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Collective Bargaining Essays (Examples)

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Collective Rights
Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85715131
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Collective argaining and Civil Rights

Postal Service (USPS) entered into a Collective argaining Agreement (CA) with the American Postal Workers Union (APWU) in November of 2000. This CA addressed issues such as wage increase and promotion procedure, reassignment and reduction in force protection, as well as accommodation for deaf and hard of hearing postal employees. Specific measures for accommodating deaf and hard of hearing employees were established. Instituting the use of training videos with captions and using sign language interpreters during meetings, especially safety meetings, are a couple of measures outlined in the 2000 CA.

With the events that occurred on September 11th, 2001, and subsequent mailings of the potentially deadly biochemical Anthrax, safety of our U.S. Postal Service workers became a top priority. Numerous meetings were held to inform and instruct employees of potential hazards and proper handling procedure for packages suspected of containing anthrax. Vital information and procedures…


1. Deaf/Hard of Hearing Task Force Update. Retrieved 8/17/05, from APWU 

2. Goldberg, (11/21/2000). Collective Bargaining Agreement Between American Postal Workers Union, AFL-CIO and U.S. Postal Service. Retrieved 8/17/2005, from APWU 

3. Kloepfer, Gary, (4/20/2004). Certified Interpreter Should Have Been Used for Safety Talk ((Airs # 40281-K98C-IK-C02029061). Retrieved 8/17/05, from John Durben 

4. No'l Decker, ( 5/14/2003). Deaf Employees File Class Action Lawsuit Against the United States Postal Service for Civil Rights Violations. Retrieved 8/17/05, from APWU

Collective Bargain Some of the Differences Found
Words: 588 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 65055380
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Collective Bargain

Some of the differences found in state governments and how they treat their employees can be discerned by how many or how few collective bargaining rights those employees are afforded. For example, West Virginia allows their employees the right to join unions and have exclusive bargaining while Arizona and Arkansas; while allowing employees the right to join unions, do not offer exclusive bargaining. Although these three states do not offer collective bargaining policies per se, they differ from other states that are in the same category by offering their employees the right to join unions and have the unions bargain for them. Some states, such as Virginia and North Carolina, have passed laws against public employees joining unions at all.

Those states that do not allow for collective bargaining are oftentimes able to accomplish the goals and objectives of collective bargaining by offering local governments the right to…

Interest Based Bargaining Process and Purpose
Words: 1625 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31143688
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Purpose of Interest Based Bargaining

The collective bargaining process is hardly ever dull or unexciting. Every now and then, there is significant tension as one of the participating parties or the other comes to the realization that it will fail to reach the expectations of its constituents. From time to time, there is significant eagerness and passion as resourceful options emanate with the potential to render mutual gains. In different occasions, apparently negligible or routine issues of contract terminology or working state of affairs have the potential to be fiery and tense on the basis of how they are addressed (Kochan and Lipsky, 2003). Interest based bargaining is founded on the ascertainment and determination of mutual interests instead of the resolution of specific bargaining demands. Interest based bargaining can be delineated as a process of solving problems that is conducted in a moral manner that generates efficacious solutions and at…

Merging of Unions in Recent Years Collective
Words: 340 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27820945
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Merging of Unions in ecent Years

Collective Bargaining -- Labor relations Topic: The merging unions recent years Essay Question: What reasons unions, affiliated AFL-CIO amalgamated, merged unions recent years site examples mergers? Essay 250 words length APA format.

Technological changes or the changes in the marketplace have also made unions to merge or become obsolete. According to Sloane and Witney (2010)

unions that are faced with technological changes and are on the verge of becoming obsolete have merged with other unions in order to die respectfully. A good example is the Cigar Makers which merged its 2,500 members with the etail Wholesale, and Department Store Union. The merger was done because the Cigar Makers union had been faced with changes in the marketplace that it could no longer manage.

Growth of the managerial conglomerate is another reason why unions have merged. For example, The Tobacco Workers, Bakery and Confectionery Workers…


Holley, W.H., Jennings, K.M., & Wolters, R.S. (2011). The Labor Relations Process, 10th ed. Boston, MA: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Sloane, A.A., & Witney, F. (2010). Labor relations (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Settling Disputes
Words: 885 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 92970727
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Collective Bargaining Dispute

Seattle's $15 Minimum Wage Agreement: Collective Bargaining eborn?

