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Media convergence goes beyond a critique of media conglomeration, to critique the media itself.
Convergence of media assumes that multiple media occupied separate domains in the past.
Convergence of media suggests that the distinct domains of media (books, websites, radio, film, and television) have melded and it is no longer possible to manage a single media.
Messages are conveyed simultaneously with multiple media formats, but each medium has unique strengths and weaknesses.
Books as a focus of media convergence.
Books still occupy their own media domain, as many books are unavailable in digital formats that can be read or accessed online.
However, it is possible to search for books online, and online cataloging and database management is normative.
hen books do occupy an online or digital dimension, the reader interacts with the material in completely different ways.
D. Media convergence will not obliterate the book, which will continue to…
Dominick, Joseph. Dynamics of Mass Communication. McGraw-Hill.
Dutton, William H. Information and Communication Technologies. New York: Oxford University Press.
Jenkins, Henry. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. NYU Press, 2006.
Perryman, Neil. "Doctor Who and the convergence of media." Convergence. Vol. 14, No. 1.
One of the most dramatic and most recent examples of American media distortion concerned the well-publicized media campaign throughout 2002 and part of 2003 in advance of the U..-lead invasion of Iraq. At that time, (then) American ecretary of tate Colin Powell presented evidence that he introduced as absolutely conclusive and irrefutable that Iraq had developed nuclear and chemical weapons of mass destruction to justify the ultimatum issued to addam Hussein, and eventually, the U.. invasion of Iraq. Likewise, American president George Bush had repeatedly promoted the supposed connection between Iraq and the Global War on Terror and the terrorist attacks of eptember 11, 2001.
ubsequently, it was revealed that the information presented to the American public and the rest of the world was erroneous at best and purposefully deceitful at worst.
In any case, in retrospect, even the Bush administration now admits that the hardware imported by Iraq that…
Similarly, in the five years since the invasion, the U.S. has not managed to locate any type of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq and recently conceded publicly that it appears no efforts to produce chemical weapons or to re-establish the Iraqi nuclear weapons program were ever initiated again after the sanctions imposed by the U.S. following the conclusion of the Gulf War in 1991. According to some analysts, the continuing suggestion by the U.S. media that an American military presence in Iraq is necessary for the benefit of the Iraqi people may be a pretext for maintaining military force in the region to ensure against disruption of the OPEC oil supply, by force if necessary, should Saudi Arabia ever decide to terminate oil sales to the United States.
In Afghanistan, the U.S. emphasizes the liberation of the civilian population from the oppressive way of life imposed under the Taliban rule, but without presenting a balanced view of the disruption of other aspects of the local economy and social structure that reflect thousands of years of cultural beliefs and social framework. The concern among many critical observers is that the distortions represented by English-language media is that both of these issues may, in fact, be related to U.S. intentions to initiate a military attack on Iran in connection with its potential nuclear capabilities.
In light of the previous history of U.S. media distortions with respect to geopolitical affairs, these concerns may, in fact, be valid.
War coverage-Media obsession
To argue about the role of media in our lives would be only redundant since we already know and acknowledge the influence of media over our perception of the world. How the various news media including newspapers, television, radio and more recently Internet affect our thinking and shape our perception requires some close analysis of the way these agencies gather and present news. There is an interesting process that works behind the seemingly simple task of news presentation. For one the media is almost always biased regardless of how they defend their impartiality. We must remember that journalists are capable of molding our perception because they have a certain hidden agenda and if they were unbiased in their opinion, they would have had little impact on our thinking. In an unbiased news piece, it is up to the viewer or reader to decide whom he would side…
Stuart Allan, News Culture. Open University Press: Buckingham 1999
William V. Kennedy, The Military and the Media: Why the Press Cannot Be Trusted to Cover a War.: Praeger Publishers. Westport, CT. 1993.
The Washington Times. Lynch, West and Common Sense. November 23, 2003. B05.
Christopher Hanson, American Idol: The Press Finds the War's True Meaning. Columbia Journalism Review. Volume: 42. Issue: 2. July-August 2003, 58+.
Yet, every major aspect of the Internet builds on the strengths of those prior media forms.
The development of technology has allowed for cultural acceleration, as each media form starting with the telegraph represents an improvement in the speed and/or scope of communication (Carey, 2010). The telegraph separated transportation from communication, which was the first step. The telephone increased speed further, and wireless telegraph set the foundation for later wireless technologies. Radio and television, for example, were based on wireless broadcast, which enabled communications to reach a broader audience. here the telephone and telegraph introduced an accelerated pace to communications, the impacts of any one given communication were individual. News of the Titanic sinking, for example, was carried through a network of different messages on different media (Carey, 2010). Such large-scale impacts of communication on society became commonplace with radio. Television had yet more potency as a communications…
Carey, J. (2010). Electricity creates the wired world. In possession of the author.
Wolf's book, based on a number of scholarly articles she wrote during the last several years, looks at the manner in which women have been portrayed in the Broadway musical, and the references and relevance of those portraits to society's expectations of the time.
Communication Studies. (2012). etrieved from: http://www.communicationstudies.com/
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). esearch Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ferguson, M. (2010). Choice Feminism and the Fear of Politics. Perspectives on Politics.
8 (1): 247-63.
Gehrke, P. (2009). The Ethics and Politics of Speech: Communications and hetoric in the 20th Century. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press
Hesse-Biber, S., ed. (2011). Handbook of Feminist esearch: Theory and Praxis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Leung, K., et.al. (2008). Global Trends in Communication Education and esearch. Boston, MA: Hampton Press.
Levinson, W., et.al. (2010). Developing Physician Communication Skills…
Communication Studies. (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.communicationstudies.com/
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). Research Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ferguson, M. (2010). Choice Feminism and the Fear of Politics. Perspectives on Politics.
COMMUNICATION IN EDUCATIONAL -- PIESTLEY'S PAADOX
Introduction to Priestley's Paradox
According to Priestley's Paradox, there may be an inverse relationship between the quality of communications and the complexity and variety of modern methods of communication (Hodge 1993, 4; Eunson 2008, 17). More specifically, Priestley suggested that the richest and most effective means of communications is the process of face-to-face verbal communication between two individuals. Every additional variable, such as adding more individuals to the communications chain or introducing artificial technological mechanism necessarily reduces the quality and accuracy of the communications process. In principle, therefore, direct face-to-face communications between two people is more effective than direct, face-to-face communications among larger groups of individuals. Likewise, face-to-face communications are preferable to telephonic communications, written communications, and other forms of remote communications (Hodge 1993, 6; Eunson 2008, 18).
Applying Priestley's Paradox to the Educational Environment
Priestley's Paradox is more relevant to the contemporary educational…
Allen, J (Ed) 2004, Sociology of Education: Policies and Practice, 3rd ed. Thomson
Learning, Australia, Victoria
Dufficy, P 2005, Designing Learning for Diverse Classrooms. Primary English Teaching
More specifically, because the potential for miscommunication, misunderstanding, and pejorative or other negative interpretations is so much greater in remote communications especially through email (SHM, 2010), the implications of failure to establish trust remotely are even greater. As Yoong (2009) points out, that is largely a function of the fact that genuineness in expressions of cultural awareness and sensitivity (as opposed to patronizing or otherwise insincere) expressions is absolutely crucial.
Sincerity and genuineness are much more difficult to communicate effectively in impersonal communications media (SHM, 2010; Yoong, 2009). Therefore, appropriate expressions and other manifestations of cultural awareness and sensitivity are most appropriately communicated to virtual working groups via two-way video conferencing instead of other less personal methods of communications, notwithstanding the substantive sufficiency or factual accuracy of those expressions in writing, for example (SHM, 2010;Yoong, 2009).
