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Why College Athletes Should be Paid
a. College athletes devote a lot of time and energy to athletic competition—so much in fact that they are routinely considered athletes first and students second.
b. They provide an extraordinary amount of revenue for their colleges as college sports are a big business today.
c. Yet these athletes do not receive any pay for their services and entertainment. In a land that values equitability and fairness, this set-up should strike all as particularly unfair.
d. College athletes should be paid: after all, they are essentially like employees of the college.
a. Being a college athlete is a full-time job (Hartnett)
i. The typical Division I college football player devotes 43.3 hours per week to his sport
ii. That’s 3.3 hours more than the average 40-hour work week that most full-time job, paid Americans put in
iii. Yet the college athlete…
Athletes and Crime
hat situations can you think of where an amateur or professional athlete was charged with a crime, or in your opinion should have been charged with a crime, for physical conduct beyond the rules of the game?
There are a number of professional athletes that have barely escaped legal prosecution for their criminal behavior. One example that illustrates this point well is Lance Armstrong. The world renowned cyclist was at the top of his profession for many years. However, during his reign as the world's top cyclist he was using performance enhancing drugs that were illegal. Not only did he take them himself, but he also pressured other cyclist that belonged to his team when he was representing the United States to take them as well. He was basically the advocate for the use of illegal drugs for team USA that competed in a number of events.…
Gibson, O. (2013, February 6). Lance Armstrong could still face criminal charges in America. Retrieved from The Guardian: http://www.theguardian.com/sport/2013/feb/06/lance-armstrong-criminal-charges-america
Communication Competence Between Male and Female College Athletes Survey Questions
How old are you?
Are you male or female?
What is your ethnicity?
F. Native American
The next 8 questions are on a scale from 1 to 7, 1 being strongly disagree, 4 being no opinion, and 7 being strongly agree
Do you think coaches are an important part of a team's success?
Do you think females exaggerate injury symptoms?
Do you think most coaches have your interest in mind?
Do coaches put the needs of the team above the need of the individual?
Are males are expected to be strong and invulnerable in athletics?
Do you think that being honest with your coaches is important for individual and the team welfare?
Can you go to your coach for guidance and help?
Mandatory Drug Testing
In certain professional occupations, mandatory drug testing is not only a good idea, it is very important to public safety. There are good arguments on both sides as to whether all professional athletes should be tested for drugs -- or whether high school athletes should be tested. And in the business world, one could argue that drug testing is an invasion of privacy, and unless an employee is acting irresponsibly and clearly is ineffective, there is no good reason to require regular (or even sporadic) drug testing. But this paper takes the position that employees in certain professions -- airline pilots, bus drivers and heavy equipment operators -- should accept that mandatory drug testing is part of the job. The public safety is vastly more important than concerns over personal privacy issues, hence, the need for mandatory drug testing.
The Literature on Mandatory Drug Testing -- Airline…
Ahlers, Mike M. (2011). FAA: United Airline's drug testing protocols flawed. CNN Travel.
Retrieved February 5, 2013, from http://articles.cnn.com.
Central Lakes College. (2008). Heavy Equipment Operations & Maintenance. Retrieved February 5, 2013, from http://www.clcmn.edu .
DiMaggio, Charles, Baker, Susan, McCarthy, Melissa, and Rebok, George. (2009). Mandatory
They ae thee to play and not to show off thei bodies.
Female athletes with lage body size will find discomfots in the tightly fitted unifoms. This then pesents poblem to safety. The female athletes who will not be at ease to the equied unifom could not focus on the game she is playing. She will, fom time to time, ty to eaange, pull o push some pats o the gament whee she thinks she needs to be coveed. With such attention that will be given to the gament, how can it be assued that the athlete will be safe in pefoming on he spoting event?
Lastly, female athletes who have lage body size will not be motivated to join any spoting activities anymoe because of the fea fo negative judgments fom the cowd and the media. The spots aena is becoming moe of an aea fo the body image…
references of college women basketball players. Master's Thesis
Ford, S., & Feather, B. (May, 1993). Women's basketball uniform analysis. Final report presented to Russell Athletic Corporation.
Gitlin Cara. (November 2000). "Male gawkers have all the fun." The John Hopkins News Letter.
Girls Skip Meals to be like Skinny Models." news.bbc.co.uk. 04 Feb. 2003. BBC Newsround. 8 Aug. 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/uk/newsid_2726000/2726279.stm
Hellmich, Nanci..usatoday.com. "Do thin models warp girls' body image?" 26 September 2006. USA Today. 30 Nov. 2006. http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2006-09-25-thin-models_x.htm
Supplements for Athletes
ipped Fuel © is a weight loss supplement used widely by individuals who are trying to improve their physical and athletic performance (Brown). These capsules are utilized as a method of rapidly burning fat, while quickly gaining muscle; they are popular among athletes because of this. The supplements work in a way that allows the burning of fat -- which is the most difficult part of body shaping -- to occur in a rapid fashion. Desired results are achieved in a limited amount of time, therefore adding to the appeal of this supplement to young athletes who are just beginning their journey through sports and are essentially attempting to make themselves stand out from the hundreds of other athletes. However, the components of these supplements have been of great concern due to their potential undesired effects (Brown). Despite the glorious results that the particular coach at hand…
Brown, E. (2011). What do ripped fuel capsules do? LIVESTRONG. Retrieved 22 April 2013 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/401862-what-do-r ipped-fuel-capsules-do/
OneResult. (2012). NCAA Legal and Illegal Supplements. ONERESULT: Look Like an Athlete. Retrieved 22 April 2013 from http://www.oneresult.com/articles/supplements/ncaa -legal-and-illegal-supplements
Student athletes do not even necessarily 'give back' to the university with four years of attendance. Basketball players flee the ranks to 'go pro' and even those who do not go to the NBA may struggle and not emerge with a degree. hat students are likely to show greater financial long-term loyalty to their university -- a student who excels academically and remembers college as the best years of his or her life? Or a student who does not graduate and sees college a stepping-stone to a professional sports career or simply as a place that discarded him or her because a sports career did not materialize as promised?
Coaches and athletic programs also receive huge salaries, because of the attention that is diverted to sports, funds that could be better spent in other areas. Lately, many prominent coaches have been drawing negative publicity for their actions, which only serves…
"Northeastern men's basketball program is penalized." (2009, April 25). Associated Press.
Retrieved April 25, 2009 at http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5gH3G3UvplzEvznYa46AVkBUEWuAwD97PA4580
marketing strategy a college athletic department. I a couple pages discussing background research a typical college athletic program, a school marketing increasing communities involvement ticket sales.
Most universities have intermural athletic programs. However, there is a wide variation in terms of the funding, success, popularity and approaches between these programs, spanning from Division I powerhouses to relatively noncompetitive Division III schools. Regardless of the nature of the program or the school, athletic programs can be powerful marketing and publicity tools for academic institutions. Alumni donations often increase after a successful season, as do applications from more competitive students. Also, success tends to breed success in athletics: the more successful and highly-promoted the program, the more top athletes will be inclined to apply to the school -- the more top athletes are drawn to the school, the greater the likelihood of athletic success in the future.
