Colombia and Venezuela have long since attempted to develop diplomatic relations among the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and the Republic of Colombia. Diplomacy between both countries has been ongoing since the 16th century. However, Venezuela has made changes that countries like Colombia have steered clear from doing. Venezuela progresses towards anti-globalization whereas Colombia stands still. This essay is meant to highlight each country and how the people within both respective nations live, eat, dress, and the countries' economies and businesses.
Types of Employment
Venezuela's economy depends heavily on the export of oil. Its main industry is the oil industry with the proven biggest oil crude oil reserves in the world. Elected President Hugo Chavez, chosen via a populist platform in a 1998 election, consolidate state control over finances and the economy as well as nationalization of the country's electricity and telephone companies. Even though Chavez died and was succeeded by…… [Read More]
During this penultimate period of violence under Rojas, the violence that wracked Colombia assumed a number of different characteristics that included an economic quality as well as a political one with numerous assassinations taking place. These were literally contract killings there were sponsored by opposition forms. There were also horrendous genocidal acts that were carried out by gangs combined with authentic revolutionary fighting in some regions of the country.
The fourth and final phase of the Violencia began with the fall of Rojas Pinilla and the reconciliation between the Conservative and Liberal parties that resulted in the creation of the Frente Nacional government.
The majority of the strictly sectarian Violencia was finally stopped for the most part during this final phase of this ugly chapter in Colombia's history, and the cessation provided the opportunity for the governmental forces to address the root causes of much of the violence during the…… [Read More]
(Leech) the farmers that grow coca and have no other means of survival would also be advantaged by the action, as they would be given assistance in growing different crops. The Columbian government has solicited aid worldwide for the welfare of the drug-fighting program. The European Union however remained reluctant at offering financial help to the cause because of the reason that the Europeans believe that the Plan will not have the expected result. (Leech, 1999)
The U.S. government's main concern in Columbia is to put an end to the FARC guerilla and to Columbian drug affairs. Violence in Columbia has been occurring ever since the nineteen century and the drug business that started in the 1970s has severely aggravated the situation.
The U.S. also planned for a general economic rehabilitation of Columbia, hoping to diminish the level of unemployment within the country. The U.S. is hoping to enlighten the…… [Read More]
3. Cepeda, F. (1994) Direcci n Pol'tica de la eforma Econ mica en Colombia, Bogota: Fonade.
4. Colombia- Wikipedia retrieved November 11, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colombia#Economy
5. Colombian Economy retrieved November 11, 2006 from www.geographic.org
6. Correa, P. And . Steiner (1999) "Decentralization in Colombia: ecent Changes and Main Challenges," in C.C. Callahan and F. Gunter (eds.) Colombia: An Opening Economy? JAI Press Inc.
7. Echand'a, C. (1999) "El Conflicto Armado y las Manifestaciones de Violencia en las egiones de Colombia," Oficina del Alto Comisionado para la Paz, Presidencia de la epublica, Bogota.
8. Echeverry, J.C., N. Salazar and V. Navas (2001) "Nos Parecemos al esto del Mundo? El Conflicto Colombiano en el Contexto Internacional," Archivos de Macroeconom'a, no. 143, Departamento Nacional de Planeaci n.
9. Edwards, S. And . Steiner (1999) "The Political Economy of Structural eforms in Colombia," mimeo, UCLA and Universidad de los Andes.
10. Edwards, S. And…… [Read More]
After 52 years of violent conflict, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the government of Colombia signed a peace treaty that transformed the country’s entire future. The treaty was not negotiated by the United States, or the United Nations, or any foreign state. On the contrary, it was facilitated by an Indian guru named Sri Sri Ravi Shankar. In a brief video interview with The Foundations TV, Sri Sri Ravi Shankar discusses briefly how he went about helping FARC and the government come to terms. Shankar claims that it had less to do with what he said than about how he said it. It was important to approach with an open heart and clear intentions, with love and deep respect. However, Shankar also noted that meditation practice helped. Through meditation, the opposing parties were able to open their own hearts and reach a point where they could no…… [Read More]
Spiegel & Velga (2010) report that a new international effort is underway to regulate the diffusion of mercury into the environments contextualizing mining operations. According to Spiegel & Velga, the world community has recently developed a set of International Guidelines on Mercury Management in Small-Scale Gold Mining. As Spiegel & Velga report, "commissioned by the United Nations Global Mercury Project, the purpose of the guidelines is to assist policymakers, practitioners, researchers, miners and the public in developing strategies for reducing mercury use, eliminating major pollution point sources and reducing risks." (p. 375)
This points to the worldwide interests that are implicated by the current conflict between miners and environmental advocates in Colombia, which over the course of the country's gold-mining boom, has become a template-setter for how national and world governments must balance mounting economic opportunity with the threat of environmental destruction.
AFP. (2010). Deep in Colombian Jungle,…… [Read More]
"Coffee is King": The rise and fall of coffee in Colombia, economic growth and social change.