This project relies primarily on a review of secondary research in the…
Douglas, C. And Zivnuska, S. "Developing trust in leaders: an antecedent of firm performance." SAM Advanced Management Journal. Society for the Advancement of Management. 2008. Retrieved December 30, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-177101798.html
George, J.M. And Jones G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational
Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Maxwell, J.C. (2007). The 21 Irrefutable Rules of Leadership. Georgia: Maxwell
Communications Media -- Media Culture
Meet the Press June 24, 2012 (NBC)
The mainstream news program, Meet the Press June 24, 2012 (NBC), focused primarily on some of the different views about the most important needs of the nation between Republicans and Democrats. More specifically, the moderator raised the issues of racial profiling laws in various states, immigration policy reform, the potential consequences of a pending Supreme Court decision on President Obama's Affordable Care Act that has been the source of so much conflict in political circles since the first months of the current presidential administration. Other topics of discussion included the national budget in connection with the need to generate revenue, the current conflict over the "Fast and Furious" debacle and the bizarre allegations leveled against the U.S. Attorney General, and predictions about the different challenges faced by the respective presidential campaigns of President Obama and the…
Most reports contain some sort of extraneous data. In many cases, the report contains this data because the data has been gathered. There is a sense that if some data has been gathered, it should be presented, and let the user figure out what parts are relevant. This is perhaps a reasonable starting point, but at some point the user will have a sense of what is needed and what is not; at that point there is value in providing feedback so that the report can be structured with the specific needs of each user in mind.
Another area of fat on a report comes when people attempt to discuss context. Too often, this ends up being their context, not the context of the user. In many cases, the discussion merely repeats what the numbers already show, so there is no real added value to the text. I tend…
Suggested Approach for Reconciliation and Resolution
The suggested approach to reconciliation and resolution would, as in the cases of Donnie and Mika also rely primarily on the process of educating the individuals involved to better understand certain information that they would need to understand to achieve their common objective. More specifically, Tyrrell should attempt to develop a method of helping the Bishops understand the positive elements of modern communications and information media and to overcome their existing reluctance based on ignorance and fear of something new.
Post Response #4 -- Cleveland
Dilemmas and Most Prominent Dimensions at Issue
The dilemma presented by this situation is that, on one hand, the United States Navy promotes, supports, and encourages all enlisted individuals to respect cultural diversity and individuality of all persons; but on the other hand, the U.S. Navy also maintains an extremely rigid set of formal organizational values and standards that…
Telecommuting is the act of periodically working out of the main office, one or more days a week either at home, or at a telework center. (Avery and Zabel 2000, 82) The concept of telecommuting was created by Jack Niles as a result of the oil crisis of the 1970's. Niles felt that telecommuting would be a good way of eliminating the daily commute and preserving energy. Nile eventually found that telecommuting could be beneficial to workers and employees.
The research found that the benefits of telecommuting include increased productivity, improved familial relationships and decreases in absenteeism. Increased productivity is derivative of the fact that workers have fewer distractions and are able to complete tasks on their own time. We also found that telecommuters had increased job satisfaction and increased motivation.
A major hindrance to the implementation of a successful telecommuting strategy is the lack of effective communication technology. In…
Avery C. And Zabel D. (2000) The Flexible Workplace: A Sourcebook of Information and Research. Quorum Books: Westport, CT.
Burn, T. (2000, January 31). Telecommuting Fits Right at Home. The Washington Times, p. 10.
Media and Society: The Problem of Too Much Fake News
Is the era of fake news becoming too dangerous for our families today? As Jones (2013) notes, communication media in the digital world is a powerful tool that we all must be mindful of lest we risk using it poorly and causing more harm than good. With the recent news faux pas involving a group of high school Catholic boys being harassed by a group of protestors yet getting blamed by news media right and left, getting “doxxed” by celebrities calling for blood, and receiving death threats all over an incident blown completely out of proportion, we as a community have to stop and consider how we allow the media to dictate the terms by which we live our lives. This paper will explain why we have to get a better handle on the problem of fake news before it…
Communications Audit eport: A Case Study of Walmart Inc.
A Case Study of Walmart Inc.: Communications Audit eport
Wal-Mart is the world's largest retailer, and the world's largest company by revenues. A communications audit was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the company's communication strategy. This report presents the findings of that audit. It shows the specific media and channel used to communicate with internal and external stakeholders.
Communications Audit eport: A Case Study of Walmart Inc.
Walmart is an American-based multinational corporation headquartered in Bentonville, Arkansas. The company was founded in 1962 with the aim of providing discount goods to customers to enable them live better. It went public in October 1969 to facilitate the achievement of this vision. Today, the company operates over 11,000 stores in 27 countries, dealing in a wide range of merchandise including foodstuffs, groceries, clothing, furniture, apparel, toys, electronics and clothing. It is home…
Chandler, D. & Munday, R. (2013). A Dictionary of Media and Communication. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.
Downs, C. W. & Adrian, A. D. (2012). Assessing Organizational Communication: Strategic Communications Audit.New York, NY: Guilford Publications.
Gray, D. (2012). The Connected Company. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Media Inc.
Newsom, D., Turk, J. & Kruckeberg, D. (2012). This is PR: The Realities of Public Relations (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
The procedure of communication involves a sender transmitting data in a fitting structure to guarantee the message is comprehended by the recipient. The sender should likewise consider potential "noise" or limitations to the transmitted communication. Compelling communication relies on upon:
clearly characterizing the goal of the message
taking record of the requirements of the recipient
selecting the best medium and strategy for communication
being mindful of how "noise" can contort the message
Ensuring feedback, to assure comprehension of the message (Business Case Studies, 2016).
Example Site: www.Amazon.com
The site decided for this task is www.amazon.com. The firm is a U.S. based trade and distribution organization dealing in computers and electronics located in Seattle, Washington. It is the biggest Internet-based retailer in the United States. Amazon.com began as an online book shop, later enhancing its services to offer DVDs, Blurays, CDs, video downloads/spilling, and MP3downloads/gushing, book recording downloads/streaming, furniture,…
Barney, J. (2011). "Amazon urges California referendum on online tax." Financial Times. Archived from the original on 2011.
Business Case Studies. (2016). Communication strategies to engage a variety of stakeholders. Retrieved from http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/enterprise-rent-a-car/communication-strategies-to-engage-a-variety-of-stakeholders/the-communication-process.html#axzz3x23DvkrI
Faculty Focus. (2016). Media richness and communication in online education. Retrieved from http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/online-education/media-richness-and-communication-in-online-education/
Gump, J. (n.d). written communication: choosing words widely. Retrieved from http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.almnet.org/resource/resmgr/imported/communications.pdf
On some level, art is communication. The artist creates a visual element that conveys complex ideas, emotions, and concepts. Therefore, learning good communication skills is essential for an artist. Communication also requires creativity. Negotiating difficult deals and addressing conflict depend on creative problem solving skills.
Animators are called upon even more to be solid communicators because of the nature of their job. An animator renders stories into visual form. Storytelling is a form of communication. An animator who can communicate well is one who can convey the story arcs and dialog in ways that are memorable and meaningful to the audience. On a more practical level, animators work with people as a matter of course throughout their job. hereas a painter could be holed up in a studio for six months out of the year, never talking to anyone, an animator will rarely live an isolated lifestyle. Communication is…
"Effective Communication Skills: The Art of Communication." Retrieved online: http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/1-13-2005-64148.asp
Scott, Elizabeth. "Communicate: Improve Your Relationships With Effective Communication Skills." About.com. Sept 18, 2011. Retrieved online: http://stress.about.com/od/relationships/ht/healthycomm.htm
Communication and Perception Processes
Communication models simplify the descriptions of complex communication interactions
Transmission- a linear one-way process in which a sender transmits a message to a receiver
Participants- senders and receivers of messages
Messages- the verbal and non-verbal content being shared
Encoding- turning thoughts into communication
Decoding- turning communication into thoughts
Channels- sensory routes through which messages travel
Barriers / Noise
Environmental noise- physical noise
Semantic noise- noise in encoding process
Interaction- participants alternate positions as senders and receivers of messages
Participants- senders and receivers of messages
Messages- the verbal and non-verbal content being shared
Encoding- turning thoughts into communication
Decoding- turning communication into thoughts
Channels- sensory routes through which messages travel
Feedback- messages sent in response to other messages
Physical context- environmental factors
Psychological context- mental and emotional factors
Transaction- a process in which communicators generate social realities within social, relational, and cultural contexts.