For example, when Northern Iowa…
Logue, Andrew. March's madness gives players, program at Northern Iowa a boost. USA Today. August 22, 2010. Available November 21, 2010 at http://www.usatoday.com/sports/college/mensbasketball/mvc/2010-08-22-northern-iowa_N.htm
Thus the concentration is not on basketball, the sport he is supposed to love, but on sex. The picture in the book is clear about the happenings when the over-sexed teenagers reach college. Within a day of her arrival in college, Charlotte is "sexiled." This means that she was compelled to leave her room when her roommate brought a young man in for sex. The contest among the freshmen in fraternities is to find out how fast they can get fresh faces for sex. The least amount of time given in that book was seven minutes. (Bonfire of the sexuality)
egarding the view of women in media, one of the professors said that the American society is becoming a society of predators. The stage has come when 1.3 women are raped every minute and a large proportion of one in three women will be raped in her lifetime. This is…
Educators discuss student sexual activity. 2000. Retrieved at http://www.uwrf.edu/thisweek/20001113.htm . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Freeman, John. Bonfire of the sexuality. 11 November, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.newsreview.com/issues/sacto/2004-11-11/arts.asp . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Goulet, Nicole. Gender Barriers: When Will the Ridicule Cease? Retrieved at http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/local/scisoc/sports02/papers/ngoulet.html . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Polk, Khary. Love and Basketball. 3 February, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.nyunews.com/brownstone/sexuality/6825.html . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Eating Behaviors in First Year College Students
Drugs and Alcohol
Eating Behaviors in the First Year College Students
Eating Behaviors in First Year College Students
The transition from high school to undergraduate life is perhaps of the most challenging experiences from adolescence into early adulthood. One of the common side effects of this transition is weight gain that occurs during the first or freshman year of college. The paper will discuss how behaviors related to eating habits and alcohol consumption contributes to the general weight gain of first year undergraduates. Among college students, this weight gain is fairly typical and is known as "the freshman 15," referring to the average amount of pounds undergraduates gain over the course of freshman year -- fifteen pounds. It is a requirement of most colleges and universities of the United States that students are mandated to live on campus and eat from a school…
Anderson, D.A., Shapiro, J.R., & Lundgren, J.D. (2003) The freshman year of college as a critical period for weight gain: An initial evaluation. Eating Behaviors, 4, 363 -- 367.
Lowe, M.R., Annunziato, R.A., Didie, E., Stice, E., Markowitz, J.T., Bellace, D.L., Riddell, L., Maille, C., & McKinney S. (2006) Multiple types of dieting prospectively predict weight gain freshman year of college. Appetite, 47, 83 -- 90.
Lowery, S.E., Robinson Kurpius, S.E., Blanks, E.H., Sollenberger, S., Nicpon, M.F., Befort, C., & Huser, L. (2005) Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Health-Related Behaviors Among Male and Female First Year College Students. Journal of College Student Development, 46(6), 612 -- 623.
Racette, PhD., S.B., Deusinger, PhD, PT, S.S., Strube, PhD, M.J., Highstein, RN, PhD, G.R., & Deusinger, PT, PhD, R.H. (2005) Weight Changes, Exercise, and Dietary Patterns During Freshman and Sophomore Years of College. Journal of American College Health, 53(6), 245 -- 252.
Figure 2: Comedy and Tragedy (iStock photo)
orks Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108245926
Beal, Becky, and Charlene ilson. "2 'Chicks Dig Scars'." Understanding Lifestyle Sport: Consumption, Identity, and Difference. London: Routledge, 2004. 31-54.
Drehs, ayne. (2007, Nov. 30).The Professional Athlete as Target: 'Am I Next?' abc NES. 4 Dec 2007 http://abcnews.go.com/Sports/story?id=3940887&page=1
Getting it rite; Athletes Maintain Personal Blogs to Break News, Express Opinions Connect with Their Loyal Fan Bases." The ashington Times 12 May 2007: C01.
A iStockphoto. (2007). 4 Dec 2007
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108245926
Beal, Becky, and Charlene Wilson. "2 'Chicks Dig Scars'." Understanding Lifestyle Sport: Consumption, Identity, and Difference. London: Routledge, 2004. 31-54.
Drehs, Wayne. (2007, Nov. 30).The Professional Athlete as Target: 'Am I Next?' abc NEWS. 4 Dec 2007 http://abcnews.go.com/Sports/story?id=3940887&page=1
Getting it Write; Athletes Maintain Personal Blogs to Break News, Express Opinions Connect with Their Loyal Fan Bases." The Washington Times 12 May 2007: C01.
A iStockphoto. (2007). 4 Dec 2007
Goals Athletes Set in Training and Competition
Perhaps the biggest mistake a researcher can make it to assume that if research has been done, that means the research is good research. In actuality, there is a significant amount of bad research available and those who rely upon it can easily draw bad conclusions. While there are an infinite number of ways that research can be bad, probably the most significant risk in bad research is research that detects a relationship (correlation) between two or more different variables and, from that relationship, seeks to suggest that there is causation between two or more of those variables. This can be due to an improper conclusion, but it can also be due to faulty research design that has failed to account for all of the other variables that could impact the results.
Defining Good esearch
It can be difficult to define good research…
Denscombe, M. (2007). The good research guide for small-scale social research projects, 3rd
Ed. Poland: Open University Press.
Munroe-Chandler, K., Hall, C., Weinberg, R.S. (2004). A qualitative analysis of the types of goals athletes set in training and competition. Journal of Sport Behavior, 27(1), 58-74.
Shuttleworth, M. (2008). Validity and reliability. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from Experiment
About two thirds of major chest trauma cases are associated with motor vehicle accidents. About 25% of injuries from motor vehicle accident related to chest trauma. The outcome out of the study made by the North American Major Trauma Outcome Study indicated that about 70% of trauma cases are blunt in nature. About 50% of chest trauma injuries are associated with chest wall. The initial recovery from chest trauma concentrates on the ABCs-airway, breathing, and circulation- subject to all major trauma resuscitation instances. After completion of initial resuscitation and stabilization a concurrent evaluation of a patient is done with suspected chest trauma. Normally chest injuries are diagnosed by chest radiograph alone. The recognition of treatment of chest trauma mostly relies upon a high index of suspicion mixed with the appropriate diagnostic tests. (Lesson 18: Blunt Chest Trauma)
The rate of recovery varies from person to person at various rates. The…
Athletic & Sports Injury Treatment" Retrieved at http://www.scotiachiropractic.co.uk/treatment/sporting-injury.html . Accessed 26 October, 2005
Rib injuries" Retrieved at http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Rib_injuries-open . Accessed 26 October, 2005
Rib Injury" Retrieved from http://www.fairview.org/healthlibrary/content/sma_ribinjur_sma.htm . Accessed 26 October, 2005
Sako, Edward Y. "Lesson 18: Blunt Chest Trauma" PCCU Update. Vol: 15.
According to the University of Canberra's Academic Skills Centre (2008), learning is a highly complex process that "takes place at different levels of consciousness, and in different ways, in everything we do. Moreover, individual people learn in different ways and have their preferred learning styles." One of the keys to improving student learning is to understand the different types of learning styles and apply that knowledge to study habits and practices. Study skills are themselves behaviors that need to be learned like any other. Using a combination of disciplinary techniques and cognitive shifts, students can improve their capacity for learning. This will, in turn, help boost grades and test scores. However, learning in an academic context is about more than earning grades. Learning should ultimately enhance one's view of the world and increase tolerance of diversity.
The theory of multiple intelligences has formed the theoretical foundation for the study…
Armstrong, T. (2010). Multiple intelligences. Retrieved online: http://www.thomasarmstrong.com/multiple_intelligences.php
Dartmouth College Academic Skills Center (2011). Managing your time. Retrieved online: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~acskills/success/time.html
Gardner, H. (2006). Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons. Perseus.
Langer, J.A. (1986). Learning through writing: Study skills in the content areas. Journal of Reading. Feb 1986.
Alright, one more time, she insisted. My younger sister persisted, so I threw her another ball. We played baseball for hours in the afternoon heat, our sweat drenching our clothes, parching us and making dinner sound all the more inviting. As the sun set, I pondered her progress.
You've learned a lot today, haven't you?" I called out. As the ball landed squarely in her glove, I smiled, knowing that our work was done and we could head inside heartily in time for dinner.
I had been teaching her how to catch for weeks, since she was trying out for her junior varsity team. Like me, my sister's heart was set on playing to her optimal ability, maximizing her innate talents. Our natural rapport inspired me and eventually led to my interest in pursuing an Associate's Degree in Physical and Health Education. A natural athlete, I also tended to be…
Secondly, the student must meet the requirements for a home education program, which include the same curriculum as listed in Florida Statutes, 232.246(1) (Florida Statute 232.0201, 1993). During the time of participation, the student must show evidence of academic progress, as determined by an evaluation which may include a review of the student's work by a certified instructor, grades obtained through correspondence courses or community colleges, or standardized test scores (Florida Statute 232.0201, 1993). The student must register with the school at the beginning of the term in which they wish to participate (Florida Statute 232.425, 2003).
