphically indicated in Exhibit 1 (Ibid, 11). The energy supplies have to come from somewhere, the Clavey-ards Ferry project is the most energy for the least cost in terms of finances and environmental impact, in particular air pollution which is a major problem in California. By 1983, the 150-megawatt power station at the new Don Pedro Dam met only half of the electricity demand in the two irrigation districts.…
Kincaid, Linda. "Saving the Tuolumne." Case Studies in Public Policy and Management. Harvard University Kennedy School of Government, 2011. Web. 19 Mar 2011. .
Skies 2003, etc.
Clear Skies 2003/Clean Air Act of 1990
The issue of clean air has been around probably since the first caveman objected to the smoke from a neighbor's fire. During the Industrial Revolution in England, numerous contemporary novels make reference to the condition of the air in major cities, fouled by the new growth of smokestacks. So, despite having been an issue for public discussion and legislative activity -- followed by the usual rounds of legal tests in the courts -- the issue of clean air officially floated into view in the U.S. only during the term of Richard Nixon. During the administrations of both Jimmy Carter and George Bush, clean air legislation was strengthened, and in 1990, the inclusive Clean Air Act (CAA) became law. (Browner 1997)
At times, the CAA has been touted as the embodiment of a bipartisan desire to protect all Americans form the…
Air Pollution Battle Heats Up," 15 September 2003. CBS Broadcasting Inc. 10 November 2003. http://www.cbsnews.com /stories/2003/08/27/politics/main570442.shtml
American Trucking Associations Web site: http://www.truckline.com/infocenter/econ/econ_about.html
Bush Pushes 'Clear Skies,'" 16 September 2003. CBS Broadcasting Inc. 10 November 2003.
Profit Before tax
Profit before interest and tax
As you can see, this venture is projected to earn a profit in the first year. Furthermore, once the model for one metropolitan area is refined to the point that it is fit for duplication; other urban markets will be entered further enhancing the financial position as the industry further develops. The industry is positioned for rapid growth due to its necessity for developing sustainable operating practices. Clients using such products and services may also be entitled to…
As a consequence, social unrest can then be avoided only by subsidies. The town is socially and entinancially heavily burdened. Another problem is that the spontaneous rainwater flow, mixed with wastewater in a heavy downpour, pollutes the river or lake once again and provides more problems for gaining potable water.
Scenario 3: As a result of climatic and geological conditions there is little potable water available; the resources are quickly exhausted. The possibilities for development by the town are therefore restricted. The cost of a long-distance water supply is prohibitive.
This paper examines possible applications of rainwater utilization and application in an urban context. In doing so, it examines some of the more available technologies for this purpose, and draws on Germany's experience in dealing with the related issues. As part of this discussion, variants of practice and boundary conditions of decentralization issues are raised.
Questions and demands
existence of tap water contamination. The topic interests me due to the fact that I have long heard that tap water is contaminated and that, in order to avoid this contamination, one has to spend money on any number of schemes ranging from the comparatively cheapest of buying bottled water to the enormously expensive project of retrograding and dismantling the entire water system with a purification procedure. It strikes me that it is particularly important to find out whether this is simply a moneymaking scam on the part of businesses or whether there is any reality to this situation. Even were I to adopt the cheapest of all alternatives, which were to buy bottled water, in the long run the accumulation of expense is worrisome. On the other hand, purifying the tap water may be a necessary step as safeguard for my health. To that end, it may be well…
McGeehin, M.A., Reif, J.S., Becher, J.C., Mangione, E.J. (1993).Case-control study of bladder cancer and water disinfection methods in Colorado. Am J. Epidemiol 138, 492-501.
Weisel, C.P. & Jo, W.K. (1996). Ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposures to chloroform and trichloroethene from tap water. Environmental Health Perspectives 104, 48 -- 51.
West, L. Tap Water in 42 States Contaminated by Chemicals. About.com. http://environment.about.com/od/waterpollution/a/tap_water_probe.htm
What kind of neighborhood is it in?
