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This will help them in developing long-term strategies that are useful in their later life stages. Schools need to adopt preventive and supportive measures and programs that would strengthen children's competence and ability to control their emotions. Emotional control strategies should begin from preschool to high school education. This implies that teachers need to provide sets of socio-emotional skills for their students who will help them create good relationships, good communication, and sensitivity to the needs of other people.
Teachers must apply strategies matching with the students' ability to control stress. They can do this by focusing on the ones promoting improved performance besides controlling and regulating their emotions and behaviors. Unfortunately, teacher-coaching strategy is decreasing especially in the developing countries. In order to counter this problem, many preventive intervention programs are developed to help children achieve interpersonal skills and emotional competence. Greenberg (1994) supports the Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS)…
Greenberg, M.T. (2006). Promoting resilience in children and youth: preventive interventions and their interface with neuroscience. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 139 -- 150
Webster-Stratton, C., & Reid, M.J. (2004). Strengthening social and emotional competence in young children -- the foundation for early school readiness and success: Incredible years classroom social skills and problem-solving curriculum. Infants & Young Children: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Special Care Practices, 17, 96 -- 113.
Cognitive behavioral therapy with Classical Freudian Analyses
How do therapists with each of these persepectives view the client and clients problem?
Let's take the following problem that I recently encountered: The situation of a child being estranged from the parents and whilst parents seek contact with the child, the child, based on a long and entrenched history of child abuse, refuses to maintain contact with the parents. The classical Freudian approach attempts to explain personality, motivation, and psychological disorder by focusing on the influence of early childhood experiences, on unconscious motives and conflicts, and on sexual and aggressive urges. The analyst, accordingly, may perceive the situation as one arising from covert sexual urges on part of child, possibly initiating from some infantile / developmental dislocation of one or more stages occurring in either child and/or parent, and certainly as the influence of early childhood experiences as regards all three individuals…
Beck, Aaron T. (1999). Prisoners of Hate: The Cognitive Basis of Anger, Hostility, and Violence, Harper Collins,
Ellis, A. (2001). Overcoming Destructive Beliefs, Feelings, and Behaviors: New Directions for Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Prometheus Books
Lazarus, Arnold A. (1971). Behavior therapy & beyond. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Rachman, S (1997). The evolution of cognitive behaviour therapy. In Clark, D, Fairburn, CG & Gelder, MG. Science and practice of cognitive behaviour therapy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1 -- 26.
CBT in Families vs. CBT in Individual Settings
It should be noted, from the onset, that as Lee and Edget (2012) observe, at first instance, CBT in families and CBT in individual settings could appear contradictory. However, according to the authors, although the said approaches differ in some ways, they also happen to have a lot in common. To begin with, the author observes that both approaches are short-term in nature. This is to say that they typically last for a couple of months. Further, the authors also observe that both approaches are behavioral-based. Thus, in essence, in both settings, “individuals learn to recognize the mistakes in their thinking that impacts behavior, then make modifications to change that behavior” (Lee and Edget, 2012, p. 137).
It should, however, be noted that the central focus of both approaches could differ. CBT in individual settings happens to largely focused on the individual…
Gobbard, G.O. (2009). Textbook of Psychotherapeutic Treatments. American Psychiatric Pub.
Groot, J., Cobham, V., Leong, J. & McDermott, B. (2007). Individual versus group family-focused cognitive-behavior therapy for childhood anxiety: pilot randomized controlled trial. Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 41(12), 990-997.
Lee, S.A. & Edget, D.M. (2012). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Applications, Methods and Outcomes. Nova Science Publisher\\'s.
Cognitive behavioral therapy strategy employs treatment that zeros in on the relationships between "thoughts, feelings, and behaviors," according to the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI). This paper delves into the founding and sustaining principles of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
There are certain patterns of thinking that can (and do) lead to "self-destructive actions," the NAMI website points out. These negative thoughts are often driven by beliefs that are not healthy, and hence, the CBT solution is a kind of psychotherapy that departs from traditional psychodynamic psychotherapy (NAMI). For example, the difference between CBT and other therapies is that the therapist and the client (patient) "…will actively work together to help the patient recover" from mental illness (NAMI).
Sometimes a person that is depressed develops an attitude that he or she is worthless; and on occasion a person with a panic disorder feels that "I am in…
Cherry, Kendra. (2013). What Is Cognitive Behavior Therapy? About.com. Retrieved February
21, 2013, from http://psychology.about.com .
National Alliance on Mental Illness. (2013). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Retrieved February
21, 2013, from http://www.nami.org.
Social Work: Is Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Effective in Treating Addictions
The topic I selected was the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of addicted patients. Given the intractability of the problem of addiction, it seemed like a relevant and pertinent topic. In my study the independent variable would be remission from drug and alcohol abuse and the dependent variable would be cognitive-behavioral therapy vs. other forms of addiction. To research my topic, I selected the ProQuest database because of its notable amount of psychologically-based, quantitative research articles.
Carroll, K.M. (et al. 2008). Computer-assisted delivery of cognitive-behavioral therapy for addiction: A randomized trial of CBT4CBT. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(7), 881-8.
A study by Carroll (et al. 2008) discussed the use of CBT therapy to treat addicted patients via the computer. The study was a randomized clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of a CBT computer training program in cognitive-behavioral coping…
Carroll, K.M. (et al. 2008). Computer-assisted delivery of cognitive-behavioral therapy for addiction: A randomized trial of CBT4CBT. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(7), 881-8.
Carroll, K.M., Nich, C., Ball, S.A., McCance, E., & Rounsavile, B.J. (1998). Treatment of cocaine and alcohol dependence with psychotherapy and disulfiram. Addiction, 93(5), 713-27.
Hepner, K.A., Hunter, S.B., Paddock, S.M., Zhou, A.J., & Watkins, K.E. (2011). Training
addiction counselors to implement CBT for depression. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 38(4), 313-23. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10488-011-0359-7
Cognitive Therapy and the Dutch/Anglo Patient
Clinical, Ethical and Legal Issues
Suicide and the patient's request for assistance in the state of Oregon are the main issues herein raised. The health issue is that the patient is alone and suffering from Parkinson's which will only further debilitate him in the coming years. He has no interest in suffering through it. He appears to suffer from hopelessness, which can be clinically assessed as being the main cause for suicide ideation (Beck, Kovacs, Weissman, 1975, p. 1146).
Deal with Patients Presenting with Issues of Suicide
Cognitive therapy (CT) or cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) as it is also called would be useful in dealing with the patient's presenting issues of suicide because "a substantial body of research supports" this model's application "to be effective in reducing symptoms and relapse rates" in cases of depression (Beck, 2005, p. 953). The patient in this case…
Asamsama, O., Dickstein, B., Chard, K. (2015). Do scores on the Beck Depression
Inventory-II Predict Outcome in Cognitive Processing Therapy? Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy, 7(5): 437-441.
APA. (2010). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. American Psychologists Association.
Beck, A. (2005). The Current State of Cognitive Therapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 62:
CT/EP for OCD: Case Study
OCD & Cognitive Therapy (CT)/Exposure and esponse Prevention (EP)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a type of anxiety disorder that is often comorbid with other anxiety disorders such as agoraphobia, panic disorders, other specific phobias (heights, water, germs, etc.), social phobias (crowds, strangers, etc.), and overall generalized anxiety disorder (Oltmanns, & Emery, 2010). The "obsessions" in OCD have to do with intrusive thoughts that sufferers cannot simply ignore or write-off as something unusual, and manifests the "compulsions," which are really a form of ritual to erase these thoughts away (Siev, Hubbert, & Chambless, 2010; Wilhelm et al., 2005). This becomes a vicious cycle known as "thought suppression," which is a way for OCD sufferers to try to stop thinking about intrusive or unwanted thoughts, and a way to suppress the emotions that come along with the thoughts, which ends in ritual and begins again when the…
Chasson, G.S. et al. (2010). Need for speed: Evaluating slopes of OCD recovery in behavior therapy enhanced with D-cycloserine. Behavior Research and Therapy, 48, 675-679.
Chosak, A., Marques, L., Fama, J., Renaud, S., & Wilhelm, S. (2009). Cognitive therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A case example. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 16, 7-17.
Oltmanns, T.F., & Emery, R.E. (2010). Abnormal psychology (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Siev, J., Huppert, J.D., & Chambless, D.L. (2010). Obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with less of a distinction between specific acts of omission and commission. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 893-899.
