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Codes of Ethics Comparisons
Code of Ethics Comparisons
This essay compares and contrasts the American Counseling Association Code of Ethics and the American Association of Christian Counselors Code of Ethics. The essay reviews their general similarities and differences, and discusses specific comparisons with respect to fees, termination, and research and publication.
The two Codes of Ethics differ significantly in their basic purpose, and this fundamental difference determines how various topics are treated throughout both documents in their entirety. The ACA has as its primary concern "to respect the dignity and to promote the welfare of its clients" (ACA Code of Ethics, 2005, p.4), while the AACC describes its primary goal as bringing "honor to Jesus Christ and his church, promote excellence in Christian counseling, and bring unity to Christian counselors" (AACC Code of Ethics, 2004, p.3).
ith respect to similarities, both codes place a high priority on doing no harm.…
ACA Code of Ethics. (2005). American Counseling Association.
Ohlschlager, G. (2004). AACC code of ethics the Y2004 final code. American Association of Christian Counselors.
On the topic of discrimination, both the ACA and AACC codes of ethics go into considerable length and detail. However, their respective focus is substantially different, reflecting their underlying philosophical perspectives. For example, the basis of the AACC commitment to nondiscrimination is the equality of all persons in the eyes of God. In that respect, the AACC refers to the God-given dignity of every human person as a creation of God and therefore fully entitled to all of the same rights and respect as all other human persons.
The ACA Code of Ethics also expressly details its commitment to nondiscrimination but articulates an entirely different philosophical approach and underlying basis. Specifically, the ACA rationale reflects contemporary secular ethical concepts that are consistent with concepts of nondiscrimination that are incorporated into the social, legal, and governmental fabric of American society much more generally. For example, the ACA specifically refers to…
Code of Ethics of the American Counseling. (2005). Association Accessed 8 Nov, 2010,
Code of Ethics of the American Association of Christian Counselors. (2004). Accessed 8
Nov, 2010, from: http://www.aacc.net/about-us/code-of-ethics/
Competence is the foremost ethical principle for professionals. Their training should be appropriate to the services they render. The only possible exception to when a professional psychologist should offer services that are outside of the realm of his or her training is in emergencies when otherwise service of any type would be denied or unavailable (APA, 2010). Professionals should keep up with the prevailing research trends, by attending professional development seminars and other self-improvement methods. When the parameters of their chosen area of specialization change, the practitioner is obliged to receive the necessary training or education to continue delivering services under the title or license they are given. For example, if the individual specializes in treating schizophrenia and a new treatment intervention has been identified, it is important that the person know how to administer that intervention or can at least refer the client to someone who can. Competence is…
American Psychological Association (APA, 2010). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx?item=5
Minow, N. (1961). "Vast wasteland" Speech transcribed: http://www.terramedia.co.uk/reference/documents/vast_wasteland.htm
Organizational Emerging Ethics
Emerging Codes of Ethics in Technology: Designing a ebsite that does not potentially infringe upon the emerging ethical environment of the web
Imagine this. As head of your organization's website design program, you now have the perfect concept. You have an idea for an informative and interactive 'site,' as well as a newly registered domain. You have the perfect trademark and graphic arts to go with the content of the site. But all is not well -- yet -- one must first consult with the legal counsel of one's organizational environment to make sure that no copy rite infringements will be incurred by the technology.
Yes, as tedious as it may seem, one cannot underscore the importance of having stringent organizational ethical guidelines regarding the use of material gleaned from the web when using such visual and verbal material on one's own organizational website.
As observed in…
Business Method practices." (2004) Digital Enterprise. Retrieved 24 Jan 2005 at http://digitalenterprise.org/ip/patented_models.html
Fischer, William. (2000) "Intellectual Property in Cyberspace." Online law Course site. Retrieved 24 Jan 2005 at http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/property/index.html
Intellectual Property on the Web." (24 May 2004) Retrieved 24 Jan 2005 at http://digitalenterprise.org/ip/ip.html
Institutional Code of Ethics
Today, the healthcare industry is faced with rising costs, increasing regulation and growing numbers of patients with age-related conditions as the Baby Boomer segment of the U.S. population enters their retirement age. Combined with innovations in medical technologies, these trends have created the need for codes of ethics that can provide clinicians and employees with the general guidelines they need to resolve the wide range of day-to-day ethical dilemmas that are endemic to the healthcare profession. For this purpose, the American Medical Association (AMA) publishes a code of medical ethics and many public and private sector hospitals likewise maintain codes of ethics for their clinicians and employees. To gain some fresh insights into these issues, this paper reviews the literature to provide an analysis of the specific requirements of a code of ethics, three critical elements of the AMA's code that are deemed the most important…
AMA code of medical ethics. (2013). American Medical Association. Retrieved from http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/medical-ethics/code-medical-ethics.page .
Baker, R. & Emanuel, L. (2000, July). The efficacy of professional ethics. The Hastings Center Report, 30(4), 13.
Doran, E. & Fleming, J. (2015, January 1). Managing ethical issues in patient care and the need for clinical ethics support. Australian Health Review, 39(1), 44-47.
Greenville Memorial Hospital code of ethics. (n.d.). Greenville Health Systems. Retrieved from http://cloudfront.greenvillehealthsystem.net/docs/greenville-health-system-code-of-excellence-employee.pdf.
In terms of the public, values and principles should be kept in mind during the teaching process, while obligation to the profession entails integrity in terms of official documentation as well as towards colleagues.
Personally, I found the obligation to allow students to obtain alternative viewpoints the most striking. This is important not only to me as teacher in my particular situation, but also because I have had experiences where this was not allowed. As an educator, it is unacceptable for a person to assume that only one viewpoint is correct. Indeed, in all my teaching endeavors I try to emphasize to students how there seldom is only one viewpoint. Admittedly, the stronger my view of a particular issue, the harder it is to remain open enough to alternative views from students or colleagues, but I am aware of this, and I do try to maintain an open mind.
In life and in business, there are situations that challenge, question, and test an individual's set of personal and professional ethics. Ethics is a crucial element to sustain a society as well as an organization. This paper will discuss several issues regarding the practice of ethics and the practice of leadership within organizations. The kind of leadership an organization maintains and models for employees plays a significant role in the practice of ethical conduct within the organization as well as ethical conduct during business practices with parties outside of the organization, including suppliers and consumers. As part of this discussion, the paper identifies prominent issues regarding leadership ethics in organizations, factors that directly contribute to the practice or lack of ethics on the individual and organizational levels. With analysis and references to relevant texts, the paper proposes an ethical code for a fictitious company such that there…
Dorasamy, N. (2010) Enhancing an ethical culture through purpose -- directed leadership for improved public service delivery: A case for South Africa. African Journal of Business Management, 4(1), 56 -- 64.
Stanwick, P.A., & Stanwick, S.D. (2009). Understanding business ethics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Waggoner, J. (2010) Ethics and Leadership: How Personal Ethics Produce Effective Leaders. CMC Senior Theses, Available from: http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cmc_theses/26 . 30 June 2012.
First, I would not allow the employee to resign yet. The employee clearly shows remorse and is aware that his actions were related more to the stress in his personal life than to an ongoing problem in the workplace. After seven years of dedicated work, this employee deserves a second chance. The severity of the ethical infraction is low, meaning that the employee can remain with the county jail system. Moreover, the ethical codes of corrections officers are often relatively loose. For example, American Jail Association (2012) corrections officers pledge to maintain "a positive demeanor when confronted with stressful situations of scorn, ridicule, danger, and/or chaos." A "positive demeanor" can be interpreted in a number of ways. However, in this case, our officer did not maintain a positive demeanor and can be proven to have violated the code. The same officer upheld his oath to report "either in…
American Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences (2000). Code of ethics. Retrieved online: http://www.acjs.org/pubs/167_671_2922.cfm
American Jail Association (2012). Code of Ethics for Jail Officers. Retrieved online: http://www.aja.org/ethics.aspx
grey areas associated with medical ethics is that executive personnel in the medical community are not always subject to the same rigorous ethical codes that other workers in the field are. Arthur Lazarus notes, "American Medical Association (AMA) Principles of Medical Ethics provides norms for treating patients, but provides little guidance for physician executives in terms of helping their organizations comply with legal and regulatory requirements, avoiding litigation, improving productivity and quality and building organizational trust and integrity."