Lower middle class apartment complex
What is its structure?
Constantly bustling, full of many cultures and ethnicities, although Cuban-Americans predominate.
What does it look like?
Clean, functional, but very impersonal-looking apartment blocks.
What does it contain?
Mainly recent Cuban immigrants
What is its aesthetic?
The aesthetic is very functional, since the area is mainly dominated by recent immigrants coming from underdeveloped countries to the United States.
What does it say about the characters who inhabit that space?
The characters are very new to the United States and are unfamiliar with its social expectations.
Target Demographic: Hispanic-Americans
Gender: As with most relationship-driven sitcoms, more female than male.
Geographic Location: Residents of Latin American-dominated neighborhoods in Miami, New York, and Los Angeles
Age Range: 20 something and older
Education: high school to some college
Ethnicity: Latino, with heavily skewed towards Cubans
Conservative/Liberal Status: Cubans tend…
We do believe our design will help the kooma people to get access to cheap and clean drinking water from within their very own communities, and in addition to providing them with the health and cost benefits of having a readily available supply of clean drinking water, and make their life better and bit more comfortable.
We as a team struggled at first because of the initial delays to our progress in both the research and the design phases of this project due to various reasons. Eventually, however, everyone became engaged in the work allocated by the team leader to each individual person, and with each one of us as a team working really hard to achieve our goals we achieved much greater satisfaction from the project. The newfound fervor with which the team approached this project began with discussions on a number of various of different designs,…
Preventing Terrorist Attacks on the Water and Wastewater Systems Sector
Terrorism is nowadays an already established threat that is part of every security strategy of modern states. It is not only an un-conventional threat at the address of national security but also it drove the re-definition of the term of security as it was understood and worked with some twenty years ago. Currently, there is talk about economic, political, social security as part of the areas that the state must take into account when drafting and enabling a national security strategy. At the same time though, especially after the events from September 2001, the security of the infrastructure and that of natural resources has become an increasingly important aspect to consider.
Currently in the United States, the country considered to be the most targeted by terrorist threats, an important part of the security strategy is related to the economic sectors…
Copeland, C. 2005. "Hurricane-Damaged Drinking Water and Wastewater Facilities: Impacts, Needs, and Response" CRS Report for Congress. Available at http://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=463973
Copeland, C. 2010. "Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector" Congressional Research Center Available at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL32189.pdf
Dept. Of Homeland Security. 2013. Water and Wastewater Systems Sector. Available online at http://www.dhs.gov/water-and-wastewater-systems-sector
Leuven, L. 2011. "Water/Wastewater Infrastructure Security: Threats and Vulnerabilities" in R.M. Clark et al. (eds.), Handbook of Water and Wastewater Systems Protection, 27 Protecting Critical Infrastructure, available online.
TVA Company Profile
The TVA is a self-financed government agency with approximately 13,000 employees, as of 2002 estimates.
It realized a $6.99 billion sales from hydroelectric power generation, fossil fuel, electric power generation, nuclear power generation, other electric power generation, electric bulk power transmission and control and electric power distribution. Its mission is to bring prosperity to the Tennessee Valley through excellent business performance and public service. These are to be achieved by supplying low-cost but reliable power, maintaining a thriving River, and fostering economic growth throughout the southeaster region, traversing 7 States. At the peak of its growth, TVA was serving more than 8 million users in more than 80,000 square miles of region
The TVA's integrated management of water resources, combined with its exceptional institutional capacity enabled it to lift one of the poorest regions in the U.S. into a strong economy and healthy environment today.
Findley, M. And Alavian, V. (2000). Tennessee Valley authority experiment. Case Study
in Integrated Water Resource Management. USAID Water Team: United States
Agency for International Development. Retrieved on November 11, 2010 from http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/environment/water/case_studies/tva.basin.pdf
Funding Universe (2010). Tennessee Valley Authority: company profile.
What would make you decide to put an end to th e project/
What are you solutions for dealing with the problem?