Colombia first became an exporting area in the sixteenth century, under the Spanish arrangement of mercantilism. Spanish imperial rule defined a great deal of Colombia's social and economic development. The colony became an exporter of raw materials, predominantly precious metals, to the mother country. ith its colonial position came a highly planned socioeconomic system founded on slavery, indentured servitude, and restricted foreign contact. Colombia's contemporary economy, based on coffee and other agricultural exports, did not materialize until well after its independence in 1810, when local entrepreneurs were free to take advantage of on world markets other than Spain. The late nineteenth century saw the development of tobacco and coffee export industries, which really enlarged the merchant class and led to population growth and the enlargement of cities. ealth was concentrated in agriculture and…… [Read More]
9% of total GDP in Colombia (U.S.$3,524 million) and generates 386,000 direct jobs, equivalent to 1.8% of total employment in the country (Tourism Industry in Colombia).
The Composition of Tourism in Colombia
With 3,208 km of coastline (1,760 km on Caribbean Sea and 1,448 km on Pacific Ocean),
and 400 km of Amazon forest and Andean mountains, Colombia has a vast array of possible tourist destinations.
Some of the reasons tourists are interested in visiting Colombia would be its privileged location on the continent. All the environments of the tropics are present: glaciers, beaches, plains, rainforests, and deserts, which all add to its desirability (Where to go?).
Colombia also has countless tourist destinations offering a wide array of activities. Even the most jaded traveler can't help but be swept up by the magic of Cartagena, steeped in history and gentle people. Oozing romance, the old city is a warren of…… [Read More]
The Liberal and Conservative parties are therefore in a battle to "out-do" each other, in terms of producing the most workable, viable and therefore, acceptable, policy towards these issues, at any given time during their time in office, or their election campaigns. This model of Aldrich's therefore explains political party change within Colombia rather well: a focus on issues of immediate security concern at any particular time in history define the political strategies of Colombian parties.
Aldrich ends his book by saying, "In America, democracy is unthinkable, save in terms of a two-party system, because no collection of ambitious politicians have been able to think of a way to achieve their goals in this democracy, save in terms of political parties" (Aldrich, 1995; 296).
Dix (1989) synthesizes all of these opinions on the party political system in Latin America, in his paper on cleavage structures and party systems in the…… [Read More]
Education and Fertility ates
Fertility and Educational Attainment
Women around the world are starting to become more empowered through higher education attainment levels. Millions of women are now finding more educational opportunities at their fingertips, which empower them as well as the economic capacity of their respective nations. Yet, education also has an impact on fertility rates; as education levels rise, fertility rates tend to decrease. Nations with higher education expectations thus tend to have women with decreased fertility rates and who tend to have children at much older age groups than in nations where there are less educational opportunities for women.
Education is a major factor of improving a woman's quality of life. At the same time, education also impacts the rate at which women give birth. The research suggests that "educational attainment has long been considered the most important measure of socioeconomic status in describing fertility differentials" (Center…… [Read More]
consultancy firm expertise international business challenges issues. You present analysis a business report. Your report focus identification discursive analysis main issues include conclusions recommendations.
isk analysis: Australia vs. Colombia and the Democratic epublic of Congo
New taxes are always worrisome, and the Australian government's recent decision to pass a 30% tax on profits from iron ore and coal have left many investors scurrying in search of other investment opportunities in alternate countries with lower tax rates and labor costs (Scott 2011). However, simply looking at a balance sheet to determine average tax rates and wages is only a small component of deciding whether a country is a worthwhile investment. With this caveat in mind, it must be cautioned that the proposed decision to shift resources to investing in the coal mining sector in Colombia and the iron ore sector in the Democratic epublic of Congo is neither viable nor cheaper…… [Read More]
microeconomic event related to New Balance Athletic Shoe, Inc.
The shoes industry just like any other business activity encompasses of diverse footwear retailers, manufacturers and wholesalers. The chief wholesalers in the entire United States of America marketplaces especially the brand name owners obtain the shoes from the independent manufactures. The retail footwear organizations range entails the small shoes businesses that provide shoes to the local citizens to the multinational chain companies. However, most of the footwear industries all over the world operate in both the wholesale and retail arenas hence capable of increasing the profitable returns. Operating through both the wholesale and retail arenas also assist the shoe companies to reduce the risks the organization faces. For instance, New Balance Athletic Shoe, Inc. incorporates all the retail and wholesale plants to acquire ready-made materials for the production of the final footwear product (Carroll, Archie and Ann 71).
Analysis of current…… [Read More]
hy could Africa be considered on of the richest continents on Earth? Discuss some of sub-Saharan Africa's Assets. Then address why, despite these facts, the majority of African states remain poor. Be sure to include several factors relation to this region's unique physical geography, complex human geography, history.
The spectrum of environments which exist in Africa spans entire moisture and temperature gradients, from perhaps the most arid to among the well-watered places on earth, from the coolness of the Cape to the furnace that is the Sahara. This environmental diversity is mirrored in the proliferation of its fauna and flora, for Africa has seemingly every conceivable combination of climatological, geological, and pedological factors; the plant and animal communities have evolved over time to reflect this heterogeneity. Moreover, it is an ancient continent that has provided a cradle for a wide range of taxonomic groups, from among the very…… [Read More]
The RIRA on occasion attacks a British army base, or bombs a civilian site just to show it is still out there while FARC is a powerful force that the government has no choice but to negotiate with. Also, the RIRA does not recruit young children for its violent terrorist activities, while FARC recruits and kidnaps thousands of young boys and trains them in guerrilla warfare. The RIRA does not have thousands of acres of poppies (to make into cocaine) that it can within its territory -- the RIRA has no established territory -- that it can exploit (tax) in order to raise money. That said, the RIRA does do some drug smuggling, according to credible sources.
