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Communism & Nationalism
Communism is a society without money (For Communism) 1, without a state, without property and without social classes. People come together to carry out a project or to respond to some need of the human community but without the possibility of their collective activity taking the form of an enterprise that involves wages and the exchange of its products. The circulation of goods is not accomplished by means of exchange:
quite the contrary, the by-word for this society is "from each according to their abilities, to each according to their needs.
With communism the government of people (For Communism) 1 gives way to the administration of things. Contrary to the illusion produced by the present society the state and its institutions are not the inevitable result of the growth and complexities of societies, but the opposite, the result of the frantic socialization of the species without…
Communism in Cuba
Communism refers to a revolutionary socialist movement that creates classes, stateless social orders and moneyless on ownership of the means of production. It also involves social, economic and political ideologies that focus on the establishment of social order. Therefore there is replacement of private goods of capital among individuals with the common ownership and the distribution of these when need arises. It is a theoretical system of the economy that has the characteristic of common ownership of property for the common benefits to the members as depicted by All About Philosophy, (2012).
This is a case study of a country that still practices communism. The adverse effects of communism are seen from the case study and possible suggestions on how the situation can be changed so that the whole country can benefit from its resources.
Cuba is an example of a country where communism is still existence.…
All About Philosophy, (2012). What is Communism? Retrieved September 28, 2012 from http://www.allaboutphilosophy.org/what-is-communism-faq.htm
Campello, L. (2007). The Cuban Communist Party's Anti-Castro Activities. The Writing of F.
Lennox Campello. Retrieved September 27, 2012, from http://campello.tripod.com/castro.htm
Chapman, S. (2010). Cuba and the Death of Communism - Reason.com. Reason.com. Retrieved September 27, 2012, from http://reason.com/archives/2010/09/20/cuba-and-the-death-of-communis
The historical events leading to the communist invasion of both territories, Poland and Yugoslavia were external influences and occurred as the aftermath of the Second World War when the Nazis were attempting to create a communist power block. The takeover was somewhat willing in Poland based on the manipulative skills of the Soviet Government while in Yugoslavia the ed Army had to force their way into the territory, in both cases, however, they had to force their authority to maintain control over the captured territory. Neither of them offered much support nor got much support form the local parties in fact, in both cases, the Nazis tried eliminating the opposing parties. They each faced serious antagonism and their way of dealing with it was forceful eradication in both cases. The only difference perhaps lies in the fact that the public in Yugoslavia was the one to bring about an…
Martin a. Schain, the Marshall Plan: fifty years after, Palgrave, 2001, p. 132
Tadeusz Piotrowski (1997). Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide.... McFarland & Company, p. 21-23.
Cohen, Lenard J.: Broken Bonds: The Disintegration of Yugoslavia. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1993, p. 66-71
Hayden, Robert M.: Blueprints for a House Divided: The Constitutional Logic of the Yugoslav Conflicts. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000, p. 99-101.
The simplest explanation for the collapse of the Soviet Union is that the system was not sufficiently stable to withhold both its own needs and the demands of an arms race. The very ideal of communism is that a nation will be freed from the demands of over-production and over-consumption which are the predicted bane of capitalism. Ideally, freed from the requirements of making a profit for the capitalist class, a communist nation will only produce what it needs for the survival of its people - the Soviet Union on the other hand, found itself attempting to produce at a very high level in order to compete with America's military output. The demands of the Cold War itself, it could be said, destroyed the Soviet Union.
Of course, it may appear that the fall of the Communist ideal was due in large part to a change in…
" (I.1.3) Smith focuses not on the laborer, but on the maker of pins. In fact, the maker of pins, seamlessly becomes the owner of a pin-making factory, even though this would not necessarily be the case under industrialism -- in fact, what had become a specialized trade was now performed in a series of parts by many workers. But in Smith's view, the consumer profits by the lower price of pins and the greater availability of the commodities, while the factory owner profits by the increased supply of goods to sell, and thus can lessen the price in a competitive market. Freedom and division of workers, Smith believed, in a spirit of self-interest, produced positive results.
In contrast, Marx wrote with horror about how workers were alienated from their means of production. In other words, for the enrichment of the factory-owner, the worker rented out his or her body,…
Marx, Karl. Capital. Originally published 1867. Translated by Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling -- edited by Frederick Engels
Marx, Karl & Frederik Engles. The Communist Manifesto. 1848
Smith, Adam. The Wealth of Nations. Originally published 1776. London: Methuen and Co., Ltd., ed. Edwin Cannan, 1904. Fifth edition.
