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Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in 2010
Harvard Business Case 9-711-462
Five Forces in the cola industry: Porter's Five Forces Framework
Power of buyers
For concentrate owners: Strong. The power of buyers is extremely strong within the soda industry, given that consumers can quickly shift their alliance from one beverage to another. Also, cola is not strictly a 'necessity' as a product -- no one needs to drink soda, and consumers can easily eliminate it from their budgets if necessary.
For bottlers: Strong as well. Bottlers are extremely dependent upon soda manufacturers for their business, given that they are among bottlers' largest customers.
Power of suppliers
For concentrate owners: Medium. Concentrate owners broker agreements with large and small retailers, agreeing to assume costs of marketing in exchange for shelf space. They have the right to grant exclusive territories to their bottlers and to prohibit bottlers from selling competitor products.…
Threat of Entry of New Competition: Low.
The economy of scale within the CSD industry requires enormous amount of capitol to enter into this market, making this threat relatively insignificant.
- Threat of Substitutes: High.
Colas are now part of many different selections of drinks. Health and medical experts also contribute to this theat.
-Threat of Customer Buying Power: Medium.
It appears the customer base will buy soft drinks with expendable cash, but harsh economic times will force consumers to cheaper options.
-Threat of Suppliers' Bargaining Power: Low.
Concentrate providers are significantly tied into the success of this industry and has few outlets with the buying power of this industry.
Threat of Intense Rivals: Medium.
The 60 years of cola wars between Pepsi and Coke explicitly demonstrate a relatively two sided battle.
This industry is both profitable and attractive for CP's due to the simple and minimal ingredients…
4. In the period from the mid-1980's through the end of the century the structural changes Coke and Pepsi adopted focused on consolidating and buying up smaller brands of CP's. Certain brands were often sold back and forth several times. As the two giant companys continued to grow during this period, it became evident of this dual power structure within the CSD industry.
4a. The rationale behind this structural change rested mainly on eliminating Porter's force of the threat of rivalry to this dual power structure.
5. The current economic landscape has threatened the abilities of certain markets to function with confidence and accuracy. This general distrust within the environment has large corporations such as Coca Cola and Pepsi concerned about their standing amongst their consumer base. However, globalization has helped ease this problem with new markets opening in new places all the time. The middle east in recent times has been a place where these two companies may be able to exploit and sustain their competitive advantage within this industry.
Cola Wars: Case Write-Up
For many decades, the market for cola could be easily summed up as follows: Coca-Cola vs. Pepsi-Cola. Although Coke clearly dominated, Pepsi was a strong 'also ran,' particularly after branding itself as the taste of the Next Generation. However, in the 1990s, the palates of American consumers began to change, resulting in a sharp leveling off, and then a decline in soda consumption. The major soft drink companies had negotiated reasonably competitive agreements with the 'links' of their supply chains: smaller bottlers were dependent upon the major brands to survive and the major cola companies negotiated specific arrangements with bottlers to distribute only specific brands (such as Sprite rather than 7-Up, in the markets where these two uncolas were competing against one another). Coca-Cola dominated fountain sales, Pepsi concentrated on the retail market.
Analysis: Marketing gaffs and internal trouble at the organization caused Coca-Cola to lose…
Increasing their product lines with good products will increase their sales around the world.
The biggest threat that Coca-Cola faces is the intense competition that exists within the industry. Coca-Cola has three main competitors, these being: PepsiCo, Cadbury Schweppes, and the Cott Corporation. All of these companies have products that compete with Coca-Cola products around the world. The competition between Coca-Cola and Pepsi has dominated the industry for more than a century. Both companies have participated in fierce marketing campaigns along with much sponsorship. Trying to stay a step ahead of Pepsi has been a long concern for the Coca-Cola Company and doesn't seem to be letting up anytime soon.
In the financial analysis, I compared Coca-Cola with their three main competitors in the areas of eturn on Assets (OA), Current atio, and Debt to Asset atio and Inventory Turnover from 2006 to 2008. In looking at the OA ratio…
Five Competitive Forces model Porter. (2009). Retrieved from Value-Based Management Web
Interview with Coke CEO Isdell. (2004). Retrieved August 6, 2009, from Beverage Digest Web
Coca-Cola Company Company Analysis: Coca-Cola Company The Coca-Cola Company began humbly in 1886 when Atlanta pharmacist, John Pemberton, mixed up a caramel colored liquid and carried it a few doors down to have it mixed with carbonated water. Here, a few customers sampled it and they agreed that it was something special so the pharmacist began selling it for 5¢ a glass, with sales of approximately nine classes per day (Coca-Cola Company, "Heritage Timeline"). Pemberton never lived to see his invention become one of the biggest empires in the soft drink industry. Upon his death, Frank Robinson, Pemberton's bookkeeper named the mixture, Coca-Cola and wrote it in the distinctive script that is still used as the company's trademark today (Coca-Cola Company, "Heritage Timeline"). It was salesman, Asa Candler, who the built the syrup into a viable business and sponsored the first plants in Chicago, Dallas, and Los Angeles (Coca-Cola Company,…
Coca-Cola Company. Heritage Timeline. < http://heritage.coca-cola.com / > Accessed 16 February 2011. "Coca-Cola Company"
A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East.
A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…
Van Bergen, J. (2003) "In the Absence of Democracy: The Designation and Material Support Provisions of the Anti-Terrorism Laws." Cardozo Pub. [?] Law Policy & Ethics Journal 2 (2003): 107.
Luca, B (2004). American foreign policy and global governance, in A. Gobbicchi (ed.), Globalization, armed conflicts and security (Rubbettino/CEMISS, Roma) 112-127
Fawcett, L. (2009) International Relations of the Middle East (2nd ed.) Oxford University Press
Coca Cola Company
The organization of choice for this paper is the Coca-Cola Company that is operating in beverage industry for more than a century principally manufacturing, distributing, and marketing nonalcoholic beverages globally. It mainly offers sparkling and still beverages. The Coca-Cola Company is a USA-based company, headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia and founded in 1886.
Amongst the market leaders in the beverage industry, Coca-Cola Company fights to remain on the top. Keeping up its reputation and serving the masses throughout the globe since the past many decades the company continuously adapts its product and process in order to satisfy the customers to the maximum possible extent. This research paper analyses the organization using the PESTEL analysis and SWOT along with an analysis of the information needs of the organization and how a customer relation management system (CM) can be integrated into this giant beverage firm that has ruled the beverage…
August W. Giebelhaus (May 13, 2008). "Coca-Cola Company." The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Georgia Humanities Council
Coca Cola Company, n.d. Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Index. Retrieved Oct 19, 2011 from www.thecocacolacompany.com/citizenship/gri_index.html
Coca Cola Company, n.d. Mission statement. Retrieved Oct 19, 2011 from www.thecocacolacompany.com/.../mission_vision_values.html
Coca-Cola Goes Live With Global Consolidation, n.d. Planning, Reporting and Decison Making Using mySAP.COM." SAP United States. SAP.
Strategic Decision Making
Case Analysis -- Final Exam
"Cola Wars in China: The Future Is Here"
Coke/Pepsi and International Strategy for Penetrating the Chinese Market
Going global is the next move of virtually any successful American company. However, when it comes to penetrating the markets of nations that are drastically different from the U.S., one needs to be aware of these different cultures and expectations and use this knowledge to guide one's actions fully and succinctly.
When it came to companies like Coke and Pepsi, companies that are absolutely massive, they both used differing strategies in a nation as specific as China. When Coca-Cola had launched in China, they had just instituted a very specific and strategic method of integration: " 'think local, act local, but leverage global' mandate to empower local decision makers, in recognition of the need to both respond to local preferences and react to local competitors"…
Dai, N. (n.d.). Cold Wars in China: The Future is Here. Retrieved from: [HIDDEN]
Case Analysis Page 7
Marketing Strategies for Coca-Cola
The key to the success of any consumer product is an effective marketing strategy. In order to develop such a strategy, it is necessary to carefully examine consumer needs and behavior in relation to the product and adapt marketing techniques to target and address these needs. As one of the top beverage manufacturers, Coca Cola must focus on ways to continually meet the beverage needs of a diverse marketplace that demands variety and choice in products.
