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Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol
An analysis of the effectiveness of an international agreement to mitigate the consequences of Climate Change without the involvement of the United States
Climate change, also known in some circles as global warming, is a phenomenon that has been the subject of a vast amount of attention in recent decades. This issue stands the potential not only to threaten many animal species around the world, but also has the potential to virtually eliminate the human race by making the climate of the earth inhospitable. Although it may be somewhat unlikely that the human species will become extinct anytime in the near future, the limitations of the planet to support the exponentially growing human population are becoming increasingly more salient as this field of research continues developing. ith the world population recently climbing to over seven billion people, many researchers are questioning the natural ecosystem's…
Clayton, M. "Global boom in coal power - and emissions." 22 March 2007. The Christian Science Monitor. Web. 2 April 2012.
CO2 Now. "Earth's CO2 Home Page." 16 November 2011. CO2 Now. Web. 4 April 2012.
Facts on File News Services. "Update: Global Warming." Issues & Controversies On File." 27 October 2009. Facts on File News Services. Web. 4 April 2012. .
Hanjra, M. And E. Qureshi. "Global water crisis and future food security in an era of climatechange." Food Policy (2010): 365-377. Web.
here the paper once debated policy options -- which reasonably could include doing nothing -- it now uses intellectually deficient arguments riddled with logical fallacies to debate the subject. The tone has gone from one of applying academically-accepted economics to undermine the policy prescriptions for dealing with climate change, an approach that is intellectually honest but hard to follow for those without an economics background, to simplistic arguments that are much easier to understand but are lacking in intellectual rigor.
There have been changes over the years with respect to how climate change arguments are framed. For much of the debate in the past fifteen years, the all Street Journal has staked out an editorial position as climate change skeptics, but its news coverage reflected balance. The tone of the writing was in general sober and professional. It is only in the past couple of years that a distinct…
Balling, R. (1995). Keep cool about global warming. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 13, 2011 from http://proquest.umi.com.eproxy1.lib.hku.hk/pqdlink?index=145&did=7702810&SrchMode=1&sid=1&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1297636065&clientId=17557
Jolis, a. (2009). Revenge of the climate laymen. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 3, 2011 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704335904574496850939846712.html
Krupp, F. (2009). Carbon caps are the best policy. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 3, 2011 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123785178691219381.html
Lomborg, B. (2009). Ethiopia, malnutrition and climate change. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 3, 2011 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704431804574537391296901758.html
Climate changes are occurring in the world that will affect the environment in which we live. ising concentrations of greenhouse gases produce an increase in the average surface temperature of the Earth over time which may produce changes in precipitation patterns, storm severity, and sea level (Environmental Protection Agency, 2010). The main activities that create carbon emissions that affect climate are the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and agriculture. It will take a worldwide effort to reduce global carbon emissions because it the problem has been created by the activities of people all over the world.
Burning Fossil Fuels
The burning of fossil fuels contributes to the buildup of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere causing climate changes. Scientists have been studying the impact of carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels for decades and studies show that CO2 has increased in the atmosphere 35% since the industrial revolution began…
Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency (July 2000). Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generation of Electric Power in the United States. Retrieved Dec. 28, 2010 from http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/co2_report/co2emiss.pdf
Department of Energy (10 Jan. 2010). Climate Change. Retrieved Dec. 28, 2010, from http://www.pi.energy.gov/climate_change.htm
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (3 March 2010). Carbon Dioxide. Retrieved Dec. 28, 2010, from http://www.epa.gov /climatechange/emissions/co2.html
"Farming Changes Affect Climate" (16 Aug. 2010). Forbes. Retrieved Dec. 29, 2010, from http://www.forbes.com/2010/08/13/farming-climate-greenhouse-business-oxford-analytica.html
Effects of Climate Change
Economic effects of global climate change
In this paper, we will discuss the economic effects of global climate change on rich as well as poor countries. Our emphasis will be on the point that the rich countries might have a difficult time but they can manage with the situation whereas the poorer countries will be impacted the hardest. Firstly let's review some of the facts regarding the global climate change phenomena and then we'll focus on our main topic.
Facts, figures and economic impact
Here are some of the facts and figures related to the worldwide climate change, the overall average temperatures have increased by 0.8 degree Celsius (1.4 degrees Fahrenheit) throughout the globe since 1880, here much of the change has occurred in recent decades and according to many reports the last two decades of 20th century were the warmest in the previous…
Brown, N. (2001). History and Climate Change, London: Routledge.
Hardy, J. (2003). Climate Change: Causes, Effects and Solutions, New York: John Wiley.
Hanley, N. (2004). The Economics of Climate Change, New York: Routledge.
According to Johnson (2010), the issue of climate change has been hotly debated from two main viewpoints: that global warming has resulted from human activity on the one hand; and that it is a myth resulting from flawed research and unverified scientific findings. Those who hold the former view accuse those of the latter persuasion that they are concerned more with perpetuating the fossil fuel industry than creating a safe environment for future human generations. The other side, in turn, are of the opinion that the public is far too susceptible to believe whatever they are told as soon as the scientific label is placed on it. Because of these two widely divergent opinions, the issue has been shrouded in uncertainty for many, with a third group believing that global warming does exist, but that human activity is not necessarily the main culprit. This opinion holds that natural…
Fox News (2009, Dec. 9). Administration Warns of 'Command-and-Control' Regulation Over Emissions. Retrieved from: http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2009/12/09/administration-warns-command-control-regulation-emissions/
Johnson, T. (2010, Feb. 23). Alternative Views on Climate Change. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved from: http://www.cfr.org/climate-change/alternative-views-climate-change/p14318
The country is facing a lack of leadership on the issue, where targets are set but changes to achieve those targets not implemented. The issue does not appear to capture the imagination of voters, and this further contributes to political apathy. The upcoming election does provide an opportunity for voters to change their views, and that could change the course of Canadian climate change policy again, including its role on the world stage. Canada has commitments and if it adheres to those commitments it can regain its leadership globally on the issue. However, the policy for the future is likely to be more of what the past five years have been, and this is likely to result in a continued decline in the relevance of Canada in the setting of global foreign policy on climate change.
Drexhage, J. & Murphy, D. (2010). Climate change and foreign policy in…
Drexhage, J. & Murphy, D. (2010). Climate change and foreign policy in Canada: Intersection and influence. Canadian International Council. In possession of the author.
Kukucha, C. (2005). From Kyoto to the WTO: Evaluating the constitutional legacy of the provinces in Canadian foreign trade and environmental policy. Canadian Journal of Political Science. Vol. 38 (2005) 129-152.
MacDonald, D. & Smith, H. (2000). Promises made, promises broken: Questioning Canada's commitment to climate change. International Journal. Vol. 55 (1) 107-124.
Rabe, B. (2007). Beyond Kyoto: Climate change policy in multilevel governance systems. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration and Institutions. Vol. 20 (3) 423-444.
Religion was also affected as the Church could not reconcile so many deaths within their theology for many of the survivors. The creation of the first modern nations, such as England and France were a direct result of the pervading political climate brought on the by the "Black Plague" and a usury system in finances.
About 100 years ago the earth began a warming trend which has produced, lately, a series of years which yearly have broken previous years' records. That the burning of fossil fuels and human living conditions have elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and that this has had some affect is without a doubt (Muller, 2003, 1). Although warm weather usually brings an abundance of crops and little food shortage, other negative results, such as extreme weather, the spread of diseases and therefore changes in the human condition, are a negative result.
Kilner, James. "Climate Change Could Spread Plague: Scientists." Oslo. Reuters. 14 Nov 2005. Found at http://www.commondreams.org/headlines05/1114-02.htm .
Muller, Richard. "Medieval Global Warming. " Technology Review. Published by MIT, 17 Dec 2003. Found at http://www.technologyreview.com/Energy/13423/ .
Other effects observed worldwide include modifications in the distribution of plants and animals throughout and outside natural habitats, the fact that the trees start to bloom earlier than initially considered normal, the length of the seasons continue to increase, probably leading to a situation in which only two seasons with replace the traditional four. Foremost, ice has been found on rivers and the lakes freeze later in the winter and the ice on them melts earlier in the spring (United States Environmental Protection Agency).
