Once the buffalo hides had been cleaned and stripped, and dried in the sun, the thick hair was stripped off and the hides were made supple through a process of soaking, and rubbing with various substances. They were then smoked over a fire to give them their color.
Each tipi had a hole dug in the center for a fire both for warmth and for cooking in bad or cold weather. During hot days the hides could be rolled up from the bottom to allow more air flow. The tipi was extremely useful, practical, and mobile for the Comanche since they moved around. It is said that the women, working in groups, could set them up or take them down very quickly. The entire Comanche band could be packed and on a buffalo hunt within fifteen minutes.
Comanche clothing was simple and easy to wear. Men wore a leather…… [Read More]
Choose (1) Native Ameican tibe esiding continental United States (Lowe 48 states) time Euopean contact. Reseach aspect chosen tibe's cultue histoy. Topics eseached include limited: Descibing tibe's pe-Columbian histoy, including settlement dates cultual details.
Comanche Indians: Histoy and belief systems
The Plains Indian tibe of the Comanche, accoding to anthopological and linguistic evidence, began as a hunte-gathee mountain tibe "who oamed the Geat Basin egion of the westen United States" (Lipscomb 2012). They wee one of the ealiest Native Ameican tibes to acquie hoses, and became famed fo thei powess as ides. The Comanche acquied hoses faily ealy -- in the late 17th centuy -- and this gave the tibe both militay powe and mobility. "By moving south, they had geate access to the mustangs of the Southwest. The wam climate and abundant buffalo wee additional incentives fo the southen migation. The move also facilitated the acquisition of Fench…… [Read More]
Empire of the Summer Moon -- Non-Fiction American History Book
hat The Book Is About
In the various books about Native Americans published over the years and the myriad history classes students have taken, a great deal of information about Native Americans and their activities has been presented. Much has been written and chronicled about the Sioux and Apache tribes, but how many students who took high school history classes can name the Comanche Tribe as the most powerful Indian tribe in American history? And how many alert readers of the history of the American est can recall that the last and greatest chief of the Comanches was the mixed blood son of Caucasian pioneer woman Cynthia Ann Parker? These facts are all contained in the wonderfully written book by S.C. Gwynne, Empire of the Summer Moon.
The Comanche tribe -- according to the best accounts available to the author…… [Read More]
Carlisle Indian School: founded 1879; Indian boarding school; Pennsylvania; forced assimilation of native children; abuse of children
11. Cheyenne Tribe: Plains Indians; a Sioux name for the tribe; currently comprises two tribes; ties with Arapaho; hunters; ghost dance
12. ed Cloud: leader of Ogala Lakota; fierce warrior opposed U.S.; ed Cloud's War 1866-1868; Wyoming, Montana; became leader on reservation
13. Comanche Tribe: Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma; Plains Indians; hunter-gatherers; about 14,000 remain; speak Uto-Aztecan language related to Shoshone
14. Joseph Brant: Thayendanegea; Mohawk; American evolution fought with British to help Indians; became Mason; active political leader for Six Nations
15. Trail of Tears: massive relocation of Native Americans; affected Choctaw, Cherokee and other southern Indians; move to Oklahoma Indian Territory; 1830s; related to Indian emoval Act; represented treaty violations
16. Pontiac's War: 1763; Great Lakes region; Pontiac was Odawa leader; war against British after Seven Years War; British…… [Read More]
Cheyenne Indians and the Ghost Dance
The Cheyenne people are Native Americans of the Algonquian language family. They are of the Great Plains culture area. The name Cheyenne means 'people of an alien speech,' and was given to them by the Sioux.
The Cheyenne call themselves Tsetschestahase or Tsistsistas, which means 'beautiful people' or 'our people.'
Originally farmers, hunters, and gatherers in the land that is now central Minnesota, however, during the late 17th century, the Cheyenne were driven out of the area by the Sioux and Ojibwa tribes.
Gradually they migrated westward and settled in the area that is now North Dakota, but were forced to move south when the Ojibwa destroyed their settlement in 1770.
