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Clinical Psychology Dissetation - Deam Content as a Theapeutic Appoach: Ego Gatification vs. Repessed Feelings
An Abstact of a Dissetation
Deam Content as a Theapeutic Appoach: Ego Gatification vs. Repessed Feelings
This study sets out to detemine how deams can be used in a theapeutic envionment to discuss feelings fom a deam, and how the theapist should engage the patient to discuss them to eveal the elevance of those feelings, in thei pesent, waking life. It also discusses the meaning of epetitious deams, how medication affects the content of a deame's deams, and if theapists actually "guide" thei clients in what to say. This "guidance" might be the theapist "suggesting" to thei clients that they had suffeed some type of ealy childhood tauma, when in fact, thee wee no taumas in thei ealy childhoods. The oigin of psychiaty is not, as it would have people believe, medicine, theapy o any…
references. This may be related to the large decrease in familiar settings in the post-medication dreams. Although Domhoff (1996) does not list a high percentage of elements from the past as an indicator of psychopathology, he does mention that people suffering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a type of anxiety disorder, tend to have dreams in which distressing events are relived again and again. It may be that other anxiety disorders invoke a similar response in which the dreamer has a tendency to dwell on past events, which merits further research.
A final observation is that the results of this study provide support for Hartmann's (1984) biological model of the effects of drugs on dreams. An early study which focused mainly on long-term sleep patterns found little change in dream content associated with psychotropic drug administration (Hartmann & Cravens, 1974), but a later study conducted in Hartmann's laboratory indicated that increased levels of dopamine resulted in more vivid, nightmarish dreams (Hartmann, Russ, Oldfield, Falke, & Skoff, 1980). Based on his own research and the literature on drugs and nightmares, Hartmann (1984) proposed that drugs that increase the neurotransmitters dopamine or acetylcholine, or decrease norepinephrine or serotonin, produce nightmares and more vivid and bizarre dreams.
Drugs that have the opposite effects would decrease the incidence of disturbing dreams. The dreamer in this study was taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, which served to increase the effects of serotonin. According to the biological model, with the onset of medication the dreamer should have experienced a decrease in nightmares, or, in Hall and Van de Castle's terms, lower aggression, negative emotions, and other unpleasant factors. This was, in fact, the case.
The emphasis on statistically significant differences without regard to effect sizes slowed progress in the study of dream content by creating unnecessary polarities and focusing energy on methodological arguments. The introduction of effect sizes into the study of dream content makes it possible to suggest that the controversy over home and laboratory collected dream reports never should have happened. The emphasis in dream content studies henceforth should be on effect sizes and large samples. Then future dream researchers could focus on testing new ideas using dream reports collected either at home or in the sleep laboratory.
Mental health is an essential part of overall health. The Surgeon General's report on mental health in 1999 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999) and the 2001 supplement Mental Health: Culture, ace and Ethnicity (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001) both highlighted mental health as a critical health aspect affecting a broad range of individuals today. Current paper is focused at exploring the concept of clinical psychology and how it is different from social psychology, counseling psychology and forensic psychology.
Clinical Psychology is the field of psychology in which theory, science and clinical knowledge are combined for the objective of comprehension, prevention and relieve distress and dysfunction based on psychology and for the promotion prejudiced comfort and personal development. The main features of clinical psychology are psychological assessment and psychotherapy. Though clinical psychologist participate in psychological research, teaching, counseling and forensic assessment. Clinical Psychology…
Goldstein, A.M. (2007). Forensic psychology: Toward a standard of care. In A.M. Goldstein (Ed.), Forensic psychology: Emerging topics and expanding roles (pp.3-41). New York: Wiley.
Heilbrun, K. (2001). Principles of forensic mental health assessment. New York: Kluwer.
Kane, A.W. (2007a). Basic concepts in psychology and law. In G. Young, A.W. Kane, & K. Nicholson (Eds.), Causality of psychological injury: Presenting evidence in court (pp. 261-292). New York: Springer Science + Business Media.
Mackenzie, B.D.(1977). Behaviorism and the limits of scientific method. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press.
Why I Chose Clinical Psychology as a Profession
Clinical psychology was not an immediately clear academic or career path for me, not that it was unappealing in any regard but simply that it took some time to come to my attention as an area of focus that was particularly interesting. Studying psychology as an undergraduate definitely piqued my curiosity and engaged a passion for application and interpersonal engagement with what I had learned and had started to experience, yet it still took several years following my undergraduate studies for me to develop a true understanding of what clinical psychology involved as both an academic and a practical/professional discipline. Several more years of semi-professional inquiry found me increasingly drawn to clinical psychology largely because I enjoyed the challenges presented in terms of interpersonal skills and especially in terms of the mental puzzles one was routinely confronted with in anything…
This leaves many veterans prone to the condition known as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This may be characterized as "an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened. Traumatic events that may trigger PTSD include violent personal assaults, natural or human-caused disasters, accidents, or military combat." (NIMH, 1) in the particular case of this discussion, military combat is a cause of PTSD that can have devastating long-term outcomes. Indeed, "studies estimate that as many as 500,000 troops serving in Iraq and Afghanistan will suffer from some form of psychological injury, with PTSD being the most common." (Eliscu, 58) the outcomes of this condition will run a wide range of symptoms that impact the ability of individuals to cope with the pressures of everyday life, to relate to those who have not experienced the traumas of war,…
Blanco, C.; Laje, G.; Olfson, Marcus, S.C. & Pincus, H.A. (2002). Trends in the treatment of bipolar disorder by outpatient psychiatrists. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(6), 1005-1011.
Craddock, N.; O'Donovan, M.C. & Owen, M.J. (2005). The genetics of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: dissecting psychosis. Journal of Medical Genetics, 42, 193-204.
Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS)1. (2006). Anorexia Nervosa. Women's Health.gov
Ellenberger, H. (1970). Discovery of the Unconscious. New York: Basic Books.
In contrast to dynamic or behavioral models, humanistic therapy places the patient (or "client") in the center of the session. This often relegates the therapist to a coaching role or, even more passively, to serve as an example of sincere interest in the client's chosen direction. Since the goal is often to build self-esteem (Branden, 1994, p. 1), this gives the client (for example, a timid child or neglected widow) experience with supportive, open relationships that may have been absent from prior life.
With its roots in intervention-oriented social work, family systems therapy has evolved into a sophisticated theoretical approach in its own right. By seeking the source of disturbances in the relationships between family members and other individuals, family therapists often derive insight from studying how two or more people -- any one of whom may be the putative "patient" (Barnhill, 1979, p. 94) -- transmit information and emotional…
Aveline, M. (2001). Very brief dynamic psychotherapy. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 7, pp. 373-380.
Barnhill, L.R. (1979). Healthy family systems. The Family Coordinator, 28(1), pp. 94-100.
Bateman, a., Brown, D. & Pedder, J. (2000). Introduction to psychotherapy: An outline of psychodynamic principles and practice. 3rd edition. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Branden, N. Working with self-esteem in psychotherapy. Directions in Clinical Psychology, 4(8), pp. 1-6.
Many people (e.g., researchers, graduate students) can benefited from compulsive traits. What are some likely personality characteristics of such persons? What would such people NOT be like?
Compulsive individuals are likely also to be anxious, competent, deliberative, goal oriented, and dutiful.
Define "personality" and "trait."
Personality is enduring, creating the cohesive self that we recognize when we look inward. It comprises a number of different mechanisms and properties. One's personality mediates that individual's interactions with every level of the environment from internal to dyadic to social and cultural. A trait is a distinguishing feature and personality comprises all of an individual's traits.
According to Kuyken et al. (2003) what predicts worse psychological adaptation over the course of training for clinical psychology students? What predicts better adjustment over time?
Kuyken et al. (2003) found that trainees who felt that demands on them were reasonable, who reported having a good…
Module Five Questions
Based on the results obtained in Santa's (1977) classic study, in what brain area would you expect that geometric information is analyzed? In what area of the brain would you expect verbal information to be analyzed?