The effects that have already been observed are called fingerprints of global warming and refer primarily to the heating temperatures in of the North and South Poles, the melting of the glaciers, the increasing levels of the seas and oceans and the growing number and intensity of heat waves. The effects that will be likely felt in the future in a more frequent and intense manner…
Greenpeace U.S.A., http://www.greenpeace.org last accessed on March 31, 2009
Natural Resources Defense Council, http://www.nrdc.org last accessed on March 31, 2009
Union of Concerned Scientists, http://www.ucsusa.org last accessed on March 31, 2009
United States Environmental Protection Agency, http://www.epa.gov last accessed on March 31, 2009
Geomorphologic evidence of glacier fluctuations in Iceland during the Late Holocene is abundant. Furthermore, Iceland has a unique documentary record of ice-front positions between the times of settlement, around AD 870, to the early 20th century. Many of Iceland's larger outlet glaciers have been systematically monitored since 1930. Consequently, a general description of glacier conditions exists for the past/1000 years, in addition to a detailed knowledge of ice-front fluctuations for the past 70 years. Consequently, the idea of a broadly synchronous late 19th-century glacier maximum in Iceland has been widely accepted (Bradwell, Dugmore, & Sugden, 2006)
The difficulty in specifying the timing of the LIA is because the coldest period in the last 1,000 years was not uniformly cold. Furthermore, the occurrence of cold events around the globe was not synchronous and thus spatial differences exist. For example, the seventeenth century was the coldest LIA period in eastern Asia, while…
Bradwell, Tom, Andrew J. Dugmore, and David E. Sugden. "The Little Ice Age glacier maximum in Iceland and the North Atlantic Oscillation: evidence from Lambatungnajokull, southeast Iceland." Boreas 35.1 (2006): 61-80. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web.
Cooper, Richard N. "The Little Ice Age: The Prelude to Global Warming, 1300-1850." Foreign Affairs 80.5 (2001): 160. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web.
Curtis, Nancy R. "The Little Ice Age (Book Review)." Library Journal 126.3 (2001): 196. Professional Development Collection. EBSCO. Web.
Gardiner, L. (2008). The Little Ice Age. Retrieved from http://www.windows2univers.org/earth/climate/little_ice_age.html
Large areas of those parts of the ocean bottom we call the continental shelf were exposed as dry land, and shallow ocean straits, like the Bering Strait and the Gulf of Carpentaria, were instead land bridges. These bridges served as migratory routes for the people now known as aborigines in Australia and the Asiatic nomads now known in North America as Native Americans and in South America as Indians or indigenous people. As the glaciers retreated, the sea level rose again some 10,000 years ago, stranding the Native Americans and aborigines on their new continents. At the same time, as temperatures climbed, the global climate settled into the pattern that it has roughly maintained ever since (Gore, p. 61).
As one can plainly see from the quotation above, Gore's examples and his argument are rendered in clear, straightforward prose that effectively work to communicate his main idea -- the fact…
Gore, Al. Earth in the Balance. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992.
The question at hand is whether governments will act to curb rising temperatures. I do not believe that they will. There are many reasons for this. Curbing rising temperatures requires a number of strong actions, because those rising temperatures are created by greenhouse gas emissions -- burning fossil fuels in particular, releasing CO2 into the atmosphere.
The problem is that the actions to curb rising temperatures would be incredibly disruptive to just about every aspect of our daily lives, and the action needed would have to be immediate and global in nature. These are the primary problems. The CQ article points about that President Obama has called for reduction in greenhouse gases from power plants, and levying additional taxes on carbon-based fuels. If the President was capable to doing such things without Congress, it does not matter, because these moves are not nearly enough. In principle, if something…
Automobile efficiency -- The Clean Air Act of 1970 is somewhat outdated, and it has become apparent that even the 1990 update is no longer strong enough to reduce pollutants to the level of our technological ability. egulations would force manufacturers to more aggressively work towards hybrid technology (Automobile Emissions, 2007).
Sustainable building materials/Green Building Codes -- The State of California leads the way in adopting sustainable building standards as well as green building codes. The 2008 legislation requires a 15% reduction in overall energy use in new construction (using solar, certified appliances, etc.); a 20% reduction in water use through low-flow appliances; and a 50% reduction in water use for landscaping. In addition, it requires environmentally sensitive building materials. Adoption of this nationwide would have a mitigating effect on ecological issues (Mandatory Green Building Standards, 2009).
efuse reduction -- The EU has initiated policy initiatives to reduce refuse by…
Automobile Emissions: An Overview. (2007). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Cited in: http://www.epa.gov /oms/consumer/05-autos.pdf
Legislation affecting waste. (2005). Waste Online. Cited in:
Mandatory Green Building Standards: California Leads the Way. (April 2009). Gordon and Rees, LLP. Cited in: http://www.gordonrees.com/publications/viewPublication.cfm?contentID=160
Because it is produced in the dark, the hormone Melatonin, is thought to be secreted in larger numbers as the days grow longer and darker. This hormone, which is associated with sleep, may cause "symptoms of depression" ("Seasons Change). Seasonal Affective Disorder is actually a fairly common problem, affecting about 20% of the population, most of whom are women between the ages of 18 and 40. Symptoms of the disorder include "feelings of depression, misery, lethargy, insomnia, appetite problems, and a loss of sex drive" ("Seasons Change"). According to the May Clinic, many of the disorder's symptoms include depression-like characteristics, including "lethargy, fatigue and other problems (Seasonal Affective Disorder"). Indeed, the May Clinic calls Seasonal Affective Disorder a form of depression.
Although Seasonal Affective Disorder may be a potentially dangerous condition that leads to impaired cognitions, it is difficult to determine the exact nature of the ailment because many of…
Kronefield. James. "What Cuases Mood Changes?" Article Alley. 7 March 2007. 29
November 2008. http://www.articlealley.com/article_135827_17.html
Samhsa's National Mental Health Information Center. "Mood Disorders." nd. 29
November 2008. http://mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/publications/allpubs/ken98-0049/default.asp
Climate Change in Australia's Alpine egion
The environments of entire Australia comprise of approximately 0.3% of total global land mass. The alpine region of Australia is found along the mountain ranges of southeastern, central plateau and Victoria mountain ranges. The altitudes in the alpine area vary significantly ranging from Tasmania's 1,300 m to 1,850m in South Wales (Diaz, Beniston & Bradley, 2007).
Changes in climatic conditions have diverse potential impacts on the alpine region of Australia and subalpine lives because their existence is controlled by sensitive changes in temperatures. From data about temperatures in the alpine region, there are high elevation trends thus high chances of making significant impacts on the ecological diversity. The alpine region is experiencing reduced average precipitation per annum, which leads to a reduction in the Alps of south and an increase in the Alps on North. The precipitation of the Alps depends on global warming.…
Agrawala, S., (2007). Climate change in the European Alps: Adapting winter tourism and natural hazards management. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Diaz, H.F., Beniston, M., & Bradley, R.S. (2007). Climatic change at high elevation sites. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Dupeyras, A., & Rey, A.H., (2011). Climate change and tourism policy in OECD countries. Paris: OECD.
Godde, P., Price, M.F., & Zimmerman, F.M. (2009). Tourism and development in mountain regions. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CABI Pub.
climate and economy in two world cities. There are six references used for this paper.
The world is currently undergoing a number of changes both in terms of the climate and the economy. It is important to look at Lima, Peru and Canberra, Australia and determine what effect the changing climates could have on the economies there.
Canberra is the capital city of Australia and over the past eighty years has grown into a governmental powerhouse, as well as being home to "the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial esearch Organization, the Academy of Science and the National Science and Technology Centre (www.tomw.net.au/cnbst1.html)."
Australia enjoys a "prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP at the level of the four dominant West European economies (www.photius.com/wfb/wfb1999/australia/australia_economy.html)." Due the high level of natural resources available, the major exports of the country are "agricultural products, minerals, metals, and fossil fuels, which…
Australia Economy-Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate. (accessed 10 May 2004) www.photius.com/wfb/wfb1999/australia/australia_economy.html).
Capital City Functions. (accessed 10 May 2004). www.tomw.net.au/cnbst1.html).
Cochrane, Mark A. (2001, October). "In the line of fire. Understanding the Impacts of Tropical
Forest Fires." (accessed 10 May 2004). Environment. www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m1076/8_43/79381950/print.jhtml).
Climate Extremes: Observations, Modeling and Impacts by Easterling et al. (2000) has the central thesis that modeling shows extreme weather events will increase for future weather events. The authors predict "increases in extreme high temperatures, decreases in extreme low temperatures and increases in intense precipitation events."