Chaney n Alcoholism Order
Chaney Allen & Alcoholism Analysis
It's is no surprise that Chaney Allen's character resembles her as an African-American alcoholic who grew up in a poverty stricken neighborhood and known as one of the town drunks had became powerless in her addiction as she struggles with addiction, symptoms, recovery, including Alcohol Anonymous. The physical symptoms were just as overwhelming as the mental and emotional ones, and the title of her book I'm Black & I'm Sober published in 1978 was from a time in her alcoholism when there was nights that she would get sick and vomit which usually is a sign of alcohol poisoning because she would consume large amounts of alcohol from her habitual binge drinking and say something in contradiction to the book's title (Martin, 1990).
In using the American Psychiatric Association's multiaxial diagnostic system out of The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental…
Burke, B. (n.d.). Abnormal psychology -- dr. Brian burke. Retrieved from http://faculty.fortlewis.edu/burke_b/Abnormal/Abnormalmultiaxial.htm
Do African-Americans drink less? (2010, February). Retrieved from http://www.drinkingdiaries.com/2010/02/25/do-african-americans-drink-less/
Family Practice Notebook.com, (2011, February, 2). Alcohol abuse dsm-iv criteria. Retrieved from http://www.fpnotebook.com/psych/exam/AlchlAbsDsmIvCrtr.htm
Martin, D. (1990). Symposiums lecture, workshop feature unity for black recovering alcoholics. Austin american statesman. Retrieved July 29, 2011 from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=82640859&SrchMode=1&sid=1&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1311964413&clientId=74379
Case Conceptualization and Treatment Program
Part I: Client Conceptualization
General Background Information of Client
Jake is a 45 year old single white male. He has a degree in engineering but struggles to hold a job for longer than a few months because he is an alcoholic and inevitably shows up for work one morning drunk and is dismissed. He has good people skills and passes interviews easily and well, which is why he has very little problem finding new employment in spite of his employment history. The problem is that he cannot remain sober. He also has an addiction to marijuana. He is tall and well-groomed and in overall good health aside from his addictions with substance abuse. He is also a devout Catholic and feels that his faith is very important to him.
Client’s Presenting Concerns
Jake’s primary issue is combating alcohol addiction. He does not want to stop…
Best, D., Beckwith, M., Haslam, C., Alexander Haslam, S., Jetten, J., Mawson, E., & Lubman, D. I. (2016). Overcoming alcohol and other drug addiction as a process of social identity transition: The social identity model of recovery (SIMOR). Addiction Research & Theory, 24(2), 111-123.
Perry, B. D., & Szalavitz, M. (2006). The boy who was raised as a dog: And other stories from a child psychiatrist\\'s notebook – What traumatized children can teach us about loss, love, and healing. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Rogers, C. (1951). Client-Centered Therapy. MA: Riverside Press.
Shriner, B & M. Shriner. (2014). Essentials of Lifespan Development: A Topical Perspective. Bridgepoint Education: San Diego, CA.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or (CBT) is currently the popular method to provide therapy to the client with weight control maladies. CBT is ostensibly necessary to assist binge eaters and those whom suffer from tendencies to bulimic episodes. According to Brody (2007), "Most popular at the moment is cognitive-behavioral therapy, with or without medication. Since binge eaters have highly irregular eating habits, the behavioral aspect introduces structure to their eating behavior: regular meals, including breakfast, and an afternoon snack if needed." (Brody, 2007)
apoport, Clark, & Wardle further ascribe CBT as a comprehensive methodology to address the psychological, not neurological, deficiencies with regard to how the client addresses their weight problem. According to apoport, Clark & Wardle (2000), "Cognitive -- behavioural treatment (CBT) for obesity also focuses on weight loss, but incorporates psychological strategies to promote lifestyle change. ecent reviews show that CBT programmes achieve weight losses…
Brody, J.E. (2007, Feb 20). Out of control: A true story of binge eating. New York Times, pp. F.7-F.7. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/433509755?accountid=13044
Marchesini, G., Natale, S., Chierici, S., Manini, R., Besteghi, L., Domizio, S.D., . . . . (2002). Effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy on health-related quality of life in obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder.International Journal of Obesity, 26(9), 1261-1261-1267. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802073
Mefferd, K., Nichols, J.F., Pakiz, B., & Rock, C.L. (2007). A cognitive behavioral therapy intervention to promote weight loss improves body composition and blood lipid profiles among overweight breast cancer survivors.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 104(2), 145-145-52. doi:10.1007/s10549-006-9410-x
Rapoport, L., Clark, M., & Wardle, J. (2000). Evaluation of a modified cognitive-behavioural programme for weight management. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 24(12), 1726-1726-1737. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801465
Cognitive ehavioral Therapy
In comparison with many different types of treatments that are available cognitive behavioral therapy (CT) has been used as a way to address a host of anxiety and depression disorders without the use of prescription medication. This is because; this approach is based on the fact that health care professionals are treating someone by: looking at how their thoughts are influencing the way that they are interacting with others. To fully understand the effectiveness of this kind of treatment requires examining the use of CT to deal with: a variety of issues / disorders, discussing the implications for treatment planning, understanding what aspects should be implemented when conducting a treatment program and the different ways that you can ensure that the therapy is useful at dealing with the objectives for each patient. Once this takes place, it will provide specific insights about the underlying effectiveness of CT…
Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good. New York, NY: Avon Books.
Glossoff, H. (2005). Article 2. ACA Code of Ethics.
Robbins, A. (1991). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Wilson, R. (2010). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
It also relaxes them and helps build rapport, and it can give you ideas to use for treatment...Everybody has natural resources that can be utilised. These might be events...or talk about friends or family...The idea behind accessing resources is that it gives you something to work with that you can use to help the client to achieve their goal...Even negative beliefs and opinions can be utilised as resources. (p. 451)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy also works with negative aspects of the client's life as a way to increase the positive aspects of his or her life. Cognitive behavioral therapy is a more established therapy than in solution-based therapy, although the two are conceptually twinned. The major goal of cognitive behavioral therapy is to solve difficulties that arise in the client's life as the result of the presence of behaviors and cognitions (that is, thoughts) along with emotions that are dysfunctional (Albano…
Jones, D. (2008). Becoming a brief therapist: Special edition. London: Lulu Enterprises.
McCullough, J.P. (2003). Treatment for chronic depression: Cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy. London: Guilford Press.
Miller, S.D., Hubble, M.A., Duncan, B.L. (1996). Handbook of solution-focused brief therapy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
O'Connell, B. (1998). Solution focused therapy. Los Angeles: Sage.
From the onset, it would be prudent to note that CBT has been shown to be an effective therapy technique – especially in attempts to adapt the behaviors of persons as well as alter their patters of thought. Indeed, as the American Psychological Association – APA (2017) points out, some of the concerns that CBT has been effective in addressing (as indicated by various research studies) include, but they are not limited to, “depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol and drug use problems, marital problems, eating disorders and severe mental illness.” In this text, I assess the utilization of CBT in family settings in comparison to its utilization in group settings. Further, I highlight some of the challenges that counselors could come across in their deployment of CBT in group settings.
To begin with, it is important to note that when CBT is applied to families, the focus happens to be…
American Psychological Association – APA (2017). What Is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy? https://www.apa.org/ptsd-guideline/patients-and-families/cognitive-behavioral
Bieling, P.J., McCabe, R.E. & Anthony, M.M. (2013). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Groups. Guilford Press.
Graham, P. & Reynods, S. (2013). Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Children and Families. Cambridge University Press.
O’Hare, T. (2020). Evidence-Based Practices for Social Workers: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Oxford University Press.
Thimm, J.C. & Antonsen, L. (2014). Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral group therapy for depression in routine practice. BMC Psychiatry, 14(292), 43-51.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a more current theory than classical psychotherapy. This theory is based upon the reaction of the mind to external stimuli, and how this is internalized. The cognitive reaction to stimuli then manifests as behavior. When behavior becomes extreme or destructive, it is unacceptable, and therapy becomes necessary.
Therapy focuses upon finding the stimuli that originally caused the behavior. Much like client-centered therapy, the responsibility for healing lies with the client. The therapist's role is merely to guide the client towards the target behavior. One of the ways in which to do this is to provide the client with gradual behavior modification exercises until the target behavior is reached.
The role of the subconscious is based upon habit-forming cognitive activities. Perpetual external stimuli will for example form habits. Good habits can be formed by means of gradual cognitive-behavioral therapy.