Therefore no media coverage had been given to rise of Berlin Wall. However, it falling also marked the end of an "evil" social order. This event triggered mass celebrations, some of which had been "cooked" by the media while others had been completely "natural."
esolution of Issues
November 9, 1989 saw the fall of the Berlin Wall and it also marked a special occasion in for German families, which had been divided, ever since the wall had been erected in 1961. Bohn and Berntsen (2007) assert that almost all outstanding issues between the East and West Germany had been resolved subsequent to the fall. In fact, East Germany had also decided to build a memoir. Some issues however stirred up heated debates. This was particularly true when some quarters in Germany called for, "a Berlin memorial to the six million Jews who died in Europe during the Second World War…
Bohn, A. And Berntsen, D. (2007). Pleasantness Bias in Flashbulb Memories: Positive and Negative Flashbulb Memories of the Fall of the Berlin Wall among East and West Germans. Memory & Cognition. 35: 3.
Edwards, L. (2009). Why We Should Remember Fall of Berlin Wall. Contributors: Human Events. 65: 39.
Loshitzky, Y. (1997). Constructing and Deconstructing the Wall. Contributors: CLIO. 26: 3.
Taylor, F. (2007). The Berlin Wall: A Secret History The Berlin Wall Was a Tangible Symbol of the Suppression of Human Rights by the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War, but Frederick Taylor Asks Whether It Was More Convenient to the Western Democracies Than Their Rhetoric Suggested. History Today. 57: 2.
Communism in the 1930s
In the United States during the 1930s, the population was gripped in the middle of the Great Depression. A large percentage of the people were out of work and suffering. There were people who lost their jobs, their homes, their cars, and everything else that had been valuable to them. The democratic government system which the country had been based on had not proved helpful to aiding the crisis and the people were looking for some means of alleviating their misery. There were violent protests against the government and factory owners who the people felt were not supporting the people and were instead exploiting their misery. The idea of Communism began to seem more appealing to many who had been ruined in the stock market crash and the resulting Great Depression because it was based on the idea that no person should have more than anyone…
Faragher, J.M., Buhle, M.J., Czitrom, D., & Armitage, S.H. (2009). Out of Many: A History of the American People, Volume II. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. 661-90.
S.'s difficulty interpreting the modern Middle East. The U.S. is a young nation. It is difficult for the United States to fully understand why age-old religious and tribal conflicts can have such an eternal importance in a history-saturated region. Future relations with the Middle East will be almost inevitably be obscured by America's lack of history and its focus on its own perceptions and needs, given not only the government's lack of perspective, but also the majority of the American public's perspective, which influences their choice of leadership and the positions they pressure leaders to assume.
When confronting the question if communism or terrorism is a greater threat, it cannot be denied that terrorism has much greater chance of materially impacting the lives of civilians, in terms of loss of life. On a macro scale, however, fundamentalism, rooted in poverty, a sense of voicelessness, or even an alternative…
Communism Affact World During the Cold War
There is much controversy with regard to the effects of communism on the Cold War, as with the Iron Curtain falling in the early nineties across Eastern Europe people have come to have a somewhat distorted understanding of the concept. To paraphrased Winston Churchill, the reality is that the victors are responsible for writing history while the masses have a limited understanding of events that actually happened in the past. With the general public having a one-sided understanding of what happened during the Cold War, many are inclined to blame communism for much of the suffering occurring throughout the second half of the twentieth century.
Many fail to comprehend that communism as an ideology is very different from how diverse dictators throughout history have interpreted it. Similarly, numerous democratic countries are not necessarily as praiseworthy as some might be inclined to believe. Furthermore,…
Politics: Canadian Communism
We want to make this nation one which truly belongs to all its people; we seek to create a society in which all individuals have the opportunity to realize their full potential" (History of NDP). These sentiments, although forming part of the New Democratic Party's socialist mission statement, are considered to be a close reflection of the values and beliefs that are commonly associated with Communism. The NPD, however, take great pains to distance themselves from the label of 'communist', leaving the Communist Party of Canada (CPC) to carry the official flag of Canadian communism. Under the guidance of the CPC the development of Communism in Canada, unlike in Russia and other traditionally communist strongholds, has developed less rapidly; adopted a less extreme agenda, and as a result, continues to exert an appreciable influence upon Canadian politics and society. y adapting to changing social and political conditions,…
Bercuson, D. Confrontation at Winnipeg. McGill - Montreal: Queen's University Press, 1974.
Bumsted. J.M. The Winnipeg General Strike of 1919. New York:Watson Dwyer Publishing Limited, 1994.
History of the CPC. Communist Party of Canada. 3rd April, 2003. http://www.communist-party.ca/archive/History/h1.htm .
History of the NDP. New Democratic Party. 3rd April, 2003. http://www.ndp.ca/index.php3?language=english .
Another view which is in fact closely linked to the above analysis is that the fall of communism began from within the system. This view is supported by the fact that that the very strict totalitarianism of the Soviet Union began to change after the death of Stalin. After Stalin's death the rigidity of Soviet Communism began to weaken, which was so to result in a reassertion of personal and nationalistic will and aspirations within the various countries and regions in the Soviet Union.
People also began to feel more positively disposed towards the West as the strict and regimented tenets of communism started to loosen. In a sense communism was only successful while it kept all of it disparate parts together and cohesive through often brutal dictatorial coercion. After Stalin there was a decline of the rule of mass terror and an"...opening up partially to the outside world." (Malia,…
Blackburn, R. (Ed.). (1991). After the Fall: The Failure of Communism and the Future of Socialism. London: Verso.