These requirements are difficult enough to enforce, but as noted, with proper testing and evaluation by qualified instructors, the curriculum and grading of home educated students appears to be very manageable. In the State of Florida, then, the academic requirements for sport participation are equal for both public and home educated students. Although…
Colb, S. (2005). Should home-schooled have access to public school programs? Retrieved from FindLaw database through CNN.com. Web site: http://www.cnn.com/2005/LAW/06/30/colb.home.school/ .
Craig Dickson Act, Florida State Statute, 2003, 232.425.
Exceptional Student Support Services (ESSS). (2002). Home School Brochure. Sanford, FL: Exceptional Student Support Services.
Florida State Statute, 1993, 232.0201.
There are a few different benefits that college players might receive from joining the union. The first is that they would see increased bargaining power with the universities. This means that they might have improved access to the revenue that is generated by college football -- with bargaining power they can use that revenue as leverage for better wages. At present, these football players really do not have any meaningful bargaining power. The second benefit that they players might well receive is worker protections. The key shift in this ruling is not the ability to organize but the recognition that the players are employees. As an organized union, these football players will have the ability to influence their conditions of employment, in particular with respect to safety. Football is a dangerous game, and joining a union might give the players better ability to bargain their working conditions to improve…
Sales and Promotion
Blue Mountain Community College has been experiencing some difficulty in the area of developing a sales and promotion plan for the athletic department. The purpose of this discussion is to resolve this problem through the development of a detailed plan for promotion and sales of its teams. The plan will be inclusive of the five teams the community college has including football, baseball, softball, and men's and women's basketball.
Regardless of the sport being discussed in terms of promotion and sales, one of the key components in improving sales is associated with relationship marketing (Parvatiyar & Sheth 2001). According to Bee & Kahle (2006)
"Relationship marketing is important because it can be effective. It facilitates role enactment by providing definitions for types of influence and communication strategies that should characterize two participants in a relationship. Teams, leagues, athletes, marketing corporations, and fans have relationships with…
Bee C.C., Kahle, L.R.. (2006) Relationship Marketing in Sports: A Functional Approach. Sport Marketing Quarterly. 15, 102-110
Fink, J.S., Trail, G.T., & Anderson, D.F. (2002). Environmental factors associated with attendance and sport consumption behavior: Gender and team differences. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 11, 8-19
Fullerton S., Merz, G.R. (2008) The Four Domains of Sports Marketing: A Conceptual Framework. Sport Marketing Quarterly,, 17, 90-108
Irwin, R.L., Sutton W.A., McCarthy, L.M. (2008) Sport promotion and sales management. Human Kinetics
One side argues that, "The specific harm that occurred must have been reasonably foreseeable to the institution in order for a duty to arise" (585). The institutions argue that the student athlete assumes the risk of injury because when playing sports the risk of injury is not unusual. The general feeling that the courts have handed down seems to be that if an athletic is playing an organized sport, that represents the university or school then there is a chance that the said school could be held liable for student injuries, but only if there is evidence of intentional or reckless wrongdoing. When looking at those athlete that have been injured while playing intramural sports the courts have leaned towards the idea that those athletes are aware that there is a risk of injury when they decide to play and that they are thus assuming the risk for such injuries…
The Hollywood Cheating Scandal exposed what life is like on the other side of the tracks—the side where wealth and fame are used to buy a way into top-tier schools for trust fund kids. The college admissions cheating scheme involved some big names across a range of industries: actors, actresses, fashion moguls, Wall Street guys, real estate giants, doctors and many others were all implicated in the scheme along with Ivy League teachers, coaches, and test takers. This article will discuss what happened, why, and what it means for America.
Money Can’t Buy Happiness—But It Can Buy You a Four Year Degree with the Right Connections
People have always wondered why some get into the elite schools are others are denied. Well, the answer is that money talks and always will. The people who have to do so earn their degrees the hard way—through hard work and…
Higher Education and Ethics
Higher Education is a realm of academic life that requires ethical parameters -- a framework by which all members and stakeholders of institutions within this sector voluntarily utilize so as to achieve a common goal. That goal enable leaders in Higher Education to assess the right way forward and the core principles or values that should govern decision-making and various activities within the institutions. Ethical guidelines can be a significant tool of governance towards a better quality of life within the Higher Education realm, therefore it is essential that a substantial understanding of the role that ethical governance plays in Higher Education be achieved. This paper will discuss Higher Education ethical governance and how leaders assure ethical procedures are in place within their institution.
Higher Education Institutional Governance
Institutional governance is very important when it comes to higher education, because it not sets the bar in…
Committee of University Chairs. (2015). The Higher Education code of governance.
Retrieved from http://www.universitychairs.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Code-Final.pdf
Council for Industry and Higher Education. (2014). Brunel University West London.
Retrieved from http://www.open.ac.uk/ethics-centre/0509Ethics.pdf
American Higher Education
Higher Education is ading in Deep ater in 2014
Is there anything to celebrate about higher education in the 21st century? hat are the most troubling issues facing America's campuses that have emerged in particular over the past twenty years? These questions cry out for thoughtful, scholarly answers. On the one hand, there are crises related to university finances, student financial programs are bogged down by endless congressional haggling, federal financial backing for important research and development has withered away to a significant extent, and scholarships and grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have not been able to meet the demand of qualified scholars (Thelin, 2013). On the other hand, according to the Knight Foundation Commission, many university presidents (if not most) are admitting that they no longer have control of their NCAA-governed athletics programs, and moreover, deans in medical schools are being urged to…
Barrett, P.M. (2014). In Fake Classes Scandal, UNC Fails Its Athletes -- and Whistleblower.
Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved July 19, 2014, from http://www.businessweek.com .
Barrett, P.M. (2014). The NCAA Will Investigate Fake-Classes Scandal at UNC. Bloomberg
Businessweek. Retrieved July 19, 2014, from
However, these studies did not separate the effects of ephedrine from that of caffeine and so more intense research is awaited in this direction. [Robert a] it is to be noted that caffeine and ephedrine work synergistically which could be dangerous in patients with pre-existing cardiac or blood pressure abnormalities. Caffeine affects the adenosine-mediated dilation of blood vessels by antagonizing its receptors. The resulting increased availability of free adenosine monophosphate furthers the activity of ephedrine and catecholamine stimulation resulting in reduced cardiac refractory periods and increased cardiac output and consequently elevated blood pressure. [Charles N. Krome]
It is necessary to look into the inherent risks associated with the use of ephedrine. Ephedrine has a very high percentage of adverse reactions compared to all other herbal supplements. As reported by ent et al. (2003), ephedrine alone accounts for around 64% of all adverse medical reactions due to herbal products. This in…
Daniel Ari Kapner, 'Infofacts Resources: Ephedra and Energy Drinks on College Campuses," Accessed 26th April 2008, Available at, http://www.higheredcenter.org/pubs/factsheets/energy-drinks.html
Michael P. Schaefer, Jay Smith, Diane L. Dahm and Matthew C. Sorenson, 'Ephedra Use in a Select group of Adolescent Athletes'. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2006) 5, 407-414, available at http://www.jssm.org/vol5/n3/6/v5n3-6pdf.pdf
3) Robert a. Robergs1, Tommy Boone2, Donna Lockner3, "Exercise Physiologists Should not Recommend the Use of Ephedrine and Related Compounds as Ergogenic Aids or Stimulants for Increased Weight Loss," Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, Volume 6 Number 4 November 2003, available at http://faculty.css.edu/tboone2/asep/RobergsV2.doc
4) Charles N. Krome, 'Cardiac Arrhythmia in a Professional Football Player. Was Ephedrine to Blame?' The physician and Sportsmedicine Vol31, No 12, Dec 2003.
Intercollegiate Athletics Program Guarantee the Success of a College?