I would expect that verbal information (words) would be analyzed in the left half of the brain while geometric information would be analyzed in the right half of the brain in a right-handed person.
I am following Brooks' procedure to scan a block letter. I began my scan at the bottom left point of the letter. The correct sequence of responses is: yes, yes, yes, no, no, yes. What is the letter?
The letter is "L."
I would like you to compare your god/divinity/first-cause (select one) constructions to those presented by Kunkel et al.
Kunkel et al. (1999) describe a number of the concepts that their subjects have developed…
Thus, PysD programs prove beneficial in terms of professional expectations.
This more practice-orientated path goes beyond research. PsyD programs offer a "Comprehensive, carefully supervised training for practice and thorough training for research cannot both be accomplished in the time allowed," (Walfish & Hess 2001:54).
Preparation for the student within a PsyD program comes from actual practice, rather than simple observation. It is within this scope of practice which allows for more thorough preparation for clinical practice. According to the research, "The PsyD students were to have class work as rigorous as that of their fellow students who were working for a PhD, but instead of doing research-based dissertations, they spent more time in practicum work and submitted a final document focusing more on a clinical demonstration project instead," (Walfish & Hess 2001:48). Students are allowed to go beyond the classroom and experience the reality of clinical practice within a psychology…
Johnson, W. Brad & Mcminn, Mark R. (2003). Thirty years of integrative Doctoral training: historic developments, assessment of outcomes, and recommendations for the future. Journal of Psychology and Theology. 31(2):83-86.
Keith-Spiegel, Patricia & Wiederman, Michael W. (2000). The Complete Guide to Graduate School Admission: Psychology, Counseling, and Related Professions. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Walfish, Steven & Hess, Allen K. (2001). Succeeding in Graduate School: The Career Guide for Psychology Students. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
We are engaged in what happened then. We are the same ones who were involved in the action; the memory brings us back as acting and experiencing there and then. Without memory and the displacement it brings we would not be fully actualized as selves and as human beings, for good and for ill (71).
Jacek is very clearly stuck in a place in his mind where he believes that he was to blame for what really happened. He was there and he remembers it as such and so it is so. The other element that feeds this is his imagination. According to Sokolowski, memory and imagination are structurally very alike and it is easy for one to slip into the other. The question is whether or not Jacek sees his true self in that memory or if it is an imagined being of himself. This matters because if Jacek…
Camus, Albert. (2002) Albert Camus and the philosophy of the absurd. Rodopi Bv
De Beauvoir, Simone. (2000) The ethics of ambiguity. Citadel.
Mahon, Joseph. (1997) Existentialism, feminism and Simone de Beauvoir. Palgrave MacMillan.
clinical psychology as a distinct pursuit and profession emerged in the late nineteenth century. However, a "climate of ideas receptive to the development of clinical psychology" emerged as early as the late 18th century (eisman, 1976, p. vii). Clinical psychology perspectives reflected trends in Enlightenment thinking and the rise of the scientific method as a primary means of investigating reality. Enlightenment issues like individualism underlie much of clinical psychology. The evolution of the professional field indicates the important role of both scientific research and methodology including statistical analysis. Imbuing psychology with the scientific method allowed clinical psychology to emerge as a credible profession dedicated to the explication and healing of mental health issues. Clinical psychology is one of many approaches to psychology and mental health. Psychiatry, counseling psychology, and social work all share elements in common with clinical psychology even though all are distinct professions.
eisman (1976) defines clinical psych…
Albee, G.W. (2000). The Boulder Model's fatal flaw. American Psychologist 55(2): 247-248.
Benjamin, L.T. (2005). A History of Clinical Psychology as a Profession in America. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 1(1-30)
"Brief Institutional History of Clinical and Health Psychology," (n.d.). Chapter Two in Curriculum in Clinical and Health Psychology. Retrieved online: http://www.cop.es/English/docs/brief.htm
Fazakas-DeHoog, L. (n.d.). History of clinical psychology. Retrieved online: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=clinical%20psychology%20history&source=web&cd=7&ved=0CFoQFjAG&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.laurafazakas.com%2Fpdf%2Fpsych_260b_chap-02_history_of_clinical_2007-2008.pdf&ei=qvjGTun9BM-ctwe_0OytDA&usg=AFQjCNEEyhpcURpsU11hKeTwPKMV-Cketw
The field of clinical psychology emerged as a viable method through which the theoretical foundations of cognitive studies could be effectively applied within the clinical setting to prevent and treat psychological syndromes. Derived from the first clinical psychology work conducted by Lightner Witmer in the late 19th century, and expanding throughout the 20th century as diagnostic tools were refined and classification systems for mental disorders were standardized, modern clinical psychology has been adapted to fulfill a niche within a whole host of divergent fields, including criminal justice, the social sciences and gender relations. Clinical psychologists premise their work on the use of empirical analysis to accurately investigate matters of cognitive processing, psychological assessment and mental illness, with the administration of personality tests, neurological scans and clinical interviews the most frequently utilized diagnostic resources. As clinical psychology expanded the base of knowledge pertaining to the human brain's highly refined…
Blackburn, R. (1993). The psychology of criminal conduct: Theory, research and practice. John Wiley & Sons.
Donohue, J., & Levitt, S. (2001). The impact of race on policing and arrests. Journal of Law and Economics, 44, 367-394. Retrieved from http://pricetheory.uchicago.edu/levitt/Papers/LevittDonohueTheImpactOfRace2001.pdf
Fite, P.J., Wynn, P., & Pardini, D.A. (2009). Explaining discrepancies in arrest rates between
Black and White male juveniles. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 77(5), 916. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2981137/ >.
Also known as person-centered or client-centered, Rogerian therapy, it "places much of the responsibility for the treatment process on the client, with the therapist taking a nondirective role" Person-centered therapy, 2009, Mind disorders). However, although effective with some clients: "Person-centered therapy, however, appears to be slightly less effective than other forms of humanistic therapy in which therapists offer more advice to clients and suggest topics to explore," as the client may use the therapy sessions more to complain or go over old grievances, than use the therapy to move forward in his or her life (Person-centered therapy, 2009, Mind disorders).
Another type of therapy that has radically escalated in popularity is that of family or marital therapy, which, like cognitive-behavioral therapy, tends to be focused on specific problems and of a fairly short duration. "Marriage and family therapists regularly practice short-term therapy; 12 sessions on average" FAQs, 2009, AAMFT). The…
FAQs about marriage and family therapy. (2009). American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT). Retrieved February 28, 2009 at http://www.aamft.org/faqs/index_nm.asp
Mulhauser, Greg. (2009). An introduction to cognitive therapy and cognitive-behavioral approaches. Counseling Resource. Retrieved February 28, 2009 at http://counsellingresource.com/types/cognitive-therapy/
Park, C. (2006, October 18). Best evidence summaries of topics in mental healthcare.
BEST in MH clinical question-answering service.
Clinical psychology is a professional and scientific field in which specialists of this area of practice seek to augment understanding of human behavior in order to promote effective functioning of persons within society. Clinical psychologists encompass both the application and search for psychological principles and techniques that better the individual. In order to search for and apply the data they collect, clinicians must engage in teaching, research, assessment or diagnosis, psychotherapy, and programs meant to augment psychological well-being and performance. Due to its rich history, clinical psychology has become the biggest and one of the most dynamic fields of psychology with the latest specialist focusing on positive clinical psychology.
Many events helped shape development and practice of clinical psychology. "…the publication of William James's Principles of Psychology, Sigmund Freud's pioneer investigations into the causes and treatments of neuroses, the founding of the American Psychological Association, the opening of the first…
Durlak, J.A., Weissberg, R.P., Dyminicki, A.B., Taylor, R.D., & Schellinger, K.B. (2011). The Impact of Enhancing Students' Social and Emotional Learning: A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Universal Interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 405-432. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01564.x/full
Reisman, J.M. (1991). A history of clinical psychology. New York: Hemisphere Pub. Corp.