Several factors have recently affected sales of Coca-Cola products, included various international economic crises as well as anti-American sentiments abroad that fuelled boycotts ("New formula Coke," Economist, 2001). Also, an increasingly health conscious consumer has caused sales of non-carbonated beverages, such as bottled water and juices to sky-rocket, which necessitated some regrouping for Coca-Cola ("New additions and reformulations," Beverage Industry, 2003). The enormous purchasing power of overseas consumer markets also…
Bruss, J. "Reaching the world." Beverage Industry 92.12 (2001): 28.
Bruss, J. "SCC (single can of cola) seeking perfect consumer." Beverage Industry 92.4 (2001): 46.
Keenan, F. " Friendly spies on the net." Business Week 3740 (2001): 26-29.
Kramer, L. "Beverage makers flood city with ads to give brands fizz." Crain's New York Business 17.20 (2001): 4-6.
Coca-Cola Company. Specifically it will discuss and analyze the case study, including relevant facts and recommendations regarding the study. Coca-Cola is one of the most well-known and famous brands in the world, and it has been in existence since the late 1800s. This case study indicated that it faced several ethical issues in the last decade that eroded its credibility and created strife inside and outside the company.
The facts of Coca-Cola are legendary. One writer notes, "Both the Coca-Cola brand and company took an early lead in the soft-drink industry, for the brand achieved national distribution early on and the company has consistently dominated the industry" (Wolburg, 2003). Coca-Cola is one of the world's leading soft drink manufacturers, and they sell their product in at least 200 countries worldwide. They were the leading soft drink company for decades, and their main rival is PepsiCo, who they have been…
Author Unknown. The Coca -- Cola Company Struggles with Ethical Crises.
Dubinsky, A.J., Nataraajan, R., & Huang, W. (2004). The influence of moral philosophy on retail salespeople's ethical perceptions. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 38(2), 297+.
Meyer, K.E. (2004). Perspectives on multinational enterprises in emerging economies. Journal of International Business Studies, 35(4), 259+.
Wolburg, J.M. (2003). Double-cola and antitrust issues: Staying alive in the soft drink wars. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 37(2), 340+.
Financial Analysis of Pepsi and Coca Cola
Synopsis of Companies
Pepsi and Coca-Cola companies boast of having two of the most recognized and preferred or desired beverages in the whole world. These two establishments are very fierce competitors in the beverage industry and incessantly compete with one another with the main objective of becoming the main and top distributor of not just sodas built but other beverages as well. This fierce rivalry that exists between the two companies is referred to as the "Cola Wars" and began in the period leading to the 1980s and has since then continued and become even more intense. In the period leading to the 80's Pepsi boosted and increased its market share, a time which coincided with Coca Cola Company being the top most distributor and supplier of beverages (PepsiCo Annual eport, 2013).. At this point in time, the two companies energetically and dynamically…
Goodman, A. (2013). PepsiCo, Re-Energized. Forbes. Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/sites/agoodman/2013/06/14/pepsico-re-energized/
O'Toole, B. (2014). Green Mountain stock soars on Coke partnership. CNN Money. Retrieved from: http://money.cnn.com/2014/02/05/investing/green-mountain-coca-cola/
Passport. (2013). Coca-Cola Co The SWOT Analysis, In Soft Drinks (World). Retrieved from: http://www.euromonitor.com/medialibrary/PDF/Coca-Cola-Co_SWOT_Analysis.pdf
PepsiCo, Inc. And Subsidiaries. (February 19, 2013). Form 10-K.
32). By contrast, PepsiCo benefitted from its wide product diversification. PepsiCo's product line includes popular snack names, while Coca-Cola has stuck to beverages. That has given PepsiCo the lead in overall sales, $43 billion to $31 billion in 2009 (see Dlugosch, 14 April 2010, p. 1). Question 4: Both companies' vertical involvement in their main global markets was determined by the consideration that contracts between soft-drink concentrate producers and bottlers allow the bottlers to have the last say in retail price, new packaging (but they could use only authorized packaging), selling and advertising in its territory (Martin, 26 March 2004, p. 5). This often causes strain on the relationships between bottlers, that very often are unable to produce and sell in large volumes, and the concentrate producer (Martin ibid). To accelerate revenue growth and be more agile and flexible both companies engage in vertical involvement in their main global markets…
Ali, T. (26 February 2010). The Coca-Cola Company to buy Coca-Cola Enterprises: Vertical Integration Continues. 1-4. Accessed 6 December 2011.
Badal, A. Coca Cola Company (2007). 33-40.
Please insert missing publication data.
Coca-Cola. According to the company's 2012-Year in eview, one of the objectives that the company had coming into 2013 was to improve the strength of its product portfolio. The company wanted to find products where there was untapped potential, and take steps to exploit that potential and improve the overall portfolio strength. To that end, Coca-Cola was able to take an ownership stake in Core Power, which makes protein drinks in the United States, and entered into a partnership with Aujan, which is a maker of juice, sparkling beverage and malt beverages in the Middle East. The company also continued to enjoy strong growth from some of its targeted brands, notably I LOHAS and Ayataka, both of which reached the billion-dollar mark in sales in the past year (Coca Cola, 2012).
As a result of these efforts, the company was able to enjoy broad-based success. Volume was up 4%, and…
Coca-Cola 2012-Year in Review. Retrieved January 8, 2014 from http://www.coca-colacompany.com/annual-review/2012/year_in_review.html
Cross, A. (2013). Core Power shakes up protein drink category. Coca-Cola Journey. Retrieved January 8, 2014 from http://www.coca-colacompany.com/stories/from-grass-to-glass-core-power-shakes-up-protein-drink-category
Metcalfe, J. (2013). Green tea wars heat up. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 8, 2014 from http://blogs.wsj.com/japanrealtime/2013/06/18/green-tea-wars-heat-up/
MSN Moneycentral. (2014). Coca-Cola Co. Retrieved January 8, 2014 from http://investing.money.msn.com/investments/stock-price?symbol=KO&ocid=qbes
products or service of your chosen organization, and two (2) key factors in the organization's external environment that can affect its success. Provide explanation to support the rationale.
De Beers is the world's famous diamond company, established in 1888, with proficiency in exploration, mining and marketing of diamonds. More than 20,000 employees make contribution to the communities in which we work. De Beers carries out profitable business which helps the government reach their aims of turning natural resources into natural wealth and is working to provide good long-term development for Africa. Anglo American and the Government of the epublic of Botswana are the two shareholders of De Beers, 85% and 15% respectively. This company is made up of fully owned partnerships, investments and subsidiaries. It is involved in most of the diamond chain value such as exploration in four continents, mining in Namibia, Canada, South Africa and Botswana; valuation, arrangement,…
Austin JE (2000) The Collaboration Challenge: How Nonprofits and Businesses Succeed Through Strategic Alliances. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Baker, R (2010). Pepsi Reveals Sustainable Business Plan', Marketing Week U.K., 19 October. Available from: http://www.marketingweek.co.uk/sectors/sustainability/pepsico-reveals-sustainable-businessplan/3019459.article
Barkay, T. (2013). When Business and Community Meet: A Case Study of Coca-Cola. Critical Sociology, 39: 277.
Bieri1, F. And Boli, J. (2011). Trading Diamonds Responsibly: Institutional Explanations for Corporate Social Responsibility. Eastern Sociological Society.
This provides tremendous opportunity to build market share without significant increases in infrastructure. The downside of these markets is that they tend to be less efficient, because fixed costs are higher in relation to revenues. The company can win in such markets, however, if it uses its globally powerful brand to gain a stronger presence in underserved markets, thereby pre-empting rival firms from entering these markets. ith Coca-Cola establishing market share, it will be all the more difficult for other companies to match the distribution clout and brand loyalty that Coca-Cola can build up.