There is an interesting connection between FARC and the RIRA: Evidence shows that the RIRA has been training FARC in "new technology" (bombs/mortars) (www.bbc.co.uk).
Center for Defense Information. (2007). Revolutionary Armed…… [Read More]
They are Canadian, so dealing in Canada and the U.S. is easy for them. Only Venezuela would have represented a challenge. Arguably, with a socialist government in place there, the degree of difficulty is higher than in Colombia. However, modest success in Venezuela is a small sample size from which to gauge the ability of the company to sell the Aakash in Colombia.
Another point to take into consideration is that the Aakash is a new product. Data ind has not even sold it in India, or has just begun to in the past few days. hile there is considerable buzz about the product in the estern media, this does not necessarily translate into a successful product, as the Tata Nano experience indicates (The Economist, 2011).
Overall, Data ind's international experience is hard to gauge because of the small sample size. The company has operated internationally, including both marketing and…… [Read More]
This leads to many false stereotypes and assumptions about cultures which most of us have never experienced.
2) When the structure of colonialism set in on Latin America, the Catholic Church established Counter-Reformation initiatives ordered by Spain's Holy Inquisition. The Counter-Reformation discouraged cultural endeavors in Latin America if they were not directly affiliated to specific Church celebrations. This resulted in much illiteracy and general ignorance of advances being made in the world during the 17th and 18th centuries, specifically the Enlightenment. Additionally, the Catholic Church, in this role, was less involved in being true missionaries, but rather functioned as a cultural censor that enforced regulatory social practices. Peninsular bureaucrats seemed to have no interest or care for the vast lands of Latin America, and developed an increasing disdain for the growing mixed Spanish and indigenous population (Mestizo). They were suspicious of indigenous and mestizo people, and also of Spanish people…… [Read More]
My old home in the Bronx was a Tower of Babel -- filled with the warble of more languages than the United Nations. Every house I walked past on my way home from dinner poured forth different sounds, different smells. The pungency of curry powder, the sun-baked scent of saffron, the strange fermented odor of kimchi -- none of these were of my culture, but all of these smells became part of my world, my soul, my sense of identity.
Then my family moved to the land of odorless bologna and tasteless white bread. I feared my Spanish heritage would become a social liability. What was I to do about my funny name, my parents with their heavy accents and unapologetic celebration of the ways of their homelands? I was an extrovert in my old neighborhood. Now, suddenly I worried about making friends and being accepted. Bringing kids to my…… [Read More]
As was the nature of the Cold ar, the United States responded by quashing new governments that were likely to lead to communism, even where this constituted an undemocratic or even brutal instituted government (Kort 80).
Democratically elected officials from Brazil, Guyana, and Uruguay were overthrown by internal revolutionaries who were funded and trained by American forces (Parenti 44). These and other leaders and governments in Latin America were targeted by American forced as having communist leanings. Foreign policy followed, with more than two decades of the Cold ar focusing not only on the major publicized events of Korea and the Soviet Union, but on many small, third world countries. These small nations were poised to become players in the larger Cold ar struggle depending on where their allegiance and governments ended up after declaring their independence. ith the Soviet Union attempting to exert force and pressure on the United…… [Read More]
Diversity Experience the Boys and Girls Club
Diversity Experience: The Boys and Girls Club
There is no other population as vulnerable as children. Often times, the trouble they face is not because of their own immediate actions, but from the actions of the others around them. Yet, they suffer the most. That is why community activism working towards bettering the conditions of the nation's children is so important, and why the work of the Okanagan Boys and Girls Club is so important.
I had the opportunity to attend an event at the local Boys and Girls Club here in Kelowna. The event took place at 2337 ichter St. In Kelowna at the Downtown Youth Centre. This particular Boys and Girls Club works primarily with older groups and families. In fact, other than the Summer Camp Activities, the location's primary focus is older children, mostly teens. The event I attended was…… [Read More]
South America's very old, biggest, most competent, and well- equipped rebellion having Marxist origin is the evolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - FAC. The uproar and clashing in the 1950s involving liberal and conservative militias lead to the civil war that demolished Columbia and from here FAC came into existence. The murder of liberal party leader Jorge Eliecer by the representatives of the conservative government ignited the battle between the Liberal and Conservative political parties. The consequent civil wars lead to the loss of over 200,000 Columbians and generated a glut of guerrilla groups. One of those groups, lead by Manuel Marulanda, split from the Liberals in 1966 and developed into the Marxist-oriented FAC. (FAC History)
Identify the group by name and country in which based. If there is no one country, state the countries in which the group is operative, or the region.
a. Stated goals and…… [Read More]
Columbian Drug Trade
If Americans know nothing else about Colombia, they know that it is a place where people grow and package cocaine for use on the world market. This is, of course, a highly biased view of the country because Colombians do many things other than make and sell drugs and most Colombians are not involved in the drug trade at all.
However, it remains true that much of the world's cocaine does originate in Colombia, which has important consequences for that nation's standing in the world as well as for its relationship with the United States. This paper examines some of the consequences for the relationship between the two countries of the ways in which political and economic life in Colombia have become linked to the trade in cocaine.
We must begin this assessment with some basic facts about both Colombia and the drug trade.