This is particularly true regarding executive practitioners in nontraditional medical fields and private practice. Fundamentally, the wide variety of organizational settings in modern medicine can generate an atmosphere where the straightforward application of any single code of ethics is simply not possible. Additionally, modern ethical codes need "to reflect the medical technology industry's unique relationships with health care professionals."
So, while the doctrines set forward by the AMA, American Psychiatric Association, American…
1. American Psychiatric Association. (2001). "The Principles of Medical Ethics with Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry." American Psychiatric Association: http://www.psych.org/psych_pract/ethics/ppaethics.cfm .
2. Childs, Blair. (2005). "Decoding the Different Ethical Codes and Guidance." Journal of Health Care Compliance. Frederick: Jan/Feb. Vol. 7, Iss. 1.
3. Lazarus, Arthur. (2004). "The Moral Obligations of Physician Executives." Physician Executive, Tampa: Nov/Dec. Vol. 30, Iss. 6.
Lazarus, Arthur. (2004). "The Moral Obligations of Physician Executives." Physician Executive, Tampa: Nov/Dec. Vol. 30, Iss. 6. Page, 40.
a) Changes in APA Public Policy
According to several changes made in APA Public policy with relation to the role of psychologists in the interrogations session, APA has prohibited its psychologists from taking part in the varied torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading interrogation techniques by stating, "No psychiatrist should participate directly in the interrogation of persons held in custody by military or civilian investigative or law enforcement authorities, whether in the United States or elsewhere. Direct participation includes being present in the interrogation room, asking or suggesting questions, or advising authorities on the use of specific techniques of interrogation with particular detainees (Pope, 2008, Psychologists at the Center of the Controversy)." urthermore, it was asserted through referendum which took place in 2008 that psychologists must not operate outside territories which are under the jurisdiction of international law such as Guantanamo, Bagram, or the CIA or JSOC "black site" prisons,…
Furthermore, since APA complies with United Nations definition of human rights, it can be implied that APA's definition of human rights includes universality and inalienability. The principle of universality of human rights is the cornerstone of international human rights law. This principle, as first emphasized in the Universal Declaration on Human Rights in 1948, has been reiterated in numerous international human rights conventions, declarations, and resolutions (UNHR, 1996). Hence, APA recognizes humans to have rights which cannot be taken away (APA, 1987).
Impact of U.S. Policies on Detainees
Where treaties like Geneva Convention and convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, prohibit any inhumane behavior resulting into physical and mental distress, there are no governing bodies to supervise the law and order agencies as an organization like APA has been
In order to truly be judged by his/her peers, a physician in an outlying area like Redding should be periodically visited by others to evaluate outcomes.
It is clear that Tenet's top management failed its ethical responsibilities in two ways: (1) they failed to reinforce the ethical guidelines central to any hospital or medical management group, and (2) they failed to monitor the performance of their institutions to insure that they were ethically compliant.
How Individual's Professional Conduct is Guided or Not Guided by the Code of Ethics.
Individuals in the medical profession take an oath to conduct themselves in an ethical manner. Nurses have a 9-point oath, which is fairly far-reaching. Physicians' oaths are shorter, but no less binding. Since each profession (this includes firemen, lawyers and accountants, not just healthcare professionals) has an important 'self-policing' element, the primary enforcer of ethical conduct is the professional his/herself.
City Data. (2007). Redding, California. Retrieved August 10, 2007, from City-Data: http://www.city-data.com/city/Redding-California.html
Weintraub, a. (2002, November 25). A Scandal-Ridden Tenet Stands by Its Man. Business Week, p. n.p.
Wynne, M. (2003, July). Tenet Healthcare, Scandal in General Hospitals. Retrieved August 10, 2007, from U. Of Washington: http://www.uow.edu.au/arts/sts/bmartin/dissent/documents/health/tenet2002story.html
There are about 2 million angioplasties done in the U.S. each year. Given Redding's size, that means that about 1,500 angioplasties per year should be performed in that town. In fact, over 7,000 were performed per year.
medical field is one that is populated with professionals whom non-medical individuals do not think about every day; yet these professionals profoundly affect the care received and in many cases the life or death of an individual being treated by the medical community. Individuals such as a radiology technician, a dietician, or even the assistant who carries medications to patients can be an integral part of a patient's treatment and survival. Emergency Medical Technicians are often the first responders to a trauma or sudden illness and, as such, may be a patient's only interaction with the medical community. In emergency situations, these individuals become especially important and, as a result, have more complex roles to play.
The role of the Emergency Medical Technician, or EMT, is highly involved and constantly evolving. hat is considered proper procedure on one day may change in the next, with advances and discoveries in medical…
Annas, G., 2004. The Rights of Patients. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press .
n, Tuma, Dolen-Sewell, Borja and Fleischman 2004. "Ethical Issues Pertaining to Research in the Aftermath of Disaster," Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17:5.
Gillespie, C., 1978. "The EMT Code of Ethics," published online at www.naemt.org/aboutNAEMT/EMTCodeOfEthics.htm
Ethical Case Using the Applied Ethical Decision Model
Recognize the Ethical Issue
In the case in question, there is certainly a clear-cut ethical lapse on behalf of young Julia. Her failure to appropriately inform her clients of the potential risks associated with their newly proposed investments was dishonest and selfish. This lack of full disclosure certainly undermines the trust that these clients have put in her hands. Even the formulation of a relationship with the securities salesman is highly unethical. As an objective member of a financial planning firm, Julia must approach her job and her client recommendations with an opened and unbiased mind. Having a business relationship that would potentially award her personal gains for professional consideration unquestionably coincides with Julia's equitable responsibility to her customers.
Evaluate Alternative Actions
In this case, the consequences of Julia's unethical behavior can have massive effects on the lives of her clients.…
The importance of the code of ethics in nursing
The Code of Ethics forms the foundation for candidates who aspire to join the nursing occupation. The guide is an indispensable set of standards that every nurse must embrace. It also acts as a reminder about their social responsibilities and commitments as nurses. The Code of Ethics further stipulates that nurses should enhance their learning together with evidence-based service. The transformations in the code depend on both moral variations and societal ideals (Y?ld?z, 2019). This section of the papers highlights the code's significance specifically for a Registered Nurse (RN). To attain this milestone, the paper identifies the American Nurses Association Standards of Practice that focuses on nurses' licensure. The paper refers to scholarly sources to support the significance of the code.
The nursing practice involves decisions that oscillate between life and death. Ethics are hence essential in the maintenance of nursing…
American Nurses Association (2010). Nursing: Scope and standards of practice. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association.
Davis, C. (2014). The importance of professional standards. Nursing Made Incredibly Easy!, Volume 12(Issue 5) - p 4.
Gibbons, S. W., & Jeschke, E. A. (2016). Nursing ethics: A lifelong commitment. Annual review of nursing research, 34(1), 1-14.
Y?ld?z, E. (2019). Ethics in nursing: A systematic review of the framework of evidence perspective. Nursing Ethics, 26(4), 1128-1148.
ETHICAL DILEMMAS IN THE PACTICE OF FOENSIC PSYCHOLOGY
Professional code of ethics regulates the behavior and practicing of individuals from different fields. Psychologists conform to the stated professional code of ethics that guide them in the provision of safe and quality services to their clients. Similarly, psychologists can practice in firms, including the law to aid in forensic examination of the convicted individuals. As such, it may require the application of the law code of ethics and psychological code of ethics, a fact that might present a significant challenge to them. Therefore, the following analysis identifies the standards of ethics psychologist (Dr. Joven) faces when practicing forensic psychology.