My tendency is to prefer the cognitive-behavioral theory. The…
Overall, the research suggests that CBT is an effective treatment for PTSD, though there definitely certain caveats that need to be raised. CBT is not entirely effective and is not necessarily more effective than certain other treatments, specifically EMD, while there is also a need for greater knowledge and understanding when it comes to PTSD and its treatment in general. As this more detailed and refined understanding is achieved, the research analyzed above and other related research will become more meaningful and more effectively situated.
Cohen, J., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, a. & Steer, . (2004). A Multi-Site, andomized Controlled Trial for Children With Abuse-elated PTSD Symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 43(4): 393-402.
Hinton, D., Pham, T., Tran, M., Safren, S., Otto, M. & Pollack, M. (2004). CBT for Vietnamese refugees with treatment-resistant PTSD and panic attacks: A pilot study. Journal of Traumatic…
Cohen, J., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, a. & Steer, R. (2004). A Multi-Site, Randomized Controlled Trial for Children With Abuse-Related PTSD Symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 43(4): 393-402.
Hinton, D., Pham, T., Tran, M., Safren, S., Otto, M. & Pollack, M. (2004). CBT for Vietnamese refugees with treatment-resistant PTSD and panic attacks: A pilot study. Journal of Traumatic Stress 17(5): 429-33.
Seidler, G. & Wagner, F. (2006). Comparing the efficacy of EMDR and trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of PTSD: a meta-analytic study. Psychological Medicine 36(11): 1515-22.
Zayfert, C. & DeViva, J. (2004). Residual insomnia following cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress 17(1): 69-73.
Chaney Allen Cognitive-Behavior Therapies
One approach that has gained a great deal of attention, particularly in the treatment of substance abuse, is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Originating with classical conditioning and operant learning, combined with social learning theory and the role of cognitive experiences in determining behavior, CBT merges into a model that assumes most psychological and psycho-social problems derive from a fault coping or thinking process. There are, of course, any number of observable and latent factors that contribute to substance abuse, most early non-cognitive therapies focusing then on only the observable dynamics. Over time, however, research and mediation models have shown that CBT represents more of an integration of principles derived from both behavioral and cognitive theories, and allows for the treatment of a broader range of issues through social learning, cultural framing, and the appraisals, self-efficacy expectations, and individual attributions (an individual's explanation of why an event occurred)…
Chaney Allen Women's Continuum of Care. (2011). The Crossroads Center. Cited in:
Allen, C. And Mayfield, E. (1976). I'm Black and I'm Sober. Center City, MN:
Borderline personality disorder feels like one of those disorders that almost everyone has to some degree; that is probably why people who have it—i.e., who are diagnosed with it—are so interesting: people can relate to them. Other extreme examples of this disorder could include Holden Caulfield from Catcher in the Rye and Marla from Fight Club. I think we all probably even have friends or family members who would fit this diagnosis. Why is it so common? While psychotherapy would be a helpful treatment approach, I myself would be more inclined to cognitive behavioral therapy. One of the things I think people who are bipolar probably resent is being probed by a psychiatrist. They know how they are and they are not interested in exploring the reasons with a stranger. Maybe some are, but I think the character in the film you are talking about would…
Carlson, E. N., Vazire, S., & Oltmanns, T. F. (2011). You probably think this paper\\\\'s about you: narcissists\\\\' perceptions of their personality and reputation. Journal of personality and social psychology, 101(1), 185–201. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023781
Lecci, L. B. (2015). Personality. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu
File, A. A., Hurley, R. A. & Taber, K. H. (2017). Borderline personality disorder: Neurobiological contributions to remission and recovery. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry, 29(3), A6-194. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.neuropsych.17050097
Lecci, L. B. (2015). Personality. Retrieved from
The always developing field of psychology and the tools used to develop this science, have provided many patients with much need relief. The constant evolution of the mind requires that clinical practices within mental health treatments also evolve and grow with the human race. The purpose of this essay is to discus Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), as a useful method of treating mental and psychological issues.
First CBT will be discussed in general, and useful ideas presented about the approach will be introduced. A practical example of this therapy will also be highlighted to contextualize the information. Next, this essay will address CBT can be used specifically for the treatment for depression and the issues associated with that idea. Finally, this essay will address how computerized CBT software programs are assisting in treating these types of issues.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is simply a form of psychotherapy that…
Barlow, DH, Gorman, J.M., Shear, M.K., & Woods, S.W. (2000). Cognitive-behavioral therapy, imipramine, or their combination for panic disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Jama, 283(19), 2529-2536.
Boyes, A. (2012). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Techniques That Work. Psychology Today, 6 Dec 2012. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/in-practice/201212/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-techniques-work
Dobson, K.S. (Ed.). (2009). Handbook of cognitive-behavioral therapies. Guilford Press.
Martin, B. (2007). In-Depth: Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Psych Central. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/lib/in-depth-cognitive-behavioral-therapy/000907
Cognitive Behavior Therapy- A Case Study
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) Case Study
K is a forty-eight-year female who referred to Midlothian's clinical psychology psychosis service. K has a twenty-year history of mental health conditions. She first decided to contact mental health services because of the episodes of paranoia and severe depression she had experienced. During her initial contact with the mental health services she was diagnosed with schizo-affective disorder in 1996. When she was first referred to the mental health services department she was a single. She told of having only two close relationships in her past life. She however also said that she found these relationships challenging when it came to intimate contact. She also generally described that she found it somewhat difficult to form friendships or to trust people in her life. Despite the mental health conditions her general physical well-being was good. K was prescribed…
Bladek, M. (2014). Against memory: Acts of remembering in Jamaica Kincaid's My Brother. Retrieved from http://criticism.english.illinois.edu/2007%20Fall%20Documents/Affect%20Abstracts/Abstracts.htm
DeJong, P. & . Berg I.K (1998): Interviewing for solutions. Thomson: Brooks/Cole.
Drisko, J. (2014). Research Evidence and Social Work Practice: The Place of Evidence-Based Practice. Clin Soc Work J. 42:123-133 DOI 10.1007/s10615-013-0459-9
Freud, S. (1924) A general introduction to psychoanalysis. New York: Boni & Liveright.
Behavioral and Cognitive Behavioral Theories
Psychodynamic and Cognitive Behavioral Theories
In this paper, there is going to an examination of Cognitive Behavioral and Psychodynamic theories. This is accomplished by focusing on: the two theories, their theoretical concepts, micro skills / techniques and a summary of these ideas. These elements will show how each one can address issues impacting the patient and the long-term effects upon them.
In the world of psychology, there are different theories which are used to explain how someone reacts to various stimuli. The result is that there has been contrasting ideas about the best way to understand human behavior. Two schools of thought which are very popular are the psychodynamic and cognitive behavioral approaches. (Okun, 2008)
To fully understand them requires examining each one. This will be accomplished by focusing on the two theories, their theoretical concepts, micro skills / techniques and a summary of these…
Larson, P. (2012). How Important is an Understanding of the Clients Early Attachments. Counseling Psychology Review, 27 (1), 10 -- 18.
Lucia, M. (2012). Therapeutic Activities and Psychological Interventions. Counseling and Psychotherapy Research, 12 (2), 118 -- 127.
Okun, B. (2008). Effective Helping: Interviewing and Counseling Techniques. New York, NY: Brooks and Cole.
Parpottis, P. (2012). Working with the Therapeutic Relationship. Counseling Psychology Review, 27 (3), 91-97
A Cognitive Behavioral Study of Steven Henderson: Case Conceptualization and Treatment Plan
Theories of Counseling
This is a case conceptualization of a 26-year-old man who experienced sexual abuse as a child and the haunting memories of the abuse have led to difficulties in his personal, social, and educational functioning as an adult. The client is experiencing anxiety, depression, problems with motivation, an inability to confide in those close to him, and difficulties in developing educational and occupational goals for himself. He complained of very low self-esteem and believes that his inability to deal with his past sexual abuse has led to these issues. The case conceptualization explores the proposed treatment of this individual's issues using a cognitive behavioral approach. Empirical evidence for the use of cognitive behavioral treatment for trauma victims is discussed. The specific issues that the individual is experiencing as a result of the abuse are…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, A.T., Rush, J.A., Shaw, B.F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression.
New York: The Guilford Press.
Cloitre, M. (2009). Effective psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: A review and critique. CNS Spectrums, 14(1), S1, 32-43.
The primary difference between the two however, is gestalt therapy concentrates more on the ability of the individual to make proper choices regarding their care. This theory or approach to therapy reminds the client of the connection between mind, body and spirit. The behavior approach is less concerned with the paradigm of holistic health, and more concerned with a therapist-driven approach to identifying problems and selecting appropriate solutions.