Carey, J. (Unk). "A cultural approach to communication." Communication as culture.
Retrieved April 11, 2014 from Northern Illinois University website: http://www3.niu.edu/acad/gunkel/coms465/carey.html
"Communication and Perception Processes." (Unk.) In, A primer on communication studies, pp.
1-21. Retrieved April 11, 2014 from Lardbucket website: http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/a-primer-on-communication-studies/s01-02-the-communication-process.html
This second violent incident forced Stoops to take a harder stand against one of his most popular players and suspend him."
Sooners used a crisis management plan to deal with the university's decision, in an effort to prevent bad publicity for the school and the team (Forde, 2004). The following describes how the university handled the crisis the day before it hit the newsstands. In the early afternoon, OU issued a release saying that it had suspended Dvoracek indefinitely and replaced him as captain. The action had been implemented by coach Bob Stoops a few days earlier, but it wasn't made public until the day before the weekend Oregon game.
The school was prepared for the news to create a major rise across the state, starting with the evening newscasts (Forde, 2004). However, the situation did not end there, with the university's release and a canned statement from Stoops. In…
Fink, S. (1986) Crisis Management: Planning for the Inevitable, American Management Association, New York.
Forde, Pat. (September 22, 2004). Teamwork the key during a crisis. ESPN.com. Retreived from the Internet at http://sports.espn.go.com/ncf/columns/story?columnist=forde_pat&page=program/crisis .
Hessert, Kathleen. (1997). How to Prepare PR Professionals for the Dennis Rodman's and Michael Irvin's of Sports. International Sports Summit. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.bernsteincrisismanagement.com/nl/crisismgr000701.html .
Hoffman, Judith. (1999). Keeping Cool on the Hot Seat. Four C's Publishing Co.
Media as the Linguistic Discourse Analysis Object
esearch in Discourse Analysis - Linguistics
Discourse analysis' focus is noteworthy semiotic events. Discourse analysis aims to understand not only the nature of the semiotic event, but also the socio-psychological traits of the participants of the event. The proposed subject of research is media discourse analysis or media as the linguistic discourse analysis object. Media is highly relevant and almost fundamental to life in the 21st century. There is no doubt that there are social, perceptual, psychological, linguistic, and behavioral affects of technology and media upon users and communities. Objects of discourse analysis vary in their definition of articulated sequences of communication events, speech acts, etc. Media is nothing but a series of coordinated sequences of various communications events operating semiotically. Therefore, media discourse analysis is a worthwhile linguistic research endeavor. The hypothesis of the research contends that media discourse analysis, as part…
Chen, L. (2004) Evaluation in Media Texts: A Cross-Cultural Linguistic Investigation. Language in Society, 33(5), 673 -- 702.
Chigana, A., & Chigana, W. (2008) Mxit It Up in the Media: Media Discourse Analysis on a Mobile Instant Messaging System. The South African Journal of Information and Communication, 9, 42 -- 57.
Constantinou, O. (2005) Multimodal Discourse Analysis: Media, modes and technologies. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 9(4), 602 -- 618.
Gamson, W.A., Croteau, D., Hoynes, W., & Sasson, T. (1992) Media Images and the Social Construction of Reality. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, 373 -- 393.
Communication Islamic Countries
Freedom in all its forms is a highly contested topic across all areas of politics, not only in countries where freedom has been traditionally repressed, but even in the most democratic of states, such as the United States and the UK. When freedom extends to the press, the contestability of the topic gains an extra dimension. Some critics, for example, advocate freedom of the press only to such an extent as its ability to promote a peaceful existence and harmony among citizens and their government. Others, however, would see the press gaining complete freedom, regardless of its consequences for personal and collective peace. In Muslim countries such as Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates, freedom extended to the press and the media is yet further muddied by the importance of religious and state rule in these countries. In both environments, Islam remains the main ruling force in…
Article 19. (2005, Dec.). Freedom of Expression aand the Media in Indonesia. Alliance of Independent Journalists. Retrieved from: http://www.article19.org/data/files/pdfs/publications/indonesia-baseline-study.pdf
BBC News Middle East. (2012, June 15). United Arab Emirates Profile: Media. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14704229
BBC News Middle East. (2012, June 15). United Arab Emirates: Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14703998
El-Baltaji, D. (2009, Fall). Emirates Press Law. Arab Media & Society, Iss. 9. Retrieved from: http://www.arabmediasociety.com/?article=727
In a one day diary of media consumption, it becomes evident that many of my interactions with the world are via media. I receive most of my information through media forms as well. Even when relaxing, media is something that drives the process. There is also a lot of passive consumption of media in my daily life. My media consumption will be analyzed through the lens of different media theories.
Turow argues that media and advertisers have become exceptionally adept since the 1970s at understanding audiences, their consumption patterns, and how to exploit these. For our part as audience, we have much less understanding of our own consumption patterns. This exercise was the first time that I had really given thought to my daily media exposure, only to realize that my use of media is constant, throughout the day, and sometimes very passive. I used media forms as…
Turow, J. (1997). Breaking up America University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
Fenton, N. (no date). The internet and social networking. In possession of the author.
Vietnam films have rewritten the winners and the losers of that saga and action-adventure films reinforce cultural norms of violence and power (175). Despite the increased real presence of women in positions of power, often media representations of women and other formerly disenfranchised groups remain stereotyped or relegated to marginal or token roles, although this is changing. Still, certain outlets like women's magazines often function as advertisements that perpetuate corporate images that make women feel worse, rather than better about themselves (188). Furthermore, a hegemonic ideology is implied by supposedly mainstream news organizations. Consider the construct of 'economic news.' This implies that the 'economy' is in a neat little box, and that social issues of race and political disenfranchisement, limits on wealth and access to education and power, have no role in who possess wealth and who lacks wealth in society. Economics as separate from other issues is essentially an…
Glasser's, Awad's, and Kim's study analyzes how four newspapers have written from different points-of-view relating to the same event. Two of the newspapers have written professionally, without attempting to influence the readers in any way. In contrast, the other two newspapers have written so that the public would get a wrong idea of the incident. Just as in the present case, it is normal for media services from within a local community to write differently than bigger, more specialized, media services. The journalists from the two newspapers which have distorted reality and have written the articles from their own points-of-view belong to the community involved in the incident discussed. The respective journalists have turned an ordinary conflict (between the officials and their community over the building of a mall) into a cry for help from a community presumably discriminated for years.
It is of no relevance whether or not the…
Glasser, T.L. & Awad I. & Kim J.W. (2009). The Claims of Multiculturalism and Journalism's Promise of Diversity. Journal of Communication, 59: 57-58.
Media Presentation Analyzation: Design & Ethical Relationships
The war in the Middle East is an example of an on-going media presentation that is covered in the radio, television and on the Internet. More recently covered are the accounts of the beheadings of those kidnapped and in yesterday's news, of numerous people killed or wounded in the Iraqi car blasts in Najaf, Iraq. This paper will examine the design and ethical relationships of the media's presentation of the war in Iraq using the attached article downloaded off the Internet for the analysis. It will examine television and the new media environment of the Web, for both have become central in determining both the design and ethical dimensions of the media's coverage of the war in the Middle East.
Turning on the television means establishing a connection with the place of broadcasting and being literally and continually present at the birth of…
Bruce, B.C. (2000), "Credibility of the Web: Why we need dialectical reading," Journal of Philosophy of Education, vol. 34, no. 1, pp.97-109.
Design -- Media Presentation Analysis
Communication & News Framing - Case Study of the U.S. & China Standoff of 2001
An event is a fact. It happens. People witness it. People talk about it. People report it. In today's world, the even t may be recorded for posterity in a variety of ways. It may be capture on videotape. It may be captured in the voice recordings of an airplane's "black box." It may be tracked line by line through a printed transcript that contains the exact words of the participants. ecorded. Exact. Fact. We associate these words with what we read in newspapers, hear on the radio, or see on television. We assume that the news, as it is reported, is wholly truthful and accurate, but is it? Is the reportage of real-world events by the "unbiased" media free from the filters through which we all observe and analyze the world around us? Children…
Dzur, A.W. (2002). Public Journalism and Deliberative Democracy. Polity, 34(3), 313+.