Part of the problem of cost and procrastination is the continuous spate of law suits. What can be done, if anything, to resolve conflicts between the opposing parties and to make opposing parties more amenable to th ugar deal?
Learn & Teach About the Everglades
Water's journey Everglades
Burnham, Michael. (2010). Energy and Environment News. Energy by the Acre.
Caperton Morton, Mary. (May 20, 2010). Land Deal Likely to Improve Everglades, Ecologists ay. Inside cience News ervice.
Freechild, a. (2010).ugar Barons and takeholders:the Impact of the U.. ugar Deal on Everglades Restoration
Eye on Miami Blog. (2010) Kendrick Meek's sweet tooth could doom his political campaign for U.. enate.
National Research Council of the…
Burnham, Michael. (2010). Energy and Environment News. Energy by the Acre.
Caperton Morton, Mary. (May 20, 2010). Land Deal Likely to Improve Everglades, Ecologists Say. Inside Science News Service.
Freechild, a. (2010).Sugar Barons and Stakeholders:the Impact of the U.S. Sugar Deal on Everglades Restoration
Stress: Regulation of etlands in the United States
Regulation of etlands in the United States
Defining etlands and their Value
A wetland refers to a place where water covers the soil. A wetland is a saturated land that comprises of swamps or marshes. Lewis defines a wetland as, "an ecosystem that depends on constant or recurrent, shallow inundation or saturation at or near the surface of the substrate" (p.3). He further ascertains that the minimum necessary qualities of a wetland are sustained inundation, saturation or recurrent at or near the surface and the existence of chemical, biological and physical facets that reflect recurrent, saturation and sustained inundation (Lewis 3). The major diagnostic wetland features include hydrophytic vegetation and hydric soils. These characteristics present biotic, anthropogenic or physicochemical features apart from where the growth of these aspects has been blocked (Lewis 3). The wetlands are located near rivers, oceans, lakes or…
Beermann, Jack. Administrative law. Texas: Aspen Publishers Online, Jul 2, 2010
Connolly, Kim Diana, Johnson, Stephen, Williams, Douglas. Wetlands law and policy:
Understanding. New York: American Bar Association, Dec 30, 2005.
Gaddie, Ronald Keith, Regens, James. Regulating wetlands protection: Environmental federalism and the states. New York: SUNY Press, 2000.
Backwashing and Sand Filter Medium
Filters are the much-in-need tools for getting clean fluids when purity is declining in all the substances. Whether water or milk, fluids can be filtered using a porous material. Where there are even many other methods of filtration like crystallization and evaporation, the filtration through sand as medium is highly effective especially while filtering water. Filtration plants remove suspending particles from water at commercial as well as domestic level. These plants are easy to operate as well as maintain. These plants can be backwashed thus cleaning the medium of filtration i.e. sand. The water as well as size of sand particles decide when the sand should be cleaned through backwashing. While paper and cotton can also be used in filtration process, they have much lesser life than sand. The regular cleaning of sand keeps the waste management plants operational. The sewage water is the most…
Cleaning the pool filter sand, (2013), Retrieved from:
Chalasani, G. And Sun, W., (n.d.), "A Report on Backwashing of Sand Filter medium," Retrieved
4b. Why is there an issue at this location?
As a result of Chicago's reckless water treatment program (or lack thereof), raw sewage is basically being dumped into waters and is affecting communities of human and non-human residents many miles away.
Wastewater dumped into the south-flowing rivers in the Chicago area flow into the Gulf of Mexico.
The issue is also affecting regions closer to Chicago.
4c. Who (human or nonhuman) is impacted by this issue, and at what scale is the impact occurring?
All oceanic life is affected by the presence of the algae in the Gulf of Mexico.