The article covers the negotiation process that was held over a number of weeks in Seattle between the business class, the labor movement and the concerned task force. It was a classic example of the tradition of collective bargaining as it was used in the case of the Seattle workers to negotiate for the increment of the pay rise from $9.32 per hour to $15 per hour. The mayor spearheaded the entire process and it came to be adopted by the business community, labor and the task force that were involved in the entire process of negotiation and bargaining. This model of bargaining has been hailed as a unique one since it is like none other experienced in the U.S. Indeed of the 24 members who were involved in the collective bargaining, 21 of them endorsed the proposal and…


Meyerson H., (2014). Seattle's $15 Minimum Wage Agreement: Collective Bargaining Reborn? The American Prospect.

Country's ER Systems the Intent
Words: 2994 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Application Essay Paper #: 41406488
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Australia began shifting to a limited Welfare State at the end of the Second World War (1945) and has continually supported privatization and deregulation. The 1904 Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act and 1988 Industrial Relations Act (IRA) both have set a strong precedent for workers' rights and the right to create and form unions. From an ER standpoint these laws and compliance requirements are also constrictive as they are one-size-fits-all in approach.

Role of Stakeholders- the Government, Unions, Workers,

Both Australia and Germany are comparable in the depth and sophistication of systems, processes and procedures to support stakeholders. Of the two, Germany ahs been architecture far more to support and protect the unionized work. The German Trade Union Confederation, combined with the German series of laws to protect the worker has lead to protectionist approaches when it comes to allowing new businesses into Germany. MNCs looking t expand into Germany…

Labour Laws

China is very clear on its use of labour laws, with a country-wide precedent set in 1995 with their Labour Law of China. This was the first employment law enacted by the CCP. There is also the Labour Contract Law passed in 20087 that require all employers to provide employees a written contract within a year of employment, and fines employers who do not do this. There are also labor dispatch providers and support for verbal contracts in the Labour Contract Law of 2008. In 1993 China based the Enterprise Minimum Wage Regulation and amended it in 2004 to serve as a framework for the countries' growing economy.

The Labour laws in Australia on the other hand are much more oriented towards a shared level of responsibility and arbitration. The Australian ER reform includes the ACTU/Federal ALP Government accord passed in 1983 and 1993 and the Industrial Relations Reform Act of 1993. The Workplace Amendment (Work Choices) Act of 2005 and Fair Work Act of 2009 all support the more progressing nature in ER relative to Germany.

delete them please note where the information
Words: 1438 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96883089
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delete them, please note where the information came from. THANKS!

Define and discuss the term "collective bargaining." The term "collective bargaining" refers to a process in which employers and employees (or their representatives, like trade unions, etc.) come together and voluntarily negotiate working conditions. Typically, these discussions come up at the end of a contractual period and focus on things like wages, work hours, benefits, safety of the workplace, overtime procedures, grievance and mediation procedures, and the level at which owners and management will allow workers to participate in the operation and strategic mission of the company.

In order for there to be collective bargarining, however, there needed to be a philosophy of labor; the term itself was first used in 1891 but the concept of unions and labor vs. management and owners, of course, harkens back to Karl Marx and even labor issues prior. Collective bargaining in the contemporary,…

For instance, decertification petitions must be signed by no fewer than 30% of employees, must be filed when a contract is NOT in effect or agreed upon window, and must also be free of any coercive influences from management. Once the petition and preliminary work is done, a formal document must be filed with National Labor Relations Board, which will schedule a decertifying election, typically within 60 days. During that time period, management and labor may campaign. Once the election is held, the NLRB will decertify the union if a simple majority, 50.1%, votes against the union.

Source: Ohio Hosptial Association, "The Decertification Process," Cited in:

Multiple Elements of the Perceived Prescriptive Nature
Words: 699 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 36500305
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multiple elements of the perceived prescriptive nature of collective bargaining agreements and analyze the arguments to the contrary.