When the Cheyenne reached the lack Hills of South Dakota, they changed from farming and hunting and living in permanent villages to a nomadic life following the uffalo herds.
When the horse was…… [Read More]
Extinction of the Native American
The area of the world that is now known as the United States of America used to belong to various tribes of people which are now known as Native Americans as opposed to their old name, Indians, which was a misnomer based on the erroneous idea that explorers from Europe did not know that such a large land mass existed and that by crossing the Atlantic Ocean, they had made it to the country of India. hen Europeans first arrived in this country, they were highly outnumbered by populations of Native Americans. The United States of America is a nation that was built on the ideas of life, liberty, pursuit of happiness, and freedom for all persons. Yet, that freedom has been won only through the genocide of hundreds of thousands of people. In the course of a few centuries, the Native American peoples have…… [Read More]
White European Authors Depicted Native Americans in Fiction
The objective of this study is to examine how white European authors have depicted Native American in Fiction. Examined to inform this study are two specific works in writing and specifically those entitled: "The Last of the Mohicans" and "The Searchers" written by James Fenimore Cooper and John Ford, respectively.
There can be no doubt that the native American Indians are misrepresented in literature written by white European authors as the Indians are portrayed as ignorant, uneducated, ungodly, barbarians and villains. IN the literature of White European authors, the Native American Indians lived a life that was wild, unprincipled and ungodly however, study that has examined the life of the Native American Indians since those earlier works has related an entirely different story of the Native American Indians.
Coleman on Social Construction of Indians in the Cinema
The work of Cynthia-Lou Coleman…… [Read More]
(Famous Cattle Trails)
The Trail in fact aided in the collection of herds of cattle from San Antonio, Helena and Texana in the south and Uvalde, and also from Comanche and Fort Worth, from further north. From Fort Worth, the Chisolm Trail goes straight northwards, and crosses the ed iver at ed iver Station, and when it reaches the Indian Nation Territory, it passes through ush Springs, Kingfisher and Hennessy on through to Kansas. In fact, what made this particular trail very important was the fact that along the route, there were present, three important cattle terminals, which were Wichita, Abilene, and Newton. Abilene was in fact one of the largest cow towns in Kansas, and it was a mere hamlet of twelve red roofed cabins in the year 1867, which was the year when Joseph Mc Coy, a cattle dealer from Chicago, happened to arrive at Kansas.
ecognizing the…… [Read More]
The idea that Americans had the right to expand became known as Manifest Destiny that first appeared in print in 1845, but had been popular for decades prior. The idea was that American's "manifest desitiny [was] to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our multiplying millions." In other words, God granted Americans the right to move est and take whatever land possible. This was echoed in President Polk's Innagural Address in 1844, in which he put forth the idea that America was destined to expand democratic institutions, and that this was a moral right. "It is confidently believed that our system may be safely extended to the utmost bounds of our territorial limits, and that as it shall be extended to bonds of our Union, so far from being weakened, will become stronger" (Manifest Destiny, 2005).
Pressure built so much and there were so many…… [Read More]
Ultimately, they met their end to the advancing Americans. Quanah himself, the epitome of Comanche experiences, fell into a state of madness in 1889 before the age of fifty. In this, Gwynne is showing the end of an era with the end of Quanah's prominence.
In his portrayal of Quanah, Gwynne's detailed and impressive use of language is also a main staple of the work. The language the author chooses shows a clear exaltation of the tribe. He uses vivid descriptions and impressive language to give a sense of power to the narrative itself, almost in honor of the lost people Gwynne is portraying. This language sets up the underlying allegory in the work, as Gwynne calls the first chapter "a lethal paradise" (Gwynne 12). Gwynne is clever in his carefully constructed portrayal of the Comanche and their leader.