Human beings are affected directly and indirectly: Directly because toxic levels of phosphorous are seeping into clean water reserves and also seeping into the food chain. Indirectly because what Chicago is doing affects tourism and fishing industries in the Gulf of Mexico region.
d) What solutions, if any, have been…
Winter, a. (2010). This Year's Gulf 'Dead Zone' Among Largest Ever. New York Times. Retrieved online http://www.nytimes.com /gwire/2010/08/03/03greenwire-this-years-gulf-dead-zone-among-largest-ever-24761.html
..as long as those programs were at least as effective as the federal program." (the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act)
The passing of this Act by congress is therefore aimed at ensuring adequate health and safety standards for all workers. In terms of employers, the Act was designed to make sure that the place of employment was free of any hazards that might be injurious or detrimental to safety and health. This may include aspects such as the exposure to toxic chemical and materials as well as other environmental factors, for example excessive noise levels. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act) the Act cover a wide range of possible health and safety measures and is also intended to ensure that physical and mechanical dangers in the workplace are avoided, as well as unsanitary conditions. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act)
An important part of this…
Background: The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: RCRA. http://www.chemalliance.org/tools/background/back-rcra.asp
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: Superfund. February 7, 2009. http://www.answers.com/topic/superfund
Clean Air Act. February 4, 2009. ( http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/ )
Clean Water Act (CWA). February 4, 2009. http://www.epa.gov/oecaagct/lcwa.html
A related case of Toxic Torts occurred in East Anglia, where chemicals from a factory seeped into a dam (Barcelona Field Studies Centre, 2009).
The best risk management method is prevention. While Alumina's current situation is somewhat dire, the company can learn from its mistakes and attempt to prevent the same thing from occurring in the future. One measure that can be taken in this regard is to fully assess the current situation in terms of the amount of danger caused, the amount of people affected, and the mitigation measures necessary to eliminate the health risk. A cost analysis should also be conducted to quantify the financial risk, especially in the future (.
The risk of public image can be mitigated by taking the option of settlement via arbitration or mediation. Alumina's guilt and wrongdoing cannot be denied. Being subjected to a court battle that will probably be lost is…
Barcelona Field Studies Centre. (2009). Donana National Park: Causes and Effects of Toxic Waste Pollution. http://geographyfieldwork.com/DonanaCauses.htm
Landlin, David C. (2005, Aug.). Current Trends in Toxic Tort Litigation. Risks Management Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.hunton.com/files/tbl_s47Details%5CFileUpload265%5C1238%5CLandin_Toxic-tort.pdf
rights exist and where they come from can provide a useful approach to thinking about justice. To this end, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning how rights relate to Nozick's entitlement theory of just distribution and how Nozick uses the Wilt Chamberlain example to argue for his preferred view. In addition, a discussion concerning the question of society and natural rights by considering awls' focus on the original position and fairness is followed by an analysis of the applicability of awl's "veil of ignorance" to decision making. Finally, an examination of the possible implications of these two different approaches to justice and economic distribution for a real-world water case study is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
What may have been regarded as just distribution at one point in time may be viewed…
Aalberg, T. (2003). Achieving justice: Comparative public opinion on income distribution.
Hill, T.E. (2000). Respect, pluralism, and justice: Kantian perspectives. Oxford: Oxford
Johnson, R.N. (2013). Nozick and the entitlement theory. University of Missouri. Retrieved from http://web.missouri.edu/~johnsonrn/nozick.html.
In this regard, Norton points out that, "Once xeriscaping becomes an element of the community's identity, and citizens encourage a change in the tastes of their neighbors, a trend toward less water use and more native habitat might build on itself, providing increasing returns on a small investment. Investments such as this could pay increasing returns in lowering per capita demand for scarce resources and buffer the economy against shortages and rising prices" (2002: 265). Likewise, Vogel reports that because the technique can help to save water in all types of climates, xeriscaping has become increasingly popular in many regions of the United States.
In reality, xeriscaping is not a mysterious or difficult process, but it does require taking several principles into account that can help reduce water usage. First and foremost, the area to be xeriscaped must be regarded as an interrelated network of soil, plants and water. Despite…
Hepner, Ruth. 2006, October 11. "Selecting Drought-Resistant Plants." The Washington Times:
Hughes, Donald J. An Environmental History of the World: Humankind's Changing Role
in the Community of Life. London: Routledge, 2001.