The various elements of a collective bargaining agreement include: a signed contract and the terms / conditions that must be followed. Inside the document there will be a number of provisions that will be spelled out such as: employee rights / responsibilities, the authority of management and how any kind of changes can be made to the labor agreement. The combination of these factors is important, because they are creating a foundation for protecting the employees. While at the same time, they are establishing provisions to ensure that the staff is able to meet the objectives of the organization. This is the point that the agreement is addressing the needs of both sides.

However, some will argue that collective bargaining hurts the ability of an employer to adapt to changes. In some…


Hess, F. (n.d.). Collective Bargaining in Education: Negotiating Change in Today's Schools.

Pynes, J. (n.d.). Local Government Labor Relations.

Taylor Law Overview Employee Rights
Words: 997 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 34784590
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Striking is not deemed to be an acceptable method of dispute resolution under the Taylor Law. According to Section 209, an impasse is deemed to exist if the parties fail to achieve agreement at least one hundred twenty days prior to the end of the fiscal year of the public employer. Specific provisions of Section 209 pertain to certain, select public employment bodies, such as police and fire unions, which must submit directly to binding arbitration because of the vital nature of the services they provide. The PERB can assist resolution by appointing mediators, and if this fails, it can create a fact-finding board with the power to make recommendations. If an impasse is still manifest the dispute is shifted to the chief executive officer of the government involved and to the employee organization involved.

Union security

Public employees are allowed to unionize by law (and, indeed, it could be…

History of Canadian Labour The
Words: 2158 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65406702
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" (Rouillard, 1987) There was a desire to "humanize the economy" based on the value of work being "more important than capital since the individual had to take priority over the accumulation of goods." (Rouillard, 1987)


In 1958 this liberal humanism of the CTCC "manifested itself in a new theme that appeared...economic planning." (Rouillard, 1987) Abuses of the system were corrected by the intervention of the state even though it was symbolic intervention only and it even "further directed the economy toward satisfying the real needs of individuals." (Rouillard, 1987) the CTCC gradually became nondenominational over the years and finally in 1960 the CTCC dropped 'Catholic' from its title and "all direct references to the Church's social doctrine." (Rouillard, 1987)


The work of Calliste entitled: "Sleeping Car Porters in Canada: An Ethnically Submerged Split Labour Market" (1987) states…


Calliste, Agnes (1987) Sleeping Car Porters in Canada: An Ethnically Submerged Split Labour Market. Canadian Ethnic Studies. 1987 Canadian Ethnic Studies Association.

Gindin, Sam (1987) Globalization, Nationalism, and Internationalism (1987) the Modern Era (1960-1990).

Iacovetta, Franca (1987) From Contadina to Workers: Southern Italian Immigrant Working Women in Toronto, 1947-1962. The Modern Era. (1960-1990)

McDowell, Laurel Sefton (1987)the Formation of the Canadian Industrial Relations System During World War Two. Labour/Le Travail 1987 Memorial University of Newfoundland.

Union Labor Disputes Canada Wal-Mart
Words: 6077 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74391495
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But when it just recently occurred in 2004 at a store in Jonquiere, British Columbia, the reader must appreciate that a real battle had been won. The original efforts of that particular store for example had the local labor Commission reject certification by a margin of 74 to 65. When the union announced that it won the coveted certification at Quebec, it was quite a blow to the retailer. The Quebec Labour elations Commission issued the order certifying the United Food and Commercial Workers Union (UFCW) as the bargaining agent of employees in Wal-Mart's store in Jonquiere. As noted, the reason a victory of this magnitude is huge is because of the policies and tactics used by Wal-Mart. The retailer works diligently to prevent its workforce from engaging in any collective action and they have consistently shown that they are willing to cross the line to guarantee their position.



Baek, Seung Wook. (2000.) "The Changing Trade Unions in China." Journal of Contemporary Asia: March.

Budd, John W. (1994). "The Effect of Multinational Institutions on Strike Activity in Canada." Industrial and Labor Relations Review.

Corbett, Brian (2002). "Southern hospitality." Ward's Auto World, August.