Dr. Joven has to follow numerous ethical standards guiding his professional practice as a future forensic psychologist. He will have to ensure confidentiality of the information of his clients. Confidentiality entails respecting one's right of privacy to the extent applicable,…
APA Ethics Code Commentary and Case Illustrations. (n.d.). http://www.apa.org. Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://www.apa.org/education/ce/1360279.aspx
Bush, S.S., Connell, M.A., & Denney, R.L. (2006). Ethical practice in forensic psychology: A systematic model for decision-making. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Ethics Rounds -- APA's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct: An ethics code for all psychologists? (n.d.). http://www.apa.org. Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://www.apa.org/monitor/sep06/ethics.aspx
Zapf, P.A., Hart, S.D., & Roesch, R. (2013). Forensic psychology and law. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley
Ethics in Public Administration
orking in the City Hall Supervisor Office, the code of ethics include accurately representing areas of competence, education, training, experience, and professional affiliations, including from boards and colleagues. Make employees aware of consumer rights to privacy and confidentiality. Obtain ongoing supervisory training. Make employees aware of ethical standards and legal responsibilities. Shall avoid conflict of interests. Shall not promote personal, religious, political, financial, or business interests. Personal issues shall be addressed with supervision only. Shall not supervise own relatives or 'significant relationships' (boyfriend, girlfriend, etc.). Shall be honest and uphold integrity. Supervision shall be professional and in a consistent manner without discrimination towards others. ill not delegate responsibilities outside the scope of individual capabilities. Shall not exploit employees for financial gain. And, shall not instruct employees in ways to violate the code of ethics.
Ethical standards are especially important in public administration to advance public interest…
Code of Ethics (revised March 2013). (2013, Mar). Retrieved from American Society for Public Administration: http://www.aspanet.org/public/ASPA/Resources/...1.aspx?hkey=acd40318-a945-ba7b-18e037b1a858
Lindblom, C.E. (n.d.). The Science of Muddling Through. In Classics in Public Administration (pp. 177-187).
Maslow, A.H. (n.d.). A Theory of Human Motivation. In Classics of Public Administration (pp. 123-130).
McGregor, D.M. (n.d.). The Human Side of Enterprise. In Classics in Public Administration (pp. 171-176).
company code of ethics for Boeing. In this document I will explore Boeing's code and attempt to reveal important items relevant to understanding how a functional code of ethics may be applied to a large organization. I will first describe a general background of the company to help provide context in this evaluation. Next, I will give an overview of the code of conduct and highlight important details that are worthy of discussion. This paper will also include how this code of ethics can be applied to the differing levels of responsibility and accountability within the company itself. I will also examine a recent specific case study of ethical violations within Boeing to help test the validity and quality of this company's attitude towards ethics. This specific case will help understand important factors on the stability and feasibility of their ethical codes and programs.
Boeing's company website describes the…
Boeing Corporate Website. Ethics. Viewed 31 Aug 2012. Retrieved from http://www.boeing.com/companyoffices/aboutus/ethics/hotline.html#howto
Reeder, J. & Hickey, D. (2005). Boeing strengthens, enhances ethics program. National Defense. February 2005. Retrieved from http://www2.gtlaw.com/pub/articles/2005/reederj05a.pdf
Richman, D. (2005, Mar 7). Analysis: Boeing conduct code worked properly, expert says. Seatllepi.com. Retrieved from http://www.seattlepi.com/business/article/Analysis - Boeing-conduct-code-worked-properly-1168027.php
They are a great source of strength and I will honor them while remaining true to myself.
I am committed to lifelong learning and I will constantly strive to advance my knowledge and skills in the field by attending conferences and clinics, and reading the current literature.
I will strive to be a contributing member of society, both professionally and personally. I value education and lifelong learning and will continue to expand my knowledge by attending classes. I also understand the value of work and feel that it is a necessary and constructive part of my life. I will continue to make myself more valuable to my employer by attending seminars and training and by doing my best for the company.
Continually improve my skills as a person and as an employee through educational enhancement programs to perform my job in a timely way at a high level of excellence.…
Beasley, M.S. & Jenkins, J.G. (2003). A primer for brainstorming fraud risks: There are good and bad ways to conduct brainstorming sessions. Journal of Accountancy, 196(6), 32.
Beker, M. (2004). Screenwriting with a conscience: Ethics for screenwriters. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hancock, J. (2003, May 10). Personal code of ethics. Jill Hancock. [Online]. Available: http://www-distance.syr.edu/jillh.html.
Nash, R.J. (2002). Spirituality, ethics, religion, and teaching: A professor's journey. New York: Peter Lang.
Company X has faith in its employees to utilize their own ethical judgment in conjunction with the rules and standards set forth by the company in order to assure that actions within the company are performed at an optimal level across the board.
Implementation and Communication
In order to assure that a code of ethics is implemented to the best of its ability into a company, gradual implementation must be used along with clear communication as to each step of the process in order to assure that the code of ethics is fully understood and used within the company by its employees.
In order to begin implementation, a checklist regarding steps needed to begin code adherence could prove helpful in providing a smooth transition into code use. In the early stages of implementation, it is crucial that as many people as possible -- employees included -- are involved in both…
Emerson, T., McKinney, J. And Neubert, M. (2010). "The effects of ethical codes on ethical perceptions of actions toward stakeholders." Journal of Business Ethics. 97:1. p. 505-516. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Gaumnitz, B. And Lere, J. (2007). "Codes of ethics with impact." The CPA Journal. 15:1.
p. 106. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
Godkin, L. And Valentine, S. (2009). "Ethics, social responsibility, and ethical reasoning in an education-based center: when doing good results in good employees." Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics. 7:3. p. 1-18. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
There is no mention of any higher level ethical ideals and is composed primarily of transactional or procedural items.
One item of interest found in the employees ethical code published by Wells Fargo, is that they have established what they call EthicsLine. This allows employees to contact an investigator (employed by Wells Fargo) to report any violations of the ethics code. The line is anonymous under most circumstances; only reports that involve criminal activity are require that the caller states any personal information. This allows employees an avenue to report any unethical behavior safely. This is extraordinarily efficient way to promote ethical behavior. However, Wells Fargo did not implement this item by choice; it is now required by corporations by comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2006. Therefore, it is unclear if Wells Fargo would have this option if it was not required of them.
Wells Fargo has…
Along with this code of ethics, there are other ethics and standards developed by the AASW, including Australian Social Work Education and Accreditation Standards, specific practice standards for supervision, mental health social workers, and school social workers, along with practice standards for all social workers.
Australian Association of Social Workers. (2010) Australian Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics, Canberra: AASW.
Australian Association of Social Workers. (2006) Continuing Professional Education Policy, Canberra: AASW.
anks, S. (2001) Ethics and Values In Social Work, London: McMillan Press.
Congress, E. (1999) Social Work Values and Ethics: Identifying and Resolving Professional Dilemmas, Chicago: Nelson Hall.
Holland, T.P. And Kilpatrick, A.C. (1991) "Ethical Issues in Social Work: Toward a Grounded Theory of Professional Ethics," Social Work, 36(2), 138-144.
McAuliffe, Donna. (Summer 2009) "I'm Still Standing: Impacts and Consequences of Ethical Dilemmas for Social Workers In Direct Practice," Journal of Social Work Values and Ethics,…
Australian Association of Social Workers. (2010) Australian Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics, Canberra: AASW.
Australian Association of Social Workers. (2006) Continuing Professional Education Policy, Canberra: AASW.
Banks, S. (2001) Ethics and Values In Social Work, London: McMillan Press.
Congress, E. (1999) Social Work Values and Ethics: Identifying and Resolving Professional Dilemmas, Chicago: Nelson Hall.
AAMFT Code of Ethics
Is it enough to know and follow the AAMFT Code of Ethics? Why or why not?
Yes, it is enough to know and follow American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT) code of ethics. AAMFT codes of ethics set standard for the ethical practice in the therapeutic profession which guides the conducts of therapists. Typically, AAMFT ethical standard defines the professional expectations that marriage and family therapists should follow, and AAMFT code of ethics covers all aspects of therapeutic practice which include responsibility of a therapist to clients and the confidentiality of client information which a therapist should respect at all time. While both law and ethics govern the practices of marriage and family therapists, however, AAMFT code of ethics is an essential tool that a marriage and family therapist must consult when making decision regarding the professional practice.
In addition, AAMFT code of ethics…
American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy. (2011). Code of Ethics. Retrieved 24 December 2011 From http://www.aamft.org/imis15/content/legal_ethics/code_of_ethics.aspx
Wilcoxon, A., Remly, T., Gladding, S.T., & Huber, C.H. (2007). Ethical, legal, and Professional Issues in the Practice of Marriage and Family Therapy Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
ANA Nursing Code of Ethics
ANA Code of Ethics Applied to Current Practice Philosophy
The objective of this study is to discuss provisions one through nine of the ANA Code of Ethics and apply it to the current practice philosophy. A well this work will discuss provisions seven through nine of the ANA Code of Ethics and apply it to the current practice philosophy and answer how the two relate. The differences between professional responsibility and accountability in the nursing practice will be discussed and examples provided. Finally, this study seeks to answer after what has been learned in addition to readings and self-assessment activities what can be implemented in the practice that would strengthen this experience for one's peers and in terms of self-development on the Novice to Professional continuum.