The argument for the thesis is that multiple studies have been conducted, noting a number of different changes to the climate. Models have been created, and these models show further changes in the future. Other studies conducted have noted changes to wild plants, animals and other biological changes as the result of these changes in weather patterns. Human society will also be changed. The data comes from other studies, as this is something of a meta-analysis of the issue of climate change. The authors note observed temperature changes and trends, and an increase in extreme precipitation events, along with flooding. The authors also looked…
Easterling, D., Meehl, G., Parmesan, C., Changnon, S., Karl, T. & Mearns, L. (2000). Climate extremes: Observations, modeling and impacts. Science. Vol. 289 (5487) 2068-2074
Vaughan, D., Marshall, G., Connolley, W., Parkinson, C., Mulvaney, R., Hodgson, D., King, J., Pudsey, C. & Turner, J. (2003). Recent rapid regional climate warming on the Antarctic Peninsula. Climatic Change. Vol. 60 (3) 243-274.
climate change in the Polar egions and what climate change means to the future of these areas. The Arctic and Antarctic regions of the Earth are already showing severe signs of climate change. As more of the snow and ice melts in these areas, they are reacting much more quickly to global warming. That is because the snow and ice reflect the suns rays and keep the temperatures from rising. However, as more land is exposed by melting snow and ice, the earth adsorbs the sun's rays and then warms up, making the snow and ice melt even faster. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) notes, "Average temperatures in the Arctic have risen at almost twice the rate as temperatures in the rest of the world over the past few decades" (Editors). They also note that the Arctic is expected to show greater rates of warming than anywhere else on Earth.…
global climate change and the polarized viewpoints that result when some members of the media and other publicly visible individuals cast doubts on the existing scientific findings. A thesis is not offered in this paper but the juxtaposition of viewpoints presented allows the reader to judge the quality of the arguments based on the choice of language, the tone, the relevant data and the source.
Global climate change has become a highly controversial issue -- and has confused many citizens because bona fide scientific findings are frequently rejected and even ridiculed by high-profile media pundits and some conservative politicians -- hence this paper compares and contrasts scientific reports with attacks from individuals who deny the existence of climate change (and are in denial as to the fact that human activities are responsible). A recent 18-page report released by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) -- the world's…
Barboza, T. (2014). Scientists warn of global warming's abrupt changes. Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved March 20, 2014, from http://www.latimes.com .
British Antarctic Survey. (2010). Ice cores and climate change. Retrieved March 20, 2014,
from http://www.antarctica.ac.uk .
Climate change is one of the main problems in the contemporary society and this is reflected by the numerous actions that present-day institutions take with the purpose to either slow it down or stop its effects entirely. The September 23, 2013 Climate Summit provided the world with the opportunity to gain a more complex understanding of the concept and to learn more about the actions that state leaders were willing to take on in order to address the matter.
According to President Obama, the U.S. is particularly concerned about taking on attitudes that are going to have a positive effect on the environment. Considering that the country has a history of being among the world's largest pollutants, this makes it possible for the masses to acknowledge the degree to which climate change has become a general problem -- more and more influential bodies have acknowledged the need to…
"CLIMATE CHANGE AND PRESIDENT OBAMA'S ACTION PLAN," Retrieved November 11, 2014, from http://www.whitehouse.gov/climate-change
reporting on the climate change phenomenon has become increasingly alarming. It was not too long ago that much of the rhetoric associated with the future of the Artic portrayed the loss of cute polar bear habitats. While no one really wanted the cute creator's habitat to melt away, it is reasonable to assume that this image did not invoked a sense of urgency among many people that would be inspiring on a level in which they would take action. However, as the science has narrowed in on the consequences of anthropogenic warming, a much bleaker picture emerges that goes far beyond polar habit destruction and places the eminent crisis much closer to home -- in the backyards of coast urban dwellers in some of the greatest cities on the planet.
" ... glaciers in the western Antarctic, undermined by the warmer seas of a hotter world, were collapsing, and their…
Mann, C. (2014, September). How to Talk About Climate Change So People Will Listen. Retrieved from The Atlantic: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2014/09/how-to-talk-about-climate-changeso-people-will-listen/375067/
Paarlberg, . (2008). The ethics of modern agriculture. Society. Vol. 46 (1) 4-8.
This is one of the few works that directly addresses the topic, where the author outlines the utilitarian calculus of modern agriculture as the basis for analyzing its ethics. There have been dramatic positive changes from modern agriculture techniques, he notes, at least in the short run. The author notes that there is a sort of apparent conflict in warning others not to make the same mistakes that we have made, even as we continue to make the same mistakes, and reap the economic rewards of those mistakes. On one hand, we are not wrong to caution others, on the other hand, we are unwilling to follow our own good advice. The factory mentality of today's farms has given rise to a number of ethical dilemmas, and this arises most clearly with the case of meat. We…
Neff, R., Chan, I. & Smith, K. (2008). Yesterday's dinner, tomorrow's weather, today's news? U.S. newspaper coverage of food system contributions to climate change. Public Health & Nutrition. Retrieved April 22, 2015 from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.365.4857&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Paarlberg, R. (2008). The ethics of modern agriculture. Society. Vol. 46 (1) 4-8.
Pfeiffer, D .(2011). Eating Fossil Fuels: Oil, Food and the Coming Crisis in Agriculture. New Society Publishes: Gabriola Island, BC.
Rice, J. & Garcia, S. (2011). Fisheries, food security, climate change, and biodiversity: characteristics of the sector and perspectives on emerging issues. ICES Journal of Marine Science. Vol. 68 (6) 1343-1353.
The main task during the internship was articles about Dow Water & Process Solutions (DW&PS). The aim was to illustrate the processes going in water treatment plants and to explain the importance of wastewater reuse. Also, I helped preparing a few press releases that informed about new technologies or projects DW&PS is involved in. Such was the DEMOWARE press release, which I found very interesting and decided to look into it beyond the tasks that are normally involved in the work.
The internship in context to the study of Sociology
Analysing legal policies is absolutely vital for finding solutions for improving the overall image of a client or the functionality of its products. While lofty assumptions and good luck are hard to argue with, a critical eye should always be applied so as to make sure that the current procedures and methods are the right way to proceed…
Not only wastewater reuse is cost-effective in the long-term and saves valuable fresh water, but also decreases the pollution of the fragile ecosystem the Mediterranean Sea has.[footnoteRef:34] Still, despite being beneficial for everybody, such projects require careful planning and sustainable funding and is the reason why DEMOWARE took eight years to be completed. [34: Ibid. ]
Weakness of the research is the fact that I managed to interview only one side of DEMOWARE. The various articles related to the topic and the European Commission's press releases compensated to a certain point, but it would have been a more reliable research, if I could interview some of the local authorities and/or any regional environmental organisations.
Bureaucracy is an important foundation of the contemporary European society and is vital that people understand how it functions and what are the benefits of it. Such bureaucratic society might seem not very flexible for some, but it is evident that it plays an important role for the stability and competitiveness of the European Union. DEMOWARE could have theoretically taken less than the eight years that transpired but rushing things would have been a bad idea. Delaying it more would be an option if the proper due diligence and such had not been done. One really has to define "benefit" when it comes to the research question. In terms of people that oppose the DEMOWARE initiative, any delay would be a roadblock for something that they opposed. However, delays in terms of process and evidence are much more important to assess. Delays can and should be put in place if things are amiss because the final product might be faulty if this is not done. Conversely, delaying the DEMOWARE project or anything else like it without good cause would just feed into the anti-bureaucracy mind-set that a lot of people have. Accelerations or decelerations in the timeline of a program like DEMOWARE can either be beneficial or wasteful depending on the presence of the reasons for the change pace and whether those reasons are prudent and valid. The key is to make the proper strategic choices at the proper time. Beyond that, the rationale and general transparency when making such decisions is extremely important. People concerned with a governmental project or one that is bureaucratic in nature will be more forgiving if it is obvious, apparent and revealed by the bureaucratic leadership what is happening and why it needs to be done the way it is being done [footnoteRef:35]. [35: Nze, Festus C., and Anayo D. Nkamnebe. 2003. "Internalising effectiveness and accountability for the public good: strategic choices for public sector bureaucracies in Africa." Management Decision 41, no. 3: 281. Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 15, 2016).]
Climate Change: Impact on ildlife
Climate change can be defined as a change in climatic patterns resulting from increases in the levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. These gases form some kind of blanket that not only gets thicker, but also makes the planet warmer with increasing gas levels. This temperature increase alters the planet's climate, giving rise to unpredictable and extreme weather. As a result of climate change and more frequent heat waves, more and more places are experiencing periods of record drought that are immediately followed by acute rainfalls, and which greatly affect the natural balance between people, plants, wildlife, and fish. Moreover, the planet's oceans and seas "are also absorbing some of this extra carbon dioxide, making them more acidic and less hospitable for sea life" (F). In summary, climate change not only threatens the natural systems, but also puts the quality of life…
Cummings, Brendan, and Siegel Kassie. "Biodiversity, Global Warming, and the United States Endangered Species Act: the Role of Domestic Wildlife Law in Addressing Greenhouse Gas Emissions." Eds . Burns William and Osofsky, Hari. Adjudicating Climate Change: State, National and International Approaches. New York: Cambridge University, 2009. 145-72. Print.