Delsohn, Gary. (1997.) "UPS Strike May Revive American Labor Movement." Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News: Sept.

Benefits Role and Criticisms of Labor Unions
Words: 3319 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16689905
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Role of Labor Unions in Industrial Relations

In their definition, labor unions have always been known as organizations that have always aimed at getting their members both financial and non-financial benefits. The role of labor unions is however bigger than that and they have been known to aid in helping employers improve the productivity and discipline of their workers. Labor unions respond to issues differently. This is explained by the differences in industrial relations contexts and also policies of different states as well as strategies of the various employers around the country.

Employees come together to form a labor union to achieve a common goal. Labor unions have several goals. Some of the goals include agitating for higher retirement benefits as well as other benefits for its members. They also seek to increase the number of workers assigned for specific job tasks. They ensure that employees work under good and…


Baglioni, G. And C. Crouch (eds.) (1990) European Industrial Relations. The Challenge of Flexibility (London: Sage).

Barrow, C. (2013). Industrial Relations Law. New York: Routledge.

Blanpain, R. (2007). Decentralizing Industrial Relations and the Role of Labor Unions and Employee Representatives. New York: Kluwer Law International.

Blanpain, R., & Baker, J. (2010).Comparative Labor Law and Industrial Relations in Industrialized Market Economies. New York: Kluwer Law International.

Professional Issues in Nursing Things That Surprised
Words: 2128 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40801035
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Professional Issues in Nursing

Things that surprised me

The chapter on collective bargaining has some surprising aspects with respect to nursing. Collective bargaining has a number of difficulties while being implemented at nursing profession. Nurses have a number of predicaments that can easily bar them from accessing and delivering quality services to patients. In order to arrive at an equitable ground where success is determined and assessed by use of collective bargaining, nurses and any other worker should exist in groups of palatable ground of service.

As indicted in chapter 17 of the book, nurses and many people working in organizations have difficulties in accessing policies that demonstrate their capabilities. Nurses encounter difficulties, which are often directed to their organizations. Nursing is a difficult activity that deserves a lot of sacrifice and affection from the people involved. Moreover, it is surprising to know that there are no direct segments within…


Huston, C.J. (2010). Professional issues in nursing: Challenges & opportunities.

Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Letter Against Unionization Dear Mr Hines Thank
Words: 1880 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42334858
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Letter Against Unionization

Dear Mr. Hines

Thank you for our recent discussion regarding the American Professionals Union's attempt to organize our nursing staff. The nurses have made their many grievances known and I have listened intently to their rationale about unionizing. With the widespread shortage of nurses, many hospitals have given way to unionization. This is not a new trend. It is a popular way for nurses to resolve challenges and negotiate salaries. The American Nurses Association first endorsed collective bargaining in the later 19040s and at the time, viewed it as the road to improving both wages and working conditions (Carrell & Heavrin, 2007). Today, nurses' attention has shifted from wages, benefits, and work conditions, to also include patient issues. ecent strikes in California, Minnesota and Pennsylvania have focused on nurse to patient ratios in particular, after extensive research revealed a direct correlation between minimum nurse to patient ratios…


Carrell, M.R., & Heavrin, C. (2007). Labor relations and collective bargaining: Cases, practice, and law (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Harrison, M. (2012). Nurses Need the Right to Strike to Protect Patients. Nursing Standard, 26(34), 33.

Gillen, S. (2012). Under deconstruction -- employers chip away at Agenda for Change. Nursing Standard, 26(34), 12-13.

Sherwood, C. (2012) Untruths. Retrieved June 7, 2012 from .