Intercollegiate athletics programs are a common feature in most colleges, and many of these programs have been shown to contribute to the education and development of the young people who participate in them. Moreover, intercollegiate athletics programs, especially men's football and basketball, are major revenue generators through ticket sales for many educational institutions. In many cases, colleges that feature high-profile intercollegiate athletics programs enjoy the benefits of these programs through increased revenues and publicity. Even the best intercollegiate athletics program, though, cannot guarantee the success of a college for the reasons identified through a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature which is provided below, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Intercollegiate athletics programs in the United States are divided into various divisions (i.e., Division 1A and 1AA), with the…
Enoch, Jessica and Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense, 3rd ed. Bedford/St. Martin's.
Fizel, J. And Fort, Rodney. Economics of College Sports. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Jones, A. (2009). "Athletics, Applications & Yields." College and University 85(2): 10-12.
Losco, Joseph and Fife, Brian L. Higher Education in Transition: The Challenges of the New
sports betting. Discussed are the problems with the betting, players getting gifts from betting agents, and effect of sports betting on the economy. Seven sources are used.
Sports and Betting
More Americans play more sports than in any other country in the world. Moreover, we watch more sports than anyone else on earth. Football and figure skating, two sports that could not be more different have drawn the biggest TV audiences in history. Sports bind us together as Americans. It has the ability more than just about anything else to tear down the barriers of race, class, gender, politics and geography (McDonald 1998). Sports is part of our national culture. It's part of our national conversation. A waitress at the local cafe talks Friday-night football with the cop and the banker. A Democratic gardener, trimming the greens at the country club, discusses golf swings or last week's tournament with a…
Davies, Dick. Spotlight Pofile. http://www.unr.edu/alumni/profile.asp?ID=5 .
A accessed 05-12-2002).
Gopal, Arun; Pettypiece, Shannon. "Michigan considers possibility of NCAA sanctions."
University Wire. March 25, 2002. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=University_Wire&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.uwire.com&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Arun+Gopal+%26amp&title=Michigan+considers+possibility+of+NCAA+sanctions++&date=03%2D25%2D2002&query=athletes+and+gifts+from+agents&maxdoc=50&idx=31.(accessed05-12-2002).
Given that people engage in sporting events for a wide range of reasons, the authors assert that it is time for athletes to develop a moral code that embraces higher standards of conduct that will help reverse these recent trends and once again provide American sports with a sense of fair play and respect.
Fredenburg, Karen, Rafer Lutz, Glenn Miller et al. (2005). "Dismissals and Perceptions of Pressure in Coaching in Texas High Schools: Similarities and Differences with Previous Studies Show the Contemporary Face of Coaching Pressure." JOPERD-- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 76(1):29.
In this essay, the authors report that there have been a number of recent studies and reports that suggest that the pressure in high school sports is growing, rather than declining. The authors cite an article in Sports Illustrated that described the alarming trends of parental misbehavior at youth sport events. The president…
To define what it means to 'play,' I first turned to the dictionary. Immediately, when I looked at the entry for "play" given by freedictonary.com, I was confronted with a seemingly limitless list of different definitions of the word "play." To play can mean to act in "jest or sport," or "to occupy oneself in amusement, sport, or other recreation." The noun "play" can also mean a drama or comedy on the stage, and the verb to play can mean to play a part a work of theater. A play can mean to employ a particular maneuver during a game, or to play a particular position in a sport. These definitions suggest responsibility rather than the apparently free and discursive nature of play.
As someone who has played football in college, I appreciate the sense that 'play' can be both fun and serious work. I began…
Bob Hayes -- Sports Hero
One of my all-time inspirational heroes is Bob Hayes, known as the only athlete to win a gold medal in the Olympics and also a Super Bowl ring. Hayes as a young man with a great deal of athletic talent grew up in a segregated community in Jacksonville, Florida, but he went on to dazzle the world with his accomplishments. This paper details that rise to fame.
Bob Hayes struggled from childhood on to become what he knew he could become, and his career should serve as a positive role model for any young man caught in a socioeconomically underserved neighborhood with odds against him because of the color of his skin and because of racial stereotyping.
Bob Hayes' Life and Times
Hayes was born to Mary (Green) Hayes and George Sanders on the 20th day of December, 1942 in a ghetto on the east…
Gale Biography in Context. "Bob Hayes." Retrieved July 29, 2013, from Biography in Context,
Web. (2013): pp. 1-2.
Pro-Football Hall of Fame. "Bob Hayes." Retrieved July 29, 2013, from http://www.profootballhof.com
Scribner Encyclopedia of American Lives. "Bob Hayes." Retrieved July 29, 2013, from Biography in Context (2013): pp. 1-3.
However, in almost 30% of HCM cases only one segment of the left ventricle develops hypertrophy. The patterns of LV wall thickening is also diverse as is the thickness of the LV, which ranges from anywhere between 21 mm (average) to even 60 mm in some patients. It remains a sad fact that screening programs in the form of preparticipation evaluation based on familial history and electrocardiography does not reveal much. A recent study showed that a preparticipation screening for 115 high school and college athletes who later succumbed to sudden death could identify only 3% of them as at risk. This study also revealed that LVH is very mild and not obvious in adolescents and therefore electrocardiography readings are not diagnostically conclusive. [Maron]
Since there is not complete cure for the condition, treatment is purely symptomatic. Typically beta blockers (which reduce ventricular contraction), calcium channel blockers that slow…
CMA, "Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy," Accessed on April 16th 2008, available at http://www.cardiomyopathy.org/index.php?id=49
Barry J. Maron, MD, "Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Practical Steps for Preventing Sudden Death," the Physician and Sports Medicine, VOL 30 - NO.1 - JANUARY 2002, Available online at, http://www.physsportsmed.com/issues/2002/01_02/maron.htm
Cleveland Clinic, "Cleveland Clinic," Accessed on April 16th 2008, Available at, http://www.clevelandclinic.org/heartcenter/pub/guide/disease/hcm/default.htm#affected
Gender and Society
Sexism in the Media: Portrayal of Female Athletes in Media Coverage
Sexist portrayal of men's versus women's athletic events and sporting events has prevailed in the media for some time. Armstrong and Hallmark (1999) note that until very recently, women in profession NCAA Division I women's basketball teams, though popular, had received "virtually no television exposure" during key station segments; women also suffered unfavorable practice times and "hand me down uniforms" (p. 1). Perhaps no other area of media portrayal reveals as much gender inequality as the portrayal of women athletes. This is not because of a lack of interest in female sports necessarily. More and more women are participating in sports formerly considered male only. However the media portrayal or lack of adequate portrayal of women's events has contributed to the perceived lack of enthusiasm and interest in following women's events. The media utilizes sexist attitudes,…
Alexander, S. (1994). "Newspaper coverage of athletics as a function of gender." Women's Studies International Forum, 17 (6), 655-662
Armstrong, Richard N; Hallmark, James R. "Gender Equity in Televised Sports: A Comparative Analysis of Men's and Women's NCAA Division I Championship Broadcasts, 1991-1995). Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, Vol. 43, 1999.
Blinde, E.M., Greendorder, S.L., & Shenker, R.J. (1991). "Differential media coverage of men's and women's intercollegiate basketball: Reflection of gender and ideology." Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 15, (2), 98-114
Bryant, J. (1980). "A two-year selective investigation of the female athlete in sport as reported in the paper media." Arena Review, 4, 32-44
advertisement by Nike that states, "if you let me play sports..." And proceeds to list benefits and advantages of participation in athletics is misleading, at best participates in lies of omission, and should be removed as unethical advertising material.
Current national scandals in the corporate world, like orldCom or Enron, have shown that Americans are concerned about complete honesty and transparency in our world. Consumers have a right to know if a product can harm them, like cigarettes, and they have a right to know all of the possible side effects that come along with a product, like a medication. This has led to an increased amount of information that must be disclosed to the consumer -- cigarettes must carry warning labels, medications must list potential adverse effects.
The Nike ad lists several positive attributes of participation in athletics, from a lower teen pregnancy rate to increased self-confidence. Their facts…
Mak, Katherine. "Are Athletes More Abusive Than the Rest of the Population?" In Hopkins Undergraduate Research Journal, issue 3, 2004. Accessed online at http://www.jhu.edu/hurj/spotlight-mak.html
Bonds than his fellow African-Americans."