FM Spokesman Gives Full Account of Air Collision." (4 April 2001). The People's Daily. URL: http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/home.html .
Rosenthal, Elisabeth; and Sanger, David E. (2 April 2001).
The one that was the most successful would receive more focus. This means that the strategy will concentrate on what area will most effectively increase sales. Therefore, it will involve the elements of: advertising and public relations activities.
When you step back and analyze this part of the strategy, it is clear that it will give the best results for AC Online ooks. The reason why is because, it is determining what approach will have the greatest impact on the company's bottom line. Once this takes place, it will allow the business, to most effectively target their media strategy.
Clearly, AC Online ooks has a unique approach that could allow them to revolutionize the sale of online literature (through their free shipping within 24 hours policy). However, to determine the best strategy for effectively promoting the site requires identify the target audience. In this case, this would involve: every age…
Heibieng, Roman. The One Day Marketing Plan. New York: McGraw Hill, 2004. Print.
Trehan, Mukesha. "Media Planning and Scheduling." Advertising and Sales Management. New Delhi: VK Publishers, 2007. 140. Print.
Arguably, the raw data at ikiLeaks is far more powerful than anything that can be found in traditional media or satire news. The audience here must also acquire the tools necessary to properly digest the information, as an audience accustomed to uncritical digestion of mainstream media will be challenged by the raw information presented devoid of spin and context.
Feldman, L. (2007). The news about comedy. Journalism. Vol 8 (4) 406-427.
Ludlow, P. (2010). ikiLeaks and hacktivist culture. The Nation. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/7669895/771113000/name/ikileaks.pdf
McCue, D. (2009). hen news breaks, "the Daily Show" fixes it: Exposing social values through satire. University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl%3furl_ver=Z39.88-2004%26res_dat=xri:pqdiss%26rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation%26rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:1456354
Postman, N. & Power, S. (2008) How to watch TV news. Penguin Books.
Reilly, I. (2011). Satirical fake news and the politics of the fifth estate. University of Guelph. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl%3furl_ver=Z39.88-2004%26res_dat=xri:pqdiss%26rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation%26rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:NR71829
Feldman, L. (2007). The news about comedy. Journalism. Vol 8 (4) 406-427.
Ludlow, P. (2010). WikiLeaks and hacktivist culture. The Nation. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/7669895/771113000/name/Wikileaks.pdf
McCue, D. (2009). When news breaks, "the Daily Show" fixes it: Exposing social values through satire. University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl%3furl_ver=Z39.88-2004%26res_dat=xri:pqdiss%26rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation%26rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:1456354
Postman, N. & Power, S. (2008) How to watch TV news. Penguin Books.
Injustice and the Media
There was a point in the not-too-distant past when it was reasonable to perceive the media as a force collectively aimed at informing the public, exposing corruption, surfacing scandal and general performing the responsibility of protecting the people's right to know. However, several forces have permeated the so-called 'fourth estate,' diluting the media's acceptance of this responsibility. At one end of the spectrum, the growth in value of cable news such as CNN or MSNBC has created a highly monetized and commercially-motivated form of news. At the opposite end of the spectrum, the increasing visibility of social media such as Facebook and Twitter in spreading news stories has removed much of the accountability or professionalism from our media outlets.
The result is that our media outlets rarely have the motivation to ensure that a well-informed public is made aware of injustice in all its forms.…
Boettger, B. (2012). The Social Responsibility of Social Media. Media Post.
Chiyamwaka, B. (2008). Media Ethics: A Call To Responsible Journalism. Hippo Lodge Liwonde.
Christians, C.G. (2007). Utilitarianism in Media Ethics and Its Discontents. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 22(2-3), 113-131.
Daily Graphic. (2009). Ethical, Responsible Journalism Essential for Media's Success. Modern Ghana.
A college student talking to an old high school friend through Instant Messaging may send that friend a copy of an interesting article that flashed across the screen. News may not be prime reason for using the Internet but still the Internet is vital for transmitting news and opinion, even of dispatches from war torn areas, or disaster afflicted zones where the conventional media cannot penetrate. In ages past, sitting around the television watching the news may have had other purposes than information -- family togetherness, relaxation, as well, but that did not discount the information received.
Furthermore, the Internet provides a plurality of viewpoints that the three networks and the major city newspapers did not and often still do not provide. One could even make a parallel to the plethora of newspapers of the turn of the century, all biased and slanted and somewhat dubious in fact-checking perhaps (but…
Mindich, David. Tuned Out: Why Americans under 40 don't follow the news. New York: Oxford Press, 2004
The Application of Five Communication Theories
There are countless communication theories, with each one looking at a different aspect of communication or looking at communication in a new way. The number of theories that exist raises the question of how they can be used to understand communication. The answer is that every communication is complicated, with one single theory not being enough to understand every communication completely. For this reason, various theories can be applied to various situations, with each one helping us to understand something about the communication. To consider how real situations can be analyzed, five communication theories will be described. Each one will then be applied to a real situation to show how the theory helps create understanding of the communication events and processes that make up human life.
Theory of Feminine Style
The theory of feminine style argues that the difference in the way that…
Dow, B.J. & Tonn, M.B. "Feminine Style and Political Judgment in the Rhetoric of Ann Richards." Quarterly Journal of Speech, 79(1993), 286-302.
McLuhan, M. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Men. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964.
Additional research showed that those who were frequently exposed to these movies were also inclined to develop risk-taking behavior (Greene and Kromar).
Vulnerable young women who had long-term exposure to sexually objectifying media could suffer from decreased self-esteem, according to another study (Aubrey 2006). A group of 149 female undergraduates in a big mid-Western university was surveyed for their responses after having been exposed to such media. The study revealed that the exposure could dent their global self-esteem if they already possessed the vulnerability to these media materials. An example is Seventeen Magazine, which is an example of a sexually objectifying medium (Aubrey).
The media are an effective instrument of war (Payne 2005). Recent conflicts clearly demonstrate that the transmission of information plays a significant part in warfare. Winning a war is considered as decisive as actually beating the enemy at the battlefield. Winning the medial war is, therefore, a…
Aubrey, J. S, (2006). Exposure to Sexually Objectifying Media and Body Self-Perceptions Among College Women.16 pages. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research: Springer
Greene, K.and Kromar, M. (2005). Predicting Exposure to, and Liking of, Media Violence. 17 pages. Communication Studies: Central States Speech Association
Holts, S. (2005). Establishing Connections. 2 pages. Communication World: International Association of Business Communicators
Kariithi, N. (2007). Connecting the Continent. 4 pages. Communication World: International Association of Business Communicators
Communication is a fundamental facet in any production plant or organization. There are various communication channels and applications in the world of communication. Communication modalities are present in almost every organization. Different entities of growth and production require a diversity of communication channels. For instance, different communication channels can be involved like e-mails, web-based forums, and electronic medical records.
Communication modality used for marketing in health care
Web-based forums are one of the trusted communication channels between consumers and health care providers in the world. The existence of technology has necessitated establishment of online channels where health care service providers are able to interact with consumers in remote senses. For instance, it has become easy for a client in any part of the world to access web-based forums that are provided through the internet. Through web-based forums, clients access a diversity of information and communication from…
Ball, M.J., & Hannah, K.J. (2011). Nursing informatics: Where technology and caring meet.
Nelson, R., Joos, I.M., & Wolf, D.M. (2013). Social media for nurses: Educating practitioners and patients in a networked world. New York, NY: Springer Pub. Co.
Speares, P.A. (2008). Acoustic communication modalities of the round goby (Neogobius
These four readings were written between 1944 and 1955, and to a certain extent represent an outmoded era of media criticism. This does not mean these studies are obsolete, but it does mean that they must be considered in light of the current sea-change that is taking place in media overall -- most notably with the Internet, but also with the effect that the Internet is having upon other forms of media (such as the decline and instability of newspaper journalism). But we must acknowledge the limitations of these studies.