Goode, S. (2002, January 7). The Deathblow to Soviet Communism: Scholars Say That the 1956 Revolt by Hungarian Freedom Fighters against the Soviet Union Was the Seminal Event in the Fall of That Communist Empire. Insight on the News, 18, 20+. Retrieved February 6, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000687454 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002258037
Jameson, F. (1996, April). Five Theses on Actually Existing Marxism. Monthly Review, 47, 1+.
Mohan describes this concept this way:
"A new tribalism seems to mark the post-modern evolution of the contemporary society in which the ominous forces of oppression are decivilizing people. Paradoxes of existence fracture the essence of life (p 1)."
Paradoxes of existence describe those people who have been subdued by the aggressive forces of a greater political power (Tucker 1990 p 1). This was evidenced when Stalin drove the communist revolution to its power place between 1929 and 1941. During that period of imposing communism on Russians, Stalin murdered, or eliminated anyone whom he believed might raise a public awareness of what was happening in Russia -- and that elimination knew no class or political distinction (p 275). Stalin is cited by Tucker (1990) as saying to H.G. ells, "The new state power creates a new legality, a new order which is a revolutionary order (p *)." Professor Mahmoud Youssef…
Firestone, Reuven. Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=90368225 . Internet. Accessed 22 May 2009.
Haar, Gerrie Ter and James J. Busuttil, eds. Bridge or Barrier: Religion, Violence, and Visions for Peace. Boston: Brill, 2005. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114113879 . Internet. Accessed 22 May 2009.
Mohan, Brij. Eclipse of Freedom: The World of Oppression. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1993. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=28602903 . Internet. Accessed 22 May 2009.
Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza. Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=49070477 . Internet. Accessed 22 May 2009.
Specter of Communism," Leffler's core focal point is lying on the U.S. reply to the increase and spread of communism inside the Soviet Union, as well as its succeeding efforts to broaden the structure globally.
Consequently, the effort is undermanned in its clarification of the causes following the olshevik revolution of 1917, the civil war that ensured, and simply adopts a concise aspect at the blow made by the U.S., as well as ritish rejection to obligate to Soviet policy for the period of World War II.
Yet simultaneously, Leffler's approach into U.S. efforts to separate and destabilize the communist gathering all through the 1920s and 30s, along with his examination of the point of potency as of which the U.S. was capable to carry out foreign relations in the late 1940s, go further than that of the characteristic cold war period efforts.
I believe that the most appealing mark…
Sarah Bey. A Review: "The Specter of Communism." Steinmetz Academic Centre', Chicago, Illinois.
Anticommunism / Communism
In Red Scare or Red Menace? John Earl Haynes seeks to rectify deficiencies in the historiography of American anticommunism. Prior examinations, he contends, have failed to accurately explain critical components of the opposition to communism in the years after orld ar II. In so doing, he indicates, these works have misunderstood and incorrectly characterized the nature of anticommunist activity.
Haynes identifies four principal shortcomings in earlier depictions. First, he asserts, many histories do not adequately establish the connection between the Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA) and the espionage activities of the Soviet Union. Second, previous analyses have not described the significant links between pre-orld ar II antifascism and postwar anticommunism. Next, he charges, the accounts routinely fail to demonstrate the scope and diversity of sentiment against communism. Finally, prior works typically portray anticommunism as senseless and inscrutable. "To make American anticommunism in the 1940s and…
Haynes, J. Red Scare or Red Menace? American Communism and Anticommunism in the Cold
War Era. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1996.
Post Communism and Social Policies -- an Introduction
Communism and Capitalism are the two terms that have been defining the societies of the world. Needless to say, the understanding of the aforementioned terms is important before we go on to discuss the social policies in different countries. Communism is basically the economic organization is which the ownership of everything belongs to the government. Capitalism is the opposite of Communism. Karl Marx developed communism during the 19th century (Nelson, 2000). In a communist country, the government controls the economy and the people of the country work for the businesses that are owned by the government. The government takes control of the entire production and each person receives his share according to his contribution. The distribution of the resources is also done by the government. People get what the government thinks they deserve according to their needs and abilities.
Post-communism is a…
"World Bank Estimates Microdata" (2013).
Curtin, TR and Nelson, EA (1999)."Economic and health efficiency of education funding policy."Department of Treasury, Papua New Guinea.
Dean, H. (2006). Social Policy. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Easter, Gerald M. (2012). Capital, Coercion, and Post-Communist States, Cornell University Press.