Wood, A.M., & Tarrier, N. (2010). Positive Clinical Psychology: A new vision and strategy for integrated research and practice. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 819. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2010.06.003
old, the profession of clinical psychology is "one of the most vigorous fields of psychology," (eisman, 1991, p. 3). Clinical psychology refers generally to both social science research and application of that research to achieve specific clinical goals related to mental health. Since its inception in the 1890s, the field has changed and evolved dramatically (Benjamin, 2005). Earliest forms of clinical psychology included working with asylum patients, which often entailed using a variety of techniques that are now deemed unethical or harmful. The rise of psychoanalysis based on Freud's teachings led to the 20th century being an era in which talk therapy prevailed. esearch on different models of talk therapy has informed best practices in general. However, recent changes to the field of clinical psychology attempt to distinguish between the types of quantifiable evidence that can be gained from empirical research using psychopharmacological interventions on the one hand and less…
Barlow, DH (2011). The Oxford Handbook of Clinical Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Benjamin, L.T. (2005). A history of clinical psychology as a profession in America. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 1, 1-30.
Lilienfeld, S.O., Lynn, S.J. & Lohr, J.M. (2015). Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology. New York: The Guilford Press.
Reisman, J.M. (1991). A History of Clinical Psychology. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
In certain countries, an effective supervisor possesses basic teaching skills, facilitation skills, negotiation and assertiveness skills, counseling and appraisal skills, mentoring skills, and knowledge of learning resources and certification requirements (Kilminster).
The most important aspect of the role of an effective supervisor is giving supervisee responsibility and the opportunity to practice it (Kilminster, 2000). Supervisees come to view the supervisor as a colleague and this leads them to become self-directed. Some supervisees consider teaching skills and techniques, interpersonal style and professional competence the most important characteristics of an effective supervisor. An effective supervisor shows empathy, is supportive, and exhibits flexibility, instruction, knowledge, interest in supervision and good tracking of supervisees. He is interpretative, respectful, focused ad practical. In contrast, an ineffective supervisor is rigid, shows little empathy and provides low support. He fails to consistently track supervisee concerns, teach or instruct. He is indirect and intolerant. He is close-minded. He…
Borders, L.D. (1994). The good supervisor. ERIC Digests: ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Student Services. Retrieved on October 28, 2011 from http://www.ericdigest.org/1995-1/good.htm
Joslin, v. (2008). Ten traits of a good supervisor. Associated Content: Yahoo. Inc. Shine.
Retrieved on October 28, 2011 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/969660/ten_traits_of_a_good_supervisor.html
Kilminster, S.M. (2000). Effective supervision in clinical practice settings. Vol 34
sit-down with an experience psychologist recently and a very enlightening and expansive conversation ensued. The psychologist in question did request that her name and her practice be excluded from being named within this report, but there is a bevy of great information that was gleaned during the interview and will be shared in this report. She said she wanted to be very candid and felt she should not do so if her name (or the name of her practice) are in play. At the request of the professor, topics to be mentioned in this summary include how long the psychologist has been working in the field, what orientation the psychologist was trained for and the time splits that the psychologist allocates her time to, the assessment tools she uses and the associated training engaged in to be able to use those tools, the ethical dilemmas that the psychologist has encountered…
Despite the fact that the field of forensic psychology was formally recognized by the American Psychological Association (APA) as a "subset" in 2001 (Salfati, 2009), aspects of this science have influenced law enforcement long before that. One of the most salient ways it does so is in terms of interviewing people for certain positions -- whether they be formal positions such as an appointment to a law enforcement position or informal ones such as witness and eyewitness testimony.
Various branches of the law have been made cognizant of the fact that individuals who work within law enforcement have a very tenuous, difficult job. There is a significantly greater amount of work -- and psychology -- involved in working as a police officer. Therefore, within the past several years law enforcement officials have included personality tests as part of the testing for police officers (Salfati, 2009). Although these tests are far…
Huss, M.T. (2001). "What is forensic psychology? it's not silence of the lambs." Eye on Psi Chi. Retrieved from http://www.psichi.org/pubs/articles/article_58.aspx
Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2009). "Introduction to forensic psychology." Baltimore: Author. "Foundations of Forensic Psychology" with Dr. C. Gabrielle Salfati.
In the year 2005, United States experience one of the biggest, deadliest and costly hurricanes of that period. The hurricane was named Hurricane Katrina; it cost loss of lives, property and flooding across different states. The emergency situation had to be dealt with immediately and strategies to do so had to be all rounded. This is because those affected were either directly involved or witnessed the occurrence. This discussion is aimed and analyzing the victims of the emergency following two approaches that is humanistic and behavioral while comparing and contrasting their effectiveness.
How do therapists using each of these perspectives view the client and client's problem?
Behavioral approach is concerned with theoretical and measurable aspects of human behavior. Human behavior can either be learnt or unlearnt depending on whether they are acceptable on a social and cultural basis. Humanistic approach in the other hand is concerned with individual responses…
Cervone, D., & Pervin, L.A. (2010). Personality: Theory and research. Hoboken;NJ: . Wiley.
Plante, T.G. (2011). Contemporary clinical psychology. Hoboken, NJ:: Wiley.
Sue, D., & Sue, D.M. (2008). Foundations of counseling and psychotherapy: Evidence-based practices for a diverse society. Hoboken, N.J:: John Wiley & Sons.
Likewise, engaging in too much control over a Stage III supervisee could lead to quite a bit of tension in the supervisor/supervisee relationship and result in negative transference to clients in counseling sessions. Nonetheless, this notion that counseling supervisees develop in relatively predictable stages and that an effective supervisor can best help them progress by approaching them at the level of supervision that corresponds to their own development is very helpful in performing efficient and rewarding supervision for counseling trainees.
Empirical research has validated the approach of the integrated developmental models to some extent. In order to determine the supervisee's developmental McNeill, Stoltenberg, and omans (1992) developed the Supervisee Levels Questionnaire -- evised (SLQ -- ). Lovell (1999) found that the SLQ -- results from trainees indicated that the level of education and prior supervised experience was related to the level of the supervisee opposed to such concepts as cognitive…
Anderson, C.E., & Bang, K. (2004). Using the Integrated Developmental Model in a Substance
Abuse Practicum. Journal of Teaching in the Addictions, 2(2), 67-82.
Bernard, J.M., & Goodyear, R.K. (2009). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (4th
ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
I want to be able to practice the new skills I learn alongside actual, real-world training. This will enable me impact people's lives even while I'm still studying. Hence, its emphasis in applied learning is one of the things that draw me to the Chicago School of Professional Psychology.
It is also important for me to study at a school where I am encouraged to celebrate my cultural identity. As an Indian immigrant, I still sometimes feel the stigma attached to being a member of the minority. However, I also believe in my competence and know that I will excel in a learning environment that respects cultural diversity and emphasizes cultural awareness. In choosing the Chicago School, I look forward to appreciating other cultures, sharing my experiences as an immigrant and the many facts and traditions about my incredible home country.
When I finish the course, I plan to work…
Neuroplasticity has gained traction, in the realm of pop psychology and also in the more credible arenas of counseling and clinical psychology. In Doidge's (2007) book, neuroplasticity is presented for a general audience but using research to substantiate claims. Therefore, the case studies that comprise The Brain That Changes Itself can become effective blueprints for personal change. The book delves into various aspects of neuroplasticity. Three of those include sexual attraction, addiction, and pain.
Chapter 4 of The Brain That Changes Itself covers the neuroplasticity of sexual attraction and love. Doidge (2007) claims that human beings "exhibit an extraordinary degree of sexual plasticity compared with other creatures," (p. 94). Specific examples of sexual plasticity include trying different sexual positions, techniques, or toys with the same partner or with multiple partners, becoming fixated on certain "types" of people for a while, or going through periods of high versus low sexual energy.…
Doidge, N. (2007). The Brain that Changes Itself. New York: Penguin.