In this sense, gestalt therapy seems like it is a more effective approach, because it encourages the individual to make judgments about their health and understand the connections existing between their behaviors and emotions. Because gestalt therapy is patient-driven more so than psychotherapist drive as behavior therapy, many believe patients are able to realize relief and successful outcomes more quickly, as well as retain greater self-esteem (James & Jongeward, 1996; Palmer, 1996). If a patient wants patient-centered care that provides effective relief,…
Cleland, C., Foote, J. Kosanke, N., Mabura, S., Mahmood, D. & Rosenblum, a. (2005). Moderators of effects of motivational enhancements to cognitive behavioral therapy. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 31(1): 35.
Diemer, R.A., Hill, C.E., Lobell, L.K., & Vivino, B.L. (1996). Comparison of dream interpretation, event interpretation, and unstructured sessions in brief therapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(1): 99.
Fine, M.A. & Schwebel, a.L. (1994). Understanding and helping families: A cognitive-behavioral approach. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
James, M. & Jongeward, D. (1996). Born to win: Transactional analysis with gestalt experiments. Cambridge: Perseus Publishing.
Also known as person-centered or client-centered, Rogerian therapy, it "places much of the responsibility for the treatment process on the client, with the therapist taking a nondirective role" Person-centered therapy, 2009, Mind disorders). However, although effective with some clients: "Person-centered therapy, however, appears to be slightly less effective than other forms of humanistic therapy in which therapists offer more advice to clients and suggest topics to explore," as the client may use the therapy sessions more to complain or go over old grievances, than use the therapy to move forward in his or her life (Person-centered therapy, 2009, Mind disorders).
Another type of therapy that has radically escalated in popularity is that of family or marital therapy, which, like cognitive-behavioral therapy, tends to be focused on specific problems and of a fairly short duration. "Marriage and family therapists regularly practice short-term therapy; 12 sessions on average" FAQs, 2009, AAMFT). The…
FAQs about marriage and family therapy. (2009). American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT). Retrieved February 28, 2009 at http://www.aamft.org/faqs/index_nm.asp
Mulhauser, Greg. (2009). An introduction to cognitive therapy and cognitive-behavioral approaches. Counseling Resource. Retrieved February 28, 2009 at http://counsellingresource.com/types/cognitive-therapy/
Park, C. (2006, October 18). Best evidence summaries of topics in mental healthcare.
BEST in MH clinical question-answering service.
Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy
Cognitive Therapist Behavioral Techniques
Case of the Fat Lady
Cognitive behaviorist therapy is a blend of two therapies; cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. Cognitive therapy first developed by Aaron Beck in 1960 has its focus on individual beliefs and their influences on actions and moods. Its core aims are to alter an individual mindset to be healthy and adaptive (Beck, 1976; athod, Kingdon, Weiden, & Turkington, 2008). Behavioral therapy focuses on individual aims and actions towards changing patterns in unhealthy behaviors (athod et al., 2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy assists an individual to focus on their current difficulties and relate on how to resolve them. Active involvement of both the therapist and the patient helps in identification of the thinking patterns in distort bringing into foresight a recognizable change in thought and behavior (Leichsenring & Leibing, 2007). Exploring and encouraging discussions…
Beck, A.T. (1976). Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New York: International Universities Press.
Burns, Kubilus, Breuhl, Harden, R.N., & Lofland, K. (2003). Do changes in cognitive factors influence outcome following multidisciplinary treatment for chronic pain? A cross-lagged panel analysis. . Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 81-91.
Leichsenring, F., & Leibing, E. (2007). Psychodynamic psychotherapy: a systematic review of techniques, indications and empirical evidence. Psychology and Psychotherapy, 80(2), 217-228.
Rathod, S., Kingdon, D., Weiden, P., & Turkington, D. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for medication-resistant schizophrenia: a review. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 14(1), 22-33.
Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT as commonly referred to encompasses several techniques. One is behavioral experiments whereby the psychologist helps the client to do behavioral experiments to test their thoughts and help them change their behavior through self-criticism and self-kindness. Second is thought records whereby the psychologist helps the client to change their beliefs through recording thoughts and their consequences. Another technique is imagery exposure which helps to provoke memories and positive emotions in the client. In vivo exposure is also another technique whereby the patient is exposed to the feared stimulus gradually in order to help them resole an issue Schacter, Gilbert, & Wegner, 2010()
The case of the fat lady
Intervention strategy for making and maintaining relationships
In order to help Betty explore and reduce her inner conflict and be able to make and maintain relationships, a cognitive…
Holmes, J. (2002). All You Need Is Cognitive Behaviour Therapy? BMJ: British Medical Journal, 324(7332), 288-290. doi: 10.2307/25227348
Schacter, D.L., Gilbert, D.T., & Wegner, D.M. (2010). Psychology (2nd ed.). New York: Worth Pub
Sue, D.W., Capodilupo, C.M., Torino, G.C., Bucceri, J.M., Holder, A.M.B., Nadal, K.L., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Implications for Clinical Practice. American Psychologist, 62(4), 271 -- 286. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.62.4.271
Sue, S., Zane, N., Nagayama Hall, G.C., & Berger, L.K. (2009). The Case for Cultural Competency in Psychotherapeutic Interventions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60(1), 525-548. doi: doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163651
The choice to do so and then controlling oneself, rather than being pushed and pulled by controls beyond oneself is as difficult and heart-wrenching as being controlled by others. Likewise, reconnecting to the world is difficult if the world is feared and seen as the source of pain. Counselors teach the patients to not think of the past but to act and do directly those things that would make it positive today, finding a new connection and making a new plan. (Glasser, 2001)
Behavioral Therapy, Psyweb.com. (2006). etrieved September 5, 2006 at http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp
Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet
Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (evised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.
Glasser, W. (2001.) the Institute for eality Therapy. etrieved September…
Behavioral Therapy, Psyweb.com. (2006). Retrieved September 5, 2006 at http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp
Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet
Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (Revised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.
It thus becomes the concern of CT researchers and clinicians to address and investigate sex differences as an aspect in depression and to confront how they understand and treat women, who comprise 2/3 of clients. A feminist framework may be adopted for a more comprehensive and sensitive approach to the problem in order to benefit the large group of women clients. The new understanding must also be incorporated into the mainstream of cognitive writings and practice and treated as only a special interest topic (Hurst).
Cognitive behavior therapy, based on the five foregoing studies, has shown important gains greater than traditional counseling approach, but needs follow-up work. It has also demonstrated efficacy in producing lower relapse rate than the standard clinical treatment. The discourse approach to the negative self-perception of depressed patients has showed limitations as a technique. ut it can be useful in reducing symptoms among injection drug users.…
1. Brown, KM. (1999). Social Cognitive Theory. University of South Florida. http://www.med.usf.edu/~kmbrown/Social_Cognitive_Theory_Overview.htm
2. Dobson, K.S. And Drew, M.L. (1999). Negative Self-Concept in Clinical Diagnosis. Canadian Psychology. Canadian Psychological Association.
3. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. (2001). Depression. Encyclopedia of Psychology. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_q2699/is_0004/ai_2699000439
4. Hawkins, W.E. (2005). Depression Therapy with Injection Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.
Psychology -- Cognitive theoies
Use of the Session Bidging Woksheet in Cognitive Theapy
The pupose of the Session Bidging Woksheet is to assess the client's insight and compehension of the pio theapy session (Beck, 1995). Being awae of the fact that they will be questioned concening the pevious session encouages the client to pepae fo the pesent session by eflecting on the session thoughout the week. If the client cannot emembe thei esponses o the significant concepts fom the pio theapeutic session, the counselo and client come togethe to figue out a way so that they can moe effectively ecall the elements of the pesent session. The Session Bidging Woksheet offes a way of getting this done. This is impotant because seveal studies have shown that inceased memoy and undestanding of theapeutic sessions has a diect impact on teatment outcome (Shephed, Salkovskis, & Mois, 2009). Also this technique equies that…
references. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 37(2), 141-150.
Whipple, J.L., Lambert, M.J., Vermeersch, D.A., Smart, D.W., Nielsen, S.L., & Hawkins, E.J. (2003). Improving the effects of psychotherapy: The use of early identification of treatment failure and problem solving strategies in routine practice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58, 59-68.
Another person reading this information might think, "Well, this sounds good but I don't think I can do it." This person feels sad and discouraged. So it is not a situation which directly affects how a person feels emotionally, but rather, his or her thoughts in that situation. When people are in distress, they often do not think clearly and their thoughts are distorted in some way (eck).