It is certainly…… [Read More]
The United States of America has long grappled with the problem of drugs and has form time to time initiated measures to combat the usage and trafficking of drugs. It is common knowledge that the various wars that have been part of the combat program of several administrations have failed miserably despite the availability of a great deal of resources, added to the colossal funding process. This is in addition to the numerous governmental agencies that operate to curb the drug trade and trafficking. Though the threat of drug usage and illegal trade is looming large, the danger is not always as proportionate as it is painted.
A certain amount of exaggeration that goes along factual details so as to create a sense of grave emergency that would work out to political benefits. ut it cannot also be regarded that the threat of drugs and their usage is…… [Read More]
evolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FAC) is the largest rebel group in Colombia and has been in constant battle with the government. For the longest time, there has been an unrelenting tug of war between the government and the leftist guerillas, with peace talks and cease fires coming into the picture in recent periods. One of the main themes perceived in three of the five articles is with regard to the goals, targets and tactics of the rebel group. Terrorist and rebel groups that have the capability to transform plans into considerable actions cultivate as part of the practice, resilient ideological practicalities, that offer guidance to the incentives and strategies of the organization. More so, at the end of the day, these ideologies largely influence the selection of targets by the terrorist groups, stirred in part by whom the organization's belief considers is culpable for its objections and complaints. In…… [Read More]
Foreign business environment: Columbia
A. What events (political, economic, and technological) are the most important in recent years that might have impacted the business culture in Colombia?
Individuals who perceive Colombia as still being paralyzed by crime networks and drug cartels are skeptical and bewildered by the notion of a confederation of politicians, business leaders, and academicians visiting the nation. However, in reality, the situation in Colombia is far different from what it was a mere ten years ago.
Colombia’s infamous cruel and powerful drug cartels emerged during the latter part of the seventies era and developed in the subsequent two decades. Specifically, the Cali Cartel and Pablo Escobar’s Medellín Cartel were politically, socially and economically influential in the nation in this period. During the last two decades of the twentieth century, the world regarded the nation as being well on its way to becoming a failure as a state.…… [Read More]
There has been an ongoing process for the integration and co-operation of the countries in South America for quite sometime, but the individual countries have their own structures and problems. This leads to a situation where not much progress seems to be made.
The first attempt at the regional development of Latin America through the cooperation of the member states was through the Latin American Free Trade Association, set up in 1960. On 12 August 1980, the foreign ministers of the 11 member countries of the Latin American Free Trade Association signed an agreement in Montevideo, Capital of Uruguay. This announced the establishment of the Association for the Latin American Integration. The treaty officially entered into force on 18 March 1981. On the same day, the Latin American Free Trade Association stopped its activities.
The association is an inter-governmental integration organization for the Latin American region. It…… [Read More]
evolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FAC), the largest rebel group in Colombia, proclaiming that it would abandon its practice of kidnapping. In addition, the rebel group also declared that it would release the held prisoners of war, some of whom have been held for more than fourteen years. The author deals with the problem by delving into the root cause of the problem, taking a look into the past problems and the future prospects as well. The author comes to the conclusion that this might be history repeating itself as in the past; in the 1980s the group asserted that it would put an end to the kidnappings, but never actually did. However, the author does mention that President Santos might use this move in a bid to attain a second term in office (Brodzinsky, 2012).
In this article, the author addresses the impact that peace talks between…… [Read More]
Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…… [Read More]
The convention entitles those who have not attained 18 years to special protection. State parties admitting those under the age of 18 into their national armed forces under voluntary recruitment must ensure that such recruitments are genuinely voluntary. Informed consent of the parents of such recruits has to be sought. ecruits have to be fully informed of their engagements in such military service. The protocol forbids armed groups that are not armed forces of states from enlisting those under the age of 18 years into their ranks as to take part in armed conflicts. State parties are called upon to ensure that legal measures are taken against armed groups that recruit individuals below the age of 18. State parties must ensure that the principles and provisions of this protocol are known and promoted. Other than the optional protocol there exists international humanitarian law that safeguards the rights of a child.…… [Read More]
Though not the sole operator in its industry in Colombia, the company provides the vast majority of oil and natural gas products to the domestic market, and its international market share makes it one of the world's thirty-five largest petroleum companies (Sourcewatch 2010). Ecopetrol has also established a very strong market presence in the Caribbean and South America; fluctuations in purchasing overall and through competition with other regions -- particular the Middle East -- make the establishment of a single concrete measure of market segment fairly difficult (Ecopetrol 2010).
Domestic and Export Strategy
Again, Ecopetrol's state-owned status plays a large role in determining the company's strategy for in its domestic market. The company has essentially monopolized much of the hydrocarbon resources that exist within Colombia's borders, and through its existence as a governmental organization has a much greater deal of price flexibility than its domestic competitors (Ecopetrol 2010; Sourcewatch 2010).…… [Read More]
Davids purports that the MNF would operate under U.N. jurisdiction, with the Organization of American States as its head. (Saskiewicz, 2006) in his review of Davids' book, Saskiewicz (2006) notes that Davids " does not address the difficulties associated with sharing intelligence with foreign nations, nor does he prescribe a means by which this could be accomplished." In turn, he leaves the impression, based on interpersonal relationships and camaraderie, allied MNF members would merely cooperate and share intelligence. This potential "dream," Saskiewicz (2006) proposes would cause nightmares for personnel assigned to any special-security office.