Hofmeister, Eric, Rogall Gail, Wesenberg Kathy, Abbott Rachel, Work Thierry, Schuler Kristen, Sleeman Jonathan, and Winton James. "Climate Change and Wildlife Health: Direct and Indirect Effects." USGS, n.d. Web. 12 April 2014 http://www.nwhc.usgs.gov/publications/fact_sheets/pdfs/Climate_Change_and_Wildlife_Health.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service. "Climate Change Impacts." U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. Web. 12 April 2014 http://www.wildlifeadaptationstrategy.gov/climate-change.php
WWF. "Climate Change: Threats." World Wildlife Fund, 2014. Web. 12 April 2014 https://worldwildlife.org/threats/climate-change
The best-known and most used system for climate classification is the Koppen Climate Classification System, which is based on average temperature and precipitation in a region.
Much of the Southeastern United States is dominated by a humid subtropical (Cfa) climate.
Some of the rainiest places in the world are located on forested mountain slopes, especially rain forests.
The polar tundra is the treeless climate found almost exclusively in the Northern Hemisphere.
Af and Am climates form a discontinuous belt on both sides of the intertropical convergence zone.
The two most important elements in a climactic description are temperature and precipitation.
The climate of Northern California and the San Francisco Bay Area is classified as Mediterranean or mid-latitude dry (Cs)
According to the Koppen climate classification system, the moist severe winter climates (D) are not found in the Southern Hemisphere (from http://www.geofictie.nl/ctkoppe2.htm).
Cape Verde Hurricanes develop into tropical storms near…
11. Tropical cyclone winds rotate counter-clockwise in the Northern hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern hemisphere because of the patterns of wind flow affected by the Coriolis force.
12. Tropical cyclones are classified according to their wind speed; to be a hurricane a tropical storm must have winds of 118 kilometers an hour or more.
13. Hurricanes form over warm oceans because they are powered by the latent heat energy that is released from condensation and need a "constant supply of warm humid air," which "only exists over oceans with a temperature greater than 26.5° Celsius." (from http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7u.html ).
Before the Industrial Revolution, climate change was caused by mainly by four fundamental factors: variations in the earth's orbital characteristics; variations in the earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide levels; volcanic eruptions; and variations in solar output. However, due to the amount and types of chemicals emitted by humans into the atmosphere since the Industrial Revolution, it is highly likely that human beings are becoming a fifth major factor causing climate change on Earth. It might be impossible to track long-term trends yet, however, since human beings have only been industrialized for about a century. Nevertheless, the evidence for a human-caused climate change is strong.
Similarly, the greenhouse effect occurs naturally in the earth's atmosphere: a protective layer of gases insulates the Earth and keeps its temperature regulated and far warmer than it would be without the greenhouse effect. However, due to large-scale agricultural and farm animal production, the greenhouse…
Why worry about climate change now, when it 200 years we probably won't bother with it at all. Of course, that's because 200 years from now, the human race might not exist. Climate change is occurring at a rapid pace, and we are already past many key tipping points. The basics are this: burning carbon creates a greenhouse gas effect. We used to call this global warming, but climate change is a more accurate way of framing it, because the climate effects are going to be different in different areas around the world, but in general it will result in increased temperatures (Shah, 2013). At present, our main task as a society is to limit the amount of carbon that we expel into the atmosphere so as to limit the negative effects of climate change. In the future, it will require a tremendous amount of effort to survive…
NASA. (2014). Climate change: How do we know? NASA. Retrieved November 17, 2014 from http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/
Reuters. (2014). Hollande raises specter of war over climate change. Yahoo News. Retrieved November 17, 2014 from https://news.yahoo.com/hollande-raises-specter-war-over-climate-change-133133544.html
Rocha, X. (2014). Worsening ocean acidification threatens Alaska fisheries. Science. Retrieved November 17, 2014 from http://news.sciencemag.org/climate/2014/07/worsening-ocean-acidification-threatens-alaska-fisheries
Schlanger, Z. (2014). So long, seafood! Ocean acidification projected to slam Alaskan fisheries. Newsweek. Retrieved November 17, 2014 from http://www.newsweek.com/ocean-acidification-alaskan-fisheries-alaska-crab-crabs-climate-change-alaska-261756
Climate Change and Global Warming
COLLABORATIVE PROJECT ON GLOBAL WARMING LEADING TO INSTABILITY O TEMPERATURES IN THE UNITED STATES O AMERICA.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is a phenomenon that not only is a threat to other species but could make life difficult for mankind as well. Some of the human population will undoubtedly be able to adapt to the changes. However, at the same time, the population is reaching seven billion people and constantly climbing. The human populations are maxing out the natural limits of how many people the planet can viably support. Every new generation of people compete for resources such as food and water as well as emit pollution. The point at which the planet can no longer support the needs of all the people on the planet is approaching quicker than many people realize.
Climate change has already begun to impact the environment.…
Figure 1 - Global Carbon Emissions
Climate change is at least partly due to human activities according to the scientific consensus. Rapidly growing and exponential increases in greenhouse gas emissions since the pre-industrial era have led to a carbon dioxide concentration of nearly 400 parts per million of CO2 in the atmosphere CO2. The current CO2 concentration is alarming considering some scientists believe that the earth's highest level of a safe CO2 level is somewhere around 350 parts per million. Other groups, such as the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), has previously stated that at 450 parts per million there is roughly a fifty two percent chance that catastrophic climate change will not occur.
Findings from the 2007 IPCC Report states that climate that's already changing and impacting environment
Climate and Architecture in Asia
The Climatic egions of Asia
The elation between Climate and Architecture
Architecture for Arid Zones in Asia
The Hot and Humid Climate Architecture in Asia
The Architecture of the Earthquake Prone Areas in Asia
Asia, the largest Continent on the planet, is as diverse as vast. There are several climatic regions in the Continent and concurrently several cultures that have been able to co-exist with each other. History has it that the culture is often defined by the climate. The food people eat, the clothes people wear and the lifestyle and livelihood of people is directly dependent on the weather and climate of the region.
The architecture of a region is also directly dependent on the climate. Architecture directly is related to the people and the way people feel about the use of building houses and other architectural structures. People build houses to stay safe…
Harimi, D., Ming, C. And Kumaresan, S. (2015). A generalized thermal perception approach for indoor thermal comfort assessment in the humid tropics of Malaysia. Energy and Buildings, 88, pp.276-287.
Mofidi, S. (2007). Passive architectural cooling principles for arid climates. In: 2nd PALENC Conference and 28th AIVC Conference on Building Low Energy Cooling and Advanced Ventilation Technologies in the 21st Century. Crete island, Greece: University of Science and Technology, Iran.
Nazafati Namin, F. (2012). The Effect of Radiant Energy from Climate Elements on Architecture. JGG, 4(3).
OSAKI, M. (2006). Strategy for the sustainability of a bioproduction system in the humid tropics. Tropics, 15(3), pp.307-311.
Henry Fountain. “Why So Cold? Climate Change May Be Part of the Answer.” 3 January 2018. 9 January 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/03/climate/cold-climate-change.html
The relationship between climate change and cold spells is not fully clear. The Arctic is not as cold as it used to be yet North America is still gripping with bitter cold. There are many other factors involved and these might be the cause of the extreme weather patterns being experienced. The influence of a particularly cold spell cannot be directly attributed to climate change mainly because cold snaps have occurred throughout history. There has been a warming trend all year round and this should result in warmer winters. However, the opposite has been occurring with winters becoming colder. The only explanation that scientists have is that cold air moving east and colliding with warm air from the Atlantic Ocean causes a bomb cyclone, which results in the formation of…
Henry Fountain. “Why So Cold? Climate Change May Be Part of the Answer.” 3 January 2018. 9 January 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/03/climate/cold-climate-change.html
Larson, Don J, et al. \\\\"Wood Frog Adaptations to Overwintering in Alaska: New Limits to Freezing Tolerance.\\\\" Journal of Experimental Biology 217.12 (2014): 2193-200. Print.
Climate change is also described as global warming, the unnatural or manmade cause of the planet’s increase in temperature. Climate change is physically caused by the release of greenhouse gases which get trapped in the atmosphere, in turn trapping heat from the sun on the planet (Meyer & Roser, 2006). Other pollutants can cause problems for the environment as well, such as toxins released into the water from chemical plants, or nuclear meltdowns that result in oceans being poisoned. These are also lumped in with climate change, since they also alter the environment. One of the biggest producers This paper will describe how climate change is occurring, how corporations are involved, and what some companies are doing to address it.