Different Theories for Managing Employee Relations
Words: 1999 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39422632
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The Rise of Collective Bargaining

According to Brody (1993), the collective agreement signed between unions and employers meant that the unions were no longer pushing for activism, but rather they were running the unions as a business. The unions were mostly concerned with ensuring that employees had job security and they worked hard to quell any disturbances that might arise. With employees working as expected and employers willing to pay the employees as agreed, there was a need for the unions to honor their contractual agreements. The contracts removed the unions from management and offered the company managers leeway to run the business as deemed fit. Unions opted to have collective bargaining agreements that in the long run meant that the unions were powerless and the power of workers no longer rested with the unions (Aidt & Tzannatos, 2002). Adopting collective bargaining agreements meant that unions had to adhere to…

Nursing Risks When Dealing With
Words: 759 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 37292338
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Characteristics of Nursing Employment Settings Without Collective Bargaining

Collective bargaining, which is what is done by unions, is generally thought by most people to be beneficial, but there are some health care settings where the nurses choose not to be part of collective bargaining agreements or unions. These employment settings are generally characterized by nurses who have an affinity for their job, and who would do that job as a volunteer if they did not get paid. In other words, these nurses believe that they are doing what is right for their patients, and that is what matters to them. Sure, many of them have bills to pay and mouths to feed at home, and they understand the value of their paycheck. However, they want to be paid on the merits of what they are doing, not because a big group of people got together and said that they were…

ADA When a Reasonable Accommodation
Words: 413 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69942601
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The union, however, must be part of the process of determining a reasonable accommodation where the reasonable accommodation would cause a material, substantial or significant change in working conditions" to the unionized employees (Johnson, 2007).

However, negotiating reasonable accommodations, "may conflict with the NLRA prohibitions on direct dealing and unilateral changes to terms and conditions of employment," which must be established during the collective bargaining process (Johnson, 2007). Thus the provisions of the ADA and NLRA may conflict. Furthermore, unlike Title VII, the "ADA does not contain an exception for collectively bargained seniority systems. Most likely, therefore, an employer can not automatically reject a requested accommodation that conflicts with or affects the terms of a collective bargaining agreement, such as request for a light duty job without the requisite seniority or a request for job restructuring, but must show that the accommodation would be an undue hardship, that is, unduly…

Works Cited

Laurie M. Johnston. (2007). The ADA and Collective Bargaining Issues. DLRP.

Retrieved 10 Jun 2007 at

Educational Sector Is Often Approached
Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 26890402
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These techniques gather information and create networks of people and they help promote the interests of the unions at the level of policy making.

In terms of the future, this is difficult to foresee. Nonetheless, a feature which gains more and more popularity is the possibility for the No Child Left Behind Act to further increase the bargaining powers of the teacher and their unions. In such a context then, the policy making process would be more influenced by the teachers' unions.

At the same level of impasses which need resolution, Joan E. Pynes and Joan M. Lafferty take a more distant approach. Unlike Paul Manna, who emphasizes on the specifics of the NCLB act, Pynes and Lafferty take a more objective stand to the problems in the public sector and create a list of the means to be used in resolving impasses; their approach is more distant and more…


Gewertz, C., Collective bargaining bumping up against No Child Left Behind Law, Education Week,  last accessed on November 9, 2011

Manna, P., Teachers unions and No Child Left Behind

Pynes, J.E., Lafferty, J.M., Impasse resolution in the public sector

Grievances and the Mis interpretation of
Words: 1266 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36481741
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The union, as the filer and continued impetus behind the grievance, has the burden of proving that the company in some way violated its labor contract in so doing. The level of proof needed is fairly basic; the contract can be carefully read by the arbitrator, and any actions that were illegal according to the terms of the contract could be identified. The burden of proof must lie with the union just as an alleged criminal is supposedly "presumed innocent until proven guilty" -- it is a basic logical necessity. The company can no more prove that it has not violated the contract and more than a suspect can prove he did not rob a bank (for exmple); it is impossible to prove a negative. If the contract had been violated, there would be clear evidence of this for the union to point to.

Instead, the union's accusation is full…

Communication Workers of America
Words: 2444 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6815401
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We tend to think of labor unions as a thing of the past. Not, of course, that workers no longer need protection. But since the beginning of the first eagan administration, we have become used to workers' rights being chipped - and sometimes hacked - away by the powerful interests of capital. (The same powerful interests, of course, that unions were designed to fight against). The overall percentage of workers who belong to unions has been falling for generations, in part because of eagan-era legal decisions that lessened the power of unions and in part because of globalization and a shift away (in the United States and in othe First World countries) from the heavy-industrial jobs that have tended to be the most heavily unionized, as Boeri (2001) notes.