Intervention of Communism in South Vietnam
has participated in the events taking place in Vietnam because it wanted to put an end to the ongoing communist revolution going on in the country in the 1950's. In theory communism presents itself as a very attractive concept, especially for the core masses of a country which is at its developing stages. It presents itself as a society where equality is maintained everywhere, where the in the masses nobody is richer or poorer than the other, where employment is distributed equally and people share the outcome of the labor they have done and where the government ensures a safety net for its people so that proper medical care and employment opportunities are provided. However as it is known to all that the concept of communism does not work in real life or in practice, because in the practical world the political leaders…
Anderson, David L. Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War (2002)
Cable, Larry. Unholy Grail: The U.S. And the Wars in Vietnam (1991)
Duiker, William J. The Communist Road to Power in Vietnam (1996)
Mitchell K. Hall, The Vietnam War (2007) 168 pages; short survey
Nazism was fascist in nature, but rather than the State being the focus, it was race (Aryan), combined with fervent nationalism. Not all fascists are Nazi's, but it would be all but required to support fascist ideology in order to be a true Nazi. Fascists are not necessarily racist, which is contrary to the anti-Semitic doctrines which are at the core of Nazi ideology.
Part 2 -- Was World War II inevitable
Many scholars see World War II as nothing but a continuation of World War I with some of the players shaken up a bit. This view holds that the issues of the First War were never resolved, just put on hold for monetary reasons, and then resurfaced once the priority became vaster than simply finding something to eat (Watt, 1989). Hitler began writing Mein Kampf (My Struggle) while in prison in the 1920s. In this book, he formed…
Cashman and Robinson. (2007). An Introduction to the Causes of War. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Fitzpatrick, S. (2008). The Russian Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Krohn, K. (2008). The 1918 Flu Pandemic. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press.
Lee, S. (1999). European Dictatorships, 1918-45. New York: Routledge
"…the work of the proletarians has lost all individual character, and, consequently, all charm for the workman. He becomes an appendage of the machine, and it is only the most simple, most monotonous, and most easily acquired knack, that is required of him" (Marx). This quotation alludes to the loss of identity that is incurred by the proletarian class of laborer, which is directly related to the impending sense of alienation and uselessness which Marx also claims devalues the proletariat's familial relations, loss of private property, and general life experience. These conditions are the result of the class war which has been unwillingly declared upon the proletariat by the bourgeois which seeks to exploit the former class. And it is directly due to this conflict, which was initiated by the bourgeoisie, that Marx believes that the proletariat will eventually triumph in the form of an organized revolt that will cease…
Darwin, Charles. The Origin of Species. Literature.org. 1859. Web. http://www.literature.org/authors/darwin-charles/the-origin-of-species/
Marx, Karl. The Communist Manifesto. 1848. Web. http://www.anu.edu.au/polsci/marx/classics/manifesto.html
However, the fact that the aliens are unable to procreate with human females shows the 'flaw' to their plan -- they cannot repopulate their species using true, red-blooded American females like Marge.
The aliens attack presumably the most vulnerable 'creatures' on earth, women, and use sexual means to do so. This is supposed to make them seem particularly dastardly. Marge looks even more vulnerable as she looks for aid, but finds that more and more men on the earth have been taken over by 'them.' Even individuals in conventional, male authority figures like the police have been infiltrated by aliens. However, the idea of the questionable nature of the law implied in "I Married a Monster from Outer Space" is not confined to anti-communist films. Anti-McCarthy films like the estern "Silver Lode" show how similar themes, even a similar plot, can be used for the opposite ideological purposes. In "Silver…
Married a Monster from Outer Space." Directed by Gene Fowler, Jr. 1958.
Silver Lode." Directed by Allan Dwan. 1953.
A Critique of Democracy: the Latin American Left
The Latin American Left was mainly inspired by the idealism of Marx. Marx (1873) believed that “the ideal is nothing else than the material world reflected by the human mind and translated into forms of thought.” For the Left, the main problem has always been rooted in class—as materialism is the basis of their worldview, class and class struggle was the biggest issue, and equality and egalitarian principles enacted and served in society were the goal. Marx wanted the workers to own the means of production and thus end the rule of the bourgeoisie over the laborers. This was his ideal—and the Latin American leaders on the Left made it their priority to nationalize private industry and for the state to take control of the means of production. Whether it was Evo Morales in Bolivia, Chavez and Maduro in Venezuela, Castro…
The Soviet Union, itself collapsed and fragmented into a number of states in 1991 with Boris Yeltsin becoming the President of an independent ussia. Yeltsin ended state control of the economy and privatized most enterprises. However, ussia's transition to a market economy was extremely painful and following continuing economic problems and poor personal health, Yeltsin resigned on December 31, 1999, appointing Vladimir Putin as his successor.