A Poore, Williams and Tracey (2000) note, sea levels are rising as a result of climate change. This occurs because the heat trapped on the planet by greenhouse gases leads…
Part 1: A Closer Look at the Evidence
1. The first graph on the NASA site shows the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, comparing across time. It shows that for all time, there were fluctuations in the level of CO2 in the atmosphere, but that the level always remained below 300 parts per million. The graph takes a sharp uptick in recent years, and by the time we get to the 20th century it is basically a straight upward line, to the present level around 400ppm. The 1950 level was only at around 320, so nearly a quarter of the carbon in the atmosphere has been added in about the last 70 years or so, and that is for all-time.
The UK website explains that the increase in carbon dioxide levels in the environment has occurred since the Industrial Revolution, which brought about many changes in technology, including the…
The Existential Threat
Climate change, besides being a natural phenomenon, has been greatly induced by humans since ancient times. With the advent of technology, factories came into being and became the reason for greenhouse emission, which was deducted to be the major source of environmental depletion. Cyclones, storms, floods, and tsunamis have been accounted for the repercussions of human intervention in climate change. Although humans, now in the form of global corporations, such as oil and fossil companies, have been working for human betterment, they have been deceptively producing great harm to their environment. World Climate Conferences were held, and many political leaders set scientific teams to investigate causal complications and ask scientists to find answers and make pacts with parties to reduce the catastrophic effects of climate change (Butler). Planting trees was promoted, and the use of fossil fuels was discouraged.
It seems as if climate change…
Butler, Colin D. \\\\"Climate Change, Health and Existential Risks to civilization: A comprehensive review (1989-2013).\\\\" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 15, 10, 2266. 16 Oct.2018, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15102266
Chua, Liana, and Fair, Hannah. \\\\"Anthropocene.\\\\" The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Anthropology, 2019, https://www.anthroencyclopedia.com/entry/anthropocene. Accessed 12 Oct. 2020.
Cook, John, et al. \\\\"Exxon has Misled Americans on Climate Change for Decades. Here\\\\'s How to Fight Back.\\\\" The Guardian, 23 Oct. 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/oct/23/exxon-climate-change-fossil-fuels-disinformation
Sawyer, Suzana. \\\\"Human Energy.\\\\" Dialect Anthropol, vol. 34, 2010, pp. 67-75, DOI: 10.1007/s10624-009-9122-9
For many people, global warming is primarily relevant to them in regards to the weather. They assume that when it is excessively hot, this is reflective of a shift in the global climate and when it is cold, this is a sign that global warming is not really as bad as it might be. However, this is far from the truth. While changes in weather may still be present during our era of global warming, climate refers to sustained and prolonged shifts in temperature. According to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), although the earth has always experienced periods of cooling and warming, the current trend has a probability of a staggering 95% to have been generated by human intervention (“Climate Change”).
The fact that the current change has been generated by human activity and intervention is what makes the shift so especially worrisome. Industrialization since the nineteenth century…
Climate Change and Moral Responsibility
The position that will be supported in this paper is that climate change is a fact and Americans in the U.S. have a moral responsibility to address it.
The background to this issue includes the following: since the 19th century, scientists and researchers have been looking more closely at changes in the climate and the impact of greenhouse gases on the atmosphere. As Meyer and Roser point out, "the emission of greenhouse gases causes climate change" (223). Since the rise of industrialization, greenhouse gases and pollutants have surged, leading to global warming, which has resulted in polar ice caps melting, sea levels rising, and temperature and weather patterns changing -- all of which has major ramifications for the planet.
From the standpoint of distributive justice, specific questions arise when looking to address climate change. For instance, many people believe there should be a cap on…
Javeline, Debra. "The Most Important Topic Political Scientists Are Not Studying:
Adapting to Climate Change." Perspectives on Politics, vol. 12, no. 2 (2014): 420-434.
Meyer, Lukas; Roser, Dominic. "Distributive Justice and Climate Change: The
Allocation of Emission Rights." Analyse & Kritik: Journal of Philosophy and Social Theory, vol. 28, no. 2 (2006): 223-249.
causes of Climate Change?
It is ideal to focus on the primary causes of climate change with the aim of understanding the influence or implication on the growth and development of the planet earth. This paper seeks to unveil the major or primary causes in relation to climate change. This is through evaluation of natural and artificial events/activities with massive implication on climate thus changes in the climatic conditions within the modern society. I have chosen this topic because of its sensitivity to the growth and development of the humanity. Modern society associates itself with constant debates on the concept of global warming. This is a reflection of the significance of the topic of the research with reference to the examination of the primary causes of climate change. It is ideal to understand the primary causes of climate change with the aim of adopting and implementing various critical issues in…
"CEH Protects People from Toxic Chemicals and Promotes Business Products and Practices That Are
Safe for Public Health and the Environment." Center for Environmental Health. N.p., n.d.
Web. 01 Mar. 2013.
"How Much Does Human Activity Affect Climate Change? | NCSE." How Much Does Human Activity Affect Climate Change? | NCSE. N.p., 5 Jan. 2012. Web. 05 Feb. 2013.
Risks of Climate Change
THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS
Climate Change Impacts on Engineering Infrastructure
Key Impacts on Water and Resources
Risk Management Analysis Coping Methods Possibility And Probability
Recommendations And Guidelines For The Vulnerability Of Climate
Change Impacts Using Risk Management Methods And Analysis
THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS
This work examines climate change in relation to impacts upon infrastructure, utilities, and water in relation to the affects from projected sea level rise, flooding, and other related impacts expected to result from climate change. This work also reviews models used for risk assessment and analysis and examines their usefulness and the associated limitations with these models. Knowledge and expertise is growing in the risk-assessment and analysis field of study and reliable models are being developed although the primary effective and appropriate use for the majority of these models…
Adapting to Climate Change Impacts on Water Management: A Guide for Planner (2006) AEA Technology - Prepared for the South East England Regional Assembly. May 2006. Online available at http://www.southeastra.gov.uk/our_work/planning/sust_nat_res/planners_adaptation_guide/planners_adaptation_guide.pdf
Sandell, 2007) ABC News Report Online available at http://www.abcnews.go.com/Technology/GlobalWarming/story?id=3582433&page=1
Blakemore, Bill (2007) Greenland: Where Towering Icebergs Raise Sea Levels. 9 Sept 2007. ABC News Online available at http://www.abcnews.go.com/WN/story?id=3579084&page=1
Cities Should Plan Now for Effects of Global Warming on Infrastructure (2005) University of Maryland 21 Feb 2005 Science and Technology Online available at http://www.newsdesk.umd.edu/scitech/release.cfm?ArticleID=1036
Thus, since we are a major contributor to the problem, we need to be the first to step up with global solutions.
In addition, the country (and the world) needs to start to encourage the development of alternative energies on a large scale. Homes that utilize solar, geothermal, and/or wind power should receive tax breaks, and there should be significant incentives to build "green" in the future. In addition, we need to stop our dependence on foreign oil NOW, as the recent spike in oil prices clearly indicates. We need to develop alternative fuel sources, alternative power sources, and much more environmentally friendly ways of generating the power we need for our homes, schools, and businesses, and we need to do it as soon as possible.
There is mounting evidence that extreme weather events that have recently occurred are at least partly due to global warming. There have been studies…
Author not Available. "About the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change." IPCC.ch. 2008. 14 March 2008. http://www.ipcc.ch/about/index.htm
Editors. "Climate Change." EPA.gov. 2008. 14 March 2008. http://www.epa.gov /climatechange/
Johansen, Bruce E. The Global Warming Desk Reference. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.
Jordan, Stuart. "The Global Warming Crisis." The Humanist Nov.-Dec. 2005: 23+.
The notion of the individual's environment as a direct determinant of one's behavior has been a cornerstone of learning theorists such as Skinner (1953) and Lewin's field theory (B = f [P, E]; Lewin, 1951). While Skinner concentrated on how environmental contingencies and reinforcement shaped behavior, Lewin's original conceptualization consisted of both dispositional characteristics of individual that include both genetic and the chacterological variables (P; the Person) and the psychological environment (E; the psychological environment). As attempts to explain the totality of influences on a person's behavior as developed by Lewin the notion of psychological environment was expanded to include the social, situational, and organizational influences that contribute to behavior (Forehand & Von Haller, 1964; Glick, 1985). The term "organizational climate" has been used to identify these different types of environmental influences that exist within organizations; however, as Glick (1985) discusses this term has not been well defined…
Erikson, E.H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York W.W. Norton
Forehand, G.A., & Von Haller, G. (1964). Environmental variation in studies of organizational behavior. Psychological bulletin, 62(6), 361-382
Glick, W.H. (1985). Conceptualizing and measuring organizational and psychological climate:
Pitfalls in multilevel research. Academy of Management review, 10(3), 601-616.