In every market, competition remains a serious threat. Economies of scale can help the company in two ways. The first is that it improves margins, leaving more money left over for marketing efforts. The second is that there is often price competition in competitive markets. ith better economies of scale, Coca-Cola can withstand price wars long…
QuickMBA. (2012). Competitive advantage. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/competitive-advantage/
QuickMBA. (2012). Porter's generic strategies. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/generic.shtml
No organization exists in a vacuum, but instead, is part of society and culture. This is more extreme in the 21st century due to the process of globalization. Globalization has changed the world of marketing and consumerism. No longer are markets just local, and with the advances in telecommunication and the Internet, customers may be a few miles from the vendor, or a few thousand miles. Organizations have also undergone a change in overall philosophy -- not just moving toward entrepreneurial thought as a way to change their marketing paradigm, but through consumer and corporate expectations of business in a more ethical and sustainable manner. While this is true, and there is even a philosophical paradigm called Corporate ocial Responsibility, there has been a reason for the evolution of this change in viewpoint, really beginning in the post-World War II world. The entire premise of globalism, though, teaches…
Coca-Cola Corporation. (2013). Sustainability Report. Retrieved from: http://www.coca-colacompany.com/sustainabilityreport/performance-highlights.html#section-activehealthyliving and http://assets.coca-colacompany.com / b7/90/e060c3824d99a15d2d53416e7420/2009-2010_The_Coca-Cola_Company_Sustainability_Review.pdf
Schwerin, D. Conscious Globalism. Ambler, PA: DJ Investment Advisors, 2005.
U.S. Government. (2013). Comparison of Revenue by State. Retrieved from: http://www.usgovernmentrevenue.com/compare_state_revenue_2013dZ0g
In addition, the other two decades were far more traditional and nostalgic. The 70s commercial used images from as far back as the 1920s, like Charlie Chaplin, and that would appeal to a much older audience, people that would remember the old silent films, or appreciate them. The 80s commercial was traditional and nostalgic, as well. It used young people, (as all their commercials do), but it also seemed to appeal to an older, more mature audience, that would appreciate the theme of "old friends," coming home, and being a family that the commercial implied. The 90s commercial was not nostalgic at all; it was trying to be hip, modern, and certainly appeal to a younger, hipper crowd by using big celebrities that would appeal to young people.
These commercials say a lot about society, and how it has changed, and how marketing has become much more centered on youth…
Christmas 1975." Coke Commercial. RetroJunk.com. 1975. 14 Feb. 2009. http://www.retrojunk.com/details_commercial/977/
Old Friend." Coke Commercial. RetroJunk.com. 1980s. 14 Feb. 2009. http://www.retrojunk.com/details_commercial/8893/ .
Paula Abdul & Elton John." Diet Coke Commercial. RetroJunk.com. 1990s. 14 Feb. 2009. http://www.retrojunk.com/details_commercial/9268/ .
World War II called out the American troops, the country's economy could have been in grave danger had it not been for the untapped reservoir of human resources. Wives, mothers and sisters picked up where their husbands, sons and brothers left off. Not only were these women brave in their efforts to take on something as foreign as factory work, they also directly affected the outcome of the war. Conversely, without that call to action, women's roles in our society today would also be quite different.
Initially there was broad-based concern about women taking men's jobs, what would happen to the family structure and how society would deal with such a drastic change. However, it was a better solution than putting children to work as in the past.
There was no time to analyze or try and come up with a better solution. Women jump into industry with both feet…
Coca Cola Corporation is an American Icon of business that has established a new direction for American Industry operations in the 20th century. According to Moxley (2002), "Beginning with its invention in 1886 by druggist John "Doc" Pemberton in Atlanta, the development of the product is shown, along with the changes in American life that accompanied -- and affected -- the prices. We learn that by giving out free samples and pervasive advertising, Coca-Cola became known throughout the country." (Moxley, 2002)
Coke was a known brand by the turn of the 20th century. The use of free samples gave future customers the chance to try the product risk-free and instil confidence in the owners belief in the quality of the product. According to Moxley (2002), "Bottling plants were shipped around the world, laying the base or the worldwide expansion of the product in the late 1940s and 1950s. Throughout, the…
Business as (un)usual. (1992). Computerworld, 26(51), 55. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/215989760?accountid=13044
Dietz, L.S. (1993, We'll buy it FOR GOD, COUNTRY AND COCA-COLA: The unauthorized history of the great american soft drink and the company that makes it, by mark pendergrast (scribner's: $27.50; 425 pp.): [home edition]. Los Angeles Times (Pre-1997 Fulltext), pp. 1. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/282015633?accountid=13044
Financial markets; the coca-cola company finalizes transaction with coca-cola enterprises. (2010). Investment Weekly News,, 554. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/757586030?accountid=13044
Moxley, M.A. (2002). Coca-cola: The history of an american icon. School Library Journal, 48(9), 76. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/211741080?accountid=13044
Cold War and Film
Generally speaking, the Cold War has been depicted as an era of spy games and paranoia in popular films from the 1960s to the present day, but the reality of the era was much more complex. The Cold War was a period of military and political tension from 1947 to 1991, or from the end of WW2 to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in which the "politics of war" masked the business and social agendas of multinationals and ideologues. The era was marked by myriad issues: East-West mistrust, proxy wars, espionage, the threat of nuclear war, domestic and foreign propaganda, the rise of the military-industrial complex and multinational corporations, assassinations, detente, de-colonization, new nationalism, neo-colonialism, the vying for control of resources, alliances (NATO, Warsaw Pact), and an inculcation of the "deep state." [footnoteRef:1] It can be divided into five basic periods: 1947-53, 1953-62, 1962-79, 1979-85,…
Dominik, Andrew, dir. Killing Them Softly. NY: Weinstein Company, 2012. Film.
Eliot, T.S. "Burnt Norton." The Four Quartets. Web. 10 May 2015.
Frankenheimer, John, dir. Seven Days in May DVD Commentary. LA: Warner Home
teacher instructional technology literacy instruction improve elementary (K-5) student achievement reading vocabulary? Create a qualitative research scenario phenomenology approach.
Coca-Cola is one of the largest companies in the world. It employs 146, 200 employees worldwide and sells beverages in more than 200 countries. Coca-Cola has given its shareholders increasing dividends for 50 consecutive years (Coca-Cola company information, 2012, Coca-Cola). Coca-Cola's flagship brand is the soda Coca-Cola, and it dominates the traditional soda market. However, its main competitor Pepsi-Cola dominates many other facets of the bottled drink industry, such as Gatorade (versus Coke's PowerAde) and Mountain Dew (versus Coke's Mellow Yellow). Cadbury-Schweppes currently produces two other popular soda brands, Dr. Pepper and 7-UP. Coke's rival product Sprite has yet to secure equal market advantage. Cadbury-Schweppes also owns the Snapple line of beverages, some of which have a slightly 'healthier' image than that of much-demonized soda.
Coke has international brand…
Berk, Christiana Cheddar. (2011). Why Diet Coke's victory is bittersweet for Coca-Cola.
Brooker, Katrina. (2006). The Pepsi Machine. Fortune Magazine. Retrieved:
Business Management: The Soda Industry
The Soda Industry
The purpose of this work is to describe the Five Forces in the soda industry which are Rivalry, Buyers, Entry Barriers, Suppliers and Substitutes and keeping in mind that The Coca Cola Company and the Pepsi Company are the leaders in the industry to state what the effect of generic brands have on the soda industry marketplace.
The Pepsi Company and the Coca Cola Company have been rivals in the soda industry for many long years. Recently Coca-Cola reorganized their company and achieved new efficiencies and productivity during the restructuring that has been lucrative to the bottom line of Coca Cola's ledger. The globalization of the world at large has created new aspects to a very old industry and as well the soda sector of the marketplace.
The Five Forces:
Coca Cola Company and Pepsi Company are both international producers…
Marketing DQ's http://tvadsongs.uk/coca-cola-advert-song-singer-coke-2016-brother/.
The most popular commercials currently trending are the coca cola and the Samsung advert. Although these are some of the oldest brands in the market, they still strive to woo clients through marketing gimmicks. This also gives a chance for people to access such good information in ways that make them potentially willing to buy. For instance, Coca-Cola has invested heavily in addressing the market threshold and seeking a lifestyle appeal to the people who belong to a class that loves leisure (Connolly, 2010). The marketing strategy targets the youths and is geared towards a romantic appeal. In an advert dubbed 'Hey brother taste the feeling', the message seeks to appeal to relations to be bound by the drink. The advert has been running for a year now and has effectively succeeded in bringing in the right appeal to the market. Mostly importantly, sales have been reported…
Connolly, Sean. Advertisements. Mankato, MN: Smart Apple Media, 2010. Print.