Recently, it has come to the attention of the media and others that the drug called, "human growth hormone" (HGH) is being used by some major league baseball players. An article in USA Today (Nightengale, 2007) points out through secondary reporting of data that Rick Ankiel (St. Louis Cardinals), Jay Gibbons (Baltimore Orioles) and Troy Glaus (Blue Jays) have been implicated in the use of HGH. This information was made available because an investigation of a Florida pharmacy by the federal government (reported by Sports Illustrated and the New York Daily News) turned up receipts detailing transactions between those players and the pharmacy.
According to the article, a quantitative piece, by taking HGH (another performance-enhancing substance) players may be able to "avert positive steroid tests." How can they do that? "Taking HGH enables you to take lower doses of anabolic steroids," journalist Bob Nightengale quotes…
Dowshen, Steven. (2007). Steroids. KidsHealth. Retrieved September 14, 2007, at http://kidshealth.org .
Economist. (2007). Curb your enthusiasm. 384(8541), p. 28.
Kopkowski, Cynthia. (2007). Home Field Disadvantages. NEA Today, 25(6), p. 23.
National Institute of Drug Addiction. (2007). NIDA InfoFacts: Steroids (Anabolic-Androgenic)
Modeling and Mental Practice
There has been much research regarding modeling (also called observational learning) and mental practice, also -- and perhaps more commonly -- known as imagery. Mental practice is also known as mental rehearsal and visuo-motor rehearsal, although these terms are much less commonly used in the literature assessed here. The current research question is:
Does modeling, when combined with mental practice and physical practice, have a grater effect than the combination of mental practice and physical practice on the learning of a novel motor skill?
The literature accessed tends not to make much distinction between modeling and mental practice, and it tends also not to assess the addition of these factor as an intensifier per se of the physical learning of a motor skill, or at least, does not quantify the impact precisely. However, previous research into motor skills vis-a-vis modeling and mental practice does point the…
Glisky, M.L., Williams, J.M., & Kihlstrom, J.F. (1996). Internal and external mental imagery perspectives and performance on two tasks. Journal of Sport Behavior, 19(1), 3+. Retrieved November 14, 2005, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& ; d=5002278837
Jax, S.A., Rosenbaum, D.A., Vaughan, J., & Meulenbroek, R.G. (2003). Computational motor control and human factors: Modeling movements in real and possible environments. Human Factors, 45(1), 5+. Retrieved November 14, 2005, from Questia database:
I want to be a psychologist" (Hindo 2004) This seems like an argument to take such a choice away from teen draftees, and prohibit the NBA from recruiting straight from high school. But this is more rhetoric than reality, and although it could be argued that playing professional 'ball' leaves a player ill-prepared for job prospects in the real world, an even worse fate is to play college basketball for four years and leave with no degree, or to leave with a degree but few marketable skills -- and an empty bank account, and no NBA offers.
Ending the 'prep to pro' draft is not simply bad for professional basketball; it is also bad for the players, unless the 'shamaturism' of college-level basketball ends. March Madness is a multi-million dollar enterprise, but everyone profits -- colleges, coaches, networks, even alumni by their school's elevated name and more competitive admission standards…
Hindo, Brian. "The NBA's Youth Squad." Business Week Online. 24 Jun 2004.
17 Feb 2008 http://www.businessweek.com /bwdaily/dnflash/jun2004/nf20040624_4524_db016.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
CADWAE: Case Study
Did CADWAE have genuine BFOQs (Bona Fide Occupational Job Qualifications) in its ad?
Do not forget to review the company's slogan as given in the above facts.
Be sure to discuss Petunia's point-of-view as well as CADWAE's position and defenses.
Use legal authority to support your position as well.
In general, it is illegal to discriminate against a job applicant based upon characteristics pertaining to "race, religion, gender, national origin, age or other protected status" ("BFOQ," 2015). However, in certain limited circumstances, if an employer can demonstrate that "no member of the group" he or she is discriminating against could perform the job, he or she may do so, under an exception known as Bona Fide Occupational Job Qualifications ("BFOQ," 2015). For example, airlines may have mandatory retirement ages for pilots because of safety concerns; religious institutions may favor candidates of a particular religion; and modeling and…
Moseley v. V Secret Catalogue, Inc. (2002). Retrieved from:
Mote, S. (2014). Trademark considerations in choosing a business name. KC Sourcelink.
Retrieved from: http://www.kcsourcelink.com/blog/blog/2014/03/31/trademark-considerations-in-choosing-a-business-name
Scandal/Controversy in Sports
The following will take a look to see if scandal and controversy benefit sports.
Background of Sports Industry and Scandals
Sports in the U.S. is a multi-billion-dollar industry. Companies try to engage with clients by aligning the services and products they offer with this well-known industry via sports funding and endorsement. The benefit of this involvement has been well-recorded in the sports marketing literature (Hughes and Shank, 2005). The effect on business brands in case a scandal surfaces regarding an athletic supporter like a player, coach, or a team however, is less well-known. Several sports scandals, for instance, the rape case surrounding Kobe Bryant and the University of Colorado recruitment scandal raise very serious questions regarding the effect of sports scandals on amateur and professional athletic institutions, participants, sponsors, as well as other stakeholders.
Whereas conventional corporate sports supporters like Nike maintain omnipresence, several other different kinds…
Alessi. (2014). TheRichest - The World's Most Entertaining Site. Top 10 Sports Betting Scandals and Controversies - TheRichest. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.therichest.com/sports/top-10-sports-betting-scandals-and-controversies/
Doorty, A. (2016). Odyssey. Is Scandal Good for Baseball? Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.theodysseyonline.com/are-scandals-good-for-baseball
Fisher, R., & Wakefield, K. (1998). Factors leading to group identification: A field study of winners and losers. Psychology & Marketing, 15(1). Retrieved, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199801)15:1%3C23::AID-MAR3%3E3.0.CO;2-P/abstract
Garg. (2010). The Hoya. Scandals Show Need to Pay College Athletes. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.thehoya.com/scandals-show-need-to-pay-college-athletes/
Personal Values in Sports
As with most dimensions of life, personal values and beliefs have a demonstrable effect on what is rendered in the form of behavior on the sports field of play and with the activities that surround the same. Beyond that, this paradigm is clear and visible irrespective of whether one is talking about the athletes, the coaches or even the parents of child (or sometimes college) athletes in some instances. This research report shall focus on the factors that most significantly engage and affect people when they are operating within the sports realm. The work of Donghun Lee (2011) will be a major focal point of this report but other sources will be looped in as well. While there are many factors and things that can influence somebody when it comes to sports, it is the free will and moral fortitude of an individual and the resolve…
Baby, B. (2016). Art Briles, Baylor officially part ways in wake of sexual assault scandal --
SportsDay. SportsDay. Retrieved 25 June 2016, from http://sportsday.dallasnews.com/college-sports/collegesports/2016/06/24/art-briles-baylor-officially-part-ways-wake-sexual-assault-scandal
Biography. (2016). Tim Duncan Biography. Biography.com. Retrieved 25 June 2016, from http://www.biography.com/people/tim-duncan-40996
CBS. (2016). The Penn State Scandal - CBS News. CBSNews.com. Retrieved 25 June 2016,
Leadership Training for Youth
Allen, S.J. (2007, Spring). Adult learning theory & leadership development," Kravis Leadership Institute, Leadership Review, 7, 26-37.
The authors explore the relationship between leadership development and adult learning theory, specifically behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and social learning theory. Leadership is studied within learning theories framework.
Charbonneau, D., Barling, J, and Kelloway, E.K. (2001). Transformational leadership and sports performance: The mediating role of intrinsic motivation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31(7), 1521-1534.