N. has covered it in its report, and how climate change specialists are trying to address the huge changes underway in the world, as temperatures continue rising, causing havoc around the world. he strengths of this article's argument as backed up by research and by the report given by the U.N., an esteemed organization that also backs it up by research and thus the arguments are sound, and the article makes it clear in a very persuasive way that there is a problem.
he points made in this article are clearly thus based on evidence, yet the presentation is not balanced, here is way more evidence for human induced climate change than against, yet the data is from credible sources and the fact that research backs it up makes it impossible to be "for" climate change, as this is harmful to humanity. he article did not open my eyes, as…
The points made in this article are clearly thus based on evidence, yet the presentation is not balanced, There is way more evidence for human induced climate change than against, yet the data is from credible sources and the fact that research backs it up makes it impossible to be "for" climate change, as this is harmful to humanity. The article did not open my eyes, as it presents things that I already knew, but for some who do not believe in climate change, this can be a good source to go to.
Sadly, climate change is a reality and this article only proves it. Those who believe that climate change is not real really should do their research. The fact that we have freezing winters and scorching summers can only be attributed to climate change and global warming. There are research studies upon research studies out there, as well as a fantastic array of media proof to truly see the effects of climate change.
Source: Gillis, J. (2011). U.N. Panel Finds Climate Change Behind Some Extreme Weather Events. New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2011, from .
These mountains surrounding the area have had an influence on much of the Great Valley's climate.
Particular to the valley is grassland which, in fact, has earned a name for itself and an advocate in this sense. Great Valley Grasslands State Park thrives on preserving whatever grassland is left in the region of San Joaquin Valley. The Valley allows for the nourishment of such wild flower as lupines, California Poppies, and Purple Owl Clover. Mountain runoff created wetlands habitats throughout the years, leading to the formation of marshes. Although they are not common anymore, they supplied the right environment for such trees as the Black illow, which is a water loving tree. Riparian oodland is also to be found in the Great Valley, as it is common to the Mojave Desert, however, their existence within the regions of the latter has been burdened by the tamarisk.
Spreading across the coast…
Schoenherr, a.A. (1995). A Natural History of California. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
"The Great Storm reigns today as the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history. Between 10,000 and 12,000 people died during the storm...the added toll on commercial structures created a monetary loss of $30 million, about $700 million in today's dollars" (Smith 2003).
A more recent powerful tropical system that affected the Texas coast was that of Hurricane Carla. Carla illustrated how storms are particularly damaging to the low-lying areas of Texas near the Gulf Coast. "Carla's circulation enveloped the entire Gulf of Mexico with fringe effects along all Gulf Coast states," and one-half million residents of the area had to be evacuated to higher ground ("Texas Hurricane History," 2008, USA Today).
Because of its location in the Southeast, Houston is subject to the El Nino effect, the climate changes that occur because of variations in water temperature in the Pacific Ocean. El Nino years tend to have higher levels of…
About our office." (2008). National Weather Service (NWS). Retrieved 12 Aug 2008 at http://www.srh.noaa.gov/hgx/office.htm
The Great Christmas Eve Snow Storm." (2004) National Weather Service Forecast Office
NWS). Retrieved 12 Aug 2008. http://www.srh.noaa.gov/hgx/projects/xmasevesnow04.htm
Houston." (2008). Environmental Protection agency EPA. Retrieved 12 Aug 2008 at http://www.epa.gov /hiri/pilot/houston.html
Climate & Topology Analysis Woolworth Limited - Australia (home country) - Host Country: Norway 1) Does climate affect factor conditions natural resource availability
Climate & topology analysis for Woolworths Limited:
Australia (home country); Norway (host country)
As a supermarket, Woolworths Limited is continually facing the challenges posed by the availability of natural resources. A cool season can prevent a crop from properly flourishing; the price of petrol can cause transportation costs to escalate. High fuel costs, because they have such a spiraling impact upon all aspects of the transportation of consumer goods, such as imported produce, can be particularly damaging, given the extent to which this can increase the costs of goods and services. This does not only hurt the average Australian consumer, but also can negatively impact Australia's food exports, causing them to rise in price due to transportation costs.
In Australia, climate may have more of an…
Food. (2011). About Australia. Retrieved July 29, 2011 at http://www.dfat.gov.au/facts/foodindustry.html
Roxas, Rickey. (2011).Senate announces probe on raging milk controversy.
International Business Times. Retrieved July 29, 2011 at http://au.ibtimes.com/articles/110844/20110210/senate-announces-probe-on-raging-milk-controversy.htm
Snapshot. (2011). About Australia. Retrieved July 29, 2011 at http://www.dfat.gov.au/facts/snapshot.html
A closer look at a soap bubble basically reveals swirling colors that are usually in motion with the forces that keep these colors swirling being likened to those that create weather. The weather is moved around by very delicate forces which are the variations between cool and warm areas and their slight variations in constituents. Similar to the complexity of these processes, it's difficult to understand the nature of human influenced climate change.
Carbon dioxide and methane which are primarily greenhouse gases are the derivatives of industrial activities. These greenhouse gases basically gather in the atmosphere and bring changes in the way the earth absorbs and discharge heat. One of the major examples of the effect of these gases is Venus than is hotter than Mercury regardless of the fact that it is farther from the sun. While human beings didn't create the greenhouse gases on Venus, the effects of…
"Disagreement on Human-caused Climate Change." (n.d.). Climate Change & Global Warming
Fact Sheet. Retrieved November 4, 2010, from http://climatechange.110mb.com/intro-debate-climate-change.htm
"Global Climate Change: Is it Human Caused?" (n.d.). Sierra County Prospect: 21st Century
News. Retrieved November 4, 2010, from http://www.sierracountyprospect.com/Global_Climate_Change.html
These restoration efforts affect natural wetlands that have been destroyed by mankind and then proposed to become urbanized.
Although the impact on the climate by humans has had several negative impacts, such impacts have the potential to be stopped and even reversed. Research clearly indicates that recent technological advances can be used in these cases as a valuable tool in determining whether natural processes can be restored, or whether other options, such as urbanization, are ideal. Finally, future studies and advancements in technology will pave the way for a brighter future in restoring and repairing our injured climate.
AGU. (2003). Human Impacts on Climate. Retrieved November 5, 2007, at http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/climate_change_position.html.
Carter & urgess Quarterly. (2001). Getting the Lay of the Land. Carter & urgess Quarterly, vol
University of Georgia. (2006). SREL Research: Remediation & Restoration. Retrieved November 2, 2007 at http://www.uga.edu/srel/research-restoration.htm.
U.S. Department of Commerce. (2007). National Geodetic…
AGU. (2003). Human Impacts on Climate. Retrieved November 5, 2007, at http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/climate_change_position.html .
Carter & Burgess Quarterly. (2001). Getting the Lay of the Land. Carter & Burgess Quarterly, vol
University of Georgia. (2006). SREL Research: Remediation & Restoration. Retrieved November 2, 2007 at http://www.uga.edu/srel/research-restoration.htm .
U.S. Department of Commerce. (2007). National Geodetic Survey. Retrieved November 1, 2007, at http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/ .
John K. Horowitz. "The income-temperature relationship in a cross-section of countries and its implications for predicting the effects of global warming." Environmental and Resource Economics 44(4) December, 2009
Ian Moffatt. "2 Global arming," in the Economics of Climate Change. Edited by Owen, Anothony D. And Nick Hanley, 6-34. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Louis Putterman. "Agriculture, Diffusion and Development: Ripple Effects of the Neolithic Revolution." Economica, 75(300):729 -- 748, November 2008.
Jeffrey D. Sachs, John . Mcarthur, Guido Schmidt-Traub, Margaret Kruk, Chandrika Bahadur, Michael Faye, and Gordon Mccord. "Ending Africa's Poverty Trap." Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, no. 1 (2004): 117-129.
Eugene R. ahl and Caspar M. Ammann. "Robustness of the mann, bradley, hughes reconstruction of northern hemisphere surface temperatures: Examination of criticisms based on the nature and processing of proxy climate evidence." Climatic Change, 85 (1-2):33 -- 69, November 2007.