The most basic study is presented by Lasswell (1948), who is interested in defining the terminology, as scientifically as possible, as to what constitutes "communication." Lasswell draws parallels between various biological processes (of how organisms gather information through sensory apparatus, and how they attempt to control the amount of information they give out) to come up with a…
28, No. 4, 603-625 (2006) Sage Publications.
Aeron avis states that the work in writing "Media Effects and the Question of the Rational Audience: "... offers evidence for an alternative perspective on the media effects debate. Early work on media influence, be it conservative or critical, assumed a causal link between mass media and mass behavior. In contrast, decades of effects and audience research has established the inadequacy of this 'strong effects' paradigm. The main thrust of this counter-research is the realization that audiences actively consume and use the media for self-serving purposes. The alternative perspective offered here comes from a study of elite fund managers, their communications and decision-making in the London Stock Exchange. The research findings suggest that such individuals do respond actively to media, but, collectively, the results can be both self-defeating and on a mass scale. That is, individuals do not have to be ignorant nor…
Davis, Aeron (2006) Media Effects and the Question of the Rational Audience: Lessons from the Financial Markets. Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 28, No. 4, 603-625 (2006) Sage Publications.
Aeron Davis states that the work in writing "Media Effects and the Question of the Rational Audience: "... offers evidence for an alternative perspective on the media effects debate. Early work on media influence, be it conservative or critical, assumed a causal link between mass media and mass behavior. In contrast, decades of effects and audience research has established the inadequacy of this 'strong effects' paradigm. The main thrust of this counter-research is the realization that audiences actively consume and use the media for self-serving purposes. The alternative perspective offered here comes from a study of elite fund managers, their communications and decision-making in the London Stock Exchange. The research findings suggest that such individuals do respond actively to media, but, collectively, the results can be both self-defeating and on a mass scale. That is, individuals do not have to be ignorant nor act irrationally to contribute to media-instigated, collective irrationality."
Media Effects on Culture
Unlike other wars, this was not against the armies of a nation, but a cohort of individuals who were driven by an ideology (Islamism). This army knew no boundaries and did not use conventional tactics of war fare. Even when the Taliban were imprisoned, the media first reasoned and then insisted that the Geneva Convention on the treatment of prisoners of war applied to these prisoners. Bill Maher, comedian, political commentator and host of the program "Politically Incorrect" called the terrorists "freedom fighters." (Landau, 2009) Many editorials were written excoriating Americans for ill-treatment of these prisoners. Some in the media even averred that these prisoners deserved the same rights guaranteed to those in correctional facilities in the United States. This meant that those imprisoned in the war on Terror could be given specific rights as afforded by the Constitution of the United States of America. The media in its insistence…
Acheson, Dean, and Dean Acheson. The Korean War. New York,: Norton, 1971.
Hersh, Seymour. "Torture at Abu Ghraib: American Soldiers Brutalized Iraqis. How Far up Does the Responsibility Go?" The New Yorker May 10, 2004.
Landau, Saul. Freedom Fighters, Terrorists or Schlemiels? . 2009. Available: http://www.counterpunch.org/landau01302009.html . April 14, 2009.
MediaResearch. How the Media Vote. 2009. Mediaresearch.com. Available: http://www.mediaresearch.org/biasbasics/biasbasics3.asp. April 14, 2009.
MEDIA WORLD & CULTURE
The Media World in Today's Culture
The Media World and Today's Culture
The Media World and Today's Culture
The media is the most indispensable medium that most urbanized and developing countries have adapted to accessing first hand and vital information. It is also in the branch category of the most growing industries in today's global economy. However, the industry is faced with controversies from other sectors such as culture and politics. Implications of the social media and media personalties have always been at the limelight, especially with how the youth and children perceive what they see and hear from the media. It is therefore, necessitated to review how the current global culture allows for the continuity of the world of media.
According to Kaya and Cakmur, media has been a centre-stage in Turkey die to the linkage it has to politics. Turkish media is…
17). He is disgusted that news executives that direct what should be covered are less interested in "what's happening in Afghanistan" but more interested in "Michael Jackson and Laci Peterson" (Fenton, p. 20).
hat are the excuses TV executives, editors and producers give for focusing on scandal, sexual trysts, and embarrassing situations for celebrities? Fenton claims that those "gatekeepers of the news" will tell anyone listening that "the average [viewer] simply cannot absorb that much hard news, especially about events abroad" (p. 20). The CBS veteran insists that the media power brokers believe that "Americans are too broadly under-informed to digest nuggets of information that seem to contradict what they know of the world" (p. 20). That would seem to be a very condescending, elitist attitude on the part of the TV industry in particular.
Fenton (p. 22) asserts that because of the very real threats of terrorism on the…
Dorfman, Lori, Woodruff, Katie, Chavez, Vivian, and Wallack, Lawrence. "Youth and Violence
On Local Television News in California." American Journal of Public Health 87.8 (1997):
Downie, Leonard, and Schudson, Michael. "The Reconstruction of American Journalism."
News Reporting on Crimes, Corruption, and worsening Economic Conditions:
News channels also telecast detailed reports on crimes, corruption, political instability, and worsening conditions of economies. General public, which is already in a miserable condition due to a stressful life further gets into tensions and worries due to such type of information. These reports present a very weird picture of what is happening around the world. All this creates an atmosphere of restlessness, anxiety, and depression among the general public (Kraut & Attewell).
Impacts of Information overload on Investors:
Investing in a particular asset, organization, or industry is such a decision which requires a comprehensive and careful analysis of the relevant facts and figures. Generally, investors look at the industry trends over the last few years in a view to anticipate the attractiveness and potential of their investment. Now-a-days, there are various sources through which they can obtain this information. But…
Bondarouk, Tanya. Handbook of research on e-transformation and human resources management technologies: organizational outcomes and challenges. Hershey: Information Science Reference, 2009. Print. (412)
Costigan, Sean & Perry, Jake. Cyberspaces and global affairs. Burlington: Ashgate Publishers, 2012. Print. (p. 319)
Eppler, Martin. Managing information quality: increasing the value of information in knowledge-intensive products and processes. New York: Springer, 2006. (p. 2)
Kraut, Robert & Attewell, Paul. Media Use in a Global Corporation: Electronic Mail and Organizational Knowledge. 6 July 1996. Web. 16 March 2012.
Electronic communication has become one of the most important methods for people to communicate with one another in recent years. Spielberg (1999) noted that patients have sought to utilize electronic communication with their physicians. In the past, he argued, a variety of exchanges were utilized, including in-person visits, telephone, pagers and voicemail, so it was only natural that communication between patients and those within the medical profession would be extended to the realm of electronic communication. Thus, the market has driven the need for health care organizations to begin to explore how they can use electronic communication methods such as email, the Internet, online chats or even SMS messaging to bridge the communication gap with their patients. hile the market may demand new methods of communication be developed, there are risks inherent to the medical profession that present challenges or obstacles to facilitating the market-demanded electronic communication methods.
Spielberg, A. (1999). Online without a net: Physician-patient communication by electronic mail. American Journal of Law & Medicine. Vol. 15 (1999) 267-295.
Hassol, A.; Walker, J.; Kidder, D.; Rokita, K.; Young, D.; Pierdon, S.; Deitz, D.; Kuck, S. & Ortiz, E. (2004). Patient experiences and attitudes about access to a patient electronic health care record and linked web messaging. Journal of the American Medical Information Association. Vol. 11 (6) 505-513.
Winkelman, W.; Leonard, K. & Kossos, P. (2005). Patient-perceived usefulness of electronic medical records: Employing grounded theory in the development of information and communication technologies for use by patients living with chronic illness. Journal of American Medical Information Association. Vol. 12 (3) 306-314.
Wager, K.A., Lee, F.W., & Glaser, J.P. (2009). Health care information systems: A practical approach for health care management (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
In essence, cultural values across Argentina demand for observation, tolerance, and understanding. The tingo dance for example is one of the nonverbal communications. Argentines also like engaging in activities that give them a sense of belonging (Foster, et al., 18).