Although the book does glorify a lost people, it is honest…… [Read More]
Dead Man's Walk
In the stories of the Wild West, there is always a white man in a white hat who serves as the hero of the story. The villain is always the other white man in the black hat. Symbolically, the villain becomes a racial other because of the color of his hat. When a black hat cannot be found, the other villain of a western will be the Native American, more commonly referred to as the Indian, since calling them by the more politically correct term would be anachronistic. This is a tradition of American stories of the Wild West where the white man, no matter what his character is, will always be heroic in comparison to the villainous other. In the movie version of Larry McMurtry's novel Dead Man's Walk, the heroes of the story are intended to be the Caucasian Texas Rangers and the villains are…… [Read More]
For example, in addition to designating "wol-la-chee," meaning "ant," for a, "be-la-sana" and "tse-nihl," which meant "apple" and "axe," respectively, were also designated for the letter a. The original 211 vocabulary terms were also expanded to 411.
Jevec, and Potter 262)
There is a clear sense that the development of the system was essential to the development of the role as a native American soldier and the idea that the code talker was likely supporting a member of his own native or another native nation from America on the ground likely aided in the desire to fulfill the role of a code talker. It was in fact a highly sought after position that served many fundamental and secondary purposes, not the least of which was the recognition of the value and complexity of a language that had previously been ignored and even subverted, as an "uncivilized" expression by an "uncivilized"…… [Read More]
Politics makes strange bedfellows, we are told, with the implication that those brought together by the vagaries of politics would be best kept apart. But sometimes this is not true at all. In the case of the Black Seminoles, politics brought slaves and Seminole Indians politics brought together two groups of people who would - had the history of the South been written just a little bit differently - would never have had much in common. But slaves fleeing their masters and Seminoles trying to lay claim to what was left of their traditional lands and ways found each other to be natural allies in Florida and in time in other places as well. This paper examines the origin of this particular American population, describing how the Black Seminoles changed over time and how their culture reflected both African and Seminole elements.
The Black Seminoles began in the early 1800s…… [Read More]
Horses have been an important and influential part of North American and European history. In his book, Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, Alfred W. Crosby argues that horses helped to bring about European's successful colonization of a number of temperate regions such as North America, Australia, New Zealand, and some parts of South America. He argues that the profound success of horses in these regions resulted from the filling of an empty biological niche, and that the arrival of horses on the plains in North America resulted in profound changes in the lives of North American Indians. In his article, The ise and Fall of Plains Indian Horse Cultures, Pekka Hamalainen argues that the common view that horses brought success to Native Americans is fundamentally oversimplified. He suggests that the common focus on only the successful incorporation of horses by the Lakota people has distorted modern understanding of…… [Read More]
Environmental History of Sandia Mountains
The view from the top of Sandia Peak is breathtaking. Showing off some of Nature's finest work, the Tramway glides along the cable climbing the rugged Sandia Mountains presenting spectacular views of the io Grande Valley and nearby Sandia Crest. Even though you're just a few miles from Albuquerque, the 15 minute tram ride has taken you far away from the everyday world. As your eyes sweep across the mountain range, appreciating one geological feature after another, you're taken by the spirituality of the scene. You have discovered what every Pueblo Indian knows, that this is indeed a sacred space. At the same time, you understand too why obert Nordhaus was inspired to build the Sandia Peak Tramway to share this picturesque bounty with millions of tourists. For Sandia Mountains, past and present, is a place where residents and tourists, Native Americans and…… [Read More]
Paintbrush & Peacepipe: The Story of George Catlin, and George Catlin and the Old Frontier
Two books, Paintbrush & Peacepipe: The Story of George Catlin, by Anne Rockwell and George Catlin and the Old Frontier, by Harold McCracken, cover almost exactly the same subject matter and differ most significantly in tone and style according to the vastly different audiences to which each is directed.