Gay, Richard, Alan Charlesworth, and Rita Esen. Online Marketing: A Customer-led Approach. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2013. Print.
Louis, J. C., and Harvey Yazijian. The Cola Wars. New York: Everest House, 2010. Print.
Price, Jonathan. The Best Thing on TV: Commercials. New York, NY: Viking, 2009. Print.
I would have treaded the following alternative path so as to maintain the company's competitiveness on a global scale.
It was imperative to infuse more funds in Gemex so as to control the major portion of Gemex's stock prior to the fall of the Mexican currency. Pepsi must have accorded stronger emphasis on this matter, even though the family's head was unwilling to make a commitment. Pepsi realized their strategy is not heading in the correct direction as also the significance of business relations. It had been prudent on the part of Pepsi to analyze the Mexican economy in a better fashion so as to foresee the critical economic condition present. The most crucial and vital step which completely Pepsi failed to recognize was that it should have taken over Gemex in its Mexican market.
One more point remained that Pepsi should have laid out business activities around Gemex that…
PepsiCo in Mexico: Anatomy of an Affiliate's Exposure." Case Study materials.
Examples of Good and Poor Marketing
Marketing is a unique science. Offering a quality product or having a recognized brand name are neither guarantees of success in the retail or service industries. The discussion here on both good and poor examples of marketing will demonstrate the high variance in results which are instigated by different marketing strategies.
Perhaps the most famous example of a major brand name stumbling terribly in a large marketing campaign is Coca-Cola, which attempted to introduce 'New Coke' to the marketplace in the mid-80s. The U.S. Data Corporation accurately describes this as the worst marketing blunder of all time because it seemed to so aggressively undermine exactly what made the product special and distinctive. In the Data Corporation's analysis, "what made New Coke such a bad marketing idea is that it essentially celebrated 100 years of a popular product by throwing out…
Fuhrmann, D. (2009). Pop Culture History: Cabbage Patch Kids. The Daily Journal.
Plays, M. (2013). 12 Epic Marketing Fails that Made the World Cringe. Hubspot.
U.S. Data Corporation. (2009). 15 Worst Marketing Blunders of All-Time. Usdatacorporation.com.
Mass marketing vs. direct appeals
Mass marketing is clearly the superior strategy in marketing products such as computers. In the selection of computers, individuals wish to use systems that are technically forward and will not become out of date in a few years -- thus, they wish something that 'every one else' is using, so they can easily repair their systems, if need be, or make use of other individual's systems via CD-ROMs, disks, programs, and file sharing, when away from their own personal system. Although it feels impersonal at times, and can seek too general an audience, the generalized, even impersonal mass marketing strategy still has its place. It has proven successful for Coca-Cola, which continues to dominate the so-called cola wars, despite Pepsi's greater hold over niche beverages, such as Mountain Dew, with more specified target audiences. Individuals feel they are a part of something larger and 'American'…
"An introduction to direct marketing." Charity Peoples. Retrieved 31 Jan 2005 at http://www.charitypeople.com/documents/IntroductionToDirectMarketing.pdf
'New and improved: The Story of Mass Marketing in America." Business Week. Retrieved 31 Jan 2005 at http://www.businessweek.com/chapter/tedlow.htm
Personal and Organizational Ethics and Values between for-Profit and Not-For-Profit Organizations
For-profit and not-for-profit companies often operate very differently from one another. Here this will be shown with a comparison between the American ed Cross (a not-for-profit company) and the Coca-Cola Company (a for-profit company). The background of each one of them will be addressed, and they proposed solutions and recommendations will be discussed. Each company has its problems, whether it is for-profit or not, but there are unique problems faced by each kind of company. The differences in whether they are for-profit or not-for-profit can have a significant effect on the companies themselves and whether they are able to continue being successful or whether they must make changes in order to see growth and development in the future.
Case Study Analysis of Personal and Organizational Ethics and Values between For-Profit and Not-for-Profit Organizations:
The ed Cross and Coca-Cola
Bennett, A. (2005). The Geneva Convention: The Hidden Origins of the Red Cross. Sutton Publishing, Gloucestershire, England.
Boissier, P. (1985). History of the International Committee of the Red Cross. Volume I: From Solferino to Tsushima. Henry Dunant Institute, Geneva.
Forsythe, D.P. (2005). The Humanitarians: The International Committee of the Red Cross. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Giebelhaus, A.W. (2008). Coca-Cola Company. The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Georgia Humanities Council.
Coca Cola in India
Indian economy is growing rapidly and is now believed to be the 15th largest economy in world. This has resulted in the creation of new growth opportunities for local and foreign businesses thus attracting increased foreign investment. With its growing middle class and steadily improving per capita income, Indian market has more potential than most developing countries. Coca Cola Inc. was once driven out of the country because of the government's protectionist policies but things are changing now with relaxation in regulatory control and licensing requirements. This resulted in the return of many multinationals including Coca Cola but increasing its market share and competing with Pepsi Cola Inc. has not proved to be an easy task.
India's economic environment is highly conducive for growth of beverage companies with more than 150 million middle class consumers with annual income greater than $4,000. However these attractive features have…
The Hindu Business Line: Coca-Cola India reports 34 pc growth in Q1, Financial Daily from THE HINDU group of publications Thursday, Apr 18, 2002
K.T. Jagannathan, The Hindu: Coca Cola India to expand, Tuesday, Jun 03, 2003
Amit Srivastava, Communities Reject Coca-Cola in India, India Resource Center July 10, 2003
This is an apt title because of the gender inequality that the mid-1960s can be associated with, especially the depiction of either sex in films.
Madeleine and her friends are depicted as socially unaware conformists who only live in the moment and don't care for the deeper meaning of life and so embrace popular culture. In contrast, Paul and obert are seen as the opposite: nationalists, idealists, philosophers. However, as Elsa, be it in a rather uninformed way, related from her experience in the U.S., the women over there were making it to the front lines. The freedom to have an abortion was also treated as a scandalous matter in France, which Madeleine accepted and chose as a follower of the popular culture.
A scene in the film has obert discussing with Paul how the word 'masculin' is made up of 'masque' (mask) and 'cul' (ass) and when Paul asks…
AsgerJorn quoted by Graham Birtwistle: Living Art / Jorn's Theory (1946-1949): Reflex, 1986, p36.
Bordwell, David. The Art Cinema as a Mode of Film Practice. University of California Press, 1979.
Daix, Pierre. Les LettresFrancaises, 1966.
Francois, Truffaut. A Certain Tendency ofthe French Cinema. Classic Auteur Theory, 1954.
marketing strategies of Coca-Cola and Pepsi in Thailand and UK
Coca-Cola and Pepsi, rated among the top companies in the world share a common fact - for several years, both these companies have been successfully selling a simple product made of water and sugar to almost all countries. This would have been impossible unless the companies were able to create sustained excitement over their products and brands among the people and its employees. (Davis and Dunn, 2002)
This study is of interest because both are extra-ordinary companies in terms of brand penetration in even the toughest markets such as China and the middle-eastern countries. Coca-Cola is the world's number brand and Pepsi is also among the top brand names in the world. In 2000, Coca-Cola's sales surpassed one billion units per day and it had 239 products, selling across 200 countries. Coca-Cola and Pepsi are seen as arch rivals by…
Angel, M. "The Taste Challenge" Retrieved at http://www.enjoyment.independent.co.uk/food_and_drink/news/story.jsp?story+496974 www.enjoyment.independent.co.uk/food_and_drink/news/story.jsp?story=496974Accessed on 25 April 2004
Pepsi Targets Asian Markets" (March 24, 2002) Asian Market Research News Retrieved from www.asiamarketresearch.com/news/000114.htm. Accessed on 25 April 2004
Coke recalls controversial water" (2004) BBC News
Retrieved at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3550063.stm19 March Accessed on 25 April 2004
History of Coca-Cola Company (Coke)
We all know - at least if we are old enough to have heard the jingle - that Coke would like to teach the world to sing in perfect harmony. Except that this isn't quite true. What the Coca-Cola Company would most like to do is to teach the world to drink Coke - or one of its other wholly owned brands. The company has in fact proved to be remarkably hardy in the ever-more-globalizing economy. It's hard to travel anywhere in the world today and not see someone sipping a Diet Coke.