Zimbabweans are very intelligent people who are now scattered all over the world as a result of Mugabe ruining their beautiful country
This report goes on to state that; "...If Zimbabweans all over the Diaspora come together and map a course for their country, I think that country will find its feet again with time" (Kaira). It therefore follows that a central aspect of any NGO plan must include the mobilization and motivation of the Zimbabwean people with regard to their own freedom and stability.
Don't neglect Aids crisis, warn health workers. etrieved December 25, 2008, at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/dec/18/zimbabwe-cholera-aids-death-rates
Dragging out the end (2008) etrieved December 25, 2008, at (http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2008/dec/23/zimbabwe-south-africa)
Blair D. (2008) How to save Zimbabwe after Mugabe. etrieved December 25, 2008 from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/comment/3556785/How-to-save-Zimbabwe-after-Mugabe.html
Hill G. (2005) What Happens after Mugabe? Cape Town: Zebra.
Kaira C. Zimbabwe after Mugabe. etrieved December 25, 2008, at http://www.economist.com.na/content/view/55/34/1/3/
Kirchick, J. (2007)…
Moreover, the health of the water in Lake Okeechobee, the main reservoir for South Florida, is in jeopardy as a result of human intervention in the Everglades (Ibid.)
There are other agricultural uses for Everglades water. Nurseries grow for use in home gardens. Demand for their product is affected by water shortages that arise from poor management of the Everglades water. This issue is significant in Miami-Dade and Broward counties. In Palm Beach County, sugar is the main agricultural crop, dependent on the Everglades for irrigation (Frogameni, 2008).
ater from the Everglades also impacts several other industries as well. Some fishing industries rely on the Everglades to provide clean water and nutrients to estuaries and bays. The mix of salt and fresh water results in a unique ecosystem that supports a rich variety of wildlife, including commercial seafood species including shrimp and stone crabs. The economic impact of Everglades-dependent fisheries…
USGS Circular 1182. Retrieved March 19, 2009 at http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/circular/1182/
Cave, Damien. (2008). Florida to Buy Sugar Maker in Bid to Restore Everglades. New York Times. Retrieved March 19, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com /2008/06/25/us/24cnd-sugar.html?hp
No author. (2002). Everglades Information: Water Resources. South Florida Water Management District. Retrieved March 19, 2009 at http://glades.sfwmd.gov/empact/home/02_everglades/05_water_resources/index.shtml
No author. (2007). The Southern Everglades and Florida Bay. The Audobon Society. Retrieved March 19, 2009 at http://www.audubon.org/states/fl/fl/PDFs/pubs_policydocs-florida_bay_report_main.pdf
Although I believe that I have critically met the objectives for a master's degree in working in many ways (particularly academically), I can honestly state that the area in which I progressed the most was in dealing with cultural diversity. Prior to entering this program, I had extremely limited experience dealing with cultural diversity, especially in the workplace. Despite working as a nurse for the past 16 years, the most diversity I had ever experienced in my patient population was the occasional Spanish speaking client -- which would require me to utilize the language line for interpreting my directions and interacting with the patient. However, thanks to my involvement in this particular academic program, I am now much more acclimated with cultural diversity and believe that I have significantly improved my prowess in this aspect of my work as a professional nurse.
My experience with cultural diversity changed…
Hazards on the Hudson
Imagine, if you will, a sunny day. A boy and his father are fishing on the beautiful waters of the Hudson River. Excitedly, the boy yells, "I got a fish! I got a fish!" He reels it in and his father removes the hook from its mouth. Dad says, "That sure is nice one, son." He then tosses the fish back in the water. hen the boy asks why, the father explains that the fish in these waters are dangerous to eat. They contain high levels of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
Since the middle part of this decade, the GE Company used PCBs to pack and insulate their electrical components. During this manufacturing process they managed to dump millions of tons of dangerous chemicals into the Hudson River. Now the EPA has ordered GE to help clean up the mess they created. The legal battle has been…
CleanupGE.org. Toxics on the Hudson: The story of GE, PCBs and the Hudson River. Retrieved at http://www.cleanupge.org/pcbarticle.html Accessed August 2002.