The ussian economy has been boosted by the extremely high oil prices in the recent past but several serious problems still exist. The economy is heavily dependant on oil and has failed to diversify; there is pervasive corruption in the government, and very high criminal activity; the country has a weak judicial and banking system and too much power is concentrated in the hands of President Putin. ("ussia," 2007)
Lorimer, D. (1992). "The Collapse of Communism in the U.S.S..: Its causes and significance."…
Lorimer, D. (1992). "The Collapse of Communism in the U.S.S.R.: Its causes and significance." DSP.org. Retrieved on April 16, 2007 at http://www.dsp.org.au/dsp/Collapse/index.htm
Russia." (2007). CIA World Fact Book. Retrieved on April 16, 2007 from https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rs.html
One of these leaders of nations who had subsisted to the promise of Communism is Vladimir Lenin, Revolutionary leader who became the first leader of Soviet Russia, and eventually, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Under Lenin's leadership, he began realizing Marx's vision of a Communist society, where there is no private property and no class stratification. However, Lenin did not subscribe to Marx' belief that it should be the working class who will induce social reform and revolutionize to build a Communist society, in opposition against capitalism. In "What is to be done?," Lenin argues that revolution under a broad organization of revolutionaries made up of "hardened workers" is not feasible, simply because this organization is "loose," making the revolutionaries of workers more susceptible to outside intervention. These interventions, he states, are the police and gendarmes; hence, a broad organization of workers are not ideal, for it…
Preston, P.W. (1996). Development theory: an introduction. NY: Blackwell Publishers.
Turner, J. (1989). The emergence of sociological theory. CA: Wadsworth.
For those not familiar with the political spectrum, opposition to Communism as it existed over the 20th century may be a tad confusing or vexing. However, there is certainly rhyme or reason to who opposed Communism and on what grounds that opposition existed. Even if there has been a huge shift in terms of who is liberal and who is conservative over the years, most everyone in power was vocally anti-Communist in the days of Truman and Joe Mccarthy. However, the ways in which that did or did not manifest varied a bit from person to person. While some of the vocal opponents of Communism were on the same side of the political spectrum as the same, there was most certainly a difference and the anti-Communist activities of some, like Mccarthy, were not terribly productive.
One thing that has to be said straight off the top is that…
Foner, E. (2014). Give me liberty! (1st ed.). New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
Chinese Communism and its Future.
The Chinese revolution came in the year 1949; it refers to the final stage of military conflict. hen the armies of Mao Test Tung and of General Chu crossed the Yangtse River in April 1949, the seal of defeat was almost set on the forces of Chiang Kai Shek. According to the bourgeois revolution, their beliefs would be followed by the proletarian socialist revolution. (Gao, Mobo 2008).
The revolution of how China differs from its counterpart is that in both countries (Russia and China) were backward at the beginning of this century. Their relations of production and their patterns of exploitation were semi-feudal (or related to feudalism) and were predominantly founded on agriculture. Both societies had Religious beliefs, reflecting the social conditions: in China Confucianism, and in Russia Greek Orthodoxy. However they had different traditions, culture practices and language. Both Russia and China had different…
Gao, Mobo (2008). The Battle for China's Past: Mao and the Cultural Revolution. London: Pluto Press. ISBN 9780745327808.
Harding, Neil (ed.) (1984) The State in Socialist Society, second edition. St. Antony's College: Oxford, p. 189.
The population of Britain and London would be much smaller today, for a couple of reasons. Many would have been killed defending the island. Many more would have fled, first to the Free Irish State and then when that was inevitably overrun many would have attempted to flee to America or Canada. While Britain today attracts millions of immigrants from around the Commonwealth, that would not be the case if the Allies had lost the war. The Commonwealth would have disintegrated, with Japan claiming the Asian territories, Germany and Italy claiming Africa, and resources from these regions used to extend the power of the Axis nations.
Social life would have been very different. Gatherings would be not tolerated, except rallies in support of the party. Those would be frequent. Travel within the country would be limited. Communications would be monitored. And that is for those who survived the inevitable purges…
The main problem with GD Communism was that it was essentially full of itself -- completely idealistic and pretentiously embracing a "newfound" optimism and faith in a youthful spirit. Everything was supposedly new -- all the old institutions were influx -- and corruption was on its way out, as though it was something that could be eradicated simply by adopting the right policy, by implementing the right socialist or communist agenda. There was nothing really logical about any of it: corruption is a staple of the human condition -- always has been and always will be. Human nature does not change just because the manifesto changes. Human nature is constantly being pulled in two directions at once. With its idealistic goggles on, the GD simply spoon fed optimism and pride in itself to young generation, insisting that they reject what came before -- the sacred institutions, the sacred…
The Director of the Youth Institute Comments. (1988). GHDI.
The New Youth Program of the Communist Party. (1963). GHDI. Retrieved from http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_document.cfm?document_id=835
The history of communism and fascism
The two movements have been known to share a lot in terms of their history and even ideologies. Both are clearly seen to have been established after the First World War in order to create a new world political order that would not plunge blocks or continents into such a gruesome war as was WWI. Both ideologies loathed the domination of the bourgeoisie and wanted to recruit people to the new utopia that made all members of the society equal. Both the systems put totalitarianism into action. It was Lenin’s step of kick starting totalitarianism in October 1917 that brought into existence totalitarianism as we know it today. Both movements initiated the insurrection of the masses in politics and diminished the significance of individuals in politics. As stated by Hobsbwan E., (nd: Pp 29) “revolution swept across central and south-eastern Europe in the autumn…
MAN'S FATE AND THE QUIET AMEICAN
Communism has always been a controversial subject and it becomes all the more explosive when some authors choose to focus on its positive aspects. It is true that communism has usually been portrayed as an evil force especially in the United States where communist scare led to baseless persecution and arrests of tens of hundreds of people in 1950s. McCarthyism is the term we use for communist phobia that had gripped the nation during the 50s decade. But in those days with intense anti-communism sentiment raging in the United States, there were some courageous author who could look beyond the American propaganda against communism and explained why thought communism was better than American capitalism.