The American Nurse Administration Code of Ethics Provision One states that the nurse practices, in all professional relationships "with…
Bamford, M, Wong CA and Laschinger H (2012) The Influence of Authentic Leadership and Areas of Worklife on Work Engagement of Registered Nurses. J Nurs Manag 2012 26 Apr. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=nurse+ethics
Butts, JB (nd) Ethics in Professional Nursing Practice. Chapter 3. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Retrieved from: http://www.jblearning.com/samples/0763748986/48986_ch03_pass3.pdf
Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements (2010) Nursing World. Retrieved from: http://nursingworld.org/FunctionalMenuCategories/AboutANA/Leadership-Governance/Nursing-Code-of-Ethics.pdf
Dahnke, MD (2009) The Role of the American Nurses Association Code in Ethical Decision Making. Holist Nurs Pract 2009. Mar-Apr;23(2):112-9. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19258853
Raytheon Corporation: Code of conduct and ethics
Raytheon Company is a well reputed technology and innovation company which deals in security, defense and civil marketson a global scale. It has a rich and bright history of 92 years and continuing, Raytheon can provide top of the line electronics, integration of mission systems as well as other capabilities indicated below:
• Sensing capabilities
• Command and control
• Intelligence systems
• A diverse array of mission support services
Raytheon was one of the first startups, which were founded in Cambridge in Massachusetts Institute of Technology on July of 1922. It was started as an American appliance corporation (Raytheon Company, 2014).
The founder of the company was three associates namely:
• Vannevar ush (future dean of engineering department of MIT)
• Charles G. Smith (scientist notable for his work on electrical characteristics of gases)
• Laurence Marshall…
Akamai Technologies. (2014). Code of ethics. Retrieved from www.akamai.com/html/policies/code_ethics.html
Corrections Corporations of America. (2005). A guide to our code of ethics and business conduct. Retrived from https://www.cca.com/Media/Default/documents/Social-Responsibility/Fostering-Meaningful-Careers/Code_of_Ethics.pdf
Chunhua, C., & Yihan, N. (n.d.). How to Motivate Employees' Ethical Behavior-Based On Management Control Theory. Retrieved from http://www.seiofbluemountain.com/upload/product/201010/2010qychzh05a2.pdf
Department of Education, Training and the Arts. (2011). Code of conduct. Retrieved from http://deta.qld.gov.au/right-to-information/pdf/codecond.pdf
SJP Code of Ethics to run most of these photographs. An exception may be made with respect to the EMTs doing their jobs. Photographs of grief, and raw emotion, are frequently nominated and win awards for photojournalism. While such photographs might be seen as violating the harm principle with respect to showing compassion or the fact that the family are not public figures, the grief is part of the story, and the common use of such photographs in the media points to them being acceptable. Further, this "boldly tells the story of the diversity and magnitude of the human experience."
The photographs of the paramedics working on the boy are likely to be insensitive. Getting in the way of such work would be entirely in contravention of "private people have a greater right to control information about themselves…" but also that the victim here is a young boy. It is…
PRIVACY and CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION
Protection and safeguarding of information created in the conduct of Lenox Hill
Hospital and its affiliates business including patient information, staff data, financial data, research data, strategic plans, statistical information, purchasing agreements and contracts.
The words information created are an unnecessary limitation that narrow the applicability of the provision, contrary to its obvious intent to apply as broadly as possible. Under a literal interpretation, the provision, as drafted, does not apply to any of the types of information listed unless that information is "created" by the hospital.
Therefore, a better formulation of that portion of the provision would read as follows:
Protection and safeguarding of any and all information created, accessed, maintained, collected, transmitted, duplicated, or utilized by the hospital or by any of the hospital's employees, agents, associates, consultants, contractors, and any other person or entity affiliated in any way with the hospital..."
ANA Codes of Ethics for Nurses have been created with the purpose of ensuring that nurses provide clients with the best possible level of service in a way that focuses on patient needs. There are nine codes of ethics, each of which will be discussed with a professional example.
The first Code relates to the nurse's professional relationships, which are to be conducted with a focus on the inherent dignity and worth of individuals, regardless of specific considerations such as health problems or social status. Professionally, a nurse would therefore treat a poverty-stricken AIDS victim with the same dignity and respect as the President of the United States, should both be patients in the care of the hospital.
Secondly, the nurse is primarily committed to the patient, in terms of an individual, family, group, or community. Professionally, this means that nothing in the nurse's professional or private life should be…
American Nurses Association. Code of Ethics. Retrieved from: http://nursingworld.org/Mobile/Code-of-Ethics
Police Officers and the Law Enforcement Code of Ethics
Many professions, including law enforcement, maintain a code of ethics to provide general guidelines for practitioners who are routinely confronted with ethical dilemmas that defy easy resolution. This paper reviews the literature to determine what a Law Enforcement Code of Ethics (the "Code") has to say about the acts of a police officer and the extent to which these guidelines are open to interpretation due to vagaries in content or guidance. In addition, recommendations for improving the Code are followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
Like the legal and healthcare professions, law enforcement officers have an ethical responsibility to their fellow officers, their organization as well as the general public they are committed to protect and serve. These obligations make a code of ethics an integral part of the law enforcement…
Grant, J. K. (2009, December). Ethics and law enforcement. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 71(12), 11-14.
Stephens, N. (2006, November). Law enforcement ethics do not begin when you pin on the badge. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 75(11), 22-24.
Game Time Sporting Goods: Code of Ethics
Game Time Sporting Goods is a family owned and operated sporting goods store that has been in business for more than 25 years. It has four local outlets around the city and two main warehouses. It has more than 150 employees including head management and members of the Board, who are in the majority members of the family that founded Game Time.
In order to provide guidance on business ethical culture and employee ethical training, Game Time has chosen to develop a Code of Ethics that expresses the core principles, guidelines, purposes, values, educational drift, and definitions related to what it means to work for and be a part of the Game Time family. The Game Time motto is "God First, Family Always, and Business for the Sake of Sport" and this motto underlines the core values that we have come to associate…
Castka, P., Bamber, C., Sharp, J. (2015). Implementing Effective Corporate Social
Responsibility and Corporate Governance: A Framework. UK: British Standards Institution.
Friedman, A., Miles, S. (2012). Developing Stakeholder Theory. Journal of Management Studies, 39(1): 1-21.
Gallo, C. (2013). How Southwest and Virgin America Win by Putting People Before
Codes of Conduct
Describe your company and benchmark the codes of conduct used by similar companies. Critique the codes of conduct for three other companies.
Benchmark codes: The code of conduct for my company (a newspaper publisher in a small town) is quite straightforward and unsophisticated. Basic to the code for my company are ethical issues which are in effect behavioral issues: there shall be no use or profanity, no alcohol or drug use, no wagering and no activities that detract from the daily routine. The federal laws against discrimination (based on gender, ethnicity, age, disabilities and other issues), and sexual harassment, are clearly spelled out in the code of conduct. Also federal laws pertaining to the workplace are posted conspicuously in several areas, including the cafeteria.
Our company also warns against conflicts of interest, that is, using one's position or the knowledge an employee has to some kind of…
Los Angeles Times. (2007). Readers' Representative Journal / L.A. Times Ethics Guidelines.
Retrieved June 10, 2013, from http://latimesblogs.latimes.com .
Myers, Steve. (2012). Sacramento Bee fires Bryan Patrick for photo manipulation. Poynter.
Retrieved June 10, 2013, from http://www.poynter.org .