Clearwater.org. Fact Sheet 8: Hudson River PCB Pollution Timeline. News and Bulletins. 1997.
Retrieved at http://www.clearwater.org/news/timeline.html Accessed August 2002.
Dupont, Anna. Hudson River Interview Comparison Chart. 1999. Retrieved at http://www.marist.edu/summerscholars/99/pol/chart.htm Accessed August 2002.
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
This study demonstrates that different total P. fraction releases may differ between two bodies of water under similar oxygen conditions (Kisand & Noges, 2003). This study is important in that it highlights the complexity of understanding P. fractions in any given body of water. There are a multitude of potential reactions in any body of water. Oxygen plays a role in the reactions of any individual lake, but one cannot make predictions based on oxygen level alone.
Shallow lakes differ from stratified lakes in many ways. A stratified lake typically reaches equilibria in such a manner that it becomes divided into regions. This is not the case with shallow lakes. With a shallow lake, the entire lake may change from clear water to macrophyte dominated to algae dominated, each phase has its own state of equilibrium (Dokulil & Teubner, 2003). Total chlorophyll to phosphorus ratios are different in these various…
Burger, D., Hamilton, D., Pilditch, C., & Gibbs (2007).Benthic nutrient fluxes in a eutrophic polymictic lake. Hydrobiologia. 584, 13-25.
Dokulil, M., & Teubner, K. (2003). Eutrophication and restoration of shallow lakes - the conceptof stable equilibria revisited. Hydrobiologia. 506-509, 29-35.
Farmer, J., Bailey-Watts, a., Kirika, a., and Scott, C. (2006).
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 4 (1): 45-56.
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)
Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added…
Acid Rain -- a Contemporary World Problem. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/narilily/acidrain.html. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Acid Rain: Do you need to start wearing a rain hat? Retrieved at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Barney, Gerald O. The Whole World in Our Hands. SF Chronicle. 31 December, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.mindfully.org/Sustainability/in-Our-Hands.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Bryant, Peter J. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book. Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec05/b65lec05.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Regulating Oil and Gas Drilling and Transport
The American economy runs on energy produced from oil, coal, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear power and renewable sources like solar and wind energies. In fact according to a report in the Congressional Research Service, oil provides the United States with 40% of its total energy needs. It is used in myriad ways, providing "…fuel for the transportation, industrial, and residential sectors" (Ramseur, 2012). Because of the great need for energy to fuel the American economy, oil in "vast quantities" enters the country and moves through the country by ships and by pipelines, Ramseur explains in the Congressional Research Service. Hence, it is inevitable that some spills will occur, and they certainly do occur, notwithstanding the attempts by the industry to conduct its business safely.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports that the U.S. consumed 6.87 billion barrels (about 18.83 million barrels…
American Petroleum Institute. (2012). Energy Security. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://www.api.org.
Barkham, Patrick. (2010).Oil spills: Legacy of the Torrey Canyon. The Guardian. Retrieved February 14, 2013, from http://www.guardian.co.uk .
Griffin, Catherine. (2013). European Satellite Confirms Arctic Ocean is on Thin Ice, Global
Warming Strikes Again. Science World Report. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://www.scienceworldreport.com .
Energy prices went up again in 2008. Drillers created 29,000 jobs for the people. And State and local governments offered $240 million worth of taxes (Sapien 2009). And modern technology was there to realize the dream.