But this does not mean that the company's entrance into different national markets has been smooth - or that its continued competitiveness in various national markets will be assured. Each country presents a unique set of cultural and economic challenges. This paper examines the possible entrance of the Coca-Cola Company into Iran,…
Pendergrast, M. (2000). For God, country and Coca-Cola. New York: Basic Books. http://www.imes.co.uk/pages/iransd.html http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/business/the_company_file/newsid_351000/351871.stm http://www.time.com/time/magazine/international/article/0,9171,1107,00.html http://www.chinabusinessreview.com/0107/weisert.html
Domination of the high-profit vending segment.
2. Low-cost distribution system.
3. Revamping of its organization system.
Through consolidation of control over the network of bottlers the low-cost distribution system became a reality. The skills that were vital to management of the bottling end of the business were addressed through plants operations, regional marketing and distribution. Wise (2001) According to the AMR Research Supply Chain Top 25: "The basis of competition for winning companies in today's economy is supply chain superiority." The AMR report further states that Demand-driven supply networks (DDSN) have replaced the traditional push model that worked so well in the 20th century. The customer-centric model is what is termed a "pull-model" that, according to the AMR report does the following:
Embeds product innovation
Manages demand proactively
Utilizes stochastic optimization methods to deal with variability.
The result is: "A nimbler business that leverages intellectual assets and more quickly seizes…
Wise, Rick (2001) A Blueprint for Shareholder Value Growth: Winning Through Strategic Business Design (2001) Questia Library Online
Slywotqky, Adrian J. et al. (1997) From the Profit Zone: How Strategic Business Design Will Lead You to Tomorrow Profits 1997. [Online] available at http://www.google.com/search?q=Centric+Business+Design:=Coca+Cola+Company&hl=en&1r=&ie=UTF-8&start=10&sa=N
Traditional Growth Moves: The Old Approaches are Losing Steam 2002 Mercer Management Consulting, Inc.
A i2 Business Optimization Services: The Road Map to Business Excellence (2004) i2 Technologies [Online] available at http://www.i2.com/assets/pdf/services/BRO_i2_BOX_bro7139_FINAL.pdf
Tracy A. Sugarman (1921- )
Tracy A. Sugarman is a famous American illustrator who has had a long and provocative career in the arts. He boasts a career spanning over fifty years, producing great works within children's literature, album cover art, and socially progressive artistic statements. His work is featured in numerous children's books. Sugarman also highlighted life during World War II based on his own experiences there. He had served in the army in World War II and then turned his experiences to art. He also worked on major record covers, usually for Waldorf Music Hall ecords; Sugarman created more than 100 covers. Many later albums and CDs still carried on the original designs in the decade of the 1950s alone. His work is also featured in major magazines such as Fortune and Esquire (Ask Art 2009)
During a period of great racial tension and segregation, Sugarman highlighted prominent…
Ask Art. "Tracy Sugarman -- Artist." The Artists' Bluebook. 2009. Retrieved 18 Nov 2009 at http://www.askart.com/askart/s/tracy_sugarman/tracy_sugarman.aspx
Smith, Thomas B. "James Bama." Buffalo Bill Historical Center. 2009. Retrieved 18 Nov 2009 at http://www.bbhc.org/wgwa/bama.cfm
The slight decline in the cash ratio is not considered to be of significance in light of the generally solid current and quick ratios. The improvement in times interest earned comes in the face of a significant increase in long-term debt at PepsiCo. The company's debt ratio increased to 50.2% from 48.6%. This was largely a consequence of a nearly 65% increase in long-term debt.
Pepsi's operating margin is 18.1%, down slightly from 18.5% in 2006 and 18.37% in 2005. The company's ability to maintain margin stability illustrates strong managerial control over the company's cost structure. This is because Pepsi has little control over costs in the ultra-competitive segments in which they operate. They also have little control over factor costs such as high fructose corn syrup, the cost of which is based on commodity costs. The company's net margin declined slightly in 2007 to 14.3% from 16.05% in 2006,…
Coca-Cola Co. 2007 Form 10-K.
PepsiCo 2007 Annual Report
MSN Moneycentral. Retrieved March 24, 2009 at http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/charts/chartdl.aspx?Symbol=KO&CP=0&PT=8
Political risk is one of the different elements of country risk that a company must take into consideration when operating internationally. Political risk reflects the risk posed by the government of a country, including risks that the government will take action against your company (China v. Google), up to and including the risk of nationalization (Argentina v. YPF). Governments have the capacity to, in an unpredictable and ad hoc manner, change the rules governing a company's operations in a country. In the West, where political processes tend to be transparent, it is a lot easier to understand and measure political risk. Political risk, it should be noted, reflects actions taken on existing ventures, and not something like project approval. So Keystone XL is a pending decision, not a political risk. isk would be if Keystone is approved and then after it is started the next government moves to block the…
Erb, C., Harvey, C. & Viskanta, T. (2003). Political risk, economic risk and financial risk. Fuque School of Business. Retrieved December 9, 2014 from https://ciber.fuqua.duke.edu/~charvey/Teaching/CDROM_BA456_2003/Other_Harvey_Papers/P38_Political_risk_economic.pdf
Huff, E. (2013). India passes GMO labeling law, but some worry its provisions were poorly planned. Natural News. Retrieved December 9, 2014 from http://www.naturalnews.com/039137_india_gmo_labeling_laws.html
Jijakli, N. (2013). Country risk assessment: India. Credendo Group. Retrieved December 9, 2014 from http://www.delcredereducroire.be/newsletter/en/cra/2013/cra-india-november-2013
Sieg, L. (2009). Five political risks to watch in Japan. Reuters. Retrieved December 9, 2014 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/11/02/us-japan-risks-factbox-idUSTRE5A111A20091102
Vending Machine Businsess Plan
Maketing business plan
Location, envionment and taget maket
Value poposition and competitive edge
Maketing and sales stategy
Online maketing technique
H.U.M.A.N. Healthy Vending -- Healthy Seven Vending
Location, envionment and taget maket
Ameica's obesity epidemic has been spialing out of contol in the past two decades, and will continue to gow unless dastic measues ae taken to change Ameican eating habits. It is of paticula concen that the ate of childhood and adolescent obesity is gowing so apidly. H.U.M.A.N. Healthy Vending (Healthy Seven Vending) believes that it is essential that food copoations pai with local municipalities, educational institutions, and othe oganizations that play a vital ole in young people's lives. "Moe than half of U.S. middle and high schools still offe suga dinks and less healthy foods fo puchase. Students have access to suga dinks and less healthy foods at school thoughout the…
references even when they are not eating from vending machines.
A growing problem. (2013). Overweight and obesity. Centers for Disease Control. (CDC).
Not even public health experts entirely agree why the obesity rate has skyrocketed in recent decades. This website provides an overview of some of the leading proposed causes, including the popularity of marketing junk food to teens.
H.U.M.A.N. Healthy vending machines. (2013). http://www.healthyvending.com/machines
The argument that I have been making is a twofold one. The first branch of this argument is that Pop Art, while it incorporates ordinary images and commercial motifs and tropes just as does commercial design, it does so in different ways and for different reasons than does purely commercial work. It is because the motivations of the Pop Artist (and I suppose we might say of the art objects themselves) are so different from the motivations of commercial designers that Pop Art must qualify as art. Rather than simply giving his audiences pretty pictures, arhol made them work to understand his creations -- and this seems to me to be a pretty good definition of what art is and what the artist does. And once this condition is met, it really does not matter how much (if any) money the artist makes from the work.
Yes, arhol ended up…
Davies, Stephen. The Philosophy of Art. New York: Wiley-Black, 2006.
Madoff, Stephen Henry. Pop Art: A Critical History. Berkeley: U. Of California Press, 1997.
Sandler, Irving. Abstract Expressionism and the American Experience: A Reevaluation. New York: Hudson Hills Press, 2009.
Warhol, Andy. Andy Warhol: Art from Art. Berlin: Schellmann, 1994.