Ethics Code: Importance of Written Form
A written code of ethics is highly important for the corrections system, for the simple fact that it greatly assists in keeping corrections personnel both honest and forthright in the carrying out of their duties. Additionally, a written code of ethics is fairly significant to the carrying out of various jobs performed within correctional institutions because there are a number of disparate parties that have a vested interest in the fulfillment of the obligations of those working within corrections. Such people of interest within the ethical stewardship of responsibility within correctional institutions not only include inmates, but "the families of such persons, the general public, and…commercial and industrial firms, with whom the Department does business" (State of New Jersey, 1978). To that end, it is highly significant to have a written code of ethical standards to ensure to such different people and organizations that…
Most ethical codes that members of corrections have to adhere to contain information that is not altogether different from ethical standards that can be found within other professions. Common components of such codes include employees not accepting any forms of bribes or gifts which might influence their work, or not undertaking any other sort of employment of formal interest which would conflict with the correct way of carrying out of one's job. The actual significance of having such a written code, of course, lies in its enforcement. According to guidelines approved by the Executive Commission on Ethical Standards and promulgated into effect on September 1, 1978, the violation of the written code was "cause for removal, suspension, demotion or other disciplinary action by the Department" (State of New Jersey, 1978). The value of the code, then, is in the disciplinary measures that may be taken to keep members of the corrections department honest in the performance of their respective jobs.
In terms of leadership from the top of such an organization as a department of corrections, it is fairly integral to have managerial or administrative support of such codes of ethics. One of the primary reasons why the involvement of those in the upper echelons of authority in a department of corrections is so vital is because oftentimes, it is this body which determines whether or not punishments should be disseminated, as well as whether or not there have been any transgressions of the ethical code of conduct. This fact is closely alluded to in the flowing quotation. "No disciplinary action shall be taken, however, except upon the referral of or with the approval of the Executive Commission on Ethical Standards" (State of New Jersey, 1978). In this case, the Executive Commission on Ethical Standards is the governing body which oversees issues of ethics related to a corrections department, and is the basis for any potential violations of ethics that may occur.
Furthermore, there is evidence that indicates that the code of ethics which members of corrections departments must adhere to is merely part
With the Starbucks code of conduct, there are a few goods things. First, it touches on a wide range of subjects. There are actually several different reports such as human rights, social responsibility, health care, animal welfare and supplier code of conduct (Starbucks.com, 2014). Second, I like the fact that it addresses the farmers from whom the company buys its beans -- these are people doing manual labor in hot countries, band often do not receive a living wage. So that is good. Third, I like that the company has targets and tracks some of its social responsibility outcomes. This will help the company to improve its social responsibility performance, as well as its ethical performance.
As for the McDonalds statement the company also reflects social responsibility in its statement. This is something that McDonalds has been forced to address by protests and negative publicity and there isn't any…
McDonalds. (2014). Standards of business conduct for employees. About McDonalds.com. Retrieved April 11, 2014 from http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/mcd/investors/corporate_governance/codes_of_conduct/standards_of_business_conduct.html
Starbucks.com (2014). Starbucks on the issues. Starbucks. Retrieved April 11, 2014 from http://www.starbucks.ca/responsibility/learn-more/policies
Ethics in Law Enforcement
"Sometimes [police officers] may, and sometimes may not, lie when conducting custodial interrogations. Investigative and interrogatory lying are each justified on utilitarian crime control grounds. Police are never supposed to lie as witnesses in the courtroom, although they may lie for utilitarian reasons similar to those permitting deception & #8230;" (Skolnick, et al., 1992)
Is it ethical for law enforcement officers to use deception during the interrogation process? It appears that when officers are attempting to extract a confession from a suspect, deception is, in many cases, commonly applied strategy. Does a code of ethics conflict with the way in which law enforcement conducts its interviews and interrogations? hat do the courts say about deceptive interrogation tactics? These issues will be reviewed in this paper.
Deception in the Interrogation Room
Is it ethical to lie to obtain the truth? No. Do the ends justify the means?…
Braswell, Michael C. (2011). Justice, Crime, and Ethics. Maryland Heights, MO: Elsevier.
Leo, Richard A. (2009). Police Interrogation and American Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
McMullen, Patrick M. (2005). Questioning the Questions: The Impermissibility of Police
Deception in Interrogations of Juveniles. Northwestern University Law Review, 99(2),
Ethics are often stronger than the laws of the land. Laws are cobbled together by special interests and have little to do with right and wrong, or personal ethical codes. For most people, their own personal codes of ethics will be stronger than the laws. People are much less likely to violate their own personal ethical codes than the laws.
Morals are codes of conduct put forward by a society, often within the context of a cultural or social group. Ethics are, following the Aristotelian tradition, a general guide to behavior that an individual adopts as his own guide to life (Gert, 2011). The relationship between the two is self-evident: while ethics are individual they are often strongly influenced by society's moral context.
Kohlberg (1971) outlined morals are being pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional. Pre-conventional morals are in the obedience and punishment orientation and the self-interest orientation. Like when you learn…
Anderson, K. (2009). Ethnographic research: A key to strategy. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://hbr.org/2009/03/ethnographic-research-a-key-to-strategy/ar/1
Gert, B. (2011). The definition of morality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/morality-definition/
Kohlberg, L. (1971) From Is to Ought: How to Commit the Naturalistic Fallacy and Get Away with It in the Study of Moral Development. New York: Academic Press.
Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Ethics add to the beauty of profession whether medicine, healthcare, sociology, politics, education, business and even technology. Lack of ethics might not kill someone in most of cases but it certainly does affect the beauty of life. In psychology, ethics does play a role in developing trust between the client and the professional. Single parenting is a social psychology problem that also demands ethical practice since it deals with trust and confidence. Whatever is a different behavior from normal practices might need psychological guidance. Often there is a need to train people, couples, students, job candidates and single parents. The psychologists are bound by social contract. They do not only have to follow the job description but also have to meet the expectations of the clients and the industry in terms of ethical performance. While the dignity of the profession matters most in psychology. From decision…
Canadian Psychological Association, (2000), Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists, Retrieved
According to the dictionary definition, ethics refer to the "set of principles of right conduct, or more specifically, "the rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession." Ethics and morals are closely related, but ethics is the term more commonly used in the professional realm, whereas morals generally refer to guidelines for personal behavior. Both ethics and morals are reflections of beliefs and values, which are held by individuals and collectively, by whole societies. The development of ethics therefore stems from social and cultural factors as well as from personal ones. However, a few ethical codes are nearly universal. Ethics are complex; in the business realm they may vary widely from sector to sector. No organization is completely immune to ethics, even if the organization has no formal ethical code. Professional decisions are made with regard to personal ethics or to the…
Cline, Austin. "Ethics, Morals, and Values: How do They Relate?" About.com. Online at < http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/phil/blfaq_phileth_values.htm >.
'Ethics." Dictionary.com. online at .
Education on ethics must be wider compared to "moral development" in that it must tackle the broader consideration of a wide-ranging vocation, and constricted in that it must tackle problems particularly to the accounting vocation. (esearch on Accounting Ethics)
Definite duties of the accounting profession are put forth in the different code of ethics circulated by important establishments like the AICPA. The AICPA's foremost rule of professional conduct declares: In discharging their duties as professionals, associates must implement responsive professional and moral views in all their works. (Business and Accounting Ethics) the failure of auditor sovereignty infringing ule 101 of the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct was the topic of a research project using 2,000 arbitrarily chosen AICPA members in public accounting profession as a staff auditor, senior, or manager. These executives were offered with 15 roles that are an infringement of ule 101 and were directed to give their…
Accounting and Accountability: A Challenge for corporate culture. The 13th International Symposium on Ethics, Business and Society. IESE Business School, University of Navarra. Barcelona, Spain. May 7-8, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.iese.edu/en/files/6_6343.pdf . Accessed on 25 April, 2005.
Schachter, Joseph. Research on Accounting Ethics. CPA Journal. April 1999. Retrieved at http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/1999/0499/News_Views/NV12.HTM . Accessed on 25 April, 2005.
Smith, Katherine T; Smith, Murphy. L. Business and Accounting Ethics. 21 June, 2003.
Retrieved at http://acct.tamu.edu/smith/ethics/ethics.htm. Accessed on 25 April, 2005.