One such author was Graham Greene whose book, The Quiet American, published in 1955, took the world especially America by storm since it denounced U.S.'s so-called peace initiative in…
Andre Malraux, Man's Fate (La condition humaine), translated by Haakon M. Chevalier (New York: Vintage, 1990),
Greene, Graham. The Quiet American. London: Vintage Classics, 2001
With Eastern European nations enticed by the financial aid and political support that the U.S. And Britain provided, it became easier for them to weaken the hold of Communism. Furthermore, because Communism and a socialist economy were still in its infancy, the effects of a proletarian-led society did not bring out the expected results among these Communist nations. In effect, primarily due to the strong political influence and economic power of the U.S. And Britain, they were able to push through their anti-Communist program, providing military support through the provision of soldiers and weaponry for nations divided between Communism and capitalism.
A deeper analysis of the economic state of the Soviet Union during the rise of Communism also helps to further understand how it eventually failed to create a new social order in the modern period. Post-war Eastern Europe was driven with poverty and scarcity of its basic resources; thus,…
The withdrawal was supposed to aid the Communists in controlling the areas vacated by the Japanese, who had succeeded in controlling vast portions of Manchuria.
Stalin's efforts were aimed at forcing "the GMD [Guomindang or Chinese Nationalist Party] to make economic concessions, to prevent a united China from allying with the United States, and to placate Washington on the international arena by giving in to American demands for withdrawal," but in actuality he not only laid the groundwork for the Communists' eventual victory, but also opened up a window for the possibility of a U.S.-Communist alliance that would have destabilized the Soviet Union's power; as will be seen, the United States failed to capitalize on this opportunity, but the fact remains that Stalin's withdrawal seems to have backfired.
Stalin's withdrawal was not directly aimed at ensuring a Communist victory, but rather was an attempt to destabilize the country so…
Ashton, S.R. "Keeping a Foot in the Door: Britain's China Policy, 1945 -- 50." Diplomacy and Statecraft 15 (2004): 79-94.
Bjorge, Gary J. "The Third Chinese Revolutionary Civil War, 1945-49: An Analysis of Communist Strategy and Leadership." The Journal of Military History 74, no. 1 (2010):
Boyd, James. "Japanese Cultural Diplomacy in Action: The Zenrin ky? okai in Inner Mongolia,
" (Walsh, est, and Rai 133) Neither does the article pay sufficient attention to the motivational aspects that led Walensa to enter the Solidarity movement, and the reason for the rejection of communism.
For example, the important aspect that personally motivated Walensa was not so much any intellectual disagreement with communism - in fact he virtually ignored the student protests of 1968, which he felt was "... A problem for the intellectuals." (Walsh, est, and Rai 133) However this attitude was to change when"...on December 12, 1970, the Communist regime decreed steep increases in the prices of basic foodstuffs. The suddenness of this action in the immediate pre-Christmas season shocked Polish workers, and many went into the streets in spontaneous protest. "(Walsh, est, and Rai 133)
Not enough attention is given to the reasons that lay beneath the Soviet reaction to Walensa. This refers to the"... change in Soviet leadership…
sa November 2, 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walensa
Casmir, Fred L., ed. Communication in Eastern Europe: The Role of History, Culture, and Media in Contemporary Conflicts. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1995.
Gardner, Hall. Surviving the Millennium: American Global Strategy, the Collapse of the Soviet Empire, and the Question of Peace. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994.
These shareholders in the military-industrial complex influence the government in various ways. These companies that produce war weapons or equipment can attach themselves to the central government and the department of defense. These individuals provide enormous amounts of money to various candidates in the congress or have a large number of lobbyists advocating for more contracts in the defense industry. Another influence from the military-industrial complex idea emerges from various political individuals who decide to work for the defense contractors when they leave office. The effect of this is a conflict of interest in the government that negatively affects the common American taxpayer. Continuous war is beneficial to the shareholders in military-industrial complex. They use their position to offer support to individuals who can serve their best interest by favoring a foreign policy that is aggressive. This enables them to influence a conflict that the government pays by engaging in…
Archer, J., & Jarvis, M. (1996). The Fourth Estate. New York, NY: Harper Audio.
Hunt, E.F., & Colander, D.C. (2011). Social science: An introduction to the study of society, fourteenth edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Lewis, T.T. (2002). The Bill of Rights. Pasadena, Calif: Salem Press.