Part 3: Africa, Tanzania
Cultural norms are patterns of behavior that specifically are typical to a given group. They are shared, sanctioned, and integrated systems of beliefs and practices. These behaviors are passed from one generation to the next. In other words, cultural norms are the expectations and rules that are agreed upon through which a society guides the behavior of its members with regard to a given situation (Qingxue, 13). Cultural norms widely vary across cultural groups. In most cases cultural norms are not considered to be formal laws, however, they are helpful and vital in instilling social control within the society. Cultural norms are mainly enforced through non-verbal…
Cunningham, Lawrence, and Reich, John. Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. London: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Foster, William, Lockhart, Melissa, and Lockhart Darrell. Culture and Customs of Argentina. New York: Prentice Hall, 1998.
Qingxue, Liu "Understanding Different Cultural Patterns or Orientations Between East and West," 2003. Web.10/06/2012, < http://www.staff.amu.edu.pl/~inveling/pdf/liu_quingxue_inve9.pdf
Shivji, Issa, & Kapinga, Wilbert. Maasai rights in Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Nairobi; Longhorn Publishers. 1998.
There are a number of factors Nick needs to consider for the project to be a success. First, he needs to understand what the project is, and what the expectations for the project are. These need to be specific, so that they can be actionable and so that Nick can be evaluated properly. Nick will need to understand the industry and project management process well in order to translate the desired specs into a set of actions and resource allocations that will deliver positive results. Internal resources, external environmental conditions, time frames, specs, budgets -- there are an almost untold number of individual factors that need to be taken into consideration.
The planning meeting here is in incomprehensible debacle. There is no focus and no specificity. Now, this is done in media res so we'll assume that everybody knows each other and their roles, and that the project has…
Pavey, S. (2014). Cost-benefit analysis. MindTools.com. Retrieved January 18, 2014 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_08.htm
A in millions)
Current in millions)
Provided by Federal ureau of Investigation as of September 18, 2006. www.whitehouse.gov/goodbye/3ae6b1ac94aa97e6650780f280890a7c81100e47.html"
CHART: National Correctional Populations
National Correctional Populations
The number of adults in correctional population has been increasing.
A in millions)
Current million in millions)
Provided by ureau of Justice Statistics as of November 30, 2006. (Social Statistics riefing Room, 2006)
Violence in the Media
Huston and colleagues have estimated that the average 18-year-old will have viewed 200,000 acts of violence on television (Huston, a.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H. et al. ig World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.)
41% percent of American households have three or more televisions (Nielsen Media Research, 2000).
56% of children ages 8-16 have a television in their rooms (Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000)
Percentage of television-time children ages 2-7 spend…
Alter, Jonathan. "Moving Beyond the Blame Game. (Panel Discussion)," Newsweek, May 17, 1999.
Beyer, John. "PERSPECTIVE: How movie and TV violence hits children; Is there too much violence on television and is it time to curb it? John Beyer, director of the organization mediawatch-uk argues that media viol," Birmingham Post, March 21, 2007.
Chatfield, Joanne E.. "Influence of Media Violence on Children." American Family Physician, February 15, 2002.
Children's Hospital Boston. "Teen-Rated Video Games Loaded With Violence;
In a study entitled Lost on the Web: Does Web Distribution Stimulate or Depress Television Viewing?, it was found out that Web distribution of TV programs positively influenced the overall viewing of TV network programming (Waldfogel, 2007). A joint poll by America Online and the Associated Press reports that 80% of their respondents say that their TV viewing habits remain unchanged despite having consumed online videos. It can be inferred, therefore, that Web distribution of network material can actually become a form of free advertising.
ESACH QUESTIONS and HYPOTHESES
The review of the literature and the study framework lead to the following research questions: Does downloading or online viewing of shows play a role in the TV viewing habits of University students? What are the motivations that drive these students who prefer online downloading and viewing over watching shows aired in cable TV?
It is likewise the review of the…
Allen, D. (2007, August). Top 10 Video Sharing sites. PC World Magazine.
Aughton, S. (2005, October 11). P2P activity doubles in two years. PC Pro. Downloaded at http://www.pcpro.co.uk/news/78525/p2p-activity-doubles-in-two-years.html
CIO Online magazine. (2005, October). June Statistics Reveal Online Video Popularity. Downloaded at http://188.8.131.52/cmo/metrics/viewmetric.cfm?METRIC=866
Foulke, N. (2000, December). The history of Napster (a quick and dirty version). The Bi-College News Online. Downloaded at http://www.biconews.com/article/view/3390
Communication and Culture
An Analysis of the Dangerous Effects of New Communication Technology on Society
Technology is making communication easier in today's world, but often at the expense of personal contact as many people choose to socialize in front of a computer screen. What dangers are there for a society which depends on computer screens rather than face-to-face contact for its main means of communication? This paper will analyze the effects of today's communication technology (social media, chat rooms, networking) on society and culture.
Michel Metz (1995) argues "that cultures are both possible and prevalent among communities connected only by computer as the preferred mode of communication" (p. 1). But Metz is writing perhaps too soon. The explosion of social media in the 21st century has essentially redefined the way we communicate and form relationships -- which no longer require face-to-face encounters; they can exist globally, with face-to-face simulation offered…
Bugeja, M. 2005, Interpersonal Divide: the search for community in a technological
Age, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Causes of Divorce in Saudi Arabia 2009, Available from http://home-
family.top54u.com/post/Causes-of-Divorce-in-Saudi-Arabia.aspx [Accessed 3 Sept 2011].
MEDIA & GLOBAL POLITICS
Shirky's piece is about the potential for media to change the course of government and politics across the world. He writes of ways that specifically the technology of social media has the power and/or potential for political activism and social change. The 21st century has seen an increase in the frequency and the efficiency of grassroots activism and social movements around the world, due in great part because of the Internet and social media. In fact, the drastic increase in this kind of activity began in the late 20th century:
Since the rise of the Internet in the early 1990s, the world's networked population has grown from the low millions to the low billions. Over the same period, social media have become a fact of life for civil society worldwide, involving many actors -- regular citizens, activists, nongovernmental organizations, telecommunications firms, software providers, governments…As the…
Castells, M. (2009). Communication Power. Oxford University Press. Pp. 299-432.
Morozov, E. (2011). Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom. Public Affairs: New York. Pp. 1- 32, 179-204.
Shirky, C. (2011). The Political Power of Social Media. Foreign Affairs, Jan/Feb2011, 90(1), 28-41.
The world of advertisement has greatly revolved and there are several changes that each company must follow in order to have the market presence and be at par with the competition that are in the same market. This particular marketing and campaign strategy will be on electronics line that is yet to be produced.
The primary objective is to reach as many as possible people within the U.S.A. And across the world with the brand name hence sensitizing them of the entry of the brand name.
The new line will get involved in Sports sponsorship to give it a global platform to showcase some of its latest inventions and act as a brand ambassador for the company. Millions of dollars will be spent over years in aggressive advertisement at such sports events which will give the customers a chance to see the products hence creating more…
Macdermott, (2011). Modern Marketing Methods. Retrieved October 12, 2013 http://www.flyingsolo.com.au/marketing/business-marketing/modern-marketing-methods
Fans of science fiction are fond of recalling a remark by novelist Arthur C. Clarke, to the effect that any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. I am currently typing these sentences onto a laptop, where I am also currently watching a grainy YouTube video of the legendary magician Harry Houdini, performing one of his legendary escapes -- from a straitjacket, in this case. Houdini is probably the most famous stage magician of the twentieth century, as witnessed by the fact that his name is familiar to my generation although he died almost a century ago. If Houdini were to suddenly reappear in front of me right now -- in the flesh, I mean, and not merely on YouTube -- how would I explain to him that the way in which all of this is taking place? To someone who has been dead for a century, the…
Abbate, Janet. Inventing the Internet. Boston: MIT Press, 1999. Print.