More than replacing a Code of Ethics, solutions to the issue might revolve around simply understanding, adopting, and enforcing codes that are already in place. For instance, the IACP code of ethics for law enforcement has four major themes that would clearly handle most situations: 1) Fairness towards everyone -- the public, clients, the accused, colleagues, etc. Fairness also implies the maxim of not using one's power to take advantage of the public (e.g. bribes for service, etc.); 2) Service -- Public service is a calling -- the community holds law enforcement personnel to a high standard, and expects service to be part of the regular job description; 3) Importance of the law -- Upholding the Constitution or the statues of the law that are mandated by the profession, and; 4) the importance of personal conduct -- law enforcement professionals must hold a standard of behavior that is consistent and…
Banks, J. (2004). The Importance of Ethics in Criminal Justice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4031_Banks_Chapter_1_Proof.pdf
Chery, D. (May 7, 2009). Judges on Wrong Side of the Law. CBS News. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/08/04/national/main566433.shtml
IIT (Illinois Institute of Technology. (2012). Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions. Ethics.itt.edu. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://ethics.iit.edu/
Pollock, J. (2012). Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Therefore, the best way to help employees act ethically is to view the workplace and daily operations as a training ground.
In your estimation why is there a growing need for organizational ethics programs? What are the factors contributing to ethical problems in the global corporate world? What are possible solutions?
The need for organizational ethics program is growing for several reasons. First, organizational ethics have become crucial for companies to avoid legal and financial distress. Second, ethics help businesses run smoothly and well, attracting the best caliber of employee. Ethics programs are important especially in large organizations with a diverse staff. Global and multinational companies will be working with people from around the world, who operate in unique ethical environments. Ethics programs help multinational companies create standards for employees that will help avoid conundrums and miscommunication. Ethics programs bring all employees together on the same page and therefore become…
Ethics, Morality, Values, And Beliefs
According to "the ethics site," an Internet resource for college instructors regarding the teaching of different ethical systems, ethics may be defined as "the explicit, philosophical reflection on moral beliefs and practices. The difference between ethics and morality is similar to the difference between musicology and music. Ethics is a conscious stepping back and reflecting on morality, just as musicology is a conscious reflection on music." ("Glossary," The Ethics Site, 2005) In other words, ethics is the philosophy of what is right and wrong, while morality is the practice of ethics, or virtue in action.
The analogy between a musician and a musicologist proposed by the positioning of ethics vs. morality is interesting, because one might understand music very well, and be able to explain its theory and teaching as a musicologist. However, a great musicologist might be only a middling musician. In contrast, there…
"Glossary." The Ethics Site. 2005. http://ethics.acusd.edu/LMH/E2/Glossary.html. [11 Feb 2005]
The ethics of the design research demands that 'the research is valid and that threats to validity have been taken into account', and reporting has been accurate and sufficient details have been listed and supplemented for the clarity and appropriate interpretation of the research content, furthermore 'in qualitative research, it is important to be particularly careful about how to choose direct quotations from the data in the research, and ensure that they are representative' (Ian, 2003).
Many professional associations, government agencies, and universities have developed, adopted and practiced specific codes, rules, and policies relating to research ethics i.e. East Carolina University, National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the Food and Drug Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture have developed their own ethical rules related to the design research. Some of the influential ethical policies on design research includes, 'the Uniform equirements (International Committee…
David B. Resnik. What is Ethics in Research & Why is it Important? National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. 2006. Referred from www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources
Deni Elliott, Judy E. Stern. Research Ethics: A Reader. 1997. UPNE Publication. pp. 216
Ian Gregory. Ethics in Research. Continuum International Publishing Group. 2003. pp. 93
Helen Simons, Robin Usher. Situated Ethics in Educational Research. Routledge. 2000. pp. 84
Before resuming my educational endeavors at the University of Phoenix I was fortunate enough to experience life and many of its travails as a business person and employee. During my tenure in those endeavors I observed a number of events that I considered unethical, and a number of actions taken by individuals that I found both reprehensible and repulsive. I was often amazed at the capabilities of mankind to justify their actions, when it was quite evident that such actions would not be considered ethical in any circumstances, no matter what the justification.
Ethics has always been a concern, whether individuals worked in education, business or even the medical field. One early study determined that there were many young managers that had reported being asked implicitly to do things they personally believed were unethical, and sometimes illegal (Badzek, Mitchell, Marra, Bower,1998). Oftentimes these young managers feel the pressure to…
Badzek, L.A., Mitchell, K., Marra, S.E., Bower, M.M., (1998) Administrative Ethics and Confidentiality/Privacy Issues, ANA Periodicals, Vol. 3, No. 3
Chaloner, C.; (2007) An introduction to ethics in nursing, Nursing Standard, Vol. 21, Issue 32, pp. 42 -- 46
Dessoff, A.; (2010) Battling sexual abuse, District Administration, Vol. 46, Issue 3, pp. 50-56
Rosenkoetter, M.M. & Milstead, J.A.; (2010) A code of ethics for nurse educators: Revised, Nursing Ethics, Vol. 17, Issue 1, pp. 137-139
All ethical approaches can be validly applied to family life education. Defined as "the educational effort to strengthen individual and family life through a family perspective," family life education views family through ethical lens. However, ethics in family life education extends beyond the ultimate goals of promoting high-level family functioning. The ethics of family life education pertains to the practitioner-client relationship. According to the National Council on Family elations (2012), practitioners need to be aware of the power and responsibilities they have when forming relationships with clients. Although all ethical approaches are equally as valid, relational ethics offers special insight into the nature of family life education. elational ethics "a contemporary approach to ethics that situates ethical action explicitly in relationship," (Austin, 2008). Ethics are primarily situational, but only because ethics evolves out of dialogue and cooperation and not out of rigid ascription to ethical rules. This is not…
Austin, W.J. (2008). Relational ethics. SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods.
Dahlberg, G. & Moss, P. (2004). Ethics and Politics in Early Childhood Education. Routledge.
Elliott, M. (1999). Classifying family life education on the World Wide Web. Family Relations 48(1): Jan 1999.
National Council on Family Relations (2012). Family life educators code of ethics. Retrieved online: http://www.ncfr.org/sites/default/files/downloads/news/cfle_code__of_ethics_2012.pdf
She has two strong motivating reasons to not report the bribery. She could lose her work status in the United States and she would jeopardize her ability to receive her education. She owes herself and her partner a duty of care as well, to place value on her education and her ability to live in Chicago and therefore maintain the relationship. For Valerie, these considerations are powerful, since Waters' actions do not have the same strong impact on her life as reporting him could.
Valerie must determine which duties are most important -- to herself, to her partner, to the company and to her teammates. The teammates would appear to be the least relevant, the company the most relevant. Valerie is acting as in this capacity as a representative of Wisson and should conduct herself on the basis of that position. She is acting in the best interests of the…
Ethics, Values and Decision-Making in Nursing Practice
RIGHT FROM WRONG
A nurse's primary tasks are monitoring the patient's vital signs, administering medications, and helping doctors treat and perform procedures (Williams, 2012). Oftentimes and in many cases, these technical skills must be guided by certain and pertinent moral and ethical principles. This ethical and moral component of her overall responsibility is so important and critical that a code of ethics was created by the American Nurses Association to guide her in inevitable ethical dilemmas (Williams). These ethical dilemmas can include the clash between the principle of confidentiality and the concept of reasonable limits, between two or more ethical principles involving confidentiality, and the influence of culture on values.
. Importance of Ethical Theory to Nursing
In 1991, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations or JCAHO expressed the mandate that institutions shall address ethical issues in patient care and requires…
Badzek, L.A. et al. (1998). Administrative ethics and confidentiality/privacy issues. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing: American Nurses Association. Retrieved on June 14, 2012 from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/tableofContents/Vol131998/NO3Dec1998/PrivacyIssues.aspx
Kotak, D and Lawson, a. (2008). Patient confidentiality and the intensivist. Vol 9 # 2
Journal of the Intensive Care Society: the Intensive Case Society. Retrieved on June
15, 2012 from http://www.journal.ICS.ac.uk/pdf/0902178.pdf
Declaration of Helsinki
In this article the author emphasizes that having a code of ethics is still as important as it has always been but this new code includes the idea of informed consent and how to deal with those that are unable to provide it. The author goes on to address how important human subjects are to the area of medical research but stresses that this importance does not outweigh the adherence to a code of ethics when conducting research.
The Declaration of Helsinki has a lot in common with the Nuremberg Code but really expands the code to include more things in greater detail. The code now contains a section that deals with informed consent. Although the code does not address research on those subjects who are unable to provide informed consent, the code does address such research, asserting the ethical acceptability under certain circumstances of what is…
.." And "The probability that my peers would undertake the same action is...." It is the difference in the responses given to these two questions, as captured on a seven point Likert scale, that is the measure of the social desirability response bias. (Tyson: 1992; Cohen et al.: 1995, 1996, 2001).