Cognitive therapy helps people to identify their distressing thoughts and to evaluate how realistic the thoughts are. Then they learn to change their distorted thinking. When they think more realistically, they feel better. The emphasis is also consistently on solving problems and initiating behavioral change (eck).
Thoughts intercede between some sort of stimulus, such as an external event, and feelings. The motivator (stimulus) brings out a thought -- which might be a weighted judgment -- which turns into to an emotion. In…
American Heritage Dictionary. "Medical Dictionary: "mind." 2009. TheFreeDictionary.com. 15
May 2009 .
Beck, J.S. "Questions About Cognitive Therapy." n.d. Beckinstitute.org. 15 May 2009 .
Biggs, D. And G. Porter. Dictionary of Counseling. Charlotte, N.C.: IAP, 2000.
Somewhat unsurprisingly, an instructional strategy that these teachers frequently used was modification. Our analysis identified the following modifications: reteaching the material, using instructional materials, prompting/cueing, modeling, changing the task, and giving students more practice on the task.... If the teacher believed that the modification was not sufficient in aiding student learning, she typically reevaluated the student's learning difficulty and state of mind and then selected a new modification to apply. (Stough & Palmer, 2003)
These are the types of decisions and criteria for the student with special needs that must be evaluated when attempting any type of no only cognitive modification, but any type of intervention.
Since the late nineties strategy interventions such as cognitive modification have been increasing in use in the area of special education. The has been an array of cognitive interventions put into practice such as, specific problem-solving skills, advanced organizational skills, approaching reading with…
Bouck, E.C. (2004). Exploring Secondary Special Education for Mild Mental Impairment: A Program in Search of Its Place. Remedial and Special Education, 25(6), 367-377
Bray, P., & Cooper, R. (2007). The Play of Children with Special Needs in Mainstream and Special Education Settings. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 32(2), 37-48
Gersten, R., Schiller, E.P., & Vaughn, S. (Eds.). (2000). Contemporary Special Education Research: Syntheses of the Knowledge Base on Critical Instructional Issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Neenan, M., & Dryden, W. (2004). Cognitive Therapy: 100 Key Points. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
ehavioral Therapy vs. Freud's Psychoanalysis
Amazing advances have been made in the treatment of mental illness throughout the years (Merck, 2004). An understanding of what causes some mental health disorders has resulted in a greater sophistication in customizing treatment to the underlying basis of specific disorders. Thus, many mental health disorders can now be treated almost as successfully as physical disorders.
Most treatment methods for mental health disorders are either categorized as somatic or psychotherapeutic (Merck, 2004). Somatic treatments include drug therapy and electroconvulsive therapy. Psychotherapeutic treatments include individual, group, or family and marital psychotherapy; behavior therapy techniques; and hypnotherapy. There are many others, as well
Research reveals that for major mental health disorders, a treatment plan involving both drugs and psychotherapy is more effective than either treatment method on its own. This paper will discuss two treatment methods -- behavioral therapy and psychoanalysis -- in an effort to…
American Psychoanalytic Association (1998). About psychoanalysis. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.apsa.org/pubinfo/about.htm .
Beystehner, K. (1997). Psychoanalysis: Freud's Revolutionary Approach to Human Personality. Northwestern University. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/beystehner.html .
Guterman, J. (July 1996). Doing mental health counseling: A social constructionist re-vision. Journal of Mental Health Counseling. American Mental Health Counselors Association. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.jeffreyguterman.com/writing/solution.html .
HealthinMind.com. (2004). Individual Therapies. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://healthinmind.com/english/individth.htm .
Compare and contrast 2 different behavioral theories/models of your choice.
Behaviorism vs. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)
The father of behaviorism is widely acknowledged to be B.F. Skinner. Skinner attempted to develop an 'experimental' approach to human psychology, and based many of his foundational theories upon experiments with rats rather than humans. Skinner believed that operant conditioning was the best way to motivate individuals to adopt new behaviors, or to extinguish existing behavior patterns. "When a particular Stimulus-esponse (S-) pattern is reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond" (Operant conditioning, 2012, Instructional Design). The focus of Skinner was upon externalities, rather than upon internal motivations of behavior.
For example, when dealing with someone who was a compulsive over-eater, rather than focusing on the psychological reasons the person felt compelled to overeat, Skinner instead would focus upon creating an environment that would reward healthy choices (such as buying a new…
Chin, Irene. (2012). An overview of behavioral theories. An Electronic Textbook on Instructional
Technology. Retrieved: http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/et-it/behavior.htm
Operant conditioning. (2012). Instructional Design. Retrieved:
This essay discusses cognitive psychology and a specific scenario within that scientific term. It starts out with an introduction or definition of cognitive psychology, then discusses a specific scenario, and perspectives of the scenario. The body of this essay covers treatments, therapies, and interventions for the scenario, as well as effectiveness of therapies, before summing up the paper with a conclusion.
Cognitive Psychology: Modern Approach to Human Behavior
Cognitive Psychology Advancements
Introduction to Applied Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive Psychology of Planning
B. Psychological Perspectives
C. Treatment, Therapies, Interventions
D. Effectiveness of Therapies
Title: Cognitive Psychology Scenario Essay
Cognitive psychology is a relatively new or modern approach to human behavior whose main focus is how people think. This approach in psychology focuses on how people think because of the belief that thought processes affect peoples behaviors. In essence, an individuals…
Cognitive restructuring theory describes the various applied approaches aiming at reframing behaviors. The theory uses cognitive therapy to apply the behavioral technique. The theory involves learning how to think differently to change negative thinking and replace it with positive thinking. In addition, cognitive restructuring aims at helping people to deal with problems of anxiety and depression. In so doing, people can change their manner of thought and live their daily lives with energy and hope.
Cognitive theory is practical and can help Tom control and effectively manage his anger. As such, tom would not change significantly because the action had already taken place. For Tom, it would be better to focus his energy on how to avoid such a thing from happening and avoid future irritation. In this case, Tom would take one of the techniques offered in the cognitive therapy. Aggression replacement may help teach him some behavioral techniques…
Kate, S., Tony, A., Sharon, H., Irina, L. (2007). A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Cognitive
Behavioral Intervention for Anger Management in Children Diagnosed with Asperger
Syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37.7, 1203-1214.
From: Burns, D.D. (1989). The Feeling Good Handbook: 4 Steps in Cognitive Restructuring.
The psychotherapist's role is then to enhance the already existing tools to help those who need it develop their intelligence and problem-solving abilities in order to promote the healing process.
Both the cognitive and affective domains are important considerations within psychotherapy. Indeed, the two often function within a causal relationship to each other. In the Communicative Theory of emotion, as expounded by Brett et al. (2003), for example, emotions are directly related to conscious or unconscious cognitive evaluations. These cognitive evaluations then cause an emotional response, which might include happiness, sadness, or anger. The subconscious internalization of the original cognitive evaluation and accompanying emotion could then result in behavior-related problems such as prejudice. Sometimes such behavior problems are so deeply seated that they need to be treated by means of psychotherapy.
Cognitive therapy, as explained by Michael Herkov (2010), acknowledges the relationship between thought (the cognitive aspect)…
AudioEnglish.net. (2010). Cognitive Neuroscience. http://www.audioenglish.net/dictionary/cognitive_neuroscience.htm
Brett, a., Smith, M., Price, E., & Huitt, W. (2003). Overview of the affective domain. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date], from http:/www.edpsycinteractive.org/brilstar/chapters/affectdev.doc
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. http://web.uvic.ca/psyc/tuokko/Ethical%20Principles%20of%20Psychologists.pdf
Eysenck, Michael W. & Keane, Mark T. (2005). Cognitive Psychology: a student's handbook. East Sussex: Psychology Press Ltd.
It implies as well that most people react to things in a certain way because they want to repeat behaviors that worked well for them in the past (i.e. there was a positive experience created).
Emotions are not too fast (or too mindless, for that matter) for cognitive appraisals. Emotions, no matter how small, lead to cognitive appraisals that help individuals make sense of certain events. Take breaking up with someone, for example. If someone is broken up with, this person could feel a certain amount of sadness and this emotion is elicited by the cognitive appraisal that something good or worthwhile has been lost and cannot be recovered (Scherer, Schorr & Johnstone, 2001). It has been suggested even that emotions can be elicited with an evaluation having taken place by an event in and of itself, physiological processes (e.g. brain activity), facial expressions (or other types of expressions), behaviors…
Scherer, K.R., Schorr, a., & Johnstone, T. (2001). Appraisal processes in emotion:
Theory, methods, research. (1st ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Wessler, R.L., Hankin, S., & Stern, J. (2001). Succeeding with difficult clients:
Applications of cognitive appraisal therapy (Practical resources for the mental health professional). (1st ed.). Salt Lake City, UT: Academic Press.