Overholser, G., & Jamieson, K.H. (2005). The press. New York: Oxford University Press.
Communism to Capitalism: Vietnam's Economic Transformation
Assess the market opportunities in Vietnam for both consumer products companies and industrial-products companies. hat is the nature of the opportunity?
ith the establishment of normal trading relations (NTR) in the mid-1990s leading to decreased tariffs and quotas on United States' imports, many companies viewed Vietnam as a land of opportunity but the United States has lagged behind other countries with marketing to this country. The potential is there for profitability, but it may take at least twenty years before Vietnam's economy has matured enough to be able to be on level with Taiwan. The current population under 25 years of age is approximately 60%, but the per capita income for most of the population is very low at around $700 per year.
As the Vietnamese people adjust to living outside of Communist rule, they will adapt to the ways of a market economy.…
Greenhouse, Steven. "New Calls To Lift Embargo On Cuba." New York Times 20 Feb. 1994: 4. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 8 May 2012. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip , uid&db=f5h&AN=30375796&site=ehost-live
Van Khai, Phan. "Putting Behind The Past And Looking Toward The Future." Foreign Affairs 84.5 (2005): 1. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 8 May 2012. Retrieved from
communism," "vodka," may be "Vladimir Putin." But everyone who would be asked about Russia would also say "Russian mafia" who are very cruel and dangerous gangs from Russia and who wouldn't stop behind anything in achieving their dirty plans.
The term and the phenomenon of Russian mafia are pretty young if compared to well-known mafia of Sicily, Italy, Latin American cartels. The first news and rumors about Russian mafia in the United stated appeared in 1980 ies, when a massive immigration of predominantly Russian Jews started from the Soviet Union. Russian mafia had penetrated into the infrastructure of the main business centers of the U.S.A.: New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and Boston. They spread their influence over the successful immigrants from Russia, who have to pay for their "protection" or who have to allow mafia representatives participate in running businesses.
If to look on the nature of relations of Russian…
3. Hoffmann, D. "Fragile Foundation," The Washington Post, December 26, 1996
4. Mafia invades New York, Article BBC NEWS available on web: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1998/03/98/russian_mafia/70485.stm
5. Khonanikhin, A. Mafiocracy in Russia, Article available on web: http://konanykhin.com/press/wp1.htm
He was labeled for a belief that he did not openly admitted subsisting to; he was labeled based on the fact that he refused to testify against an ideology.
It is not surprising, then, that the primary message of "The Crucible" resonated his thoughts and feelings about the McCarthy administration's containment policy against Communism. The arguments he presented in the play showed how Miller viewed the government's offensive action against Communism not only futile, but reflection of how American society was slowly developing into: "...for good purposes, even high purposes, the people of Salem developed a theocracy, a combination of state and religious power whose function was...to prevent any kind of disunity that might open it to destruction by...ideological enemies."
This passage aptly described the American society's condition under the paranoid and highly-offensive McCarthy administration. Like John Proctor in his play, Miller refused to say anything against an ideology that,…
Kennedy Doctrine and the Cold War
In his inaugural address as the President of the United States on January 1961, John F. Kennedy (popularly called "JFK") delivered a message that directly discussed the United States' official stance regarding its move to implement a foreign policy waging a "cold war" against Communist forces that have been gaining popularity in Asia, South America, and parts of the Middle East during this period. his U.S. foreign policy, popularly called the containment policy against Communism, was the pretext from which the eventual Cold War between Democratic and Communist forces escalated until the 1970s. During this period, JFK was assigned the task of continuing the American legacy of democracy and liberty by promoting a campaign of international alliance and cooperation against the Communist forces. At this point, Communist forces were gaining ground in South America, increasing the threat to both American soil and the country's…
These words communicate the message that the support poor nations might be receiving from the Communist forces such as Russia/Soviet Union (one of the stronger forces promoting Communism worldwide during this time), can be met and equaled by the United States, without sacrificing their liberties and human rights. JFK reiterated that human rights are given by the "hand of God," and not from the "generosity of the state," which characterized the complete control of the state/government under the Communist/Socialist society (Kennedy 1961). The doctrine ended with a reminder to United States allies to cooperate and join forces with the American government in its fight for democracy and freedom, as well as the containment of Communism worldwide. He presented a challenge to the American government's ally nations in "defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger," signaling the serious threat that Communism presented to the U.S. during JFK's term (Kennedy 1961). With its direct reference against Communism and its political and military forces in South America and neighboring countries of the United States, the doctrine had indeed solidified the country's fight against Communism -- albeit diplomatically and without the threat of weapons. It was hoped that the United States could prevent the Cold War with the U.S.S.R. from requiring military action and thankfully the war ended without either side having to fire a single shot.