John C. Bluedorn,,Akos Valentinyi, and Michael Vlassopoulos. The Long-Lived Effects…
John C. Bluedorn, Akos Valentinyi, and Michael Vlassopoulos. The Long-Lived Effects of Historic Climate on the Wealth of Nations University of Southampton, Magyar Nemzeti Bank (the central bank of Hungary) 17 November 2009.
Melissa Dell, Benjamin F. Jones, and Benjamin a. Olken. "Climate Change and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Last Half Century." NBER Working Paper, (14312), June 2008.
Olivier Desch'enes and Enrico Moretti. "Extreme Weather Events, Mortality, and Migration." NBER Working Paper, (13227), July 2007. 2
John Luke Gallup, Jeffrey D. Sachs, and Andrew D. Mellinger. "Geography and Economic Development." International Regional Science Review, 22(2):179 -- 232, 1999.
I would think being part of an organization with an integrated purpose, strong focus on the advancement of the individual, and respect for others would be a great place to work. Organizations of similar circumstances can differ greatly in productivity and climate and productivity can often be related to individual and group motivation. The climate of the organization enhances or inhibits motivation. The organizational climate is a product of leadership (Kouzes & Posner, 2011).
Many believe organizational climate is something that is sensed rather than cognitively recognized, however climate is a set of attributes which can be perceived about a particular organization and the way they deal with their members and environments. It is the combination of perceptions of individuals, the collective view of the organizations members as to the nature of the environment in which they work.
Leadership can enhance climate to the degree they demonstrate confidence…
Kouzes, J.M. & Posner, B.Z. (2011). Credibility: How leaders gain it and lose it, why people demand it. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publications.
"Leadership theories" (NDI). Changing minds.org. Retrieved October 19, 2012, from http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/leadership_theories.htm
Global Warming and Climate Change
Natural versus anthropogenic forces in climate change are a common topic for discussion. Some people believe that the global warming experienced now is part of a natural cycle while other others believe it is accelerated thanks to human evolution on earth. Although there is a natural cycle on the planet concerning global warming, this is not the case regarding the information provided from scientific data on the effects of human-generated global warming. Natural global warming takes long periods of time to develop.
People that have analyzed previous global warming trends have noted the rise in temperatures occurred over a prolonged period, like thousands of years. However, human-caused global warming has produced a warming trend at a faster rate. Instead of thousands of years, it is decades. Secondly, humans were not around for the previous global warming trends and if they were, they were much smaller…
Earth's Climate System is a complex system that is influenced by many different factors. The manner in which the climate is maintained, and makes life on Earth possible, is a culmination of the atmospheric conditions and the Earth's energy balance that is determined primarily by energy introduced into the system as well as its ability to trap energy in the greenhouse layer. The Earth resides in the "Goldilocks Zone", or the habitable zone, which is believed to be the region around a star in which the right conditions for life can be sustained; recently scientist have been able to discover other planets that could also reside in such zones. (Zin, 2017).
The Earth's climate system provides an ideal habitat for life based on its relationship to the closest star, the sun, and its orbital patterns. The rotation of the earth, as well as the rotation of the moon, give the…
NASA. (N.d.). Climate Change: How do we know? Retrieved from NASA: https://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/
Zin, S. (2017, February 17). SEVEN EARTH-SIZED PLANETS ORBIT A NEARBY STAR, AND THREE ARE IN ITS 'HABITABLE ZONE'. Retrieved from Newsweek: http://www.newsweek.com/seven-earth-sized-planets-orbit-nearby-star-and-three-are-its-habitable-zone-559728
Diversity of a climate in an organization is reflected in the attitudes of the organization's members towards diversity. As a manager, the diversity climate can be addressed by understanding the level of diversity in the organization, its diversity climate and then implementing strategies to improve both. There are significant benefits to improving an organization's diversity climate. A superior diversity climate has been found to improve the recruitment, promotion and retention of top talent, particularly where that talent is minority in origin (Price et al., 2005). Hicks-Clarke & Iles (2000) also showed that improving the diversity climate of an organization delivers superior human resources outcomes.
The first step to improving an organization's diversity climate is to develop a procedure for analyzing diversity in the organization. The Loden and Rosener's Four Layers of Diversity Model can be used to better understand an organization's diversity. The first layer is related to work status…
Price, E.; Gozu, A.; Kern, D.; Powe, N.; Wand, G.; Golden, S. & Cooper, L. (2005). The role of cultural diversity climate in recruitment, promotion and retention of faculty in academic medicine. Journal of General Internal Medicine. Vol. 20 (7) 565-571.
Hicks-Clarke, D. & Iles, P. (2000). Climate for diversity and its effects and organizational attitudes and perceptions. Personnel Review. Vol. 29 (3) 324-345.
Custom Book for Ashford: Organizational Behavior (p.127)
Jackson, T. (2011). Building a diversity training program. Profiles in Diversity Journal. Retrieved May 4, 2011 from http://www.diversityjournal.com/corporate/diversity-training/building-a-diversity-training-program/
The Green Hotel Association (GHA) suggests using "printed towel rack hangers and sheet changing cards" in the bathroom of hotel rooms. The sign on the hanger mentions that guests do not have to have their linens changed (sheets, pillow cases) if they prefer not to; they can help the hotel save water -- in fact the GHA notifies the hotel guest that "millions of gallons of water are used to wash bed sheets" every day. So when the "sheet-changing card is left on the pillow, the room attendants" know to just make the bed but don't wash the sheets (Fostering Sustainable Behavior).
The obvious positive aspect of this is not just water savings but the electricity that it takes to heat the water and run the huge industrial clothes washing machines represents even more savings. There is no negative aspect to asking the room attendants to leave the same sheets…
Albright, Evan. The Book on Going Green. Raleigh, NC: LuLu.com. 2008.
Fostering Sustainable Behavior. "Energy and Water Reduction: 'Green' Hotels." Retrieved
February 22, 2012, from http://www.cbsm.com . 2010.
Walmsley, Andreas. "Hotels and Climate Change: Setting the Scene." In Trends and Issues in Global Tourism 2011, R. Conrady and M. Buck, Editors. New York: Springer.
It is our belief that such integration will provide reciprocal benefits. Learners will more fully understand information technologies in the process of applying them across the curriculum and their understanding of other curriculum areas will be similarly enriched as they work to apply it skills in those contexts. Furthermore, there is a need to ensure that people understand the connections between information technologies and the other skills they attain in school, skills they use in work, and in everyday life.
Findings of the Initial Literature eview Phase of the esearch
There exists a lack of technological integration which is noted at all levels of the educational forum as being one that is detrimental to the future of the student if not adequately addressed. The smaller schools appear to be providing better instruction and 'care' of their students as well as better technological instruction and overall better outcomes in terms of…
Digital Transformation: A Framework for ICT Literacy: A Report of the International ICT Literacy Panel educational testing service. Online available at http://www.ets.org/research/ictliteracy/ictreport.pdf
Berkowitz, Bob (2001) Research Study: The Big6 ™ and Student Achievement - Report of an Action Research Study. Online available at http://www.big6.com/showarticle.php?id=11&page=2.
The Importance of Contemporary Literacy in the Digital Age: A Response to Digital Transformation: A Framework for Information Communication Technologies (ICT) Literacy http://www.big6.com/showarticle.php?id=157
Cotton, Kathleen (1996) School Size, School Climate and Student Performance
Global Warming Trends and Impact
Global warming refers to the warming of the earth's temperature, in particular oceans and the layer of the atmosphere closest to the planet (Thompson, Lonnie & Gioietta 114). Thus far, the total temperature increase is documented at only about one degree (Weart 43). However, even this seemingly minor change can create ripple effects that present challenges for earth and mankind. Global warming and other climate change issues are thought to be the result of both natural phenomenon and man-made activity. In order to sustain life as we know it, the earth must maintain a consistent temperature. The rapid elevation in temperature has created an imbalance making it evident that the phenomenon of global warming is real.
The rate at which arctic sea ice is melting is faster than normal which has caused sea levels to rise (Prothero 15). In addition, weather is becoming more extreme,…
Prothero, Donald R. "How We Know Global Warming Is Real And Human Caused." Skeptic 17.2 (2012): 14-22. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 May 2013.
Thompson, Lonnie G., and Gioietta Kuo. "Climate Change: The Evidence and Our Options." World Future Review 4.2 (2012): 114-122. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 May 2013.
Weart, Spencer. "Global Warming: How Skepticism Became Denial." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 67.1 (2011): 41-50. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 May 2013.