In addition, Davids' assertion the MNF would ultimately fight narco-trafficking organizations, along with political considerations, coupled with logistical and manpower constraints, would most likely dissuade the majority of Latin American militaries from contributing forces to the MNF. MNF financing would also likely serve as an astronomical block to Davids' and/or similar proposed wars against narco terrorism.…… [Read More]
Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…… [Read More]
Garcia Marquez explores the isolation, solitude, and melancholia experienced by the Macondo community, as a metaphor for a parallel isolation, solitude, and essential disconnectedness from the world as experienced by Colombia, and Latin America as a whole. Moreover, as in the life of that Latin American nation, non-reflective violence occurs again and again. Suppression of memory further isolates Macondo until eventually, Macondo creates a society (i.e., a reality) based (oxymoronically) on pure fantasy. Here, Garcia Marquez powerfully suggests how suppression of collective memory: of violence; invasion; challenges to collective identity; outside exploitation, and all else that serves to explain, for better worse, the history of a group, only deepens and increases inevitable disconnectedness within that place and its people.
Garcia Marquez, Gabriel. One Hundred Years of Solitude. Gregory Rabassa
Trans.). New York: Avon, 1971.
One Hundred Years of Solitude." Sparknotes. Retrieved May 11, 2005, at http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/solitude.htm.
Restorina, Maria…… [Read More]
The research also showed that Guevara's trip throughout Latin America as chronicled in his book, the Motorcycle Diaries, was a formative experience for him and transformed him into a revolutionary in spirit as well as in deed. Finally, the research also showed that unlike the reports of other iconographic figures from the 1960s, Guevara's death was confirmed by empirical observation but his popular identity continues to be developed through the use of famous photographic images and his legacy continues to be reinforced by people in search of heroes today.
arbas, Samantha. "James Hopgood, Ed. The Making of Saints: Contesting Sacred Ground,"
iography, 29 no. 2 (2006), 354.
enavides-Vanegas, Farid Samir, "From Santander to Camilo and Che: Graffiti and Resistance
in Contemporary Colombia," Social Justice, 32 no. 1 (2005), 53-56.
Gott, Richard. "Che Guevara and the Congo," New Left Review, a no. 220 (1996), 3-33.
"Guevara, Che." The Columbia Encyclopedia,…… [Read More]
El Mall: The Spatial and Class Politics of Shopping Malls in Latin America
This paper delineates a summary and discussion of what the author points out in chapter two and three of the book.
The main argument made by the author in chapter two is how the retail world is experiencing globalization and how shopping mall professionals are on the rise. The International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC) in the past ten years or so has slowly been backed with substance. The international motivation and incentive was perceptible in the year 2013 where the commercial property development organizations flaunted maps of the globe with markings of their international footprints and where one could meet developers emanating from China, Canada and Europe. In turn, this instigated he development and enhancement of living standards across the world (Davila, 2016).
As pointed out, there is an increasing yearning for additional professional development from…… [Read More]
Mexico's Trade Strategy
Mexico has pursued a three-dimensional trade strategy perhaps more diligently than even the United States according to Schott (Studer & Wise, 2007). Mexico has been an active participant in multilateral talks since its GATT accession in 1986 and was the host country for the special Summit of the Americas in Monterrey and for the hemispheric trade talks in Puebla. Mexico is perhaps most famous as the instigator of NAFTA as well as many other FTAs with countries around the world including key industrial markets such as the European Union (EU, The European Free Trade Association (EFTA), and Japan. In addition, Mexico entered in FTAs with olivia, Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, The G3 (Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela), Honduras, Israel and Nicaragua during the period January 1995 to June 2001 (Schott in Studer & Wise, 2007). It is important to emphasize that Mexico has many more FTAs…… [Read More]
In the event that the analysis of records of telephone, e-mail and internet use was considered to amount to an interference with respect for private life or correspondence, the Government contended that the interference was justified. First, it pursued the legitimate aim of protecting the rights and freedoms of others by ensuring that the facilities provided by a publicly funded employer were not abused. Secondly, the interference had a basis in domestic law in that the College, as a statutory body, whose powers enable it to provide further and higher education and to do anything necessary and expedient for those purposes, had the power to take reasonable control of its facilities to ensure that it was able to carry out its statutory functions. It was reasonably foreseeable that the facilities provided by a statutory body out of public funds could not be used excessively for personal purposes and that the…… [Read More]
The Panamanians however, did get the short end of the stick for a really long time.
The Panama Canal Treaty had an astonishing impact on international relations, such an impact, that it is still present today. Panama is the single-most busiest port in the world. With more ships trading there than in any other place, the financial boom that Panama should be receiving is now becoming apparent in Panama City's growth in size. It changed the way that trade was conducted and that travel at the time was made. No longer were ships obligated to go through the south tip of South America, but they could now travel through North and South America in order to get to their destination. Two sides of the World were united through the creation of the Panama Canal, and none of this would have been possible, had it not been for the ratification of…… [Read More]
As recent events in the Middle East have clearly demonstrated, Facebook is more on the side of the politically disadvantaged and the poor as they have increasingly embraced Facebook and other social media while the governments in the region tried to ban them. Many governments such as that of China do not allow Facebook primarily because they want to avert scenarios they have seen in the Middle East.