The authors sought to test a model of transformational leadership with regard to its indirect effect on sports performance through the mediating effects of the athlete's intrinsic motivation. University athletes rated the transformational leadership of their coaches and their own intrinsic motivation, while the coaches assesses the athletes' performance. Kelloway's mediator tests (1996, 1998) were used to model the relationships. Intrinsic motivation was found to be a mediator of transformational leadership and sports performance,…
Whole Plant-Based Protein: Whole Greens Hemp from http://ergogenicsnutrition.com/products/WholeGreensHemp/
his product does work: it is a protein formula containing protein-rich plant-based ingredients, relying upon hemp for a protein basis that is comparable to that found in the human body. he product essentially meets the needs of the human body by providing a natural supplement. his is an excellent way to give the body what it needs. Not only does hemp have proteins akin to those found in people, it also contains essential omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Plus, hemp has a wealth of fiber, minerals and vitamins. he formula contains "all 20 amino acids used in the human body," a recipe that includes the 10 essential acids.
scoop, or 30g, equals one serving size. One serving size gives the user 120 calories, 15 grams of protein, 3 grams of fats (or 5% of the recommended daily value). here is zero…
The beneficial aspects of this product can be found in the way it helps the user to produce energy and rapidly support muscle growth and stabilization. As the body goes through exercises, muscle tissue is destroyed and regenerated so this product helps to support that process by giving the body an extra boost of proteins needed for such regeneration.
Dietary Supplement for Athletes or Bodybuilding
Creatine is a dietary supplement that has been popular for more than thirty years amongst athletes and bodybuilders (Feldman 1999: 45). Its alleged benefits include enhancing muscle-building and recovery. The use of dietary supplements, particularly amongst adolescents and young adult athletes has increased in popularity and may even be endorsed by coaches and parents. Creatine is not recommended for young athletes because of questions about the long-term safety of its use, but pressures to 'be the best' have increased as the margin between first-class and second-class athletes grows ever more razor-thin (Dunn et al. 2001).One study found that "62% of adolescent athletes believed supplements improve performance, with 50% consuming dietary supplements" (Dunn et al. 2001). In another study of attitudes of young athletes Dunn (et al. 2001) found widespread acceptance of the use of creatine and belief in its benefits, even amongst athletes who…
Beck TW, Housh TJ, Johnson GO, Coburn DW, Malek MH, Cramer JT. (2007). Effects of a drink containing creatine, amino acids, and protein, combined with ten weeks of resistance training on body composition, strength, and anaerobic performance.
J Strength Cond Res, 21:100-104.
Buford, Thomas W. (et al. 2007). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand:
creatine supplementation and exercise. Retrieved:
Organisational culture is defined as a "consistent, observable pattern of behaviour in an organisation" (Watkins, 2013). The patterns of behaviour that define a culture are reinforced through the artefacts of culture, including slogans, imagery, written statements, posters, mission statements and vision statements. Culture is therefore reinforce directly by the organisation, which sends the message about the patterns of behaviour that define the organisation repeatedly, because repetition is critical to ensure that the message is received and implemented consistently. Hofstede (2015) argues that there are a number of different dimensions along which an organisation's culture can be understood: means-oriented versus goal-oriented, internally-driven vs. externally-driven, work discipline, open vs. closed system, degree of formality, employee-oriented vs. work-oriented and the degree to which an employee is expected to identify with the organisation. Some organisations have strong cultures, others have weak ones, but the best organisations have cultures that closely align with firm objectives.…
Anders, G. (2012). The 20 most desired employers: From Google to Nike Accenture. Forbes. Retrieved November 21, 2015 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/georgeanders/2012/10/11/the-20-most-desired-employers-from-google-to-loreal/
Hofstede (2015). Organisational culture. Geert Hofstede.com. Retrieved November 21, 2015 from http://geert-hofstede.com/organisational-culture.html
Jackson, L. (2013). Strong organizational culture: How Nike drives innovation. Corporate Culture Pros. Retrieved November 21, 2015 from https://www.corporateculturepros.com/2013/06/strong-organizational-culture-how-nike-drives-innovation/
Nisen, M. (2013). At Nike, workers quote the company's maxims like the 10 commandments. Business Insider. Retrieved November 21, 2015 from http://www.businessinsider.com /nikes-corporate-culture-2013-2?r=U.S.&IR=T
Vape Nation Business Plan
Mission of the Company
Keys to Success
Legal Form of Ownership
Location and Facilities
Products and Services
F. Financial Statements and Projections
F1. Forecasted Profit and Loss Statement
F2. Forecasted Balance Sheet
G. Financial eport
G1. Financial Projections
G2. Financial Position
G3. Estimated Capital/Investment Needs
Suggested length of 1-2 pages
Vape Nation, based in the U.S. in California is national start-up that expects to compete in the emerging vapor industry, utilizing vaping technology, e-liquids, and e-cigarettes to market itself to local, national, and online customers.
A2. Mission of the Company:
The mission of Vape Nation is to create brand awareness, brand loyalty, and capture market share in the emerging vaporizer market.
Allen, J., Flanigan, S., LeBlanc, M. et al. (2015). Flavoring chemicals in E-Cigarettes.
Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(12): 23-29.
Boseley, S. (2015). Hon Lik invented the e-cigarette to quit smoking. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/jun/09/hon-lik-e-cigarette-inventor-quit-smoking-dual-user
Chaudhui, S. (2015). Study finds e-cigarettes contain chemical tied to 'popcorn lung'.
easons for MLB Players
Furthermore, MLB owners have enjoyed high double-digit return-on-investment for many years. By showing teenagers that steroids are not the cool nor healthy way to become more physical fit, they finally have the opportunity to show the world that they are not all Montgomery Burns (Saving the Puerto ican League).
If most people believe that the way to get ahead is to work hard, then most people will work hard, and more wealth will be created. On the other hand, if people believe that wealthy people should not have to work, then people will attempt to gain wealth without working, leading to a zero-sum economy. If most people expect public officials to be honest, then dishonest officials will be identified and punished" (eforming Our Beliefs Concerning Health Care).
From there, MLB baseball players participate to prevent teenage athletes' steroid use because they want to present a…
Steroid Use in Teen Athletes. http://www.***.ca/lib/essay/69_4.html
Saving the Puerto Rican League. http://sportslaw.blogspot.com/2007_08_01_archive.html
Reforming Our Beliefs Concerning Health Care. http://www.tcsdaily.com/article.aspx?id=062107A
INVERTED U. HYPOTHESIS
It has been established that competitive state-anxiety normally follows a certain pattern of one-sided feelings of anxiety as well as inadequacy that combines with increased arousal of automatic nervous system (Fazey, 2008). Accordingly, the theory of Inverted U. hypothesis was formulated to explain this aspect, and it is widely applied in sports psychology. Inverted U. hypothesis a theory that suggest that there is a relative amount of anxiety and arousal that triggers one to perform higher- extremely little arousal or anxiety and too much arousal or anxiety will lead to poorer performance. This present paper briefly discusses the Inverted U. hypothesis in sports psychology.
Until presently, the traditional Inverted theory had been the key model employed by sports psychologists to explain the arousal-performance relationship. Nevertheless, various sport psychology researchers have criticized this relationship, and the modern trend is a change towards a higher multidimensional perspective of…
Fazey, J. (2008). The inverted-U hypothesis: a catastrophe for sport psychology? Leeds, British Association of Sports Sciences.
Pascuzzi, D.L. (2005). The effects of anxiety on gross motor performance a test of the inverted-U hypothesis. Thesis (M.S.) -- Western Illinois University, 1975.
Reeve, J. (2000). Understanding motivation and emotion. Fort Worth, TX, Harcourt College Publishers.
Schnabel, C., & Wagner, J. (2008). Union membership and age: the inverted u-shape hypothesis under test. Luneburg, Univ., Inst. fur Volkswirtschaftslehre.
Washing and Use of Testosterone:
The Action of Hand Soap Bacteria:
Hand washing is an important practice for body hygiene because of its seeming effectiveness in preventing the transmission of bacteria. Actually, it is believed that hand washing helps to lessen the risk of bacterial infection through removing and destroying bacterial cells. Generally, the use of hand soap while complying with the good washing practices help an individual to destroy bacteria in the hands, which in turn decreases the spread of diseases or illnesses. The need to wash hands using hand soap is attributed to the accumulation of bacteria on the surface of a person's hands because of numerous opportunities brought by day-to-day activities. For instance, a person encounters bacteria every time he/she touches another individual, touches raw meat, and handles money. The bacteria can get into the individual's hands and under his/her fingernails and spread if he/she touches any…
Angkadjaja, S. (2012). What Makes Antibacterial Soap Antibacterial? Retrieved from Illumin
University of Southern California website: http://illumin.usc.edu/printer/68/what-makes-antibacterial-soap-antibacterial/
Singer, N. (2006, August 10). Does Testosterone Build A Better Athlete? The New York Times.