(ikipedia, 1) Likewise, early American settlers in these regions found this a crucial plant to be used in the efforts of homesteading and industrialization. Using the dense fibrous substance of the trunk in order to render fencing and other demarcations of property, the pioneers subjected much of the available stock of Joshua Trees in this region to exploitation. This accounts in part for the reduced presence of these in the general landscape. Indeed, research also denotes that the steam engine which was so central to early industrialization appealed heavily to the slow-burning of the dense Joshua Tree fibers as a way of generating fuel. (ikipedia, 1)
Though its use in native cultures was omnipresent, the most prominent of symbols relating to the Joshua Tree also emerges from the engagement of American pioneers. Initially, research tells, the Joshua Tree was encountered in formal recording by Mormon settlers. It was their view…
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden (RSABG). (2010). Living Collection: In the Garden. RSABG.org.
Wikipedia. (2010). Joshua Tree. Wikimedia, Ltd. Inc.
Leadership Choice: Designing Climates of Blame or esponsibility
In E. Grady Bogue's book The Leadership Choice: Designing Climates of Blame or esponsibility, the author addresses the impact that self-knowledge can have on a person's life and career. In other words, the way a person acts in his or her personal life is often directly related to the way a person acts in his or her professional life. The morals, opinions, and beliefs held by a person are not generally confined to one area of that individual's life. They are spread across all of the areas of life and designed to be used by that person in many different ways. When a leader has opinions and beliefs, those are generally included in that leader's personal and professional lives, and it may be very difficult to keep them separate. Most people would likely question why anyone would want or need to keep…
Antonakis, J., Cianciolo, A.T., & Sternberg, R.J. (2004). The nature of leadership. New York: Sage Publications, Inc.
Bogue, E.G. (2010). The leadership choice: Designing climates of blame or responsibility. New York: WestBow Press.
Frey, M., Kern, R., Snow, J., & Curlette, W. (2009). Lifestyle and transformational leadership style. Journal of Individual Psychology, 65(3), 212-240.
aquatic system • Describe climate affects selected ecosystem. • Explain, based laws thermodynamics, energy flows selected ecosystem. • Examine matter transported selected ecosystem due biogeochemical cycles, carbon, hydrologic, nitrogen, phosphorus.
Aquatic ecosystems are mainly responsible for assisting energy transfers across the planet and for making it possible for all life on earth to exist. Depending on the area where it is located and on the substances that it contains, a body of water can have more or less living beings in it. Climate has a strong impact on water and on the organisms that directly depend on it. Climate change has had a severe effect on bodies of water all around the planet and this is obvious especially when considering melting glaciers and the energy that they release.
Thermohaline circulation is one of the most important circulation systems present on the planet and it is largely in charge…
Franks, Felix, "Water: A Matrix of Life," (Royal Society of Chemistry, 19.07.2000)
Juuti, Petri, "Environmental History of Water: Global Views on Community Water Supply and Sanitation," (IWA Publishing, 30.01.2007)
political and social climate of the U.. during the 1920s and what brought about the 'roaring '20s."
The apocalyptic environment of World War I with its finale brought about a relief throughout Western Europe and the U..A. And the feeling that the world was about to start anew. This led to excesses of spending, behavior, hedonistic indulgences, and revolutions in sexual conduct, morals, and cultural trends such as music. The economic boom also attributed to the description of this decade as the Roaring 20s.
A series of insignificant and troubled presidents ran the state during this time ranging from Harding to Hoover. Whilst their presidency was unremarkable, the times themselves were not. This was the period of the flappers and jazz with break from traditions and a surge of modern technology. Ford came out with his automobile for he masses. The moving picture (and Charlie Chaplin) made its appearance. Radio…
Allen, Frederick Lewis. Only Yesterday:An Informal History of the Nineteen-Twenties. Retrieved on12/21/2011
Joseph A. Schumpeter, "The Decade of the Twenties," American Economic Review vol. 36, No. 2, (May, 1946)
Kallen, Stuart A. The Roaring Twenties (2001) Greenhaven Press, USA
Global warming, or more accurately, climate change, is the phenomenon that has been scientifically observed over repeated studies that the planet is experiencing warming and changing climates at a pace much more rapid that has been observed in any prior era. The increase in the pace of the climate change has been correlated with the coming of the industrial age, and in particular with the mass adoption of fossil fuels. The burning of hydrocarbons to create energy unleashes a chemical reaction that ends with carbon entering the atmosphere, where it then traps solar radiation in the atmosphere, leading to the warming process. This paper will outline this process and the evidence supporting the fact of anthropogenic global warming.
Observations of Climate Change
The first step in understanding climate change is understanding how it is determined to be occurring. Weather is an observable phenomenon, and over a long period of time…
Antonio, R. & Brulle, A. (2011). The unbearable lightness of politics: climate change denial and political polarization. The Sociological Quarterly. Vol. 52 (2011) 195-202.
Cox, P., Betts, R., Jones, C., Spall, S. & Totterdell, I. (2000). Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate change model. Nature. Vol. 408 (9 November 2000) 184-187.
Crowley, T. (2000). Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years. Science. Vol. 289 (14 July 2000), 270-277.
Dansgaard, W., Johnsen, S., Clausen, H. Jensen, D., Gundestrup, N., Hammer, C., & Oeschger, H. (1984). North Atlantic climate oscillations revealed by deep Greenland ice cores. Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity.
Climate Change man-made, and if yes, is there a sustainable process that mankind can get actively involved in with the purpose to slow it down or even to stop it entirely?
Climate Change is one of the 'hottest' topics today and yet most people have a limited understanding of what it involves.
Global Warming is a process that can be seen everywhere and the majority of the world considers a future where temperatures will constantly go up until the earth's surface is no longer a viable place for people to live.
Thermohaline circulation is, to a certain degree, similar to a giant air conditioning device making it possible for earth to maintain its temperatures relatively constant.
Global Warming is believed to disrupt the ocean circulation process and to eventually shut it down completely, leading to an Ice Age and thus acting in disagreement with how most people perceive the effects…
DiMento, J. & Doughman, P. "Climate Change: What it Means for Us, Our Children, and Our Grandchildren," (MIT Press, 2007)
Klein, N. "This Changes Everything: Capitalism Vs. The Climate." (Simon and Schuster, 16 Sep 2014)
Committee on Abrupt Climate Change, National Research Council, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Polar Research Board, Ocean Studies Board, "Abrupt Climate Change:: Inevitable Surprises," (National Academies Press, 23 Apr 2002)
He even goes so far as to claim that if global warming does occur, it will be a positive thing. Higher temperatures would be positive for agriculture and forests. He believes that higher temperatures will actually cause sea levels to drop, and wraps up his interview with the cheery optimism that everyone appreciates warmer weather.
igley isn't quite as upbeat. He points out that because uncertainty is a built in component of the climate models, it is just as likely that the scientists have erred on the side of caution as it is that they have erred on the side of excess. This means that the effects of global warming could be much worse than what the models predict. His overall concern:
I]t's not so much just the temperature changes, but it's the changes in all other aspects of the environment: amounts of precipitation, the ability for vegetation to maintain…
Bailey, Ronald. "Why Meaning?" Reason (Apr. 2004): 10-12.
First Test of Predictions of Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity." Space Daily (15 July 2005): NA. General OneFile. Gale. 27 Nov. 2007 http://find.galegroup.com .
New Observations Confirm Recent Warming of the Tropical Atmosphere." Space Daily (15 Aug. 2005): NA. General OneFile. Gale. 27 Nov. 2007.
Heinrich events are one of the most discussed and debated phenomena related to global climate change. For each theory proposed related to the cause or effect of a Heinrich event, there is a theory contrary to the concept. Theories relating to the binging and purging of ice sheets, cyclic changes in atmospheric conditions, and the thermohaline circulation disruption of the North Atlantic Ocean all play a part in the discussion of Heinrich events. While the debate of the causes of Heinrich events is still ongoing, the effects of the events are well documented, and are clearly substantial in relation to changes in the global climate.
This paper discusses the history of Heinrich events, and will discuss current theories of their origin. Additionally, this paper will outline the scientific method for discovering more information of Heinrich events, and their relationship to the Bond Cycle, Milankovitch Cycles, and Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) oscillations. Finally,…
Bond, G., H. Heinrich, W.S. Broecker, L. Labeyrie, J. McManus, J. Andrews, S. Huon,
R. Jantschik, S. Clasen, C. Simet, K. Tedesco, M. Klas, G. Bonani and S. Ivy. (1992).
Evidence for massive discharges of icebergs into the North Atlantic Ocean during the last glacial period. Nature, 360, 245-249.
Bergeron, L. (1997, Jan. 4). Wobbling world brings iceberg surges. New Scientist, 153(2063), 14.