It was in the wake of 2008 when Oscar Morales, a young man in Columbia, decided that he had had enough of FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), a Marxist group which routinely kidnaps people, keeping them as hostages for months or years, while many of the hostages die in captivity. Angry and depressed by the actions of FARC, one night he turned to Facebook which he had been using to connect with his friends and high school classmates. He…… [Read More]
Involved people in these illegal transfers take advantage of institutional weaknesses and corruption to achieve their objectives.
One of the constant features found along the research is the weak handling of systematic information by the state authorities, especially from the police bodies. At the same time, the lack of channels that facilitate the free access to information about official proceedings make it difficult for the citizens to take part in solving the problem (ibid.).
The borders' porosity is another risk for democracy because bordering zones are strategic spaces for different illicit traffics which look to be controlled by organized crime. Internationalization of crime and its organization structures represent a problem for national security and for the region's stability.
Illegal traffic of fire arms is associated with other illicit traffics which are complemented mainly with drug traffic. Economic resources generated with those actions at the sideline of law are higher than…… [Read More]
Environmental Assessing Canada
More and more countries have gotten actively involved in protecting the environment and Canada makes no exception from the rule, taking into account that it installed a series of programs meant to assist nature and discourage individuals or groups that might be inclined to damage it. The Canadian Environmental Act is probably one of the most significant steps that the country has taken with the purpose of making it mandatory for people and communities to conduct environmental assessments for diverse projects that they propose. Canadians have acknowledged the fact that some actions might have negative effects on the environment and thus developed environmental assessments meant to remove or diminish a project's capacity to harm to environment.
The 1868 Fisheries Act is probably one of the first significant environmental assessment programs that the government installed with the purpose of preventing individuals from harming the environment as a result…… [Read More]
Native Art of North and Meso America
The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between native North American art and the art of Mesoamerica? Is an exchange of artistic influences seen between these two neighboring regions?
etween 20,000 and 30,000 years ago, the first inhabitants of the Americas arrived in North America. This time was approximately around the time of the last glacial age. The oceans of the world due to water forming into ice were lower than they presently are and a land bridge approximately 1,000 miles wide connecting Siberia to Alaska formed. This is known as the ering land bridge. Some of these new inhabitants settled in North America and others migrated to Central and South America. There were great civilizations flourishing throughout the Americas at different times and in different locations. (Education Department of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 2000, paraphrased)
Meso-America…… [Read More]
War on Drugs
The concept of the 'War on Drugs' was first coined by President Nixon back in 1971 in an effort to discourage the illegal trafficking of drugs. The primary motivation for this was the way that many states were falling victim to the dynamics of the drugs and terrorism links prevalent in the region. There have many studies conducted that show various authentic connections between the drug business and how a majority of the money it produces is used to fund terrorism and destructive activities.
Throughout the late 19th century, numerous parts of the United States, from time to time, have faced numerous disruptions in their efforts for the peace process because of the growth of the drug industry. The entire debate on war in drugs now revolves around whether or not, certain drugs must be legalized/not legalized and their trafficking and distribution monitored. In a recent article,…… [Read More]
y contrast, this was not found to be true for the Colombian couples. Instead, their level of relationship satisfaction was predicted by having a similar level of expressiveness between spouses, irrespective of whether the level was high, medium, or low (Ingoldsby, 1980). Likewise, Colombian women and men were determined to be are equally likely to say what they feel and to express themselves at the same level as North American males. In the United States, female spouses are typically significantly more expressive as a group than are their male counterparts (Ingoldsby, 1980).
In a significant recent paper, ailey (2006) focuses on biotechnological discoveries in birth control methods that offered women greater power to choose the timing of childbearing. This power may have translated into higher investments in education and increased labor force participation of women. In an excellent paper, among other things, Goldin (1995) focused on technological International Research Journal…… [Read More]
eflexivity: "How did the author come to write this text…Is there adequate self-awareness and self-exposure for the reader to make judgments about the point-of-view?"
This work is probably strongest on the issue of reflexivity because the author makes clear that she was embedded in the controversy, though she also offers and outsiders perspective, the experiences of the work were lived experiences. Her introduction material makes clear that she had both a journalistic and personal interest in the development of the human rights condition within the culture of Columbia. This could have created a challenge to objectivity but her scholarly skill obviously well contains the desire to be overly personal or sentimental, a problem that can be seen in some ethnographic works.
Impact: "Does this affect me? Emotionally? Intellectually?" Does it move me?
The work did impact me, emotionally and intellectually as it adequately demonstrated atrocities, though like I said previously…… [Read More]
Andean Indigenous Interest and Rights regarding the Politics of the Amazon
In today's society, there is a tremendous need for global initiatives to support biodiversity, conservation and the protection of nature, as well as the culture of local inhabitants, especially those living in the Amazon. In recent years, many governments and coalitions have partnered with communities and native leaders to protect biodiversity and culture.
Grass-roots organizations and scientific discoveries have increased awareness about these issues, which include democratic participation by indigenous people, intellectual property rights, and cultural and ethnic identity. Within the context of globalization, the world is shrinking, and the dominant cultures, those of Europe and the United States, are penetrating the local world, including the indigenous groups in the Amazon basin. This paper will discuss the Andean indigenous interest and rights regarding the politics of the Amazon.