Cog Beh Therapy
With respect to the businessman who comes to see the therapist about the problems in his marriage, there are two issues immediately apparent from the brief case history. The first is the man's unwillingness to accept any responsibility for the success of the relationship. He is immediately defensive, blaming his wife for all their problems. He claims that she is hypercritical and that she is "probably" suffering from PMS. Without getting the wife's side of the story, it is impossible to know the extent of her complaints against her husband, the degree to which she feels they need help, and the amount of effort she is willing to expend -- and has already expended -- to put the marriage back on track, if that is in fact what she wants. It is unlikely she has had a formal diagnosis of PMS. Used in this context, "PMS" is…
"Alcoholism: Definition." (2012). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com
Hodge, D.R. (2011). Alcohol treatment and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Social Work 56(1),
Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar disorder can be observed across the patients social and occupational functioning. Often the patient is left isolated from work, friends, and family. Medications have become the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder; however, psychotherapy can offer additional benefits in the ongoing treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. This paper discusses the symptoms and treatment of bipolar disorder focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion focused therapy.
Description and differentiation
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition -- Text evision (DSM-IV-T) one's mood is an all-encompassing and sustained feeling tone experienced internally by the person and influences the person's behavior and perception of the world. Affect is the external or outward expression of this inner…
Alloy, L.B., Abramson, L.Y., Walshaw, P.D., Keyser, J., & Gerstein, R.K. (2006). A cognitive vulnerability-stress perspective on bipolar spectrum disorders in a normative adolescence brain, cognitive, and emotional development context. Developmental Psychopathology, 18(4), 1057-1103.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.
Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 17-31
Dialectical Behavioral Therapy
Dialectical behavior therapy treatment (DBT) falls within the category of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Its main focus is on psychosocial characteristics. Based on the theory that emotions can trigger intense reactions in some persons (especially in family/friend or romantic situations), DBT proposes that the extreme swings in feeling can be better controlled by enabling the individual to more easily identify the kinds of thoughts and feelings that have an intense impact and prepare the person cognitively to approach these emotional surges in a new way.
Anderson et al. (2015) show that DBT can be an effective strategy for helping young patients with bulimia nervosa, but that because of limitations inherent within the treatment, it can best be applied in conjunction with family-based therapy. The rationale for this is that DBT naturally lends itself to family-based therapy, because it focuses on relationships and the individual's response to them. By incorporating…
These three seminal perspectives may possess a lot of similarities, yet each of them has contributed novel ideas that are consistent with its theoretical underpinnings. In many of the substance abuse treatment arenas, the significant aspects of all these three approaches are blended to provide for a cognitive-behavioral model that gives the best result in terms of all the other therapies. (Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy)
Three theorists who have influenced the behaviorist theories are:
1. Watson J.B. - One of the originators of behaviorism and a proponent of the reductionist approach to the study of human behavior.
2. Skinner B.F. - He was the one most responsible for the spread of the behaviorist philosophy.
3. Wolpe, Joseph. The method of systematic desensitization to deal with fear was created by him. (Theories and Theorists)
Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. etrieved at http://www.addictionalternatives.com/philosophy/briefcbtherapy.htm. Accessed on February 15, 2005
Bush, Winston John. (December 22,…
Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. Retrieved at http://www.addictionalternatives.com/philosophy/briefcbtherapy.htm. Accessed on February 15, 2005
Bush, Winston John. (December 22, 2003) "Learning theory: A fuller-fuller explanation of CBT" Retrieved at http://www.cognitivetherapy.com/learning.html Accessed on February 15, 2005
Cognitive Therapy for Depression" Retrieved at http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/cognitive.htm . Accessed on February 15, 2005
Grohol, John M. (July 21, 1995) "Theoretical Orientations and Practices of Therapists"
A synthesis of what the studies reveal about the current state of knowledge on the question developed
The mindfulness meditation theory appears to have the potential to treat addictive disorder patients. Zgierska and coworkers (2009) state that such models seem to be safe if implemented within the context of clinical studies. One can find considerable methodological shortcomings in a majority of existing works on the subject. Further, which addiction-diagnosed individuals may derive maximum benefits out of mindfulness meditation isn’t clear. But, of late, related initiatives and practices in the role of complementary clinical aids for treating multiple physical and psychological ailments have grown in popularity. MBCT (mindfulness-based cognitive therapy) and MBSR (mindfulness-based stress reduction) as clinical initiatives have specifically been analyzed, with a sound evidential pool recording their efficacy. Integration of the latter initiative’s aspects and cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive psychology strategies resulted in the former’s creation. At first,…
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a form of psychotherapy that is similar to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). The theory that ACT is based on is the Relational Frame Theory, which launched out of cognitive therapy, supplying missing "steps" in Skinner's behaviorism by exploring more deeply the connections between language and thought. Essentially, ACT explores the idea that what and how a person thinks is highly impactful in that individual's daily life and functioning -- and especially in how that person copes with stress, etc. But whereas CBT focuses on altering the content of one's thoughts in order to move the individual towards the target behavior, ACT focuses on changing the function of thoughts so that they do not oppress the individual. ACT, in other words, focuses on the way in which a person interacts with the interior life.
Two articles that discuss ACT are "Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Introduction" by…
1. The term “depth psychology” is appropriate for referring to psychoanalysis, but not for all types of psychotherapy. Any psychotherapy that involves in-depth self-assessments through the exploration of unconscious or subconscious urges, dreams, or childhood memories can be considered depth psychology. As the term suggests, depth psychology presumes that psychological issues have deep roots, requiring a process of systematic digging. Self-awareness is only possible through an understanding of all psychic content that has been and still is being repressed or suppressed (Axelrod, 2012). Depth psychology is therefore important for persons who experienced childhood traumas, or people seeking to understand the causes of their lingering anxiety or depression. Other therapeutic models like cognitive-behavioral therapy or positive psychology do not focus on the subconscious or unconscious but mainly on manifest behaviors.
According to Firestone (2009), depth psychology has its detractors because of the long periods of time required to complete the therapeutic…
personal theories about change and therapy as part of developing a personal therapeutic approach and process. The exploration begins with examining personal beliefs regarding health, normalcy, and change. The author also includes a discussion about the theoretical foundations influencing personal style of therapy. A description of a personal therapy process and culturally responsive therapy is also included in the article. The final section provides a theory of therapy diagram based on cognitive behavioral therapy.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Michael White and David Epston have played a crucial part in explaining family therapy for nearly two decades through contributing to the emergence of numerous concepts in textbooks and handbooks of family therapy (amey et. al., 2009, p.262). One of the concepts in family therapy is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, which is used to treat people with several problems including mental health issues. The use of such theoretical approaches is based on the fact…
Beck, J. (n.d.). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved April 23, 2015, from http://www.beckinstitute.org/cognitive-behavioral-therapy/#q-n-a-1773
"Cognitive Behavior Therapy." (n.d.). Beck Institute. Retrieved April 23, 2015, from http://www.beckinstituteblog.org/cognitive-behavioral-therapy/
Hays, P.A. (2012). Culturally responsive cognitive-behavioral therapy in practice. Washington,
D.C.: American Psychological Association.
afternoon, light rain falling and predictions of thunder storms on the way. Client was eight minutes late to his appointment. "It doesn't matter that you're a few minutes late, I am glad to see you -- but is everything going okay this afternoon?" he was asked by therapist.
Client seems defensive when no pressure at all is put on him. First he said his watch stopped, then he admitted he lost track of time because he was into playing a new video game. He asked if video games are a bad thing and was assured that entertainment was his choice.
"Oh, also," he added. "After I was in my car I went back to my apartment to get my umbrella." Client is trying to maintain a good relationship with the therapist.