Babbage, Charles. Table of the Logarithms of the Natural Numbers from 1 to 108000 by Charles Babbage, Esq., M.A. London: Clowes and Sons, 1841. Print.
Babbage, Charles. "On a method of expressing by signs the action of machinery." Address to the Royal Society, 1826. Web.
Bryant, John H. "Heinrich Hertz's Experiments and Experimental Apparatus: His Discovery of Radio Waves and His Delineation of Their Properties." In Baird, Davis; Hughes, R.I.G.; and Nordman, Alfred. Heinrich Hertz: Classical Physicist, Modern Philosopher. Hingham, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998. Print.
But Martin Lawrence bugs out his eyes a little and he's a coon. It makes no sense.'7
The defense seems somewhat warranted. After all, if all characters in the sitcom Martin were white, and acted the same way, such behavior would be attributed to the standard stupidity showcased on television. Much like the quote earlier about sitcoms and stereotypes leveling things, television in general fails to showcase the brightest and most sublime of human endeavors.
Lawrence is not alone in criticisms aimed at contemporary black actors. In her essay, "Stereotypes of History: Reconstructing Truth and the Black Mammy," Jennifer Kowalski claims, "actors such as Martin Lawrence, Eddie Murphy, and Tyler Perry, have once again recycled the first existence of the Mammy/Aunt Jemima character." The "mammy" stereotype is "represented as full-figured women with strong and defensive attitudes, especially toward men who may bring harm to their loved ones." Lawrence recently starred…
Aristotle. "Poetics." The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. Ed. Vincent B.
Leitch. New York. W.W. Norton and Company, 2001, 90-117.
"Blackboard Jungle Fever." Martin. By John Bowman. Martin Lawrence, Tisha
Campbell-Martin, Carl Anthony Payne II, Thomas Mikal Ford. The WB. January
The age of typography began with the Enlightenment and flourished in the New World, and coincided with significant social, political, and economic changes. As Postman (2005) points out in Amusing Ourselves to Death, Protestants with a predilection toward intellectualism made books and reading integral to American life. "The influence of the printed word in every arena of public discourse was insistent and powerful not merely because of the quantity of printed matter but because of its monopoly," (Postman, 2005, p. 41). In other words, print had a monopoly on information, communication, and the exchange of ideas. Print became endowed with a level of political and social significance that it does not have in the digital age, as there are now multiple modes of information exchange. When printed matter was all there was, the very ideals of democracy depended on it.
During the typographic age, content was meaningful as well…
Dewey, C. (2014). What makes some internet memes immortal. The Washington Post. 10 Nov, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-intersect/wp/2014/11/10/what-makes-some-internet-memes-immortal/
Postman, N. (2005). Amusing Ourselves to Death. New York: Penguin.
Sternberg, J. (2013). Technology today: What would Neil Postman think? Retrieved online: http://www.spinedu.com/technology-today-neil-postman-think/#.VGGC9_Q49oA
Communication Upgrade Plan
Communications Upgrade Plan
The Abco Company wishes to upgrade its telecommunications technology to a system that is more efficient than the outdated Centrex system now in place. As part of the upgrade plan, the CEO has asked for an explanation of the various systems and technologies available for the upgrade. This research explores various technologies and recommends the proper solution for the business problem at hand.
Communications Upgrade Plan
The Centrex phone system has been the standard in business telecommunications since the 1960s. The system has been the only system of this type for many years. usinesses, such as Abco have had their Centrex System for many years. However, aside from being outdated technology, the Centrex System is no longer the most cost effective solution for businesses. The Abco Corporation has had its Centrex system for as long as anyone can remember. Until recently, no one had…
Callahan, R. (2008). Businesses Move to Voice-over-IP. 12 September 2008. Forbes.com.
Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/2008/12/09/skype-vonage-ringcentral_leadership_clayton_in_rc_1209claytonchristensen_inl.html
This article explores the advantages and move towards VoIP in many businesses.
CISCO. (2011). Quality of Service for Voice over IP. Cisco Systems. Retrieved from http://www.cisco.com/en/U.S./docs/ios/solutions_docs/qos_solutions/QoSVoIP/QoSVoIP.html
Media Institutions and Regulations:
A Discussion on the Twitter Phenomenon
Words change meaning all the time. Take, for example, awful. Today, it means something terrible, but it used to mean filled with awe (aweful). In this case, a different spelling has led to a different interpretation. Yet sometimes, the same word may mean the same exact thing, only in a completely different context. This refers to the example of Twitter. Traditionally, twitter as a verb meant to utter a succession of small, tremulous sounds, as a bird or to talk lightly and rapidly, especially of trivial matters. In this day and age, however, a mention of twitter will conjure up images of the phenomenon that the technological age has brought about. Yes, twitter can still mean trivial talk, even in this technological context, but most likely, it will refer to the information network that connects friends to coworkers and even…
"Beyond the dippy lingo, the idea that something intelligent, something worthy of mindshare, might occur in the space of 140 characters -- Twitter's parameters were set by what would fit in a text message on a phone -- seems unlikely. But it was clear […] the primary news platform was Twitter, with real-time annotation of the panels on stage and critical updates about what was happening elsewhere at a very hectic convention." [9: Carr, David. "Why Twitter Will Endure." New York Times, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/03/weekinreview/03carr.html ]
A further perusal of this particular article reflects further opinions, though similar ones, including the fact that the history of the internet suggests "cool" website that go in and out of style, and Twitter is one of those rare ones that are more likely to stay in style than go in and out.
Traditional media outlets are changing all over the world. From Facebook, to Twitter, to Flick, to Linkedin and many others, the new generation is putting its stamp on the vast landscape of information, its retrieval and dissemination. This is important to note, because this change comes with positives and negatives, some of which can harm humanity. However, it is also important to note the progress and the continuation of it, and promote such media outlets for the benefit of advancement.
Communications networks can be used as a source of profitability, but not according to the traditional model of selling songs, when they are so easy to copy.
espite the existence of pay-for-music services like iTunes, industry insiders confide that they have become convinced that iTunes in the long run will never generate as much profits as Cs. "Worldwide music sales fell about 7% last year...growth in downloads from iTunes, the biggest legitimate digital service, came to a halt" (Pfanner 2009). "At the end of the day, we are not going to stop piracy, so let's embrace it," said one executive (Pfanner 2009). Internet companies, which had once resisted the music company's efforts to police their customers, also now have an interest in ensuring that the use of such unlimited databases remains legitimate, as they are part of the new profit model.
Pfanner, Eric. (2009, January 18). "Music industry…
Despite the existence of pay-for-music services like iTunes, industry insiders confide that they have become convinced that iTunes in the long run will never generate as much profits as CDs. "Worldwide music sales fell about 7% last year...growth in downloads from iTunes, the biggest legitimate digital service, came to a halt" (Pfanner 2009). "At the end of the day, we are not going to stop piracy, so let's embrace it," said one executive (Pfanner 2009). Internet companies, which had once resisted the music company's efforts to police their customers, also now have an interest in ensuring that the use of such unlimited databases remains legitimate, as they are part of the new profit model.
Pfanner, Eric. (2009, January 18). "Music industry imitates digital pirates to turn a profit." The New York Times. Retrieved January 19, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/19/business/worldbusiness/19digital.html?scp=2&sq=file%20sharing&st=cse
Compae and contast the media theoies pesented in the chapte. Using you expeience with media, discuss the degee to which each explains you elationship with media.
Theoists such as Walte Ong focus on the impotance of the medium though which pesuasive and othe types of communications ae conveyed. The electonic media conveys a sense of intimacy. It is possible to follow a politician on Twitte, as well as listen to his o he moe caefully-cafted fomal speeches. The Intenet allows people to gain access to eveyday people though eading blogs, as well as media souces fom aound the wold. But the Web can be deceptively intimate, and also only tansmit a faily shallow and supeficial pesentation of issues because the infomation must be conveyed quickly. The Intenet has undoubtedly contibuted to the polaization of the cuent political envionment in Ameica. If desied, people can simply ead websites and…
references make the audience more open to hear what is said, and moved to agree with the persuader. These referents also encourage identification with the speaker.