Retrieved December 4, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/10/fashion/10Fitness.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Pro: Form, Function and Inspiration
GoPro refers to a form of a tiny, professional camera which captures HD footage and which is extremely lightweight and extremely versatile. It is marketed most strongly to adventurers and travelers along with professional and semi-professional athletes who engage in extreme sports. The brand is American and the personal cameras are high definition, and are lightweight, rugged, wearable and mountable in places where ordinary people generally aren't used to placing cameras, such as outside cars, planes, watercraft or even army tanks. Nick Woodman, the founder of the company, was inspired to start it as a result of an Australian surfing trip that he took during which he hoped to capture quality live action photos of his surfing, but couldn't. This was a result of the fact that non-professional photographers weren't able to get close enough, and the equipment that they needed they just weren't able…
Anderson, C. (2013, November 10). GoPro's video revolution. Retrieved from CBS news: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/gopros-video-revolution/
Battistella, C. (2012). From design driven innovation to meaning strategy. Journal of Management History, 718-743.
Bridgens, B., & Birchallb, M. (2012). Form and function: The significance of material properties in the design of tensile fabric structures. Engineering Structures, 1-12.
Bucolo, S. & . (2011). Design Led Innovation: exploring the synthesis of needs, technologies and business models. Queensland University of Technology.
But despite these strides, the negative as well as the positive legacy of sports in American culture cannot be ignored.
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). unning through Kenya. Slate.com. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
Johnson, Jenna. (2010). NCAA graduation rates. The Washington Post. etrieved September 20,
2010 at http://voices.washingtonpost.com/campus-overload/2010/03/another_ncaa_bracket_player_gr.html
Lehrer, Jonah. (2010, August 24). How to raise a superstar. Wired Science. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/08/how-to-raise-a-superstar/#ixzz107NwUSGh
Lovett, C. (1997). The fight to establish the women's Olympic marathon race. Olympic Marathon, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., Westport, CT. etrieved September 21,
2010 at http://www.marathonguide.com/history/olympicmarathons/chapter25.cfm
Williams, Kam. (2006). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves. AALBC.
etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://aalbc.com/reviews/forty_million_dollar_slaves.htm
Witt, Jon. (2006). The…
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutRE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). Running through Kenya. Slate.com. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). Review of William C. Rhoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
visual depiction of 5 personal impact groups to which you belong.
My five impact groups.
This has its own culture, history, language (e.g. AAVE) and way of looking at the world. It supports me in difficulties and provides with a social support group that is easily recognizable in any state and all over the world. Our color binds us together. It has impacted the way I grew up, and accordingly my experiences and therefore the way I perceive the world as well as what I like to read, watch, study, and think about. It has certainly too influenced the way that I feel on race and racism and also the way that I feel towards other minority groups and to people who are 'outsiders', scapegoats of society, or oppressed by so-called more powerful, influential others. It drives my desire for justice. This is important for a social worker, and…
The Critique: Begin with a Brief Summary
In this article, Burkett (2010) tries to identify the role that technology can help Paralympic athletes to compete in different sporting activities. The study focuses more on how technology can be made relevant to individual needs of Paralympic athletes. Moreover, it highlights the weaknesses and strengths in technologies used in the summer Paralympic games held in Athens and Beijing. The objective of the study was to ensure that relevant technology could be provided the 2012 London Games. The study is important and necessary because different technologies have been used before to help Paralympic athletes compete in different games, but some of them have failed the athletes. Moreover, Burkett (2010) seeks to provide solutions to an existing problem and make Paralympic athletes able to compete well during the Paralympic games. The researcher does an in-depth analysis of the peer-reviewed literature on technologies available for…
The most successful of these hybrid strategies is David Beckham and his approach to making sure his personality pervades the messages over and above the positioning points in any IMC campaign. The undercurrents of social networking require a very high level of interactivity, transparency that leads to trust. In the case of athletes and celebrities who battle gossip media, the best defense is a good offense. Taking the initiates as Derek Jeter has done to stop rumors of conflict with Alex odriguez, Carmelo Anthony discussing his DUI in blogs, and the hybrid strategy of Beckham all show how critical it is for celebrities to keep these broader Web 2.0 dynamics in mind when communicating with their fans. Table 1 in the Appendix provides an overview of Web 2.0 applications.
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management eview 49, no. 3 (April…
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1): 36-42. http://www.proquest.com (Accessed April 3, 2008).
Mary Cowlett (2000, January). Toeing the line of truth in spinworld. Marketing, 23-24. Retrieved May 1, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 48129845).
Von Johnson, Pierre Ollivier. (2007). The Technology Disruption Conundrum. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 12(1), 215-221. Retrieved May 3, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1288122001).
Ava Lawler, Gabrielle Tourelle. (2002). Public relations: The integrated communication tool in the launch of a new software operating system -- a case study. Journal of Communication Management, 7(2), 156-159. Retrieved May 1, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 264328051).
More sport and physiological testing has become increasingly common as the interaction between scientists and coaches (tanner & Gore, 2013). When it comes to popular sports that are watched al over the world, team games like basketball generally have a heightened game tempo, a tougher body game and a more acute variability in the techniques and methods used (Singh & Deol, 2012). "An increased performance level can only be achieved by working and training of all major components i.e. technique, coordination, tactics, physical fitness, physiological qualities and psychological qualities. Basketball is one of the most popular team-based sports played and watched throughout the world" (Singh & Deol, 2012). This puts the aspect of physiological testing as an extreme priority for a variety of reasons. "Physiological exercise testing is important in basketball to help identify potential talent but also to provide the players, trainers and coaching staff with some…
Bangsbo, J. (2006). Training and testing of the elite athlete.Copenhagen Muscle Research
Centre, 4(1), 1-9.
Changela, P.K., & Bhatt, S. (2012). The correlational study of the vertical jump test and wingate cycle test as a method to assess anaerobic power in high school basketball players. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 2(6), 2-9.
Cissik, J. (2013, February 15). The point guard off-season workout plan. Retrieved from http://www.stack.com/2013/02/15/point-guard-off-season-workout/
Autonomy-Supportive coaching style is more effective for female than male athletes in team sports.
Gender is a concept which connects directly to the sense of how receptive or non-receptive humans are likely to be regarding all forms of coaching. Gender is one manifestation of the notion of how prosocial or anti-social human beings are likely to be. Some experts have argued that human beings are naturally inclined to be prosocial animals when given the proper nurturing -- such as a namely this type of support mechanism: when this type of support is lacking, it is more than likely that one will substitute it by pursuing extrinsic goals such as fame, ego enhancement or other extrinsic rewards. Such rewards are not something which help to reinforce prosocial behavior (Hodge & Lonsdale, 2011).
Thus, given this research the question becomes whether or not female athletes are more prosocial than male…
Bartholomew, K., Ntoumanis, N., & Thogersen-Ntoumani, C. (2010). The Controlling Interpersonal Style in a Coaching Context. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 193-216.
Hodge, K., & Lonsdale, C. (2011). Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior in Sport. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 527-547.
Khaef, M., & Noorbakhsh, M. (2013). Relationship between Perceived Autonomy - Supportive Behaviors of Coaches . Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 229-234.
Mallett, C. (2011). Understanding motivation to enhance the quality of coaching. Retrieved from www.ausport.gov.au: http://www.ausport.gov.au/sportscoachmag/psychology2/understanding_motivation_to_enhance_the_quality_of_coaching
Health and Blind Spot Enlargement in Non-Athletes
Everyone has a blind spot in the visual field caused by an absence of nerves on the retinal wall where the nerve ganglia enter. Our brains "correct" for this blind spot and fill-in the missing information so that we do not notice the blind spot in normal daily activity. As the blind spot represents a physical structure, there has been little study concerning it. There have been a few studies conducted to determine how the brain compensates for the phenomenon.