But even as heavy industry is losing jobs and unions are losing those same workers, in other parts of the…


Boeri, T. (2001). The Role of Unions in the 21St-Century. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Riccucci, N. (1990). Women, Minorities, and Unions in the Public Sector. Miami: Greenwood.

Stadelbacher, D. (2003). Interview,

Wheeler, H.N. (2002). The Future of the American Labor Movement. Cambridge: Cambridge University.

Labor Negotiating Practices the Issue of Labor
Words: 1715 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34401992
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Labor Negotiating Practices

The issue of labor negotiating practices is one of the most important issues that companies must address. This is because the sensitiveness of labor problems is reflected in their legal implications. The battle between employers and employees becomes more and more difficult and requires advanced negotiation skills.

Company's Stance towards Labor Issues

The company that is analyzed in this case is represented by the companies that joined their forces in order to purchase Twinkies and other important brands from Hostess in their attempt to invest in their revival. These companies are represented by Metropoulos and Co. And Apollo Global Management. The potential of these brands has been acknowledged by the two companies that are interested in opening up new production plants. This means that they will hire a large number of employees. However, the issue in this case is that these companies are not interested in allowing…

Reference list:

1. Feintzeig, R. (2013). New Twinkie Maker Shuns Union Labor. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 20, 2013 from .

2. Farrell, J. (2013). Twinkies and Labor Unions: Explaining the Hostess Collapse. Retrieved May 21, 2013 from

How Unions and Management Can Get Along More Effectively
Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84358055
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Unions and Collective Bargaining

Employees join labor unions because the union represents the rights of the employee in the bargaining process with the company. This can be helpful as there can be a lot of subtle nuances within a contract that only an experienced representative would understand. Another reason employees join labor unions is to have solidarity with other employees, which allows them to exercise grievances more effectively. A union is an organization that is meant to look out for the interests and rights of laborers, so an employee will join the union for these two reasons: to protect his interests and to better assert his rights.

Two reasons that organizations prefer that unions do not represent their employees is that unions can often bog down the contract process and put up obstacles in the way of what the organization wants to accomplish in terms of employee compensation. The other…


Fecteau, M. (n.d.). Legal Boundaries of Collective Bargaining. Clas.Wayne.Edu.

Retrieved from 

Jeanty, J. (n.d.). Collective Bargaining and Employee Rights. eHow. Retrieved from

Schwartz, B. (2015). The Legal Rights of Union Stewards. MA: Work Rights Press.

Unions the Worker and Benefits
Words: 960 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78355552
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(AFL-CIO, 2011e) These are the benefits to workers from unions and the result when they are not allowed to have unions. There are problems and benefits to the business from unions rather than workers from the unorganized sector.

The Business:

From the point-of-view of business also the unions have helped the business boost productivity. As per the contention of Professor Harley Shaiken at the University of California-Berkeley where unions exist there is greater productivity, less absenteeism and better workplace communication and team spirit. There is also the possibility of having a better trained workforce. Consequently it leads to better performance, and competitiveness, and health safety and product quality. This in turn gives the firm a competitive edge in the economy. The study by Harley Shaiken shows that from 1943 to 1973 the wage rise and the rise in productivity were correlated while after 1973 with the union and collective bargaining…


AFL-CIO. (2011a) "America's Union Movement." Retrieved 26 January 2010 from

AFL-CIO. (2011b) "Collective Bargaining Raise Wages -- Especially for Women and People

of Color" Retrieved 26 January 2010 from 

AFL-CIO. (2011c) "Nonunion worker pay is significantly lower in nearly all occupational groups" Retrieved 26 January 2010 from

Employee Representation a Labor Union Refers to
Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79335944
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Employee Representation

A labor union refers to an association of employees that have come together in pursuit of common goals, such as better pay. Labor relations are wider in scope; they refer to the interactions between the labor unions (employees' representatives) and employers - and usually deal with the maintenance of collective bargaining agreements.