For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, which were commonly considered incurable. Only with the psycho-pharmacological revolution in recent decades and new anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medications has it been possible for the severely mentally ill to be treated on an outpatient basis through community mental health centers. Of course, as the old state hospitals have emptied many of the mentally ill have ended up homeless, since they are unable to hold maintain regular employment or continue on a medication regimen without supervision. According to present-day…
Bacon. H. "Book Review: Jonathan Willows, Moving On after Childhood Sexual Abuse: Understanding the Effects and Preparing for Therapy in Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. (15)1 January 2010, pp. 141-42.
Bartels, S.J., A.D. van Citters and T. Crenshaw (2010). "Older Adults" in Levin, B.L., J. Petrila and K. Hennessy Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective. Oxford University Presss: 261-82.
Behar, E.S. And T.D. Borkovec. (2003). "Psychotherapy Outcome Research" in I.B. Weiner et al., eds. Handbook of Psychology: Research Methods in Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Carron, V.G. And K. Hull. (2009). "Treatment Manual for Trauma-Exposed Youth: Case Studies." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 15(1) 13 November 2009, pp. 27-38.
This does not mean that I do not think I would learn a lot from the introductory course. I just believe that there has to be a foundation for knowledge, and that is what the beginning psychology course is generally designed for. By getting a good foundation it would then be easier to learn about any and all of the important issues that will likely be addressed within more advanced courses as the curriculum becomes more difficult.
Based on the experience that you have and what you have done, my question to you would be this: Do you believe that alcohol and substance abuse problems are psychological in and of themselves, or are they merely physical manifestations or reactions to these problems?
The subject promises to
approach issues of theology, sociology, ethicality and behavior with
sychology: rofessional Ethics and Legal Issues (523), though an elective,
seems to be an absolutely indispensable channeling of study time. The
examination of issues of ethical and legal centrality to the research or
practice of psychology should arm future professionals with the underlying
information and philosophical orientation needed to approach this complex
field with sensitivity, objectivity and integrity.
Teaching Introduction to sychology (GIDS 524) is an elective which should
serve to further the knowledge and information obtained in Advanced
Educational sychology (GIDS 521), continuing to refine the ideas and
theories instructed through my larger course of study into a set of tools
for the demonstration of this knowledge. Here, I anticipate sharpening the
skills which I already possess to serve in the instructional capacity on
the interdisciplinary relevance of psychology.
This first phase…
Psychology: Professional Ethics and Legal Issues (523)
Advanced Educational Psychology (521)
Teaching Introduction to Psychology (GIDS 524)
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.
Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm .
Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
It also means that people don't have free will necessarily because behaviorism believes that feelings and thoughts don't cause people to behave in certain ways. Classical conditioning can be best understood by the example of Pavlov's dogs. Pavlov's dogs were discovered salivating by the mere sound of the people with food coming rather. In other words, they were reacting to a neutral stimulus. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, is more about reward and punishment (Donaldson 2008). Operant conditioning works because sometimes the subject is rewarded and sometimes not and this has found to be very successful (the most successful, in fact) in conditioning. For example, if one sometimes gives dogs food off their plate and sometimes not, the dog will be conditioned to wait always for the food because sometimes he gets it.
The term 'mental illness' is a culturally bound term. What is considered a mental illness in…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (4th edition).
Donaldson, J. (2008). Oh, behave!: Dogs from Pavlov to Premack to Pinker. Dogwise Publishing.
Mitchell, S.A. & Black, M.J. (1996). Freud and beyond: A history of modern psychoanalytic thought. Basic Books.
Piaget, J. (2001). The psychology of intelligence. (2nd edition). Routledge.
The Impact and Importance of Psychological Testing
Defining Psychological Testing
A test is defined as a method or procedure for critical evaluation or as a means of establishing the quality, truth, or presence of something. (Webster's Dictionary, 2011). According to the American Educational Research Association (AERA), the National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) and the American Psychological Association (APA) (1999), psychological test or psychological testing is a discipline most frequently characterized by the use of behavior samples in order to assess various psychological constructs such as the emotional and cognitive functioning of individuals. The psychological test itself is an instrument most often designed to measure constructs that are not observed, and often involve a series of problems or tasks that the participant or respondent must solve. These tests can resemble questionnaires; however, what makes psychological tests different is that they require the respondents' maximum cognitive performance (AERA,…
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and Psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
Cohen, r., & Swerdlik, M. (2009). Psychological testing and assessment. McGraw-Hill.
Meeker, W., & Escobar, L. (1998). Statistical methods for reliability data. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
Messick, S. (1995). Validity of psychological assessment: Validation of inferences from person's responses and performances as scientific inquiry into score meaning. American Psychologist, 50, 741-749.
This occurs when people experience feelings of terror and helplessness during a trauma and then has recurrent flashbacks, nightmares, impaired concentration and emotional numbing afterwards. Some victims of this disorder turn to alcohol or other drugs which do nothing accept compound the problem. It is thought that approximately 10% of Americans have had or will have this disorder at some point in their lifetime (Carpenter and Huffman, 2008).
Since it seems evident that we can't escape stress, we need to learn how to effectively cope with it. There is not one single thing that must be done but a process that allows us to deal with various stressors. A person's level of stress depends on both their interpretation of and their reaction to stressors. Elimination of drug use and no more than moderate alcohol use are important in the successful management of stress. It is known that people, when stressed,…
Carpenter, Siri and Huffman, Karen. (2008).Visualizing Psychology. New Jersey: Wiley.
Stress. (2009). Retrieved July 31, 2009, from MedicineNet Web site:
Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.
Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…
Fall, K.A., Holden, J.M. & Marquis, A. (2004) Theoretical models of counseling and psychotherapy New York: Taylor and Francis.
Freud, Sigmund. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms, and anxiety, SE, 20(14): 111-205.
Kohlenberg, R.J., Bolling, M.Y., Kanter, J.W. & Parker, C.R. (2002) Clinical behavior analysis: where it went wrong, how it was made good again, and why its future is so bright. Behavior Analyst Today. 3(3): 248-253
Martz, E (2002) Principles of Eastern philosophies viewed from the framework of Yalom's four existential concerns. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling. 24(1): 31-42
The book adds substance, extent, lucidity, and substantiation to the clinical and training processes, and will add energy to mainstreaming motivational advances to behavior change in health care. Primary care physicians and practitioners can augment their expert work and improve patient outcomes by learning about motivational interviewing.
Motivational Interviewing can be defined as a client-centered, directive method for making better inherent motivation to change by investigating and resolving ambivalence. It comprises a mixture of philosophical and clinical aspects that together make up the whole of MI. Motivational interviewing distinguishes and recognizes the fact that clients who need to make changes in their lives move toward counseling at dissimilar levels of eagerness to change their behavior. If the counseling is mandated, they may never have thought of altering the behavior in question. A few may have thought about it but not taken action to do it. Others, particularly those freely seeking…
Miller, William R. & Rollnick, Stephen. (2002). Motivational interviewing: preparing people for change. New York: The Guilford Press.
Smith, David E. & Seymour, Richard. (2001). Clinician's Guide to Substance Abuse. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Whereas the harms associated with some illicit (and prescription) drugs is cumulative, some of the most popular recreational drugs such as ecstasy actually destroy neurons each and every time they are used.
Each time you take ecstasy, for example, neurons dedicated to respond to the neurotransmitter dopamine lose their ability to do so. As a result, ecstasy use in particular is known to interfere with the natural neurotransmitter reuptake mechanism. This impairs your ability to maintain a healthy mental frame of mind because dopamine reception and reuptake is fundamentally important to perceiving pleasure and to experiencing happiness. Ultimately this is a major cause of clinical depression in young people, requiring life-long treatment with antidepressant medications which are associated with negative side effects of their own. Suicide is also directly attributable to the psychological effects of clinical depression. Therefore, if you hope to achieve your academic potential and to avoid causing…
He also checked his watch regularly and he seemed to check for messages of some sort several times because he used his cell phone to dial a number and then pressed buttons and listened briefly to the phone before hanging up.