The cultural practices are evolved and based on the financial, social and moral understanding and capabilities of the local population, and it has been observed that Americans, Asians and Africans share extremely different perspectives and understanding on these issues, therefore the cultural adoption has been intense in countries where the technological revolution has been of the same intensity as in North America (Zelli, 1993). In some of the cases, the Americans companies has attempted to nullify the concerns and shortcomings of the American culture, by incorporating the cultural values of the local region, and has therefore evolve a different taste for the customers to avail, this has further delighted and fascinated the local population of different regions towards the American culture, for example the American culture has major differences with the Islamic culture adopted in Arab countries, therefore to compensate for such difference the American companies introduced the concept of…
David W. Noble. Death of a Nation: American Culture and the End of Exceptional-ism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 2002
Tafarodi R., Swann W. Individualism-collectivism and global self-esteem: Evidence for a cultural trade-off. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 1996
Trubisky P, Ting Toomey S, Lin S. The influence of individualism collectivism and self-monitoring on conflict styles. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 1991
Huesmann, Zelli, Fraczek, Upmeyer. Normative attitudes about aggression in American, German and Polish college students. Presented at Third European Congress of Psychology. Tampere, Finland. 1993
53). He points out that four countries (in 1917) -- England, France, Germany, and the United States -- own 80 per cent of the world's finance capital; thus, in his view, the whole rest of the world is subjugated, that is, indebted to and tributary to those four "international banker countries."
Where once monopolists exported goods to other countries to make a profit, now they export finance capital. This is another symptom of the imperialistic stage of capitalism -- what to do with excess wealth? Lenin states that it would not be capitalism if the excess wealth were used to improve the quality of life for the millions of people who are still underfed and leading lives of misery. Instead, the capital is exported to "backward" countries and used to make more profits. In backward countries (now called developing nations) where there is a shortage of capital, labor is cheap,…
Business Before Referencing
Tzu, Sun. The Art of War. Forward by James Clavell. New York: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd.,
What does an ancient Chinese classic about the nature of a now-obsolete form of warfare have to teach us, in modernity, about how to manage others and navigate the current business environment? A great deal, The Art of War's presence in many business class syllabuses would suggest. Indeed, certain aspects of The Art of War by Sun Tzu seem even more relevant today than in the past. How to combine moral authority with fierceness and tenacity in an increasingly competitive environment is a challenging question faced by many organizations.
One of the first principles stressed by Sun Tzu is the need for a leader to follow a moral law, what we might call a vision statement in modern business vocabulary. It is not enough for a leader to command and reward,…
Nietzsche's "madman" and the Madness of the First orld ar as viewed "In Flanders's Field" and All Quiet on the estern Front
The essence of the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche is a stated view of human existence where all individuals possessing attributes of excellence or superiority are at odds with their complacent, or intellectually slumbering society. Nietzsche's supposed madman of his famous "Parable" voiced a critique and a prophesy of the world, a world that had killed God, for better or for worse. Yet the world, said the madman, temporarily remained willfully ignorant of this fact and thus the madman's truth remained unheard and deliberately misunderstood by the masses as merely the voice of madness, so spoke Nietzsche in the "Parable of the Madman." (Nietzsche, 1882).
In his parable as well, Nietzsche suggested that such willed acts of individual knowledge and by extension, excellence, in the form of 'killing God,'…
Nietzsche, Friedrich. "The Parable of the Madman." 1882. Retrieved on March 28, 2004 at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/nietzsche-madman.html
McCrae, John. "In Flanders Field." Retrieved on March 28, 2004 at http://www.yankeedoodles.net/inflandersfield.htm
Flo retaliated by acquiring Harry Johnson and 11 other employees who then worked for Helena. When Helena opened a salon in New York, Arden opened a counterpart elsewhere. Parallelisms appeared to occur between them in that they both entered the men's skin care industry at roughly the same time. They also both married exiled princes after their first marriages ended in divorce.
Flo or Arden also lost half a million dollars in sales in the first two years since her divorce with Tommy, but being inherently innovative, she managed the crisis, recovered and proceeded to lead the industry. Records bear these out. While many businesses flopped during the Great Depression, Elizabeth Arden not only stayed and spent. It also bought an office building and a penthouse in New York during the stock market crash of 1929 and opened several other salons in the 30s.
Elizabeth Arden demonstrated an unwavering commitment…
Colbert, C. (2004). Elizabeth Arden, Inc. Hoover's Online: Hoover's, Inc. http://www.hoovers.com/free/co/factsheet.xhtl?COID=47820
Consumer Relations. (2000).Elizabeth Arden, Inc. http://www.ffi.cc/corporate_locations.asp
DPA Fragrance Wholesale. (2004). Some History and Background on Elizabeth Arden. CFL Inc. http://www.fragrancewholesale.com/somhisandback11.html
Kent, J. (2004). Entrepreneur for the Young and Beautiful. Business Builder in Cosmetics: Oliver Press, Inc.
Blue is the new black, according to the filmmakers of Blue Gold. Blue Gold is a documentary about how water is becoming a scarce commodity, and that it will become the reason for wars in the future unless something critical is done about it on political, economic, and public policy levels. This is an important film, because the issues impact all persons on the planet. ich or poor, male or female, black, white, or brown, water is necessary to sustain life. Without water, human beings die. The problem is that water management issues are embroiled in serious entanglements. Water that should be used for drinking is diverted to use in big agribusiness sectors, which are themselves problematic for their inhumane and polluting practices. Similarly, water that should be used for drinking is being diverted for use in manufacturing sectors. While human beings do need both manufacturing and farming…
Bozzo, Sam. Blue Gold. Feature Film. Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B1a3tjqQiBI
Such deep discounts on a type of product responsible for such a large percentage of the company's profits will clearly have a negative effect on the company's profit margin.
Thus one of the corporation's key vulnerabilities at the present time is the competition that it faces for bestselling titles from big box retail stores like Wal-Mart. It shold be noted, however, that this race-to-the-bottom-of-the-price war for bestselling books carries risk for other companies as well, as Surowiecki (2009) describes:
Wal-Mart began by marking down the prices of ten best-sellers -- including the new Stephen King and the upcoming Sarah Palin -- to ten bucks. When Amazon, predictably, matched that price, Wal-Mart went to nine dollars, and, when Amazon matched again, Wal-Mart went to $8.99, at which point Amazon rested. (Target, too, jumped in, leading Wal-Mart to drop to $8.98.) Since wholesale book prices are traditionally around fifty per cent off…
Barnes & Noble, retrieved 22 March 2010 from www.bn.com.
Barnes & Noble corporate website, retrieved 23 March 2010 from
/ & Noble plans e-book reader. The Wall Street journal. Retrieved 24 March 2010 fromhttp://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703746604574461502390635462.html
My family already recycles, and I am working with my community association to change garbage service providers to one that takes a broader range of recyclable materials, to encourage more recycling in my neighborhood. At home, my family has also stopped drinking bottled only eats organic free-range meat and poultry products, though we still drink bottled water and eat factory-farm products when dining out. While none of these changes can completely eliminate my carbon footprint, I think that if all Americans embraced these types of changes, we could see a noticeable difference in the continued rate of climate change and environmental destruction.
While it may be difficult to forecast the environmental future, it seems like making a ten-year financial forecast would be impossible in these difficult financial times. However, I think that I can accurately predict that I will be doing well financially in ten years. I am fortunate…
People can no longer decide on their selves, and there the rulers of the country must intervene. The measures proposed will have as finality the reduction in violent attacks, and more tranquil life in American cities and ghettos. The feasibility of the legislative intention is also demonstrated with logical arguments, which would deter the behavior of individuals with an aversion to violence.
The violence is a sign of weakness, both of the individual and the society on one hand and of the laws that govern the society on the other. Some individual is not capable to think things clear, or maybe he is not familiar with the legal proceedings, so his only solution is violence oriented to other citizens. The authorities are not able, up to present times, to control this violence issue through specific measures - legal, in general. The current proposals could be a viable solution for the…
1) Peter Rutten & Albert F. Bayers III and the World Rank Research Team, Where We Stand', New York: Bantam Books, 1992), pp. 297,289
2) Brian Wenn Australian Government - Violence today, no. 4: Violence in sport
ISBN 0 642 14748 5; ISSN 1032-7894
If however she had achieved the ideal non-attachment of Buddhism, her grief would still be real, but she would experience it in a different way. Her grief would be part of a process of letting go the son who is no longer there. A degree of non-attachment would then allow her to experience the grief as outside of herself rather than as part of her individuality. This would help her to move on with the life that is her own. In the above way a too great degree of attachment to human relationships may become destructive to the spiritual goal.