Labor relations date way back to the formation of the very first significant unions: the Knights of Labor, the American Federation of Labor (AFL), and the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). The Knights of Labor, however, failed to achieve its objectives due to its large membership. AFL, unlike the other two, initially restricted its membership to skilled tradesmen. However, with the 1935 formation of CIO, which incorporated both skilled and unskilled laborers, conflicts resulted and the two unions later merged.

Question Three

Enacted in 1926 and later on expanded to rope in the airline industry, the…

Air Traffic Controller Representation Pro-Or
Words: 1794 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36762936
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In this regard, Osorio adds that, "The strike put deregulation on hold, giving the airlines a respite from intense competition and more time to plan for the post-deregulation era" (2000, p. 114). The PATCO strike also severely hampered further governmental employee unionizing activities for decades (Osorio, 2000).


The research showed that in 1981, the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization engaged in an illegal strike for more money, better working conditions and updated equipment that violated Title VII of the Civil Service eform Act of 1978. Notwithstanding the legitimacy of the union's demands, the manner in which they pursued them was violative of the law of the land and the President of the United States took matters into his own hands as chief executive officer and fired the lot of them in response, replacing them with supervisors, military air traffic controllers and newly hired controllers. The PATCO strike also had…


Grimes, P.W. (1999). The decline of strike activity and the post-PATCO era. Atlantic Economic

Journal, 32(2), 37.

Manheim, J.B. (2001). The death of a thousand cuts: Corporate campaigns and the tttack on the corporation. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Minchin, T.J. (2000, Spring). Torn apart: Permanent replacements and the Crossett Strike of

Republicans Attack on National Labor Relations Board
Words: 2502 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 49523530
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GOP Aacks on NLRB

Labor Movemen & Srucure of he NLRB

In his paper I explore he sae of he curren relaionship beween he Republican Pary and he Labor movemen in he Unied Saes. In par one I briefly race he hisory of he labor movemen in he Unied Saes and he passage of he Naional Labor Relaions Ac and he emergence of he Naional Labor Relaions Board. . In he paper's second secion, I discuss he GOP's sraegy a he sae level-wih special aenion paid o Wisconsin and Ohio. In par hree, I discuss he GOP's sraegy a he naional level wih respec o heir aacks on he Naional Labor Relaions Board, focusing specifically on he House's refusal o appoin and approve anymore Board Members and heir recen passage of he Proecing Jobs from Governmen Inerference Ac. Finally, I explore boh he fuure prospecs of union busing sraegies and…

to the Board's duties and mission. The site houses a copy of the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 and its subsequent amendments, in addition to an explanation of the duties of the NLRB, its dispute resolution process, directions regarding how to file a complaint, and the life cycle of labor law violations.

Zieger, R.H., & Hall, G.J. (2002). American workers, american unions: The twentieth century. (pp. 13-56). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

Zieger and Hall catalogue the history of the American Labor Movement by beginning with a frank look at the state of unregulated industry in the first quarter of the twentieth century. They move on to catalogue the rise and fall of the American Labor Movement including the emergence of the strikes, the legal battles, the issue of race and labor, and finally the nature of labor in the United States at the beginning of the 21st Century. Zieger and Hall provide an extensive historical and legal overview of the rise of the unions.

Internal Government Is Based Upon
Words: 2390 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 30918301
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If a violation of worker's rights occur, these unions can be contacted with complaints. Once again, if the worker's unions cannot resolve the problem adequately, consultation with higher authority figures is an option.


Being a unionized institution, collective bargaining is very much part of the employment process. This generally occurs at the departmental level. Generally, higher-level positions are filled by persons already employed by the University. The collective bargaining process entails the establishment of a contract that both an employee and employer find agreeable. uch a contract concerns the conditions of the workplace, including the hours, rules, regulations, and wages.

Once an employee is accepted at the University, the head of department encourages this person to join a union. The employee is then included in a meeting with a union representative and the head of department to discuss the terms of the contract. When an agreement is reached, the…


Bensimon, Estela M., Neumann, Anna and Birnbaum, Robert. "Higher Education and Leadership Theory.

Birnbaum, Robert. (1989, Jul). The Latent Organizational functions of the Academic Senate: Why Senates do not work but will not go away. The Journal of Higher Education. 60 (4).