When the bartender approached to ask whether he wanted another drink, he responded politely by shaking his head and putting up his hand; once the bartender left to attend to other customers, the subject moved his almost empty glass a little bit closer to himself and also slightly repositioned the napkin next to the empty stool to his left. Shortly afterwards, several more people approached the bar near him and one of them asked him whether the empty stool was occupied. He seemed to respond more apologetically than necessary because he continued explaining long after the individual who asked about it began nodding and indicating with his hand gestures…
The accident occurred while the actress was taking a skiing lesson. She initial experienced no symptoms from her fall, but later complained of a headache and was taken to a local hospital. Reports indicate that her fall was not very spectacular and occurred at a low speed on a beginner run. She was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. (Quinn, 2009)
However, while it is true that sometimes there are no immediately obvious signs of a severe brain injury, at other times there are.
Severe Traumatic Brain njury
The symptoms of a severe traumatic brain injury (which can result in permanent neurological damage) include a number of cognitive problems including inability to concentrate, problems with memory, problems in focusing and paying attention, ability to process new information at a normal rate, a high level of confusion, and perseveration, which is the action of doing something over…
In describing the course of their patients, experienced clinicians who use HBOT to treat patients with brain injury, cerebral palsy, and stroke refer to improvements that may be ignored in standardized measures of motor and neuro-cognitive dysfunction. These measures do not seem to capture the impact of the changes that clinicians and parents perceive. Caregivers' perceptions should be given more weight in evaluating the significance of objective improvements in a patient's function. Unfortunately, studies have not consistently measured caregiver burden, or have assessed it only by self-report. Studies in which the caregivers' burden was directly observed would provide much stronger evidence than is currently available about treatment outcome. (AHRQ Publication Number 03-E049, 2003)
In other words, this somewhat alternative treatment produces results that are more meaningful to the injured person and his or her caregivers.
I have focused here primarily on the biochemical end of treatments for those with traumatic brain injury because it is this level of treatment that offers the long-term possibility of the greatest level of treatment. Such treatments as are described here have the chance to cure traumatic brain injury. But until these are perfected, every other kind of treatment and therapy -- from drug treatments to speech therapy to the love of friends -- will remain priceless.
All of the information I was gaining about a topic I had not previously understood was intriguing to me, and made me excited and ready to learn more. General Psychology I and Abnormal Psychology were my two favorite classes at Bergen, and I wanted to pursue additional psychology classes.
I transferred to Fairleigh Dickinson and enrolled in General Psychology II with the expectation that I would learn even more about psychology. I did not have an expectation as far as what topics would be covered in the course, but I did expect the material to be harder and more complex; I was right. I did not expect to study the biology and physiology of the brain, and I struggled with understanding and memorizing the material. Memorizing and understanding the parts of the brain and their function, such as the thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, etc. did not appeal to me and…
With this approach, consultation psychology focuses on the issues of the group as a whole and therefore typically uses group discussions, interviews and observations as opposed to singling out specific individuals. The result is that, by using consultation psychology in the field of industrial and organizational psychology, the focus is on the group and the roles the individuals who make up the group play. With this focus, industrial and organizational psychology is better able to meet its goals of increasing organizational productivity, well-being and success.
In the case sample cited in the introduction of this paper, the issue was how consultation psychology could be utilized as a method for providing industrial and organizational psychological services to a mental health related organization. From the overview provided in the previous section, it can be seen that utilizing consultation psychology, as opposed to clinical psychology, will be the best method of…
Bass, Bernard M. (1960): Leadership, Psychology and Organizational Behavior. New York: Harper and Brothers.
Bass, Bernard M., and Pieter JD Drenth. (1987): Advances in Organizational Psychology: An International Review. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
Brehm, S.S., Kassin, S. And Fein, S. (2005): Social Psychology. Boston: Charles Hartford.
Cameron, Kim S., and Robert E. Quinn. (2006): Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture Based on the Competing Values Framework. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
I believe I possess a number of personality traits that are relevant to my career goals of becoming a lead forensics psychologist and earning a PhD in clinical psychology. Foremost among these is the fact that I am hard-working in both the intellectual and physical sense of the term. As a result of my solid work ethic, I am goal oriented and extremely driven to succeed in my aforementioned aims. I am also honorable, and have the best of intentions to better the quality of my life for my immediate family, which includes my husband and children.
This program at Walden is an excellent match for me because it is compatible with the timeline that I would like to accomplish my goals in. Furthermore, I am convinced that this institution can offer me an education that will suitably prepare me for the future career and educational…
The future of professional psychology:
The influence of special populations on the field of professional psychology
According to the American Board of Professional Psychology: "It is expected that clinical psychologists will demonstrate sensitivity to and skills in dealing with multicultural/diverse populations....Individual and cultural diversity recognizes the broad scope of such factors as race, ethnicity, language, sexual orientation, gender, age, disability, class status, education, religion/spiritual orientation, and other cultural dimension" (Clinical psychology, 2012, ABPP). In other words, the special needs of specific population groups must be taken into consideration when offering care, to ensure that treatment is commensurate and sensitive to the population's needs. The reason for this emphasis on culturally-appropriate care reflects a greater awareness of how not all forms of treatment are appropriate for all population groups within the field, and the degree to which special population needs have and continues to shape the point-of-view…
Asian-Americans need culturally competent mental health care. (2012). APA.
Clinical psychology. (2012). American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP). Retrieved:
Social psychology, both as an academic and a professional practice, is extremely useful for elucidating the phenomenon of high rates of suicide within the military, and within the United States in general. The frequency of the occurrence of suicide within the military is explicitly denoted within Brewin's article (2013), in which there are record rates for suicide in the armed services in 2013 and the "number of military suicides has more than doubled since 2001" (p. 1). Sweeping phenomena such as the high incidence of suicide within a specific population setting validates social psychology as a discipline, since it is apparent that such problems are indicative of social concerns. Such problems will not simply go away, and require psychological means to address this issue.
This fact is widely alluded to within the aforementioned article. One of the chief reasons for suicide is the general perception that seeking counseling or psychological…
Brewin, B. (2013). Military suicides are up, despite 900 prevention programs. www.nextgov.com. Retrieved from http://www.nextgov.com/defense/2013/03/military-suicides-are-despite-900-prevention-programs/62019/?oref=ng-skybox
Furuya, S. (2013). Social psychology differs when applied in different cultural contexts.
Furuya, S. (2013). Journal of Experimental Social Psychology: Morality and Group Relations: Possible Bias Part I.
Furuya, S. (2013). Social Psychology View: What ensures that Women are Treated Fairly in Office Settings in the United States?
Diversity and Psychology
Derived from the Greek word, psyche "meaning 'breath, sprit, soul' and the Greek work logia meaning the study of something," the study of psychology is "the science of the mind and behavior" (Nordqvist, 2009). In the medical dictionary, psychology is "The profession (clinical psychology), scholarly discipline (academic psychology), and science (research psychology) concerned with the behavior of humans and animals and, related mental and physiological processes" (Nordqvist, 2009). In short, psychology is the science that answers the ever fascinating questions of how and why people and organisms think and behave in the manner in which they do. Psychology is imperative in the study of understanding and exploring one another and the people that surround us- society often looks to the study of psychology to explain the diverse population that inhabits the world. To that end, the concept of diversity is also another essential concept to comprehensively understand.…
Manesse, Jeanne, Saito, Gloria, & Rodolfa, Emil. (n.d.). Diversity-based psychology: what practioners need to know. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkley; University of California, Davis and University of California, San Diego, Califonia, USA. Retrieved from http://www.psychboard.ca.gov/licensee/diversity-based.pdf
McClintock Greenberg, Psy. D, Tamara. (2010, January 28). What is diversity in psychology?. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/21st-century-aging/201001/what-is-diversity-in-psychology
Nordqvist, Christian. (2009, June 22). What is psychology? what are the branches of psychology?. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/154874.php
Perner, Lars. (2010). Consumer behavior: the psychology of marketing. Retrieved from http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/
Abnormal Psychology is often misunderstood as a field of psychology because it deals with behavior that "creates a problem for an individual or society" -- and hence, the question immediately arises as to just what is "abnormal" and what is "normal"? The AP Psychology 7th Edition (Sharpsteen, et al., 2005) text suggests that abnormal behavior is "maladaptive or pathological behavior" and before determining whether a behavior is abnormal or not, the "total environment and impact of a person's behavior" must be taken into consideration. Moreover, abnormal psychology does not attempt to link "normal and abnormal" with the concepts of "good and bad," Kendra Cherry explains. Abnormal psychology deals with "psychopathology and abnormal behavior" covering a wide swath of disorders, including sexual deviation, depression, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, to name a few (Cherry, 2008).