The same is true of a great degree of attachment to materialistic ideals such as food or money. Great ambition to accumulate money or physical assets may cause a person to lose sight of spiritual goals. This is a very one-sided approach to life, and may lead to destruction when…
("Contemporary Trends in Corporate Design," 2001)
Pepsi's second era of expansion in the 1970's transpired when domestic markets at its corporate home base had become stagnant. Foreign markets were growing much faster than domestic markets and thus a source of greater volume of sales. It wished to maneuver itself ahead of its rival Coca-Cola by dominating the world, if it could not immediately dominate the domestic, American market. Globalization then and now allows one to take advantage of legal system, taxes, quotas, tariffs and all kind of governmental barriers, and make investments for profits and immediate sales. However, contrary to traditional trends, Pepsi did not wish to follow domestic customers that go abroad, make use of an oligopolistic or monopolistic position of the company nor a bandwagon effect, given that these tended to be more along the lines of Coke's dominance, as Coke was the more famous brand in America.…
Company Information." (2005) Pepsi World. Retrieved 28 Jul 2005 at http://www.pepsi.com/help/company_info/index.php
Contemporary Trends in Corporate Design." (6 Dec 2001) Retrieved 28 Jul 2005 at http://www.unc.edu/~nielsen/soci110/nm13/nm13.htm
Pepsi." (2005) The Soda Museum. Retrieved 28 Jul 2005 at http://www.sodamuseum.bigstep.com/generic.jhtml?pid=3
Given the scale and global penetration of the Bacardi brand and its product line, it is appropriate that Bacardi should possess a visible and meaningful presence in the discussion on underage drinking and alcohol abuse. Certainly, this would be considered an appropriate measure for an organization boasting Bacardi's proliferation. According to Yahoo! Finance (2010), "the company's portfolio consists of more than 200 brands and labels, including Bombay Sapphire Gin, Martini Vermouth, Dewar's Scotch hisky, B&B and Benedictine liqueurs, and Grey Goose Vodka. Other types of spirits in its portfolio include tequila, vermouth, cognac, and sparkling wine. Serving more than 100 countries, the company operates 27 production sites around the world." (Yahoo! Finance, 1)
This accounts for the company's greatest strength, which is its enormity of scale. Though Bacardi has been in operation for well over a century, the growth potential at this scale has only really been realized in the…
Bacardi & Company Limited. (2010). Bacardi Limited. Bacardilimited.com.
Gjelten, T. (2008). Bacardi and the Long Fight for Cuba: The Biography of a Cause. Viking Adult.
Hambrick, D.C. & Fredrickson, J.W. (2001). Are you sure you have a strategy? The Academy of Management Executive, 15(4), 48-59.
Mizrahi, A. (2009). Historic Bacardi Building. Urban City Architecture.
European countries have absorbed a great deal in the way of material and culture from the United States, they have not become "Americanized," and that each country has incorporated what it takes from the United States into its own nationalism. In addition, the author argues that American culture has been influenced by European countries, although our culture has remained distinctly American. Finally, he makes the point that "Europe" is not one culture -- and that the United States is made up of many cultures as well. While European countries are "not like us," Europe and the United States have the presence of multiple cultures in common.
The book is organized into two sections. In the first three chapters, the author gives an overview from prior to World War II and continuing through the end of the Cold War. Then the author looks at specific cultural components affected by American influences…
Nevertheless, the American influence on other countries should not be diminished. In the 1990's, over 50% of McDonald's income came from foreign countries (303). Some American concepts did not translate well to Europe. Euro-Disney struggled at first, partly because Paris has a winter not present in either southern California or central Florida. But in addition, European vacation practices differed: Europeans tended to take long vacations, sometimes as long as a month, rather than the shorter 4 -- 5 day trips often preferred by Americans. Europeans tended to be more rigid about their schedules, causing bottlenecks for park admission and meals. In addition, Disney followed its policy of no alcohol on the premises to the dismay of Europeans accustomed to having a beer or glass of wine with a meal (311). So while it may have at first looked as if Euro-Disney was attempting to force Americanism on the French, in reality, such tactics simply didn't work. Disney had to adjust in major ways in order to make a success of Euro-Disney.
Pell's book takes a long and careful look at the interchange of cultures between the United States and Western Europe, and presents a picture that is far more complex than whether, for instance, the French might have been affronted to see a McDonald's in the heart of Paris. Instead, the author shows an inexorable process of influence flowing at least to some degree, both ways. In retrospect the reader should not be surprised by this. Greece and Rome both influenced each others' culture. The Phoenicians sailed around their known world and had profound influences on the cultures they met with, but that cultural exposure did not cause the loss of the other cultures. Perhaps it is the nature of human beings to meet, compare notes, notice how practices differ, and absorb and modify what is useful from the other culture.
Pells, Richard. Not Like Us: How Europeans have Loved, Hated and Transformed American Culture since World War II. New York: Basic Books, 1997.
Phase 3 Discussion Board
The article that I have selected is "A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science," by Turner et al. (2003). The authors advocate for a system that allows scientists to fully understand "the consequences of changes taking place in the structure and function of the biosphere." The authors argue that current vulnerability assessments are insufficient, and move the discussion towards an enhanced framework.
Sustainability science is defined as "an emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems" so this paper fits in with key elements of that definition. First, the paper reflects the need to understand the planet's life support systems in a complex way. The interactions between elements of these…
Eagly, A. & Johnson, B. (1990). Gender and leadership style: A meta-analysis. Digital Commons @ UConn. Retrieved October 23, 2014 from http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010&context=chip_docs
Gardiner, M. & Tiggemann, M. (1999). Gender differences in leadership style, job stress, mental health in male- and female-dominated industries. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. Vol. 72 (3) 301-315.
Kruse, K. (2013). What is authentic leadership? Forbes. Retrieved October 23, 2014 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/kevinkruse/2013/05/12/what-is-authentic-leadership/
Kushell, E. & Newton, R. (1986). Gender, leadership style, and subordinate satisfaction: An experiment. Sex Roles. Vol. 14 (3-4) 203-209.
Coke Pepsi, . For reference, I 57 years male. Written Assignment: Analyzing Advertisements Essay - ough Draft Analyzing Advertisements Overview: Logical argumentation studied accepted forms argument.
The Soda Wars: Analyzing Messages in Advertising
The battle between two soda giants, Coca-Cola and Pepsi, has been raging for many years. Both products are hugely successful, with world-wide brands and a wide array of products beyond their titular sodas. Similarly, their advertising campaigns and the competition that ensues (especially during big advertising events like the Super Bowl) is legendary. Both have recently unveiled several new campaigns that are worthy of analysis. Pepsi launched the "efresh Project," aimed at encouraging civic participation and charitable endeavors. They also released a more conventional Superbowl commercial. Coke has a new campaign called "Stay Extraordinary" and also, naturally, created some one-off Super Bowl advertising. While Pepsi's charitable aims are admirable, Coke provides more compelling, innovative, and amusing content…
Coca-Cola. (2011, February 3). Border. YouTube. Retrieved March 20, 2011, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k-STkFCCrus
Coca-Cola. (2011, March 15). Stay Extraordinary. YouTube. Retrieved March 20, 2011,
Pepsi. (2011, March 09). Pepsi Refreshes Communities. YouTube. Retrieved March 20,
Future Global Corporate Strategy and International Management
The emergence of strategic management has always been attached to military history (Tallman, 2007). Studies in this area reveal various examples where the strategic management of offensive and counter-offensive led to decisive victories. Within the corporate sphere, it emerged following the Second World War. The dramatic growth of world nations such as China, Japan, and the U.S.A. served a beneficial environment for large international corporations that needed evolution in their planning and thought process. In fact, the competitive climate has created challenges for global corporations to sustain the success chart without meeting the changing requirements of business and adopting a strategy to counter these changes. Strategic management is an art that uses the processes and principles of management to create the mission or objective of any business. It identifies a proper target to meet the objective, established current opportunities and constraints in the…
During, W. E., Oakey, R. P., & Kauser, S. (2001). New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millennium. Amsterdam: Pergamon
Dhillon, G., & Ebrary, Inc. (2001). Information Security Management: Global Challenges in the New Millennium. Hershey, Pa: Idea Group.