When asked about the initiative's threat to human health, the DEP at first assured all sectors that TDS were not generally considered a major risk. In 2008 alone, at least 4,000 new oil and gas wells were drilled. The frenzy sidestepped the greater and graver responsibility of disposal of huge wastewater. The new oil and gas wells produce approximately 9 million gallons of wastewater a day in Pennsylvania alone. This volume was expected to increase to at least 19 million this year. This volume is greater than that what all of the State's waterways combined can safely absorb, DEP itself says. ut in the wake of continued complaints and apprehensions, it advised consumers to…
Legera, Laura. Hazards Posed by Natural Gas Drilling Not Always Underground. The Sheranton Times Tribune: hetimes-tribune.com, 2010. Retrieved on May 3, 2011
Lustgarten, Abrahm. Is New York's Marcellus Shale too Hot to Handle? ProPublica:
ProPublica, Inc., 2009. Retrieved on April 18, 2011 from http://www.propublica.org/articles/is_the-marcellus-shale-too-hot-to-handle-1109
Discuss product service terms current target market demographics U.S. Census Data. 2.Determine product service declining popularity. Be include information social, demographic, ethnic markets; economic technological factors; political legal factors; competitive factors.
The market for bottled water in the U.S. has been experiencing a steady decline in growth as a result of huge awareness campaigns that are conducted to curb consumer demand. This is in contrast to other parts of the world where the popularity of bottled water is continuing to increase by 6.7% each year which is reported by the Beverage Marketing Corporation (2008)
as the smallest increase experienced in the last 10 years. The U.S. used to be the largest consumer of bottled water but in the latest years, there has been a shift towards preference of tap water rather than bottled water Institute, 2012()
The Beverage Marketing Corporation (2008)
states that 54 per cent of…
Beverage Marketing Corporation. (2008). The 2007 Stats. New York, NY: Beverage Marketing Corporation.
Central Intelligence Agency. (2012). World Factbook: India Retrieved October 3rd, 2012, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos//in.html
Ferrell, O.C., & Hartline, M. (2010). Marketing Strategy. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Institute, W. (2012). Bottled Water Demand May Be Declining Retrieved October 3rd, 2012, from http://www.worldwatch.org/node/5878
Yellow River Pollution
A report published by Terra Daily (2006) reports that the famous Yellow River of China "is becoming more polluted, with water flow dropping despite billions of tons of waste being pumped into it…" The largest part of the discharge is reported to be coming from factories in China and the discharge increased "by 88 million tons from 2004, and more than 66% of the water in the river was unfit for drinking." (Terra Daily, 2006) According to officials, "excessive exploitation of the river's water resources had resulted in lower sections totally drying up on more than 1,000 days between 1972 and 1999." (Terra Daily, 2006)
Another source reports that in 1972 that the Yellow River, for the first time in the recorded history of China had "dried up in patches and failed to reach the sea." (Time World, 2006) It is reported that while the central government…
China Invests in Yellow River Tributary Treatment (2012) China Xinhuanet News. Retrieved from: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2012-04/26/c_131554014.htm
China's Yellow River Choking On Pollution (2006) China.Org.CN. Retrieved from: http://www.china.org.cn/english/environment/192263.htm
China's Yellow River Plagued by Pollution (2005) Environmental News Network. 26 May 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/1643
City Governments Fined for Yellow River Pollution (2010) China Daily. 11 Mar 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2010-03/11/content_9574818.htm
Wicked Problem: oyal Dutch Shell and Its esponse to the Nigerian Oil Spill
Major oil companies such as oyal Dutch Shell are responsible for hundreds of oil spills every year that cumulatively involve millions of barrels of oil. The harmful effects of such oil spills on the environment is well documented of course, but less well documented are the different types and levels of responses that are used in response to oil spills in developing nations and those used in affluent nations. While oil spills such as British Petroleum's recent rupture of its Macondo well offshore United States are the focus of a massive and expensive coordinated response, far less attention is paid to oil spills that affect emerging nations such as Nigeria. This is not to say, of course, that all major oil companies -- including oyal Dutch Shell -- are completely abrogating their corporate responsibilities for oil spill…
Cocks, T. (2011, December 27). 'Shell says Nigeria oil spill contained.' Thomson Reuters.
[online] available: http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/12/27/us-shell-nigeria-spill -
Duncan, H. & Duke, S. (2010, October 13). 'Royal Dutch Shell Wades in with Attack on BP