Identification American Indian Movement: Activist Thesis



American Indian Movement: Activist group; Seized Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1972; protests sports mascots; concerned with Central America too; committed to Native rights.

Wounded Knee: Dec 29, 1890; U.S. government-sponsored massacre; 300 Sioux/Lakota killed; motivated by gold rush; Lakota clung to the Black Hills

Ada Deer: Born 1935; Native American activist; head of Bureau of Indian Affairs 1993-1997; Menominee tribe; female; scholar

Quanah Parker: last chief of Quahadi Comanche; Texas; European mother and Comanche father; mother was captured by Comanche; founder of Native American Church

Sioux Tribe: Native Americans; Lakota; Dakotas, Minnesota, Nebraska, Manitoba, Saskatchewan; strong social organization; 3 distinct ethnic groups; half off reservation

Indian Citizenship Act: 1924; Snyder Act; granted full citizenship to indigenous people; signed by President Coolidge; 14th Amendment did not apply before

Chief Joseph & Nez Perce: Chief of Wallowa; resisted removal to Idaho; born in Oregon; related to Gold Rush; led Nez Pierce to Canada

8. Dawes Allotment Act: 1887; allotted land in Oklahoma to Native Americans; exempted "Five Civilized Tribes"; became Burke Act in 1906; ended 1934

10. Carlisle Indian School: founded 1879; Indian boarding school; Pennsylvania; forced assimilation of native children; abuse of children

11. Cheyenne Tribe: Plains Indians; a Sioux name for the tribe; currently comprises two tribes; ties with Arapaho; hunters; ghost dance

12. Red Cloud: leader of Ogala Lakota; fierce warrior opposed U.S.; Red Cloud's War 1866-1868; Wyoming, Montana; became leader on reservation

13. Comanche Tribe: Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma; Plains Indians; hunter-gatherers; about 14,000 remain; speak Uto-Aztecan language related to Shoshone

14. Joseph Brant: Thayendanegea; Mohawk; American Revolution fought with British to help Indians; became Mason; active political leader for Six Nations

15. Trail of Tears: massive relocation of Native Americans; affected Choctaw, Cherokee and other southern Indians; move to Oklahoma Indian Territory; 1830s; related to Indian Removal Act; represented treaty violations

16. Pontiac's War: 1763; Great Lakes region; Pontiac was Odawa leader; war against British after Seven Years War; British retaliated with smallpox blankets


"Red Cloud." PBS. Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from

Saunders, R. (2007). "Chief Pontiac's War -- 1763." Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from

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