Devinney, T. M., Pedersen, T., & Tihanyi, L. (2010). The Past, Present, and Future of International Business & Management. Bingley: Emerald
Howes, R., & Tan, J. H. M. (2003). Strategic Management Applied to International Construction. London: Telford
Globalization has been described as "a multifaceted phenomenon which (sic) encompasses economic, social, political, technological and cultural dimensions" (Mir, Hassan & Qadri, 2014). Economically, socially, politically, the world has become more interconnected. Some of these processes, such as the development of the Internet, have occurred organically while others, such as free trade agreements and the rise of the supranational governmental entities, are more deliberate in nature. They all, however, contribute to the same phenomenon. Globalization is driven by phenomenon that remove barriers around the world. Air travel and other transportation innovations allow for people and goods to move more freely around the globe. Innovations in communication allow us real time communication with anybody, anywhere, at any time. As a result, information flows more freely.
Politically, the world has become more interconnected. The process of decolonialization was matched by a concurrent move to create supranational entities such as the European Union…
Hymson, L. (2011). The company that taught the world to sing: Coca Cola, globalization, and the cultural politics of branding in the twentieth century. University of Michigan. Retrieved April 29, 2015 from http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/86471/lhymson_1.pdf
Mir, U., Hassan, S. & Qadri, M. (2014). Understanding globalization and its future: An analysis. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences. Vol. 34 (2) 607-624.
There is an increasing recognition of this not only among investigators and regulators, but also among businesses and employees alike.
Clearly, the general attitude of employers and employees towards whistle blowing is changing with time. Generally, this is the result of consequences generated by corporate wrongdoing, and also by the increase of importance attached to ethical business practices. Corporate responsibility in terms of both society and the environment has seen great increases over the last decade. For this reason, the importance of whistle blowing is also increasing. Indeed, it can be seen as the ethical responsibility of employees to disclose activities when they have suspicions regarding certain practices.
By making whistle blowing a standard ethical element of business, the corporate world can ensure that businesses work for the mutual benefit of employers, employees and the public they serve.
BBC News. (2003, Oct. 8). Coke pays off whistleblower. etrieved from…
BBC News. (2003, Oct. 8). Coke pays off whistleblower. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/3175138.stm
Business Link. (2010). Whistle blowing and Dismissal. Retrieved from http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/detail?itemId=1082104950&type=RESOURCES
CIPD. (2010). Whistle blowing. Retrieved from http://www.cipd.co.uk/subjects/empreltns/whistleblw/whistle.htm
Connor, M. (2010, Apr. 1). Whistle-Blowing found Effective in Targeting Corporate Misdeeds. Business Ethics. Retrieved from http://business-ethics.com/2010/04/01/11414-whistle-blowing-found-effective-in-targeting-corporate-misdeeds/
Hershey's is a listed company. Its products are sold in Hershey's own retail stores, but also in most store chains. In addition to this, the company develops several partnerships with suppliers.
Some of the most important issues in the company's code of ethical conduct that ensure its success are represented by promoting diversity, producing products consumers can trust, and dealing fairly within the marketplace. In order to benefit from productive employees it is important to develop a cultural environment that sustains their productivity (Hershey's, 2012). One of the most efficient ways to reach this objective is to promote workplace diversity. This ensures that all issues are viewed from different points-of-view, and that different solutions can be determined. It also ensures that employees can improve their skills of anticipating situations that can affect the company's activity.
Producing products consumers can trust is one of the most important issues that…
4. Corporate Social Responsibility Report (2014). Hershey's. Retrieved July 6, 2014 from http://www.thehersheycompany.com/social-responsibility/shared-goodness/pdfs/2013_THC_CSR_140505_V6_TR.pdf .
5. The Hershey Company (2012). Industry Today. Retrieved July 6, 2014 from http://industrytoday.com/article_view.asp?ArticleID=FDQ_F23_hershey.
6. Hostetter, C. (2004). Sugar Allies: How Hershey and Coca Cola Used Government Contracts and Sugar Exemptions To Elude Sugar Rationing Regulations.
estern Companies' Presence on the Asian Market
Cultural values play an important role in the way that businesses function in an environment. Even though they are particularly successful across the world, some companies have trouble pervading certain communities. It is thus essential for companies wanting to succeed in new markets to have a complex understanding of them. This way they become able to play an active role in these respective markets and avoid investing more resources than they are able to. Many western giants have attempted to expand to Asia, especially considering the large markets available there. Even with this, a great deal have discovered that their conventional attitudes are not enough to help them progress in Asian countries.
The expression "Google it" has become one of the most commonly-used sayings when considering people wanting to find out more about a particular something. However, it might not be met with…
Rappa, A.L. "Globalization: Power, Authority, and Legitimacy in Late Modernity." (Institute of Southeast Asian, 2011)
"Seeking success," Retrieved August 6, 2015, from http://www.economist.com/node/13185891
Edgar Hoover, makes public its continuing investigation into the activities of black nationalist organizations, singling out the Black Panther Party in particular, Hoover viewing the group as a national security threat.
January 05, 1970
Blacks Move Out of Inner Cities: The Bureau of Census statistics show as the quality of life in poverty-stricken urban communities worsens, a continuous stream of middle-class blacks escape to higher-income neighborhoods and suburbs.
February 13, 1970
First Black Member of the New York Stock Exchange: Joseph L. Searles III becomes the first African-American to become a member of the New York Stock Exchange, starting his training as a floor partner with the firm of Newberger, Leob & Company.
June 16, 1970
Gibson Elected Mayor of Newark, New Jersey: Kenneth A. Gibson was elected mayor of Newark, New Jersey on this date. He also became the first Black president of the Conference of U.S. Mayors during…
African-American male unemployment: Robert Carmona. (2007). Congressional Testimony.
Retrieved May 12, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P135839035.html
Algernon Austin. (2008, January 18). What a recession means for black America. EPI Issue Brief
#241. Retrieved May 13, 2009 from http://www.epi.org/publications/entry/ib241/
These can bring in new audiences, retain old audiences (like dieters who might be alienated from Coke because of concerns about calories) or can encourage greater consumption (as children with the smallest of scrapes might want a Sponge Bob Band-Aid for fashion's sake). But all of these examples of product extensions do not alter the fundamental associations of the brand as synonymous with America, or with gentle and loving care (Kotler & Keller, 2003).
Brands can endure a great deal -- even Aunt Jemina, Barbie, and Betty Crocker remain, although the Civil Rights and feminist movements may shudder at their images -- the product remains popular, so people continue to buy. Of course, the downside to such ubiquitous associations between a brand and a product is that if the product, such as fast food, becomes unpopular for cultural reasons beyond the marketer's control, like the current war against obesity, the…
Kotler, P. & Keller, K. (2003). Marketing Management
12th Ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall.
Troy, Mike. (24 Oct 2005) "The Roto role: how leading brands maintain their top-shelf status." DSN Retailing Today. Retrieved 19 Mar 2007 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FNP/is_20_44/ai_n15789798
orse Than atergate
All students are familiar with the creed of the X-files, a popular recent science fiction television show that instructed its viewers, young and old, to 'trust no one.' At the time this motto of secrecy and distrust, particular distrust of government policy and institutions was much criticized, as fostering cynicism in the hearts of the young about the potential of political involvement to create change in an open society. How is it possible to encourage students to question and to engage in governmental debate, when policy so vitally affects their lives yet when many feel ostracized by a government of secrecy and shame? In an era where every vote counts, and when a teacher is confronted with a classroom of potential voters, he or she is constantly faced with the civic as well as educationally responsible challenge of making politics accessible and interesting to students in an…
Csmonitor.com "Selling the Public." (January 16, 2003) Christian Science Monitor Online. Retrieved November 27, 2004 at http://c5.zedo.com/jsc/c5/ff2.html?n=305;c=127/1;s=78;d=19;w=400;h=450;t=III-INTERACTIVE
Dean, John. (2004) Worse than Watergate. Little, Brown.
"John Dean." (2003) The Washington Post. Watergate Revisited Homepage. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-adv/advertisers/popunders/usforgrowth_nov04_wp_3.html
Santayana, George. (2004) Homepage of author's works. Retrieved November 27, 2004 at http://members.aol.com/santayana /