The client was sweating when he sat down, and it was humid in the room so we agreed the…
The two hypothetical systems working on an individual's brain during the experience of addiction are complementary within and between system changes. The first counteradaptation results in a decrease in the transmission of dopamine and serotonin release during withdrawal phases of the cycle (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively, dopamine and serotonin transmission is artificially increased beyond the normative range during drug use, then virtually stopped once the drug has left the body. This intensifies not only the "come down" feeling but also the preoccupation anxieties associated with substance abuse as well as the existing emotional, environmental, or social vulnerability which lead to the initial lapse. Sensitization is the component of addiction which compels an individual to continually seek greater quantities of the substance (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively once the brain has been exposed to a chemical which alters neural transmission, the body attempts to return to a homeostatic state.…
1. Nesse, R. (1994). An evolutionary perspective on substance abuse. Ethology and Sociobiology, 15, 339- 348.
2. Robinson, T, & Berridge, K. (2001). Mechanisms of action of addictive stimuli incentive- sensitization and addiction. Addiction, 96, 103- 114.
3. Koob, G., & Le Moal, M. (1997). Drug abuse: Hedonic homeostatic dysregulation. Science, 278, 52- 58.
4. Brown, J.M., & Miller, W.R. (1993). Impact of motivational interviewing on participation and outcome in residential alcoholism treatment. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors,7, 211-218.
Multiple studies support the use of cognitive behavioral approaches in individual therapy combined with group therapy sessions to support self-care behavior, self-efficacy and positive patient outcomes (Van der Ven, et. al, 2005; Bernard & Goodyear, 1002; Alterkruse & ay, 2000). Altekruse & ay (2000) also support the notion that group therapy may be interchangeable with individual therapy to promote positive outcomes among patients.
esults of the studies reviewed suggest a new approach to group therapy should include individual and group sessions that encourage patients to focus on their successes rather than failures. At this time the evidence supporting group therapy over individual therapy is conflicting. Much of the research suggests that both approaches may be equally effective. egardless many therapists still advocate group therapy as a primary modality for overcoming patient issues.
Pre-group training sessions may help members of the group adopt a new attitudes toward therapy that enables…
Altekrsue, M. & Ray, D. (2000). "Effectiveness of group supervision vs. combined group and individual supervision." Counselor Education and Supervision, 40(1):19.
Bernard, J., & Goodyear, R. (1998). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (2nd ed.).
Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Classen, C. (2000). "Group therapy for cancer patients: A research-based handbook of psychosocial care." New York: Basic Books.
The author of this paper is about to offer a brief literature review of what has come to be known as solution-focused therapy. Included in that literature review will be several specific topics or examples that are within the solution-focused therapy paradigm. These include the history of the theory, the use of language to help create a solution-focused therapeutic environment, the role of family history when it comes to solution-focused therapy, the shift from a problems focus to a solutions focus in a way that benefits the client, the development of a short vignette that is based on a family situation, global goals of the treatment method using the language of theory, interventions that should be used at each stage of treatment (those being beginning, middle and end) and a succinct summary of all of the above. There are certainly other methodologies that can be used when treating…
Carr, S.M., Smith, I.C., & Simm, R. (2014). Solution-focused brief therapy from the perspective of clients with long-term physical health conditions. Psychology,
Health & Medicine, 19(4), 384-391. doi:10.1080/13548506.2013.824594
Cotton, J. (2010). Question Utilization in Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Recursive
Frame Analysis of Insoo Kim Berg's Solution Talk. Qualitative Report, 15(1), 18-
Dana is a young and beautiful woman with family members that seem to constantly put her down whenever they get together. They appear to be self-centered and attention seeking. The mother has set expectations she places on her family and seems angry whenever they do not meet those expectations. For example, the mother suggested Dana get breast enlargement surgery to appease her boyfriend Matt. Her sister, Joanie also commented on Dana's appearance, making sure to let Dana know she appeared overweight or had a large rear end. These comments can and do affect people's self-esteem especially when the source of such comments are from people that person loves or is supposed to trust.
Dana takes everything and says nothing, agreeing with the remarks and feeling like she truly is overweight even if objectively people see her as very attractive. She also cannot say how she feels even around her boyfriend.…
Arendt, K., Thastum, M., & Hougaard, E. (2015). Homework Adherence and Cognitive Behaviour Treatment Outcome for Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders. Behavioural And Cognitive Psychotherapy, 44(02), 225-235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s1352465815000429
Gingerich, W. & Peterson, L. (2013). Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Systematic Qualitative Review of Controlled Outcome Studies. Research On Social Work Practice, 23(3), 266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049731512470859
Hayes, S., Levin, M., Plumb-Vilardaga, J., Villatte, J., & Pistorello, J. (2013). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Contextual Behavioral Science: Examining the Progress of a Distinctive Model of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapy. Behavior Therapy, 44(2), 180-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2009.08.002
Hofmann, S., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I., Sawyer, A., & Fang, A. (2012). The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses. Cognitive Therapy And Research, 36(5), 427-440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10608-012-9476-1
Difficulty of Treating Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety disorders are difficult to treat for a multitude of reasons; first, there is no 100% proven-to-be-effective method of therapy that acts as a one-size-fits-all treatment for patient. Behavioral therapy is used by some therapists; others utilize medical therapy, such as Zoloft, Paxil or other prescriptions. Psychosurgery is also an option for patients who do not respond well to either treatments, but such surgery requires literally burning part of the brain and is noted as only having a 50% success rate (Psych Guides, 2015). The bottom line is that anxiety disorders are a complicated manifestation of an underlying issue within the human psyche for which medical science only has a limited understanding.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most difficult to treat primarily because it requires a strong and durable commitment to transformative behavior therapy such as cognitive behavior therapy. In cases where patients…
Psych Guides. (2015). Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Retrieved from http://www.psychguides.com/guides/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-treatment-program-options/
Sasson, Y., Zohar, J., Chopra, M., Hendler, T. (1997). Epidemiology of obsessive, compulsive disorder: A world view. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 12(12): 7-10.
Wexler, E. (2013). Clinical neurologists: behavioral management of inherited neurodegenerative disease. Neurologic Clinics, 31(4): 1121-1144.
Brown, J., Cohen, P. Johnson, J.G. (1999, ecember). Childhood abuse and neglect: specificity of effects on adolescent and young adult depression and suicidality. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(12), 1490-1496.
The authors conducted this study in order to investigate the magnitude and independence of the effects of childhood neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse on depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents and adults. Over a 17-year period, a cohort of randomly selected children was assessed for a range of environmental, familial, and childhood risks and psychiatric orders. The history of abuse was verified through official records of abuse and by the retrospective self-report of the 639 youths in the study. The subjects were between the ages of one year and 10 years at the beginning of the study, with a median age of five years.
The results of the study showed that adolescents…
Dehlinger, E., Steer, R.A., and Lippmann, J., (1999). Two-year follow-up study of cognitive behavioral therapy for sexually abused children suffering post-traumatic stress symptoms. Child Abuse & Neglect, 23(12), 1371-1378.
The researchers were interested in learning if 2-year gains found in the earlier research by Dehlinger, et al. (1996) would also be shown in this research with 100 children who had been diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of being abused as children. The research by Dehlinger, et al. (1996) involved 12-session pre-test and post-test randomly assigned therapeutic treatments with sexually abused children and their non-offending mothers. The random group assignments were cognitive-behavioral treatments for the child only, for the mother only, for the mother and the child, or for a community comparison condition. The study participants were followed and assessed at 3-months, 6-months, one year, and two years after treatment.
The data was analyzed through the use of a repeated MANCOVA, while controlling for the pre-test scores. Three measures of psychopathology were taken at the assessment intervals, examining specifically for the following: depression, externalizing behavior problems, and PTSD symptoms. The researchers found that the Dehlinger, et al. (1996) study was basically replicable, with the pre-treatment and post-treatment improvements shown and maintained during the 2-year period.
he class text makes mention in one of its chapters about existential psychotherapy. his treatment style seems to be yet another tool in the proverbial toolbox that psychiatrists and therapists can use or advocate along the same lines as cognitive behavioral therapy, EDMR and so forth. he author of this report will review how it came to be, what it is comprised of and how/why it may work for many or at least some people. he author will also offer thoughts and feelings about how promising and relevant this topic seems to be. While some therapeutic techniques are more widely known and/or ostensibly effective than others, it is also true that any method that garners good results for even a subset of patients is worth exploring or leaving aside as an option should the need arise.
As was made clear by the text, the people behind…
The world can be a very chaotic and dangerous place for a human mind. This is confirmed by the fact that everyone suffers from some degree of anxiety and/or depression at one time or another. Others still suffer on a chronic and consistent basis over years and decades and those people have their own demons and hurdles to defeat. However, existential psychotherapy is a good option for those that don't need to parse out what happened in the past and just need to take steps forward one after the other. Inner peace, no matter how it is garnered, is a noble pursuit and existential psychotherapy is just another option to pick from for those it would work for.