The first book, Paintbrush and Peacepipe, 86 small pages in length, with 8 brief chapters and 15 illustrations, is written for children. By comparison, the second book, George Catlin and the Old Frontier, with its 209 oversized pages might seem a vastly superior presentation of George Catlin's biography. The artbook format of McCracken's work, with its 36 color and 118 black and white illustrations, is far more authoritative and detailed in its representation of the scope of Catlin's art. Yet, Paintbrush & Peacepipe, in it's minimalist…… [Read More]
Circle of Life Framework in Breast Health Education
Article Critique Analysis: Use of the Talking Circle for Comanche omen's Breast Health Education, by E. Haozous, V. Eschiti, and J. Lauderdale
The journal article, "Use of the Talking Circle for Comanche omen's Breast Health Education" by E. Haozous et. al. (2010), promotion of education on breast health was explored using a specific and unique tradition as the framework of the study. This tradition, called the Circle of Life (COL), is an "intertribal cancer prevention program focused on breast health education" and is specifically implemented among American Indian (AI) women (378). Using the COL as framework, the authors aimed to achieve "cultural congruency" in exploring, discovering, and identifying the different dimensions concerning breast health education and promotion effectiveness in the context of AI women's culture -- specifically, Comanche women (378). Harmonized understanding of the Comanche community, female and health cultures led to…… [Read More]
The warfare was also psychological because the looting of southern homes and the pillaging of southern farms greatly diminished the resources of the confederate army. The confederate army was running out of options. In addition to the use of psychological warfare, Sherman also used traditional warfare tactics to bring about surrender and ultimately victory.
Sherman's strategies during the Civil ar also had an influence upon the manner in which the Indian ars were conducted. Again the general utilized a combination of traditional and psychological warfare tactics. The Indian wars were a series of conflicts between the Colonists and Native American tribes. The Indian ars lasted foor several decades.
According to Hughes (2001) the 1840's saw a rise in negative attitudes towards colonists by Native Americans and vice versa. Native American's believed that hite men were taking over their native territories and pushing them off of the land where they had…… [Read More]
And farther west on the Great Plains were the Teton Sioux, among them the Oglalas, whose chief was Red Cloud, and among the Hunkpapas, was Sitting ull, who together with Crazy Horse of the Oglalas, would make history in 1876 at Little ig Horn (rown 10).
After years of broken promises, conflicts and massacres, came the Treaty of Fort Laramie, said to be the most important document in the history of Indian-white relations on the Great Plains (Marrin 94). The treaty basically set aside a Great Sioux Reservation on all of present-day South Dakota west of the Missouri River up to and including the lack Hills, and barred all whites except government officials from the reservation and from a vast "unceded" territory lying between the lack Hills and ighorn Mountains (Marrin 94). Under the treaty, these lands belonged to the Lakota "forever" unless three-quarters of the tribes' men agreed to…… [Read More]
Roles, Duties, and Influence of uffalo Soldiers in the United States
Despite the fact that uffalo Soldiers and their accomplishments may not be known by many, they played an integral role in the construction and expansion of the United States as it is known today. While the uffalo Soldiers as a cavalry only lasted from 1866 to 1944, their influence has had a lasting impact. Furthermore, they helped to pave the way for future African-American leaders and deserve to not only be recognized for their valuable services, but also need to be remembered as role models.
On July 28, 1866, the United States Congress passed legislation to establish two segregated cavalry units, the 9th and 10th regiments, and four segregated infantry regiments, the 38th, 39th, 40th, and 41st, which were to be made up of black, enlisted men.[footnoteRef:1] These six different units were later consolidated into four black regiments in…… [Read More]
John Ford's The Searchers is based on a very simple straightforward story of a man's search for his niece, who has been abducted by Indians. Yet, what makes the film an undoubtedly great masterpiece is that it succeeds in exploring the conflicting emotions within a human being that result in moral dilemmas and a personality full of contradictions, within the ambit of such a simple plot. The film accomplishes this through unraveling the character of Ethan Edwards, its central protagonist, as its story progresses. Thus, The Searchers, through the vehicle of its hero, makes a strong statement about the fact that the potential for tragedy lies in "...a pulling apart within the personality, a disturbance...of integration. The character is not 'one' but divided...the tragic experience, whether in art or in life...." (Heilman, 7)
Ford's intention behind The Searchers is, in fact, made pretty clear at the very start of…… [Read More]
Ethan is a monster and he is John Wayne" (Eyman 449, cited in Prats 278, cited by Priestley).