The History and Evolution of Abnormal Psychology into a Scientific Discipline
In 800 B.C., Homer believed that mental illness…
AS Psychology. (2009). Biological and Psychological Models of Abnormality. Retrieved July 9,
2011, from http://as-psychology.pbworks.com.
Bennett, Paul. (2006). Abnormal and Clinical Psychology: An Introductory Textbook. New York: McGraw-Hill International.
Cherry, Kendra. (2008). Psychology / What Is Abnormal Psychology? About.com. Retrieved July 8, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com .
On a personal level, by utilizing the principles of psychology as
they relate to the operation of the human mind, it is obvious that on a
daily basis most people (as well as myself) encounter individuals which
they do not fully understand, especially if these individuals react to a
situation in a very different manner. For example, some people have phobias
or intense fears of various things and objects which most people do not
find frightening nor disturbing. But by understanding the psychology of
such fears, they become less mysterious and may even inspire a person to
explore his/her own mind in order to become a better person, both mentally
Westaby, J.D., Pfaff, D.L. & Redding, N. (2014). Psychology and social networks. American Psychologist 69(3): 269-284.
Westaby, Pfaff & Redding (2014) attempt to fill a gap in the literature on social networks by focusing on how social networks influence goal striving via emotional pathways. The authors base their research on dynamic network theory, and the results can be applied to numerous practical or clinical settings including organizational-industrial behavior or even information science. The dynamic network theory orientation also sheds light on numerous types of social networks and organizations, illuminating both individual and collective behavior. Although not an experimental research or a meta-analysis, the study does direct psychologists and researchers toward potentially fruitful areas of investigation.
The authors explain dynamic network theory in depth, centering their attention on the importance of emotional responses in social networks, and then outline the most important roles social networks fulfill in human behavior. Dynamic network…
Psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic, transpersonal, and existential (HTE) psychology are the three primary movements in the study of the human experience. Each of these movements uses different research methodologies and epistemologies, and each focuses on different aspects of the human experience. Moreover, each of these movements presents unique therapeutic interventions and goals in the field of psychology. With each having contributed tremendously to the social sciences, psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic psychology can also be integrated for a richer understanding of human consciousness and the human condition. Historical context of the science and practice of psychology helps illuminate the field’s core values.
Historical Context and Rationale
Although inquiries into the human experience can be traced through the disciplines of philosophy and religion, the first scientific, empirical studies of human nature and behavior began more concertedly in the nineteenth century. William Wundt opened the first real laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychology…
Legal Aspects of Professional Psychology
All psychologists are required to follow the ethical guidelines found in the 2002 Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct of the American Psychological Association (APA), commonly known as the Ethics Code. Other important ethical guidelines are found in the 2007 Competing Development Achievement Levels (DALs) of the National Council of Schools and Programs in Professional Psychology (NCSPP) and the Assessment of Competing Benchmarks Work Group of the APA. These ethics codes cover compliance, privacy and confidentiality, assessment, therapy, research and publications, and there are also special guidelines for dealing with children, minorities, culturally diverse populations, forensic psychology and gay and lesbian clients. Both the Ethics Code and state laws require psychologists to maintain the confidentiality of clients and their records, apart from legal requirements to report verified or suspected child abuse or clients who are a danger to others. Psychologists can only provide…
Arnaut, G.L.Y. And D.A. Hill (2010), "Ethical and Legal Issues," in J.C. Thomas and M. Hersen (eds). Handbook of Clinical Psychology Competencies. Springer, pp. 73-94.
Corey, G. et al. (2011). Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions, 8th Edition. Cengage Learning.
Wulach, James S. And David L. Shapiro (2005), "Ethical and Legal Considerations in Child Custody Evaluations," in Gunsberg and Hymowitz (Eds.), A Handbook of Divorce and Custody Forensic Development and Clinical Perspectives. New Jersey: The Analytic Press pp. 45-56.
Hispanic psychology has allowed clinical researchers to study the unique complexities of the Hispanic experience. Among the cornerstones of Hispanic psychology include issues related to biculturalism, acculturation, the immigrant experience, racism, oppression, in-group/out-group relations, and identity construction. Hispanic psychology has both individual, behavioral-cognitive components, as well as social-psychological components.
This article is relevant to both the text and lecture material on ethnicity, identity, and psychology. Issues related to cultural competence, and the biases within the social science are also relevant. This article helps to remove cultural bias in the field of psychology in particular because instead of imposing culturally biased frameworks and paradigms, Hispanic psychology uses a culturally specific and relevant paradigm. Also, this article is relevant to specific lessons and readings on Hispanic culture. Hispanic culture is itself heterogeneous, and within the overall rubric of Hispanic culture there are many subsets of identity from Nicaraguan to Cuban.
Image 1: https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjHsLvG2aHQAhUWzWMKHYqyDfEQjRwIBw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dealerelite.net%2Fprofiles%2Fblogs%2Fa-recipe-for-connecting-hispanic-consumers-to-your-dealership&psig=AFQjCNG-EddH0a69-1l2n3tyhKXpbh9DOw&ust=1478987719707085
Image 2: https://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http%3A%2F%2Fhispanic-marketing.com%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F2014%2F06%2FGatorade-World-Cup-2014-Ad1-495x400.png&imgrefurl=http%3A%2F%2Fhispanic-marketing.com%2Fhispanic-culture%2F&docid=3sf5IC2qRhJNXM&tbnid=KIIetigIR8hY9M%3A&vet=1&w=495&h=400&safe=off&bih=676&biw=1191&ved=0ahUKEwi-m6Te2KHQAhUQ8GMKHSkQBIQQMwhxKDEwMQ&iact=mrc&uact=8
Padilla, A. M. (2002). Hispanic psychology: A 25-year retrospective look. In W. J. Lonner, D. L. Dinnel, S. A. Hayes, & D. N. Sattler (Eds.), Online Readings in Psychology and Culture (Unit 3, Chapter 3), Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington USA.
A physiological assumption that relates behavior to the activity of the brain and other organs of the body.
An ontogenetic consumption that describes development of behavior or of a brain structure. C. An evolutionary assumption that examines a brain structure or behavior in terms of evolutionary history.
A functional assumption describing why a particular brain structure or behavior evolved the way it did (Kalat, 2012).
What historical disciplines converge to create biological psychology?
Several areas of psychology are involved in biological psychology including clinical psychology, social psychology, cognitive psychology, evolutionary psychology, and bits and pieces from other areas of psychology. All areas of neuroscience and biology are particularly relevant to biopsychology. Comparative anatomy, physiology, medicine (e.g neurology and psychiatry), research methodology, and statistics also contribute to the creation of biological psychology (Kalat, 2012).
3. What are some of the earliest examples of a biological approach to studying behavior?…
Pinel, J. (2011). Biopsychology 8th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Kalat, J.W. (2011). Biological psychology (11th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson
Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"
Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…
American people and society. (2015). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html.