Many studies have been done on the role and correlation between moral development and ethical decision making as it applies to various professionals. A majority of these research studies have found that such things as gender, education, age and taking ethics courses in school have some affect on one's moral reasoning developments (Armstrong: 1993; Elm, Kennedy & Lawton: 2001; Jones & Hiltebeitel: 1995; Ponemon & Glazer: 1990; Shaub: 1994). However, many studies have also found exactly the opposite, in that no significant relationship exists. (Ma & Chan: 1987; Rogers & Smith: 2001; Thorne, Massey & Magnan: 2003).
Weber, J., & Glyptis, S.M. (2000). Measuring the impact of a business ethics course and community service experience on students' values and opinions. Teaching Business Ethics, 4, 341-358.
Weber, J., & Green, S. (1991). Principled Moral Reasoning: Is it a Viable Approach to Promote Ethical Integrity? Journal of Business Ethics, 10(5), 325-333.
Wynd, W.R., & Mager, J. (1989). The business and society course: Does it change student attitudes? Journal of Business Ethics, 8(6), 486-491.
Ethics in Nursing
Every professional in the field of healthcare has a special responsibility and obligation to treat patients with care and dignity -- and at all times there should be an ethical approach as well. Nurses, too, is a vitally important component of healthcare, are nurses are certainly bound by ethical rules and values, and this paper delves into the various aspects of ethics in nursing.
Ethics and Nursing
"Codes of ethics refer to systems of rules and principles by which a profession is expected to regulate the moral behavior of its members and demonstrate its responsibility to society" (Numminen, et al., 2011, p. 710).
Ethics in nursing boils down to taking responsibility for providing good care to patients, being fair, professional and just, Zane olf writes in the peer-reviewed journal Nursing. But there is more to it than just offering professional care, olf continues. The author, who is…
Kangasniemi, Mari. (2010). Equality as a central concept of nursing ethics: a systematic literature review. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Science, 24(4), 824-832.
Lachman, Vicki D. (2012). Applying the Ethics of Care to Your Nursing Practice. Nursing.
Numminen, O.H., Leino-Kilpi, H., van der Arend, A., and Katajisto, Jouko. (2011).
107) could also apply here. The confidentiality clause in such a case then only applies insofar as it is estimated that there is no need to disclose confidential information to others. In the case of Mrs. Z, her family deserves to know about her situation, because it affects their lives pertinently.
Because of the increasing cultural diversity throughout the world, cultural values also play an important part in making ethical decisions in the nursing profession. In the case of Mrs. Z, for example, she appears to have no powers of decision making either in her home or in society in general. Inside the home, her mother-in-law runs the household, while her husband is in charge of important decisions. This could have a significant influence upon her decision not to disclose her condition to her family.
According to Karahanne, Evaristo and Srite (2006, p. 34), for example, also note that cultures…
Alligood, M.R., Marriner-Tomey, a. (2006). Nursing Theory: Utilization and Application. Elsevier Health Sciences.
DeWolf Bosek, M.S. And Savage, T.A. (2007) the Ethical Component of Nursing Education: Integrating Ethics into Clinical Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Goodman, K.W. (2008, Jan) Privacy, Confidentiality, Law and Ethics. Norhteast Florida Medicine Supplement. Retrieved from: http://www.dcmsonline.org/jax-medicine/2008journals/ethics/privacy.pdf
Karahanna, E., Evaristo, J.R., and Srite, M. (2006). Levels of Culture and Individual Behavior: An Integtrative Perspective. Advanced Topics in Global Information Management, Vol. 5. Idea Group, Inc.
Description of esearch Procedure
The study reviewed here was conducted in order to test whether the ethical standards were much more loosely based on individual decision practices rather than a larger universal underlying theme. esearchers used the Vignette method which is "a scenario-based approach that is about how managers (participants in this study) respond to certain ethical dilemma situations," (Kim & Chun 2003: 378). Thus, various situations within the context of marketing were given to the sample population of Korean managers as to find correlations and similarities within how Korean business is supposed to act when acting within the limitations of ethical practices. 473 original participants were given questionnaires, with 452 totaling the final number of answered questionnaires for analysis.
Flaws in Procedural Design
Yet, within the context of this study, only managers were included. There were no participants on the two extreme sides of the spectrum. No one form…
Kim, Sang Yong & Chun, Sung Yong. (2003). A study of marketing ethics in Korea: what do Koreans care about? Journal of Management. 20(3):377-379.
Ethics with Character: Virtues and the Ethical Social orker -- Paul Adams
Professor Paul Adams of the University of Hawaii's Myron B. Thompson School of Social ork in this peer-reviewed article explores those aspects of social work that "…are not primarily about identifying and resolving dilemmas" (Adams, 2009, p. 83). Adams delves into the "ethical tradition" -- and the potential therein -- that had its roots in "the virtues and character" of social work practitioners from Aristotle and Hippocrates to today's social workers. In other words, how can today's social worker -- and the field of social work -- learn from the past to enhance the field ethically? This paper reviews and critiques Adams' research, which is very interesting and enlightening in the context of values, human interaction, and social work.
Review / Critique of Adams' Article
Ethics, in the view of Strom-Gottfried, refers to the "…embodiment of values into…
Adams, Paul. (2009). Ethics with Character: Virtues and the Ethical Social Worker. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 36(3), 83-105.
The requirement of signing the code is one of the best ways to implement it because there is then proof that all employees have received it. It is important, however, to hold an employee meeting and go over the code of ethics so that employees can ask questions, clear up any concerns, and make sure that they understand the code. If the business has individuals working there that do not have English as their first language, printing copies of the code in other languages to accommodate employees will help these employees understand the code and will also show that the employer made the best and most thorough effort to ensure that everything was understood by everyone. Implementing a code of ethics is not easy, and people sometimes forget to follow the rules, so there also needs to be some leniency in the beginning, depending on the infraction that was committed.…
Bethel, SM. (1999 December) Decisions, Decisions, Decisions. Food Management. (December, 1999). Retrieved at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0BGE/12_34/58544732/p1/article.jhtml?term=%22organizational+behavior%22+and+%22decision+making%22 .
Eisenhardt, KM. (1999 Spring) Strategy as strategic decision making. Sloan Management Review. Retrieved at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m4385/3_40/54636302/p1/article.jhtml?term=%22organizational+behavior%22+and+%22decision+making%22 .
Pelled, LH., Eisenhardt, KM., & Xin, KR. (1999 March) Exploring the black box: an analysis of work group diversity, conflict, and performance. Administrative Science Quarterly Retrieved at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m4035/1_44/54482491/p1/article.jhtml?term=%22organizational+behavior%22+and+%22conflict%22+and+%22decision+making%22 .
Ethics and IT
Ethics and Information Technology
Doing Ethics Analysis
This case concerns trade secret misappropriation and theft of intellectual property, as well as issues of surveillance and cybercrime. Sergey Aleynikov attempted to steal computer code from Goldman Sachs in order to build competing technology for his new employer. Goldman Sachs prosecuted Aleynikov and won a conviction. The case discusses applicable case laws, including the difficulty of enforcing non-compete and non-disclosure agreements.
Sergey Aleynikov was employed by Goldman Sachs, and as part of his employment, had signed a confidentiality agreement. Aleynikov found new employment with Teza Technologies, where he was hired to build a high-speed trading platform to compete with Goldman Sachs. On his last day of employment for Goldman Sachs, Sergey Aleynikov downloaded proprietary high-speed trading computer code for use in his new employment at Teza Technologies. Aleynikov attempted to cover up evidence of his theft by erasing and…
Australian Computer Society Code of Ethics. University of Western Australia website. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from http://undergraduate.csse.uwa.edu.au/units/CITS3200/ethics/acs-ethics.htm
Mastin, L. (2011). Basics of Philosophy. Retrieved April 28., 2011 from http://www.philosophybasics.com/branch_contractarianism.html
Sevenoaks School Philosophy Department. (2011). Ethics. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from http://www.sevenoaksphilosophy.org/ethics/egoism.html
Simpson, C. (2003). Doing Ethics: A universal technique in an accessibility contest. Retrieved April 29, 2011 from http://dl.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/159/141
However, there are often no rules, or weak ones, and that can create an ethical dilemma on the part of marketers. They must decide for themselves what lines they want to cross, and set their own codes of ethics. here rules only provide guidelines, these can be open to interpretation. As we have seen with the area of marketing to children, however, the marketing industry has kept ahead of the regulators in how they approach the issue. The government has barely been able to ban Joe Camel, and has no answer for companies that reach children with child-oriented web content that blends.