The fears of miscegenation (either by willing sexual intercourse or rape) are so deep, several of the characters suggest that it is better to be dead than to 'go native.' The film does not endorse these character's articulated views, however, given the fact that Ethan's niece Debbie is ultimately allowed to live and is embraced by her uncle. By forcing the viewer into such a critical stance regarding the character's views, even Ethan's views, he or she is encouraged to question other accepted tropes of native-white relations, Priestley believes.
Ethan's treatment of Martin, a 1/8th Comanche, illustrates the dangers of racism. In Ethan's eyes, even Martin's willingness to help find Debbie does not redeem him. But Martin saves Debbie's life, implying that Ethan's extreme racism is not validated, given that later on…… [Read More]
While it may not seem like an exciting state from a distance, Oklahoma actually has a great history to it that is full of action and adventure. In Dwyer’s The Oklahomans, the history of these people comes to life. There are many stories to tell as Dwyer notes, so it is difficult to know where to begin—but as always the best place is typically at the beginning. The beginning of the story of the Oklahomans begins even before statehood was accomplished in 1907. It starts in the 19th century when the land was being used by cattle herders, farmers, settlers, and Indians who were placed there in what was then known as Indian Territory. Some of these Indians were fierce, like Quanah Parker, the warrior Comanche who killed many settlers and made the region a frightening place. However, Parker converted to Christianity later in his life, after coming into contact…… [Read More]
I also become more aware of the beauty that I have within myself. The story is further inspiring to me, because I identify with Ms. Chavez as a result of her Mexican origin. Obviously she has come to America in pursuit of a dream. he has fulfilled her American dream many times over. I can only hope to do the same with my life.
Another encouraging and gratifying factor in this story is the validation of my own views regarding Lawton. It is a city of truly equal opportunities for whomever chooses to take them. It seems like literally anyone can achieve anything. Furthermore, I find it very encouraging that both the media and government institutions support and openly report the success of efforts such as those by Ms. Chavez. As a White-Mexican female, this makes me aware that, while all cultures are beautiful and should be promoted in their…… [Read More]
Landscape as Replacement of the Mulvey Female in "The Searchers"
In her famous essay, "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema," feminist film theorist Laura Mulvey posits that men in Hollywood cinema, responding to demands of the ruling ideology, "cannot bear the burden of sexual objectification." Basically, she suggests that the dichotomy between narrative and spectacle echoes the division between men and women such that men control and forward narrative, while women exist as spectacle or objects of visual pleasure to be looked at.
John Ford's "The Searchers" is interesting for its alternating and sometimes simultaneous adherence to and subversion of Mulvey's observation and theory. On the one hand, his directorial camera lingers over men far more than women, allowing the audience to derive pleasure from male characters. On the other, it may be argued that the landscape itself has female characteristics, suggesting that the est as Ford depicts it, is the…… [Read More]
America at War 1865-Present
A Survey of America at War from 1865 to Present
Since the Civil War, America has seldom seen a generation of peace. In fact, a nonstop succession of wars has kept what Eisenhower termed "the military industrial complex" in lucrative business. From the Indian Wars to the World Wars to the Cold War to the war on Terror, Americana has expanded its foothold as an imperial power every step of the way -- even when isolationism appeared to be momentarily in vogue following World War I. This paper will look at the history of the progression of war in America from 1865 to present, showing how that history -- through social, economic, literary, political, and religious changes -- has both shaped and been shaped by American foreign and domestic policy.
Unit Once: 1865-1876
The Civil War had just ended on the home front, but that did…… [Read More]
Clearly, rain is important in the desert southwest, which is why it is such a common and important thread in the two books.