Bassett, R.L. (2013, Winter). An empirical consideration of grace and legalism within Christian experience. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 32(1), 43-49.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bobgan, M. & Bobgan, D. (1987). PsychoHeresy: The psychological seduction of Christianity.
xy in Psyc
One of the biggest mistakes we make as individuals is to see that two things occur together and conclude that one causes the other. For instance, there is a great deal of information online and in other venues about depression and poor diet. For example, a self-help depression website offers this quote from a book on the subject "Food can affect your mood, and what you choose to put into your mouth can influence your state of mind" (http://www.depression-help-for-you.com/diet-for-depression.html). Now that may have some truth to it as one may feel better after a good meal and not so good after eating burned popcorn, but the site goes on to explain how studies have found relationships between higher rates of depression and consumption of junk food, soda, etc. Interestingly there is a huge market for books that promote diet for depression, the implication being that depression is…
Lilienfeld, S.O., Lynn, S.J., & Lohr, J.M. (Eds.). (2003). Science and pseudoscience in clinical psychology. New York: Guilford.
Social psychology view: What ensures that women are treated fairly in office settings in the United States?
One of the most prudent applications of social psychology within contemporary settings are those that relate to gender. Gender issues can become exacerbated when they are viewed within particular social constructs, such as the work environment. Due to the fact that the majority of the world was initially a patriarchal society (particularly in the United States) before modern conceptions of gender became prevalent, the role of women within the work environment is one which is certainly worthy of investigation in terms of how women are treated, what sorts of issues they must contend with, and how others (men) consider working women. The principle difference between contemporary and most historic notions of gender pertaining to women in the workplace is that in modern times, there is supposed to be a substantial greater amount of…
Bisika, T. (2008). Do social and cultural factors perpetuate gender-based violence in Malawi?.Gender & Behaviour, 6(2), 1884-1896. doi:10.4314/gab.v6i2.23426
Cikara, M., Rudman, L., & Fiske, S. (2012). Dearth by a Thousand Cuts?: Accounting for Gender Differences in Top-Ranked Publication Rates in Social Psychology. Journal Of Social Issues, 68(2), 263-285. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2012.01748.x
Gilbert, D.G., Fiske, S.T. & Lindzey G. (2010). Handbook of social psychology (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Huerta, M. (2007). Intersections of race and gender in women's experiences of harassment. (Order No. 3253291, University of Michigan). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 110-110 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304848503?accountid=25340 . (304848503).
isk Taking Behavior between Teenage Boys and Girls
Significant evidence reveals that women/girls and men/boys have differing propensity to engage in risky behaviors. The difference in their decision to engage in risky behaviors is attributed to the variation in their innate preferences that are modified by internal and external pressure to conform to gender stereotypes. Empirical evidence points that women and men have different preferences and risk attitudes that influence their decision to engage in risky behaviors (Kotchick et al., 2001). Greca, Prinstein, and Fetter (2001) assert that a significant proportion of the studies show men/boys to be involved more in risk taking activities than the girls. However, this assertion has never been proved by a significant proportion of studies conducted in the past. Therefore, this study will aim at identifying the differences in the ability of teenage boys and girls aged 10 and 11 years to engage in risky…
Booth, A.L., & Nolen, P. (2012). Gender Differences in Risk Behavior: Does Nurture Matter? The Economic Journal, 122(558), F56 -- F78. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0297.2011.02480.x
Greca, A.M.L., Prinstein, M.J., & Fetter, M.D. (2001). Adolescent Peer Crowd Affiliation: Linkages With Health-Risk Behaviors and Close Friendships. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 26(3), 131 -- 143. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/26.3.131
Huebner, A.J., & Howell, L.W. (2003). Examining The Relationship Between Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking And Perceptions Of Monitoring, Communication, and Parenting Styles. Journal of Adolescent Health, 33(2), 71 -- 78. doi:10.1016/S1054-139X (03)00141-1
Kotchick, B.A., Dorsey, S., Miller, K.S., & Forehand, R. (1999). Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking Behavior In Single-Parent Ethnic Minority Families. Journal of Family Psychology, 13(1), 93 -- 102. doi:10.1037/0893-318.104.22.168
Tony Bush wrote an article regarding overcoming the hindrances to effective clinical supervision, which was published in Nursing Times website. Bush's publication was influenced by the fact that clinical supervision is one of the most commonly misunderstood practices in contemporary nursing. However, clinical supervision provides a supportive and nurturing service to nurse practitioners by assisting them to critically reflect on the actions during the delivery of patient care. As a result, the author seeks to examine and explore the existing role and status of clinical supervision in the Nursing Health Service.
Clinical supervision is basically described as a complex activity with multi-faceted functions that seeks to provide emotional support to counselors receiving supervision and providing them with extra education. This concept can also be described as a means of evaluating and monitoring counselors' professional performance and enhancing the quality of their respective duties. In the nursing field, clinical…
Bush, T. (2005, January). Overcoming the Barriers to Effective Clinical Supervision. Nursing Times, 101(2), 38-41. Retrieved from http://www.nursingtimes.net/Journals/2013/02/15/j/v/s/050111GLsupervision.pdf
Guindon, M.H. (2002). Toward Accountability in the Use of the Self-Esteem Construct. Journal of Counseling & Development, 80, 204-215.
Marley, E. (2011, December). Self-help Strategies to Reduce Emotional Distress: What Do
People Do and Why? A Qualitative Study. Counseling and Psychotherapy Research, 11(4), 317-324.
Silence and Withdrawal - where the man "punishes" the woman for her "behavior" by becoming silent and withdrawn.
Lack of Emotional Connection - where the woman reaches out for support and empathy, and the man withholds it (Chang 73-81).
It is easy to see how these conditions of verbal and mental abuse could lead to feelings of low self-esteem and depression in women. Author Chang quotes a woman stuck in a mentally abusive relationship as saying, "He complained I never communicated with him, but whenever I tried to communicate with him, he would always tell me why I was wrong to think that way. And so it finally reached a point of why bother. You know, I got tired of listening to him criticize me'" (37-year-old nurse) (Chang 73). Studies indicate that abuse in a relationship, no matter what type of abuse, can lead to long-term depression, especially when the…
Ainsworth, Patricia. Understanding Depression. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2000.
Chang, Valerie Nash. I Just Lost Myself. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1996.
D'Mello, Dale a. "1 Epidemiology of Late-Life Depression." Depression in Later Life: A Multidisciplinary Psychiatric Approach. Ed. James M. Ellison and Sumer Verma. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2003. 1-26.
Editors. "Depression: What Every Woman Should Know." National Institute for Mental Health. 2007. 30 Nov. 2007. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/depression-what-every-woman-should-know/summary.shtml
During this period, there was a rather dramatic paradigm shift from the rather "mechanistic-deterministic" philosophy of psychoanalysis and behaviorism to the "self-deterministism" of the humanistic philosophy that is envisioned in by Carl odgers as noted by Aubrey (1983).odger's impact on counseling as a profession, pragmatically and philosophically was great. This is because his work is what led to the birth of counseling as a separate professional entity from psychology, guidance as well as psychiatry. Therefore, the philosophical underpinnings of counseling as a profession can be traced and acknowledged on the work of odgers. Later on, the need for training professional counselors became important and then in 1958, the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) was formed. This act was created in order to prepare thousands of counselors (Aubrey,1983,p.79).later on, various professional accreditation bodies were created for the counseling profession. One such kind is the Council for the Accredition for Counseling and…
Aubrey, R.F. (1983). The Odyssey of counseling and images of the future. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 62, 78-8
Smith, HB., Robinson, GP (1995).Mental Health Counseling: Past, Present, and Future. Journal of Counseling & Development Vol.74 (2) pages 158 -- 162, November-December 1995
Myers, J.E. & Sweeney, T.J. (2001). Specialties in counseling. In D.C. Locke, J.E. Myers, & E.L. Herr (Eds.), the Handbook of Counseling, pp. 43-54. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Palmo, AJ., Weikel, WJ.,Borsos, DP (2006).Foundations of Mental Health Counseling. Charles C. Thomas Publisher.