In order to create a code of ethics where there are no laws to provide guidance, there are bodies that have taken the lead. A company should begin, for example, with a statement of ethical norms from the American Marketing Association (2012). There are three ethical…
Akaah, I. & Riordan, E. (1989). Judgments of marketing professionals about ethical issues in marketing research: A replication and extension. Journal of Marketing Research. Vol. 26 (1) 112-120
Shrubsole, G. (2012). Marketing and advertising that respects children's rights. The Guardian. Retrieved November 24, 2012 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/sustainable-business/marketing-advertising-respect-childrens-rights
Horovitz, B. (2011). Marketing to kids gets more savvy with new technologies. USA Today. Retrieved November 24, 2012 from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/industries/retail/2011-07-27-new-technolgies-for-marketing-to-kids_n.htm
Smart Consulting Group. (2009). Dishonest marketing in pharmaceuticals demands a big price to pay. SCG. Retrieved November 24, 2012 from http://www.smartconsultinggroup.com/2009/11/dishonest-marketing-in-pharmaceuticals-demands-a-big-price-to-pay/
The second step is to initiate a supplier code of conduct. The greatest potential for ethical violations falls with suppliers such as agricultural firms or offshored service providers, and these violations can result in negative publicity for the company.
Ultimately, it is not expected that these ethical standards will form a competitive advantage for the company. Having high ethical standards is more of a hygiene factor in that it is something a company needs to have to avoid negative impacts, but few companies get any particular competitive mileage from their ethical policies. There is little impetus to join the fair trade or organic businesses for most of the products we sell. hile many consumers are willing to pay more for said products, it remains a niche category especially in Europe and the UK. This usually means that the volumes are too low to justify the effort. Overall, the best approach…
FAO. (2001). Ethical issues in food and agriculture. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/X9601E/X9601E00.htm
HRW. (2010). Hellish work. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://www.hrw.org/en/node/91458/section/3
Hussein, M. (2009). Hiring and firing with ethics. Human Resource Management International Digest. Vol. 17 (4) 37-40.
Van Tulder, R. & Kolk, a. (2001). Multinationality and corporate ethics: Codes of conduct in the sporting goods industry. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. 32 (2) 267-283.
Corporate Governance & Business Ethics
It is quite interesting to note that, academic research in business ethics was a totally distinct discipline from research in corporate governance, and the application of the word 'ethics' was uncommon in available research on corporate governance. The chief responsibility of corporate governance was understood to be safeguarding the benefits of the shareholders. Because of the severance between ownership and management, and the incapability of the independent owners to supervise the performances of those managers, a possibility was available for vital strategic decisions to be taken which would advantageous for the managers to a more larger extent compared to the owners. For example, takeovers not related to the organization's core competence outcome in a bigger corporation, however, it does not result in a more profitable company all the time. Certainly, research has proved that extremely increased extent of isolated diversification normally resulted in lower…
Beekun, Rafik; Singh, Manohar; Stedham, Yvonne. Center for Corporate Governance and Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.unr.edu/facultysenate/reports_proposals/documents/ccge_ms_14_ys.pdf Accessed on 26 June, 2005
Corporate Governance & Business Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.pwcglobal.com/Extweb/service.nsf/docid/FB60A9175892EEB185256D9100699076 Accessed on 26 June, 2005
Ethics and Corporate Governance: Is There One Best Way? Conference Overview: Prudential Business Ethics Center at Rutgers. March 25, 2004. Retrieved from http://www.pruethics.rutgers.edu/conf/corpgov2004 / Accessed on 26 June, 2005
Hollinger, Susan. B. Corporate Governance: Codes of Ethics to Guide Corporate Conduct. July 2002. Retrieved from http://www.gcglaw.com/resources/bs/ethics.html Accessed on 26 June, 2005
The controller's objectives in this situation are to accurately reflect the state of the business; the president's request runs directly counter to this objective.
c) The controller should not be concerned with Ruiz Co.'s growth rate. The duty of the controller is to record as accurately as possible the company's financial condition. Accuracy is the most important consideration for the controller. The firm's growth rate is the responsibility of other managers.
The controller's duty of care is owed to the shareholders, regulators and other parties who are affected by the accuracy level of the financial statements. The duty, however, is not to provide the shareholders with a level of growth or to manage their expectations. The duty of the controller is to accurately reflect the firm's financial state.
As such, the controller in this situation should refuse the president's request. The request is made in bad faith, and does not…
These kinds of compulsive behaviors are observed on a daily basis. It has been highlighted by the authors that there is an acceptable use policy implicated on the students in academic institutions and on the daily basis, without regarding the restrictions placed by these policies, students work against the policy. According to the policy, computers within the universities can only be used for academic purposes only. The policy has highlighted that computers in an academic environment should not be used for online sharing, downloading, social networking and gaming (Nykodym, Ariss, & Kurtz, 2008, p. 7). But in the campuses and academic institutions, it is seen that the students usually sit in for social networking and gaming. Thereby, from here it can be seen that either the students don't want to follow the policies or they don't want to understand the restrictions placed in the policies.
The authors have highlighted that…
Nykodym, N., Ariss, S., & Kurtz, K. (2008). Computer Addiction and Cyber Crime. Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics .
Poulsen, K. (2011). Kingpin: how one hacker took over the billion-dollar cybercrime underground. Crown Publishing Group.
Roberts, K. (2010). Cyber Junkie: Escape the Gaming and Internet Trap. Hazelden Publishing.
Ross, A.J. (2008). How to Hug a Porcupine: Negotiating the Prickly Points of the Tween Years. McGraw-Hill Professional.
ETHICS plays an important role in many areas of our business world. Take direct selling, for instance. How can you tell the difference between a legitimate business and a disguised pyramid scheme? To answer this question, we need to back up and look at what "ethics" are all about and, why they are important. Then we will look at the legitimacy of the two direct selling methods.
What are ethics? Here is the most recent textbook definition from a college MA (Masters in usiness Administration) updated required reading selection, "Ethics are the moral principles that govern the actions and decision of an individual or group," Marketing 7th Edition (Kerin, 2003, 100). In other words, to choose a course of action in moral situations, we use ethics, our cornerstones or guidelines to follow.
Why are ethics important in the business arena? ecause every person is a part of the whole and…
AICPA, American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. New York. 2002. http://www.aicpa.org/about/code/et202.htm
Direct Selling Association, Direct Selling Association. Washington. 2002. http://www.dsa.org/ethics
Donne, John. "No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main..."The Phrase Finder. 3 Nov. 2002. http://phrases.shu.ac.uk/meanings/257100.html
Kerin, Roger, and Eric Berkowitz, Steven Hartley, William Rudelius. Marketing, 7th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2003.
Ethics to Practice: Analysis of 'end of life' decision making
The foregoing discussion is an incursion into nursing ethics. Implication(s) to 'omission' of information as a customary practice within our healthcare institution is reviewed in relation to best practices pertaining to 'informed consent,' and hospital policy is not definitive. Directed at the evolution of ethical decision making, the general query to the study focuses on the parameters of informed consent where individual practice is concerned.
In the nation of Canada where I am a nurse the number of situations where patient informed consent decisions might be subject to our national code of nursing ethics is many. e face critical ethical dilemmas every day, as emergency procedures and critical care interventions are standard practice. Complexity in decision making is furthered in the conduct and approaches made by international colleagues on contract in our institution by way of exchange.
The primacy of…
Bullough, B. ed. The Law and the expanding nursing role. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1980.
Callahan, Joan, ed. Ethical Issues in Profesional Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Canadian Medical Protection Association (CMPA), 2010. Web.
Finlay and Fernandez. Failure to report and provide commentary on research ethics board approval and informed consent in medical journals is discussed Journal of Medical Ethics, 34.10 (2008), 761-764. doi:10.1136/jme.2007.023325.