Recently, there have been studies indicating that in certain people seeking chiropractic treatment that they have unequal blind spots as a result of muscoloskeletal misalignments. This research has been controversial, however, brings up several interesting questions. There are conditions that can damage the retina and this can cause blind spots in the visual field. It is generally assumed that athletes maintain a better…
Ballantyne, R. About that Squinty Eye. [Online]
http://www.ballantyne.com/rjb_resume/Squinty.html accessed March 2003.
Cai, R.H., & Cavanagh, P. (2002). Motion interpolation of a unique feature into stimulus gaps and blind spots Journal of Vision, 2(7), 30a, http://journalofvision.org/2/7/30 / accessed
Fletcher WA, Imes RK, Goodman D, Hoyt WF. Acute idiopathic blind spot enlargement: a big blind spot syndrome without optic disc edema. Arch Ophthalmol. 1988;106:44-49.
Competitive sports participation opportunities for children continue to grow. Nowadays, children begin their regular sport participation between the ages of 4 to 8 years. Most children enjoy sports and show great enthusiasm for participation. However, the situation changes when young athletes get involved in the elite-level championships organized and directed by adults. Children's play becomes transformed from informal playground games to highly organized sporting events that mirror adult professional sports.
The effects of such intensive training and participation in elite-level competition on young athletes have been investigated. However, most of the research has been devoted to athletes above 10 years of age who are involved in individual sports. Little has been done to explore the impact of the elite-level competition on children under 10 years old participating in team sports.
Indeed, the idea that organized, supervised athletic competition benefits pre-pubertal children is very controversial. However, since more and…
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Ad Hoc Committee on Sports and Children of the FIMS Education Commission. Sports and children. Position stand of the International Federation of Sports Medicine and World Health Organization on "Organized Sport for Children." Olympic Coach, Summer 1997: 6-8.
Backx, F. "Injuries in persons and high-risk sports; a longitudinal study of 1,818 school
Children." The American Journal of Sports Medicine 19, 1991:124-30.
High and Inside
In the Newsweek Magazine article "High and Inside" by Mark Starr, the issue of illegal drug use among professional sports players is given focus. Citing particularly the case of American baseball stars, Starr puts forth the argument that the issue illegal drug use such as subsistence to steroid injections goes beyond the fact that it is illegal -- the bigger issue at hand is that such a system prevails in sports organizations because it is supported and encouraged by everyone in it.
In arguing this primary thesis of the article, Starr exemplifies the case of baseball star Jason Giambi as one of the models of how the proliferation of illegal drug use has made it so common and an imperative requirement for a professional athlete. Chronicling Giambi's career as a professional baseball player, the article details how, just before the peak of his career, he had already…
Starr, M. (2004). "High and Inside." Newsweek Magazine. Available at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6652658/site/newsweek .
Conceptualization and operationalization of variables
Poor communication between young athletes and coaches leads to longer recovery times and increased levels of frustration amongst athletes regarding their prognosis.
Independent Variable: Effective and ineffective communication between coaches and young athletes.
Conceptualization: Sports injuries are a serious concern. There has been a rise in the rate of youth sports injuries in recent decades, an increase partially attributed to a corresponding rise in youth specialization at an early age and year 'round participation in the same type of competitive sports activity, versus varying sports (Merkel & Molony 2013). In some sports, there are also grave concerns about the risk of permanent injury on every level of competition, as manifested in concerns about head trauma amongst football players, making it all the more critical to reduce the likelihood of such injuries occurring when young (Lopate 2013). Overuse injuries are common many popular youth sports: "Preteens…
Apache, R.R. (2006). The behavioral assessment of parents and coaches at youth sports:
Validity and reliability. Physical Educator, 63(3), 126-133.
Borggrefe, C., & Cachay, K. (2013). Communicative challenges of coaches in an elite-level sports system: Theoretical reflections on successful coaching strategies. EJSS: European Journal for Sport and Society, 10(1), 7-29.
Caine, D. (et al. 2006). Physical injuries in children's and youth sports:
Sledge Hockey is a terrific sport that individuals with physical disabilities can participate in. This sport was developed in the 1960s at a Swedish rehabilitation center. By modifying a metal sled (aka sledge) to fit two ice hockey skate blades under the sledge (so that a hockey puck could pass under it, the Swedes allowed themselves to be able to slide around the ice without inhibiting the movement of the hockey puck. They used round poles that had bicycle handles as sticks with which the propelled themselves across the ice—much like skiers use sticks when they are skiing long distance. Their game required no goaltenders, but other than that it was very similar in spirit to regular ice hockey: the goal was to get the puck into the goal—and instead of skating, the players sledged or sledded across the ice in the customized sledges that allowed the puck to…
Proteins are often called the building blocks of life. In fact, the very word "protein" implies their importance in the body: it is a Greek word meaning "first place." Approximately fifty percent of the dry weight in animal cells is comprised of protein (Campbell 71). They play a roll in almost everything the body does and "are used for support, storage, transport of other substances, signaling from one part of the organism to another, movement, and defense against foreign substances." (Campbell 71). Proteins are essential to the proper functioning of every organism known to man.
The human genetic code holds the instructions for the making of over ten thousand different types of proteins; all with specific purposes. Additionally, "Proteins are the most structurally sophisticated molecules known." (Campbell 71). In comparison to other molecules, proteins are enormous and come in nearly every shape imaginable. However, despite their variety and size, proteins…
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2. Campbell, Neil A. And Jane B. Reece. Biology: Sixth Edition. New York: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 2002.
3. Ronzio, Robert, PHD. The Encyclopedia of Nutrition and Good Health: Second Edition. New York: Facts On File Inc., 2003.
4. Ryan, Monique. Complete Guide to Sports Nutrition. Boulder: VELO Press, 1999.
The diamond water paradox is a classic example of the numerous paradoxes that can be seen in everyday life. According to the diamond water paradox, the cost of diamonds is more than the cost of water despite the fact that water is essential for human existence while diamond is more of an optional luxury item. A good application of this paradox is the difference in the wages of essential employees like teachers and firefighters as against that of the sporting athletes. While the salaries of teachers, firefighters, policemen and other essential services workers are low, those that of the professional athletes is high. So, what is the reason behind this discrepancy? The analysis below will throw more light on this difference.
The first step to understanding the paradoxes that exist in salaries is to understand how wages are determined. Many factors are taken into account while…
McLaughlin, Dan. (July 11, 2007). Rich Athletes, Poor Teachers. Mises Daily. Retrieved from: http://mises.org/daily/2626
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Occupational Outlook Handbook 2010-2011 Edition. Retrieved from: http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos251.htm
USA Today. (2011). Major League Baseball salaries. Retrieved from: http://content.usatoday.com/sportsdata/baseball/mlb/salaries/player/top-25
athletic coach I have garnered a wide variety of skills, as well as an extensive understanding of the standard practices and procedures an individual in the field of exercise science should possess. My past experiences have provided me with substantial knowledge of the principles involved in the prevention and care of athletic injuries. With the following, I hope to illustrate that my experiences and subsequent research have provided me with a broad awareness of typical athletic injuries and treatments as they apply to exercise science.
When a member of my dance squad sprained her ankle it became necessary for me to tape it as to provide additional support. I employed the traditional Gibney basket weave procedure. This consists of an interwoven network of stirrup strips "which cover the plantar surface of the hindfoot and extend proximally on both the medial and lateral aspects of the leg, and horseshoe strips, which…
Boyle, Daniel J.M.D. Sports Medicine for Parents and Coaches. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1999.
Brown, Lee E. And Vance A. Ferrigno. Training for Speed, Agility, and Quickness. New York: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 2000.
Garrick, James G.M.D. And Peter Radetsky, Ph.D. Anybody's Sports Medicine Book. Toronto: Ten Speed Press, 2000.
Levy, Allan M.M.D. And Mark L. Fuerst. Sports Injury Handbook. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993.