The MMPI-2 has been used successfully to detect feigning in neurological and psychiatric control groups (Klein, 2007). As a result, the MMPI-2 is the most frequently used test in forensic psychological testing. There is, however, still substantial "debate which of the four subscales is most useful for identifying malingering" (Klein, 2007). However, one of the MMPI-2's lingering problems is that it is a test where people can incorporate coaching, so that it is somewhat vulnerable to coaching.
The issue of coaching is critical in the forensics environment. This is because the goal of forensic psychology is to use neuropsychological assessment methods to help in some type of legal proceedings. These proceedings can be civil or criminal proceedings. In both civil and criminal environments, the need for accurate diagnosis can be critical to outcomes for the person being tested and for people being impacted by their testing. Moreover, it can be…
Klein, H. (2007). Assessment of malingered neuropsychological deficits. New York: Oxford
Susan's boss told her that she was a valued member of the workforce, but that he believed some rest would do her good. Regardless of such favorable comments, Susan felt like a failure as a result. At home, things were not getting any better. Susan became increasingly depressed and succumbed to drinking as a means of handling her stress. This only resulted in an increasing sense of hopelessness and depression. Susan's boyfriend also increased his emotional attacks on her, but refused to leave when she asked him to. Eventually, Susan had to enlist the help of the police to avoid being physically abused. This resulted in their final breakup. Susan spent almost 24 hours indulging in various forms of alcohol and drug abuse before ending up on my doorstep. She told me that she was afraid of doing something "irresponsible" to herself as a result of the depression and substance…
Write a summary of this interview. Do not submit a transcript of the interview.
5. Using the information from your reading, this interview and any journal articles that you find, discuss the impact that public policies have on the roles and responsibilities of clinical mental health counselors working in diverse communities. Be sure to discuss the roles and responsibilities of counselors providing services to clients of diverse ages, backgrounds, and exceptional abilities, including strategies for differentiated interventions. (How do counselors ensure that interventions "fit" for diverse clients?)
6. Discuss how the policies of professional, governmental, and accrediting organizations have impacted the practice of this counselor.
. Share your impressions of the information that the counselor shared, anything that you found particularly interesting, surprising, or that you expected to hear. Discuss the impact that the interview had on your beliefs, expectations, and goals related to becoming a clinical mental health counselor…
7. Share your impressions of the information that the counselor shared, anything that you found particularly interesting, surprising, or that you expected to hear. Discuss the impact that the interview had on your beliefs, expectations, and goals related to becoming a clinical mental health counselor working in this setting.
Summary of the interview
The ability of a clinical mental health counselor to work with a socially and culturally diverse population (e.g race, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, economic status) is noted by the American Mental Health Association (AMHA, 2011) to be an important quality of all professional clinical mental health counselors. The work of Patterson (1996) indicated that multicultural counseling is important in order for the inadequacies of the mental health services targeting the minority groups to be eliminated. Such inadequacies include the lack of bilingual counselors, discrimination, and the lack of counselors who are members of the minority groups as well as prejudice in counselors. In this paper we discuss the impact that public policies have on the roles and responsibilities of clinical mental health counselors working in diverse
Case Story Bipolar Disorder
A girl suffering from Bipolar Disorder: Sarah
I was working in the community health center as an intern, when I received a call from a woman desperately looking for assistance for her 17-years-old daughter. The woman sounded tearful and anxious, as she spoke, and I immediately concluded that she was fearful and at the edge of giving up. I asked her to cool down and explain to me her problem calmly. She stated that the her daughter named Sarah, had been expelled from her school, the reason being that she was found having oral se with two boys in the school toilet. Mary, the woman's name and mother to Sarah, was a marketing executive, had not gone to work because she feared that if she left Sarah alone, the girl might flee.
Upon more information about Sarah, I leant that this was just one…
Baldessarini, RJ; Tondo, L; Hennen, J (2003). Lithium treatment and suicide risk in major affective disorders: Update and new findings. The Journal of clinical psychiatry 64 Suppl 5: 44 -- 52.
Belmaker, R.H. (2004). Bipolar Disorder. New England Journal of Medicine 351 (5): 476 -- 86
Parikh, SV; Kusumakar, V; Haslam, DR; Matte, R; Sharma, V; Yatham, LN (1997). Psychosocial interventions as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in bipolar disorder. Canadian journal of psychiatry. 42 Suppl 2: 74S -- 78S
The objective of this study is to conduct a critical analysis of issues in clinical education. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of literature in this area of inquiry.
The work of Strohschein, Hagler and May (2002) entitled 'Assessing the Need for Changes in Clinical Education Practice' reports a study that identifies areas of need within clinical education and well as describing "…various models and tools that are proposed and utilized in clinical education, as well as the exploration of the extent to which these models and tools might meet the identified needs of the clinical education process in physical therapy." (p.1) Physical therapists are reported as working in a health care climate "of increasing complexity and rapid change, of fiscal restraint and demands for accountability, of scrutiny from both internal and external sources. In such a climate, the ability to respond appropriately to these…
Cross V. (1997) The professional development diary: a case study of one cohort of physiotherapy students. Physiotherapy.1997; 83:375 -- 383.
Hagler P, McFarlane L. (1991) Achieving maximum student potential: the supervisor as coach. Canadian Journal of Rehabilitation.1991; 5:5 -- 16.
Hayes KW, Huber G, Rogers J, Sanders B. (1999) Behaviors that cause clinical instructors to question the clinical competence of physical therapist students. Phys Ther.1999; 79:653 -- 667.
Higgs J, Glendinning M, Dunsford F, Panter J. Goals and components of clinical education in the allied health professions. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy, London.1991: 305 -- 307.
DSM diagnostic criteria have long been a source of criticism. McGorry, Hickie, Yung, Pantelis, and Jackson (2006) point out some basic deficiencies of the DSM diagnostic system. First the authors state that the function of a diagnosis is to state what treatment should be applied or predict the prognosis of the condition. These are certainly functions of a diagnosis, but a diagnosis has broader implications. First and foremost the idea of having a diagnosis is to take a series of related signs and symptoms that hang together consistently and label them so as to facilitate communication between health care professionals. A diagnosis alone is useless unless it allows professionals to communicate about the same entity. Then descriptions of course, treatment, and prognosis can follow.
McGorry et al. charge that in the DSM system the clinical features that occur early in the course of the disorder are not distinguished from those…
Fava G.A. & Kellner, R. (1993). Staging: a neglected dimension in psychiatric classification. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 87, 555-558.
Fava, G.A. & Tossani, E. (2007). Prodromal stage of major depression. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 1, 9-18.
Hetrick, S.E., Parker, A.G., Hickie, I.B., Purcell, R., Yung, A.R., & McGorry, P.D. (2008).
Early identification and intervention in depressive disorders: Towards a clinical staging model. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 77, 263-270.
There are many aspects to the nursing profession, but before a person becomes a nurse he or she has to focus on the clinical education it takes to become one. In other words, one cannot just study from books and pass tests to graduate to working with patients. He or she has to be able to demonstrate through clinical evaluation methods that he or she is capable of doing what is necessary to handle patients properly. Addressed here will be reasons behind the methods used. The humanistic and transformative learning theories will be discussed. Then the paper will move into the specific methods used for clinical evaluation, what those methods are, and why they are important. Overall, it is highly significant to have different kinds of methods, because everyone learns a little differently. When evaluations measure the same kinds of skills in different ways, they are more likely…
Bendeck S.S. ed. (2013). Psychology and the perennial philosophy: Studies in comparative peligion. Bloomington, IN: World Wisdom.
Billings & Halstead (2012). Teaching in nursing. A guide for faculty. (4th ed) NY: Saunders.
Cranton, P. (2006) Understanding and promoting transformative learning: A guide for educators of adults (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
D'Antonio, P. (2010). American nursing: A history of knowledge, authority, and the meaning of work. NY: John Hopkins University Press.