Dill, David D. (1982). The Management of Academic Culture: Notes on the management of meaning and social integration. Higher Education, 11.

Downey, James (1996, Winter). The University as Trinity: Balancing Corporation, Collegium, and Community. Higher Education, Vol. 21, No. 2.

Police Systems and Practices Question Set Discuss
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Police Systems and Practices Question Set

Discuss how temperament can impair communication?

The ability control one's temperament at all times while working as a police officer is crucial to the performance of daily duties, because there are many instances when law enforcement personnel may be provoked to reaction in a purposeful manner. If an officer is unable to refrain from responding to insults in kind, or begins to yell or otherwise express anger, the course of an investigation or civilian interaction will become irrevocably altered. Simply put, ordinary people are less willing to cooperate with police officers and other authority figures who are openly frustrated, angry, spiteful, impatient, or otherwise perturbed -- so it is imperative that maintaining an even-keeled temperament become both a departmental and personal priority.

Discuss how failure of supervisors to act can impede future communication from subordinates.

A police officer's locker room is like any other…

Union Security Provisions Should Be Negotiated in
Words: 439 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58197663
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Union Security Provisions Should Be Negotiated in Labor Agreements

Union security provisions are an important issue of collective bargaining and have become a crucial point of controversy between employers and unions. As such, it must be incorporated in the vast majority of collective bargaining contracts. This can be achieved by employers encouraging monthly deductions from the employees' monthly salaries. Obviously, fines and special security provisions will have an added advantage to the union (Carrell & Heavrin, 2011). Safety and security to the unions has an added advantage of the labor organizations in terms of time and money savings to strengthen its institutional status. For this reason, most companies are not happy about the union security provisions even though most people have acknowledged it a method of collecting dues for their organizations. Once willing to grant union security provisions, employers are likely to make it a major issue of bargaining per…


Carrell, M.R., & Heavrin, C. (2011). Collective bargaining and labor relations: Cases, practice, and law. New York: Merrill Pub. Co.

Sloane, A.A. & Witney, F. (2010). Labor relations (13th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Police Organization and Administration
Words: 1372 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83299079
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1.  Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory states that every individual has different levels of needs that must be met for them to reach their ultimate potential. The basic level includes the necessities of life, such as food, clothing, and shelter, while the more advanced levels require such things as positive social relationships and self-esteem. An officers job can be difficult, especially over a number of years. The reality that most officers eventually face is how to deal with stress and staying motivated. Applying Maslow's model can be beneficial to ensure that as many officers needs are as possible so that they can be resilient in their roles and maintain a positive attitude.

2.  Herzberg's Hygiene/Motivators Theory

The hygiene/motivators theory considers satisfaction on two different dimensions. Factors such as salary, benefits, work environment, and others may lead to a satisfied officer who is not necessarily a…

Human Resources Labor Unions Have
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Each side (labor union and managers) have preconceived notions about each other. Labor union leaders feel that managers are political and do not get the whole negotiating process because they are cheap. Managers feel that labor union representatives not nothing about the management process and that they know nothing about the big picture (pg. 278). In order for labor negotiations to be successful and for both sides to feel like at least most of their needs have been met, labor unions and managers need to set aside any preconceived notions and try not to be judgemental.

Membership in labor unions has decreased from 32.5% of the working population in the private section in the 1950's to about 13% in 2009. The public sector has not seen such a drastic decrease, but overall this means that the number of labor negotiations has also decreased (Kersie and Cutcher-Gershenfeld, 2009). While this may…


Berman, E.M., Bowman, J.S., West, J.P., & Wart, M.V. (2002). Unions and the Government: Protectors, Partners and Punishers. Human Resource Management in Public Service: Paradoxes, Processes, and Problems (Second Edition ed., pp. 275-303). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Fonstad, N.O., McKersie, R.K., and Eaton, S.C. (2004). Interest-based negotiations in a transformed labor-management setting. Negotiation Journal, 20(1), 5-11.

McKersie, R. And Cutcher-Gershenfeld, J. (2009). Labor-management relations: Understanding and practicing effective negotiations. Negotiation Journal, 25(4), 499-514.