Media Advertising: Posting an Ad on Facebook
Social media advertising provides a great platform for enhancing a brand message's reach and influencing prospects at the buying cycle's middle-of-the-funnel or evaluation stage. Facebook presents a unique marketing plan for advertisers; one that entirely focuses on middle-of-the-funnel offers as a way of influencing buyer decisions. This is quite logical since it is at the evaluation stage that a buyer i) clarifies exactly what they need, and then embarks on the search for a satisfying provider, and ii) is most likely to share information through their established network though a 'like' (Social Media Today, 2013).
In order to take advantage of this aspect, Sushi Fashions, a dealer in ladies wear, handbags and accessories intends to put up an ad regarding its Super Bowl sale, in which buyers could get up to 50% off on the conventional prices - over the entire product range.…
Catholic Democrats. (2008). Step-by-Step Instruction to Place a Facebook Ad. Catholic Democrats. Retrieved from http://catholicdemocrats.org/contribute/Facebook%20Instructions.pdf
Social Media Today. (2013). Enhance your MOFU: 10 Ways to Advertise on Social Media. Social Media Today Community. Retrieved from http://socialmediatoday.com/seanroyer/1444696/enhance-your-mofu-10-ways-advertise-social-media >
VanHoose, D. (2011). E-Commerce Economics (2nd ed.). New York: Taylor & Francis.
Since Facebook has a lage numbe of uses, eachability of taget maket can be ensued in a moe cost effective way. A fee Facebook page can be used fo a moe inteactive maketing with consumes.
Justification of Rationale
The buying bief is of immense impotance to the plan. The economic cisis has inceased maketing costs of businesses significantly. Most bands that exist in competitive makets look fo cost effective but pime media slots. The maket foces that detemine the advetising costs in vaious media ae vey active. Moeove, the allocated budget fo Geat Smell is limited and the sales have gone down by 2% in the past yea.
The impotance of the buying bief is that it addesses the two most citical aspects of the poduct that is the declining sales along with the competition that exists and the limited budget. Keeping the citical aspects in view, the buying bief…
Jan Feb March Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Total
Prime Time 40/wk 40/wk 1250000
According to Erika Engstrom: "because there are no legal rules for the wedding as a social event itself, wedding media such as found in The Knot's offerings provide informal, though structured, instruction (etiquette) to women regarding the correct way weddings should be conducted. In this sense, the uniform weddings portrayed and described in detail in such media, in the form of easily accessible magazines and etiquette books, television programs, and popular films, thus become the dominant version" (Engstrom 62). In other words, popular culture, the media, and websites that seamlessly merge advice and advertising now structure our view of what is a normal wedding, filling in for what was once dictated by religion or local culture. Ironically, although more marriages end in divorce, more couples live together before marriage, and the roles of the genders are being increasingly questioned in society, marriages are getting more expensive and elaborate.…
Qualified privilege has the same result as absolute privilege, but does not protect statements that can be proven to have been made with malicious intent (Pember, & Calvert, 2005).
The church would argue that they had a qualified privilege to communicate Steve's personal indiscretions due to the fact that they have the right to practice their religion. They will say that the disclosing of personal indiscretions is somehow a religious practice in their church and that everyone must disclose their indiscretions to them so that they can then make these public so that other people can help the person with their problems. They would argue that the statements were important facts to be known in the public interest in the carrying out of their religious practices.
d. Is there a legal difference in disclosing personal indiscretions to other elders, to members of the church, or to members of the public?…
Pember, D., & Calvert, C. (2005). Mass Media Law. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Communication Management and Organizational Change
Communication management in the organization and most specifically in the organizational change environment is critically important. The work of Heathfield entitled "Communication in Change Management" state that it is impossible to "over-communicate when you are asking your organization to change." (2011, p.1) According to Heathfield, there are four critical components of effective communication as follows:
(1) The person sending the message must ensure that the message is presented clearly with great detail and that the message be perceived as containing integrity and that the message be authentic;
(2) The individual reading the message must make the decision to listen and to ask questions to ensure clarity and finally must trust the message's sender;
(3) The method of delivery must be chosen as appropriate for the context and for the needs of the sender and receiver of the message;
(4) The message content must resonate and…
Albrecht, Karl G. The Northbound Train. N.Y.: AMACON, 1994.
Blake, R. And Mouton J. Corporate Excellence Through Grid Organizational Development. Houston, 1968 Gulf Publishing Co.
Cohen, Eli and Tichy, Noel. "How Leaders Develop Leaders" in Training in Development. May 1997 pp. 58-73
DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (1998). A tale of two corporations: managing uncertainty during organizational change. Human Resources Management, 37, 295-303. Retrieved May 10, 2006, from the LIRN, ProQuest database.
What audiences will you need to consider in your response?
The primary target audience for my response includes current and future cruise ship passengers. The demographics will vary considerably, depending on the cruise line in question. Carnival appeals to a younger demographic; but there are other cruise lines that cater to a more mature crowd. Therefore, the language needs to be as neutral as possible.
The second audience I will need to consider includes shareholders and stakeholders. These are actual investors who own stock in our company, and they are our partners. They will need to retain confidence in us. Stakeholders include anyone in our supply chain line as well, as we do not want to mar our relationships due to a mishandling negative publicity.
Finally, I would also consider our staff. Staff members will need to know that we are on their side. We want to be diplomatic…
Effective communications between doctors and nurses has always been a high priority in the medical field, especially in an arena such as a hospital, health clinic or hospice. Communicating effectively between the nurses and the doctors is especially important in a hospice setting due to the fact that the patient is usually suffering the most; both with the physical and the emotional pain and suffering that is being experienced as the patient nears death.
One recent study determined that "doctors and nurses have different but complementary roles in what, when and how treatment choices are negotiated with patients" (Mccullough, Mckinlay, Barthow, Moss, Wise, 2010, p. 482) and the treatment choices when facing death are decisions that should not be taken lightly, either by the involved nurses or the doctors. The decisions taking place in the hospice setting will often determine how much pain and suffering the patient will endure…
Basch, E.; (2010) The missing voice of patients in drug-safety reporting, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 362, Issue 10, pp. 865-869
Bezzina, A.J.; (2009) Prevalence of advance care directives in aged care facilities of the Northern Illawarra, Emergency Medicine Australia, Vol. 21, Issue 5, pp. 379 -- 385
Byrnes, J.; Braden, J.; James, G.; Broadus, T.; Owen, R.; (2011) Implementing an electronic medical record (EMR) in an integrated delivery system Sharp Healthcare (SHC) San Diego, California, accessed on September 25, 2011 at http://proceedings.amia.org/1alo2n/
David, S.E.; Ahmed, Z.; Salek, M.S.; Finlay, A.Y.; (2005) Does enough quality of life related discussion occur during dermatology outpatient consultations? The Journal of Dermatology, Vol. 153, pp. 997 -- 1000
Additionally, the very peculiar relationship between modern information technologies and the business must somehow be conceptualized if a proper model of knowledge transfer is to be attained. So, while in some cases, technology may serve as an obvious way to optimize the transfer of knowledge and overcome the barriers of routines, these same technologies, in different settings or with different individuals, will create more barriers and less effective routines. The fundamental concern must be attaining an applicable model of knowledge transfer, and perhaps the willingness to employ the idea of replication wherever it can be straightforwardly implemented.
Traditionally, many careers have been subject to gender specific designations. Obviously, numerous broad fields of work like medicine and law have historically been dominated by men, while women have been relegated to secretarial, nursing, or other subordinate positions. In recent decades this trend has come under fire and gender is no-longer widely accepted…
Cohen, M.D. et al. (1996). "Routines and Other Recurring Action Patterns of Organizations." Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 5, No. 3.
Woods, Bob. (2001). "Sharing the Intellectual Wealth." Chief Executive, July.
Cohen, M.D. et al. "Routines and Other Recurring Action Patterns of Organizations." Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1996. Page 683.
Woods, Bob. "Sharing the Intellectual Wealth." Chief Executive, July 2001. Page 20.