Global interest in ecological issues began in the mid-1980's.…… [Read More]
Accusing both of possessing communist sympathies and of allowing themselves to become tools of leftist propaganda, a staunch Reagan ally, Ambassador Rivas from El Salvador, argues that "'serious efforts' were being made to stem armed forces abuses and that this was the 'type of story that leads us to believe there is a plan' to discredit the ongoing electoral process in El Salvador, and to discredit the armed forces 'or to take credit away from the certification President Reagan must make to Congress." (Danner, 188)
The claims here are unwittingly revealing in retrospect, tying the degree to which the massacre at El Mozote had discrediting the American cause in El Salvador with the concern now experienced by the Reagan Administration at gaining the necessary Congressional support to continue its war. The result would be a massive cover-up on the part of the Reagan Administration, which would never officially acknowledge the…… [Read More]
This may be because of the fact that the author took it upon himself to reveal the names of the hostages who were killed and who were ultimately released. Since the main drama in the book is trying to imagine what will happen next, there is no fun in reading what has happened after knowing the ending of the book. (News of a Kidnapping) After reading the book, Villamizar had this to say: "It's unusual, but everything that happens in Columbia is unusual." (Gabriel Garcia Marquez: (www.levity.com)
Some of the other books authored by Gabriel Marcia Marquez are 'The Autumn of the Patriarch', which is a book based on the theme of decay, 'Leaf Storm', 'No one writes to the Colonel', 'Innocent Erendira ', 'In Evil Hour', "Chronicle of a death Foretold', and 'Love in the time of Cholera'. (Gabriel Garcia Marquez: (www.levity.com) Gabriel Garcia Marquez received a Nobel Prize…… [Read More]
Ecuador is a country full of beauty and culture. It also has an interesting history. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the country of Ecuador as it relates to Geography, Natural esources, Political and legal System (past & current), Culture, major Trading Partners (past & present), Export, labor forces and Technology. Let us begin the discussion by discussing the history of the country.
History of Ecuador
The history of Ecuador is amongst the most interesting in all the world. Most of the nation that is now known as Ecuador was captured by the Peruvian Incas in the 15th century (Ecuador 2001). The conquest of the Incans is described in more detail by Meggers (1966). The author asserts that the Incan conquest of Ecuador was commenced between 1463 and 1471, when the southern highland basins of Loja and Cuenca were integrated into the Empire by Topa Inca. The author…… [Read More]
Stated to be barriers in the current environment and responsible for the reporting that is inadequate in relation to medical errors are:
Lack of a common understanding about errors among health care professionals
Physicians generally think of errors as individual that resulted from patient morbidity or mortality.
Physicians report errors in medical records that have in turn been ignored by researchers.
Interestingly errors in medication occur in almost 1 of every 5 doses provided to patients in hospitals. It was stated by Kaushal, et al., (2001) that "the rate of medication errors per 100 admission was 55 in pediatric inpatients. Using their figure, we estimated that the sensitivity of using a keyword search on explicit error reports to detect medication errors in inpatients is about 0.7%. They also reported the 37.4% of medication errors were caused by wrong dose or frequency, which is not far away from our result of…… [Read More]
In both Silence and the Mission, violence breaks out among two types of European foreigners: those who would favor religious priorities over economic ones (the priests), and those who would favor economic priorities over religious ones (the European tradesmen in Silence and the Portuguese and Spanish bounty hunters in the Mission. Moreover, according to Pena, like the Jesuits in the Mission, who are alone, isolated, at odds with their church, and sometimes even each other, "Rodrigues' trials are exacerbated by his physical and cultural isolation... Culturally, he must confront being in a nation whose language and customs are mostly alien and threatening to him."
In the Mission, the story begins when a bounty-hunting Spaniard, Rodrigo, kills his younger brother Felipe over a woman they both love, but who loves only Felipe. Languishing in prison afterward, Rodrigo is certain that all is lost until he is visited in his prison cell…… [Read More]
Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.
Importance of the Study
The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…… [Read More]
African-American MOTHES AND THEI DAUGHTES
Ethical Issues in Gumdrop Northern
The Executive Officer, ABC Company
Ethical Issues in Gumdrop Northern
It has come to my attention that the actions and functions of the Gumdrop Northern are not up to standards. The company besides afflicting the American citizens, particularly the military, has lacked a sense of corporate social responsibility to both their employees, customers and the natural environment. Notably, the business world faces the notion of corporate social responsibility in all aspects of business undertakings (Bitektine, 2011). In a wide assortment of issues, corporations get motivation of to behaving in a socially responsible manner. In the contemporary world, corporate businesses focuses on the interest of the society through taking responsibility for the effect of their actions on employees, shareholders, communities and customers in all facets of their operations (Bitektine, 2011).
Nevertheless, this is contrary to what Gumdrop Northern is doing to…… [Read More]
Gabriel Garcia-Marquez was born on March 6, 1928 in Aracataca, Colombia. Raised by his grandparents in the remote isolated village, Marquez has become a literary celebration with such books as "One Hundred Years of Solitude" and "Love in the Time of Cholera," winning the Nobel Prize in literature in 1982 (Gabriel pg). He attended Universidad Nacional in Bogota and studied law at the Universidad de Cartagena. hile writing a column for El Universal in college, he became disinterested in law and began studying literature (Gabriel pg). He was honored by the Swedish Academy of Letters "for his novels and short stories in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts" (Gabriel pg).