The viewpoints of the two books could not be more diverse. De Baca writes of others in a somewhat detached third person. She does speak of herself at times, and her memories are warm and loving, and greatly detailed. However, this is not a story about her; it is a story about the land and the people. On the other hand, Wyaco's story is all about his interaction with his culture, and his attempts to blend into two different cultures relatively seamlessly. eading them together gives a more complete view of New Mexican history, but they are very different in their styles and what they attempt to accomplish.
There are many other differences between these books, as well. De Baca's work covers an earlier point in New…… [Read More]
Presentation Lesson Plan on "Mexico from Early ecorded Time with Influence from Outside the Country"
"Mexico from Early ecorded Time with Influence from Outside the Country"
Mexico from Early ecorded Time with Influence from Outside the Country (from 16th century till 1940 and beyond)
Before troops from the Spanish Empire set foot on Mexican soil in 1519, indigenous Indian groups that had different trade and social systems occupied majority of the lands that now form Mexico. In general, relatively small indigenous tribes that were largely involved in the hunting and gathering of food occupied the northern arid parts of the country. These tribes, were called Chichimecs, collectively, even though they were different in several cultural and linguistic aspects. By 1100, much of the central and southern parts of the country was occupied by the Toltecs. The Toltecs had their capital at Tula and were also known for their…… [Read More]
On February 26, Travis began to order fire power conservation in anticipation of further battle. The Texians burned more huts and were also engaged by Colonel Juan Bringas. One Texian was killed on this occasion.
On March 3, 1000 further Mexican troops reinforced Santa Anna's army, which now amounted to almost 2,400. Santa Anna began to plan a direct assault on the fort on March 4. A visit from a local woman to negotiate a Texian surrender, according to historians, is likely to have increased Santa Anna's impatience for battle. It was decided that the fort would be attacked on March 6. On the evening of March 5, the Mexicans strategically ceased their bombardment of the fort, and as planned, the Texian army fell into exhausted slumber.
Planning for the final assault began just after midnight on March 6, and Santa Anna gave the order to advance at 5:30 AM.…… [Read More]
tephen Austin (1793-1836) is known as the Father of Texas because he was instrumental in leading the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by U.. settlers. His name is on a number of streets, schools, parks, and Texas tate facilities. Based on the text, though, and the way that historical figures tend to become more mythic as their legend grows, I wondered about different points-of-view surround Austin and even the legality and morality of the Texas annexation.
I was surprised that initially Austin was reluctant to accept his Father's empresarial grant after he died, having to be persuaded by his mother. The situation, it seemed, was quite complex. Mexico granted land parcels under one government, and then changed the rules under another. I was also surprised that Austin supported anta Anna, who would ultimately become his enemy. Essentially, if one takes off the myth, it appears…… [Read More]
African-American Roles in the ar for Independence and the Civil ar
America was founded on the principle of freedom. ith this in mind, it comes as little surprise that both the ar for Independence and the Civil ar have the similarity that they both involved the struggle for freedom. Both wars sought to overcome oppression and both wars encompassed a vision of basic human rights connected with a sense of justice. The other similarity these two wars shared was the heroic efforts of African-Americans in their participation in the fight for freedom. This paper will seek to compare and contrast their involvement in these to similar, but different wars.
To understand African-American involvement in the Revolutionary ar, one must first paint a picture of what colonial life was like. Colonists faced the labor-intensive task of trying to carve out a life on a new continent. These were harsh conditions unlike…… [Read More]
hen Alger's Ragged Dick put himself forward for hire as a guide for a rich boy who is visiting the city, the boy's businessman uncle hesitated to entrust his nephew to him. But after reflection the older man decided that although Dick "isn't exactly the sort of guide I would have picked out...he looks honest. He has an open face, and I think he can be depended upon "(55). Thus, although Alger believed that private generosity and charity alone were necessary to remedy the evils of capitalism, he knew no one could truly succeed alone. Dick's contact with the rich boy Frank because of Dick's shining honesty resulted in his becoming a young gentleman, not just because Dick was a hard worker. And, in the story of Tom, the street tomboy, rather than rise to prosperity through her labor, Tom became the genteel 'Jane Lindsay' at the end of the…… [Read More]