Corsini, R.J., & Wedding, D. (2013). Current psychotherapies (Tenth ed.). New York: Cengage Learning.
Kyle is a 42-year-old, single, Caucasian male, with 16 years of education. He works as a software programmer. Kyle reports that he is seeking assistance in helping to "kick his drinking problem." Kyle explains that his use of alcohol has gotten progressively worse over the last five years. He explains that he began drinking as a teenager in high school, but then only occasionally. He never felt that his drinking was problematic until he returned from the service and in the last five years it has gotten worse. He began drinking more regularly following his deployment in the Gulf War. As a reservist in the U.S. Marines Kyle served in Iraq and while on a weekend leave just before he was sent back to the United States Kyle was exploring a rural marketplace with several military colleagues. A bomb detonated at the market killing several dozen local civilians and one…
Cartwright, A.K. (1981). Are different therapeutic perspectives important in the treatment of alcoholism? British Journal of Addiction, 76 (4), 347 -- 361.
Drummond, D.C., Cooper, T., & Glautier, S.P. (1990). Conditioned learning in alcohol
dependence: implications for cue exposure treatment. British Journal of Addiction, 85(6), 725-743.
Hembree, E.A., & Foa, E.B. (2004). Promoting cognitive change in posttraumatic stress disorder. In M.A. Reinecke & D.A. Clark (Eds.), Cognitive therapy across the lifespan: Evidence and practice (pp. 231 -- 257). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Most of the research has focused on ADHD with a hyperactive component, because this poses more behavioral problems in the classroom. Also, ADHD-I tends to show less of a positive response to medication (Pfiffner, 2007). Focusing on social skills training for disruptive youths that is the usual curricula of behavioral modification programs ignored "the profound differences in attentional problems and impairments between the two major types of ADHD... those with ADHD-I have more severe alertness/orientation problems, including more symptoms of sluggish cognitive tempo" or daydreaming (Pfiffner 2007). The success of the approach tailored to a specific subpopulation's need, with "less focus on disciplinary strategies and greater focus on improving homework routines, independence, and organizational and time-management skills to improve academic problems" was not only highly successful, but highlights the need for greater specificity in diagnosis and treatment of ADHD students. The randomized control study of 69 children involved using social…
Behavioural psychology in modern day has devised a number of ways to deal with serious problem areas in children with special needs and the youth. These means of treatment include rewarding admirable behaviour along with presenting corrective consequences for the undesired ones. Using skin shock as a supplementary form of encouraging positive behaviour does not meet the requirements in the torture definition of the UN Convention against Torture. Skin Shock in behavioural terms is used to mitigate the effects of an illness condition or condition. Thus, it cannot be termed as a form of torture. The application of shock on the skin for two seconds does not inflict or arouse any painful sensation (Israel, 2010).
Pros and 3 Cons Statements
esponse contingent electrical stimulation is regarded as one of the most intrusive behavioural punishment technique; it is still potentially the safest and most effective of methods. The effectiveness of the…
Ellawala, T. I. (2015). The Efficacy of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Managing Self-Injurious Behaviours Among Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Review. Scholarly Undergraduate Research Journal at Clark,1(1), 3.
Israel, M. L (2010). Behavioural skin shock saves individuals with severe behaviour disorders from a life of seclusion, restraint and/or warehousing as well as the ravages of psychotropic medication: reply to the MDRI appeal to the U.N. Special rapporteur on torture. Retrieved 26 August 2016 from http://abcnews.go.com/images/Nightline/HT_MDRIReportResponse_2_100630.pdf
Kaufman, L. (2015). Parents defend school's use of shock therapy. N.Y. / Region. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/25/nyregion/25shock.html?_r=0
Salvy, S. J., Mulick, J. A., Butter, E., Bartlett, R. K., & Linscheid, T. R. (2004). Contingent electric shock (SIBIS) and a conditioned punisher eliminate severe head banging in a preschool child. Behavioural Interventions,19(2), 59-72.
Cognitive Restructuring on Rape Victims
Recently, the growing numbers of research have been focused on psychological trauma which can be caused by physical, sexual and life threatening events. he survivors of traumatic events would exhibit great variation of symptoms, especially, self-blaming, guilt, negative beliefs about self and others, cognitive distortions, and inaccurate thoughts related to their traumatic experiences. Sobel, Resick and Rabalais (2009) proposed a cognitive processing therapy (CP) to reduce the posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and increase the positive thought and accurate cognition of the survivors. In this seminal paper, they reviewed the literature, classified the syndromes before and after the CP, reported the statistical results and suggested a cognitive restructuring method. Cognitions are assessed using coding and analyzing the participants' statements before and after the therapy and the scaling systems used are the Clinician-Administered PSD Scale and PSD Symptom Scale. hey scaled two cognitive processes, accommodation, and assimilation…
The writers suggested that it was possible to observe, record, and reliably code the number and percentage of assimilated, overaccommodated, and accommodated statements that rape survivors produced in their impact statements at the beginning and end of a course of CPT. As hypothesized, there were significant decreases in the overaccommodated and assimilated processes from start to the end of therapy whereas there was an increase in the accommodated processes. Although there was a clear relationship between decreased PTSD and accommodation, this study was not able to make a clear statement about the relationship between assimilation and PTSD. Another limitation of this study is the ethnicity classification because of the limited number of participants.
This study is parallel to the studies of Foa and Rothbaum (2001), and Koss, Jose Figueredo, & Prince (2002) and the results are compatible. However, these two studies employed self-report inventories of cognitive distortions, which limited the response options available to participants and focus on content rather than process. Sobel et al. (2009) developed a more flexible strategy to evaluate the effects of CPT.
Overall, the study by Sobel et al. (2009) is chosen because it is up-to-date, rich in the literature review and very clear to provide results and limitations of the study.
Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…
Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.
Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.
Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.
Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
Constructivist Perspective of Brief Therapy
Understanding the basis of theories and therapy is a necessary element of the therapist's trade. Without some knowledge of why certain therapies are practiced, or where they came from, it is difficult to develop a personal theory and a personal view of how to conduct therapy. Since one of the basic concepts presently is that of brief therapy, it is necessary to see how that concept was formulated by other concepts. Thus, this paper examines how constructivist perspectives underlie brief therapy. This paper also gives the author the opportunity to voice a personal statement about how these findings coincide with personal constructions of therapy.
It is first necessary to understand the terms that are to be discussed. The two primary phrases to be discussed are constructivism and brief therapy. However, it is also necessary to grasp what brief therapies exist.
Fritscher, L. (2009). Brief therapy. Retrieved from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/brieftherapydef.htm
Levenson, H., Speed, J., & Budman, S.H. (1995). Therapists' experience, training and skill in brief therapy: A bicoastal survey. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 49(1), 95-106.
Maturana, H.R. & Varela, F, J. (1998). The tree of knowledge: The biological roots of human understanding (Revised Edition). boston: Shambhala
Presbury, J.H., Echterling, L. G, & McKee, J.E. (2008). Beyond brief counseling and therapy: An integrative approach (2nd Ed.). New Jersey: Pearson/Merill Prentice-Hall.
Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.
Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic…
Music therapy involves incorporating music into therapist-patient relationship development for promoting the latter's physiological, psychological, emotional and social health. One can consider music therapy to be a part of creative arts treatment, clinical treatment, or supplementary treatment relative to the conventional medical model. It encompasses numerous techniques such as playing a musical instrument, singing a song, listening to music and improvisation (McCaffrey 42). Autism spectrum disorder represents a lasting developmental disability which evolves at different levels of severity. The condition has been marked by the following three key characteristics: challenges when it comes to forging social bonds; intense limited fanatic interests; and issues when communicating verbally and non-verbally (National Autistic Society 1)
The Benefits of Music Therapy for Children with Autism
Autistic kids depict greater sensitivity to anxiety as compared to non-autistic ones, since they cannot effectively filter out any triggering stimulus. Steady rhythmic music or classical songs are considered…
Autism Science Foundation. "Music Therapy May Help Children with Autism." ASF Blog. N.p., 30 Aug. 2013. Web. 27 June 2017.
Manfred, Theodoros. "Music Therapy for Autistic Children." HealthGuidance.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 27 June 2017.
McCaffrey, Triona. "Music Therapy Hits Right Note." Irish Medical Times, vol. 40, no. 49, 2006, pp. 42, Business Premium Collection.
National Autistic Society: National Autism Charities Join Forces to Fight for Autism during the General Election Campaign." M2 Presswire, Apr 18, 2005, pp. 1, Business Premium Collection.