There is little doubt that Marquez's upbringing had a tremendous effect on his life. His grandfather, former Colonel Nicholas Ricardo Marquez Mejia, helped found the…… [Read More]
Cassava (Manihot esculenta)
Origin and economic value of Cassava to humans:
Brazil and Paraguay are the places where Cassava originated. The other wild forms of these species are known and today it is given as a cultigen category. Cassava is grown yearly and it is a persistent woody shrub. For people living in the moist tropics, Cassava is the main source of low cost carbohydrate. Brazil is the largest producer of Cassava, trailed by Thailand, Nigeria, Zaire and Indonesia. In Africa and Asia the production continues to increase while in the Latin America the production remains constant over the past 30 years. This is found throughout the moist areas and it is the major food in many parts of Western and Central Africa. Since there is a large quantity of other alternate materials available, the global market for Cassava starch and meal is limited. Cassava supplies the daily calorie intake…… [Read More]
homosexual latinos: the difficulties latinos face in being homosexual; the differences between homosexual latinos and Caucasian homosexuals; how latino homosexuals are treated within their communities, by their families, and within their countries of origin; and how homosexual latinos are treated within Latin America as a whole.
People have argued that homosexuality is part of the latino culture, and has been since pre-Columbian time, as records from pottery, and accounts from conquistadors of the Aztecs' behavior confirms. As the following quote, from a website championing gay and lesbian rights, shows, "homosexuality is a part of the pre- Columbian history of America. Spanish chroniclers observed various socio-sexual roles, including private same-sex relationships, and homosexuality as public ritual. Surviving effigy pottery demonstrates that Native people practiced a wide array of sexual customs. Among the militaristic and prudish Aztecs, sex also had a religious aspect. Xochiquetzal was considered the goddess of eroticism and sexual…… [Read More]
State Department issues travel warnings for the world's different countries and territories. For Mexico, these warnings are rather comprehensive, providing not just a state-by-state breakdown of the security situation but in some cases a town-by-town one. In some cases, routes are prescribed: "U.S. government personnel are authorized to use Federal toll road 15D for travel to Mexico City; however, they may not stop in the town of La Barca for any reason" (State Department, 2015). Even laypeople, when you tell them you are going to Mexico, get a look of concern on their faces, and feel obliged to tell you that it is not safe there. Yet Mexico ranks 15th in the world in international overnight visitors, with 24.1 million per year, according to the World Bank (2014). Mexico is, in fact, one of the world's most popular tourism destinations. It is not the only country with a…… [Read More]
Political Leaders In Latin America: Hugo Chavez And Lula
Who is Hugo Chavez and Lula
Hugo Chavez was born on 28 July 1954 in Sabaneta, Venezuela. Chavez attended Venezuelan military academy and took up service as an army officer prior active participation in efforts of the overthrowing government in 1992. His actions led to a two-year sentence in prison after arrest. In 1999, Chavez was named president of Venezuela. Within the early days of his presidency, he developed new constitution in the nation that was inclusive of changes of the capital name to the Bolivarian epublic of Venezuela. Chavez engaged in a critical focus of efforts towards gaining ultimate control of state-run oil companies. However, this was stirred with controversy and translated into protests and strained relations between Venezuela and the U.S. As well as subsequent nations. Chavez has a brief comment on the removal from power (Clairmont,…… [Read More]
Gold has had fans in many places since the dawn of civilization. From the pre-Columbian Americas to Greece, from China to India, gold has served as a symbol of status and also as a tangible means of accumulating and exchanging wealth. In a world in which speculation and virtual currencies reign, gold occupies a more unique position than it has ever before. In Wages of Crime, Naylor reveals the dark underbelly of the world’s most popular precious metal. The chapter “The Underworld of Gold” addresses everything from how gold is mined nefariously in both black and grey market ways, and similarly traded in ways that resemble other types of organized crime. National laws often tax either the import or export of precious metals, driving gold markets to the grey and black zones of the global economy. In a world in which international banking leaves a potentially dangerous paper trail, gold…… [Read More]
Brian inston, "9 'smell the Tulips': the Internet, Neo-Liberalism and Millenarian Hype," in Access Denied in the Information Age /, ed. Stephen Lax [book online] (New York: Palgrave, 2001, accessed 10 December 2008), 166; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102376364;Internet.
Stephen Lax, ed., Access Denied in the Information Age / [book online] (New York: Palgrave, 2001, accessed 10 December 2008), 5; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102376197;Internet.
Michael H. Hoffman, "Corporate arriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry," Parameters 34, no. 3 (2004) [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007239156;Internet; accessed 10 December 2008.
Joshua Kurlantzick, "Outsourcing the Dirty ork: The Military and Its Reliance on Hired Guns," the American Prospect, May 2003 [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001916974;Internet; accessed 10 December 2008.… [Read More]
... They were accustomed to living in the open, to enduring great fatigue and hardship, and to encountering all kinds of danger."
The war against Spain and for the liberation of Cuba was one that would prove the superiority of America and its ideals. The United States, too, could join the nations of Europe as a major world power, with interests in every corner of the globe. Roosevelt became a hero as a result of his exploits in the Spanish-American War - a modern day crusader. He used his standing to vault to the governorship of the State of New York. As Governor he now headed the wealthiest most populous state in the nation, enjoying a position of influence and power unparalleled in his career. New York was the great melting pot, the entry point for the vast waves of immigrants that were arriving from Europe. Immigration in this era…… [Read More]