Analysis of the U.S. government's containment policy during JFK's term as president was, in hindsight, shown to be geo-politically and economically-motivated. Leffler's (1984) explication of the United States' containment policy against Communist nations such as the Soviet Union was mainly a response to protecting U.S. interests in South American nations. During JFK's term, the U.S. had numerous interests in the region, which the author called the country's "strategic sphere," having established an "overseas base, air transit rights" that were beneficial to U.S. national security (Leffler 1984,-page 348). With Communism influencing nations in the South American region, the U.S. stood to lose all these strategic benefits, increasing the risk of its security from a geopolitical standpoint. A similar assessment was developed by Naji and Jawan (2011), who contended that what motivated the U.S. government to contain Communism in the Middle Eastern was not so much about the principles of democracy and freedom, but to protect its economic interests in the oil-rich region, as most of the oil companies are either owned, operated, or supported by U.S. companies (page 206-7). The imperative thing for the government was in keeping control of valuable resources and ensuring that these same resources remained out of the hands of the enemies of the American government.
Considering the effects that the containment policy contributed to international politics and the world order during JFK's time, it can be said that the policy made nations rethink about the world order and status quo as it stood
The fact that communism still dominates affairs in the country can limit or discourage foreign investors. This is probably one of the main reasons for which large corporations are hesitant about investing large amounts of money in China (eatherbee & Emmers 42).
The masses no longer express interest in U.S. cultural values because it appears that the U.S. has experienced significant problems consequent to the 9/11 events. This enabled China to step forward and pose into a body that no longer had problems because of its communist background and that was ready to join other international actors in assisting society progress. The fact that China progressed significantly while the U.S.' image suffered meant that things would change significantly in Southeast Asia. Fair play is one of the main points of interest at this point, as "the concern in Southeast Asia is that the United States, rather than accommodating to a…
Brook, Daniel, (2005) "Modern Revolution: Social Change and Cultural Continuity in Czechoslovakia and China," University Press of America
Fitzgerald, Charles Patrick, (1966), "The birth of Communist China," Michigan University
Li, Mingjiang, (2009), "Soft Power: China's Emerging Strategy in International Politics," Lexington Books
Tang, Wenfang and Holzner, Burkart (2006) "Social Change in Contemporary China: C.K. Yang and the Concept of Institutional Diffusion" University of Pittsburgh Pre
Telecommunications made it easier to transfer ideas and information instantly and without the delays that hindered previous efforts at military and strategic intervention. Similarly, the barriers to international trade had largely been lifted. The seeds of the World Trade Organization had already been laid by the end of the Second World War. Finally, the United Nations and other trans-national governing bodies would become legitimized sources of power. Nations who could climb on board stood a chance and those who could not join in faced a perilous century of poverty and political disenfranchisement. America directly contributed to the imbalance of power that would ensue throughout the 20th century.
Being a bully seemed to come easy to the Americans. Armed with what had become the largest and most well-endowed military in the world, the United States forged a path toward hegemony almost effortlessly. As if it were trying to be the world's…
S. administration after Truman's adopted Kennan's policy of 'containment' or its variation as a cornerstone of their foreign policy right until the eventual collapse of Communism in 1989. ("Kennan and Containment" n.d.)
Bell, P.M.H. (2001). The World since 1945 -- an International History. New York: Oxford University Press
George F. Kennan on the Web" (2005). History Politics and Future. etrieved on May 28, 2005 at http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/2496/future/kennan.html
Historian Walter Lefeber on Truman's Soviet Policy." (2000). PBS Online. etrieved on May 28, 2005 at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/truman/filmmore/it_1.html
Kennan and Containment." (n.d.) Bureau of Public Affairs: U.S. Department of State. etrieved on May 28, 2005 at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/cwr/17601.htm
Legvold, . (2005). "Cold War." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta Online. etrieved on May 28, 2005 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569374/Cold_War.html#p11
While the U.S. represented democracy, individual liberty and capitalism, the U.S.S.. was committed to the spread of the communist revolution among the 'down-trodden' masses of the world
The USS had…
Bell, P.M.H. (2001). The World since 1945 -- an International History. New York: Oxford University Press
George F. Kennan on the Web" (2005). History Politics and Future. Retrieved on May 28, 2005 at http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/2496/future/kennan.html
Historian Walter Lefeber on Truman's Soviet Policy." (2000). PBS Online. Retrieved on May 28, 2005 at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/truman/filmmore/it_1.html
Kennan and Containment." (n.d.) Bureau of Public Affairs: U.S. Department of State. Retrieved on May 28, 2005 at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/cwr/17601.htm
hat we learn from this is that no mistake can be erased from history just as no reparations can completely repair damage done. Germany's inability to carry her own weight during this time of trouble only prolonged the world economy, which was badly bruised and desperately needing to be healed.
2. Democracy became the word that was whispered across the globe during the twenties and thirties. The promise of democracy proved to be easier than the act of democracy. "Democracy seemed divisive and ineffective, so one country after another adopted a more authoritarian alternative during the twenties and early thirties" (Noble 1034). However, it is impossible to squash the human sprit that longs to be free. Noble asserts, "Democracy proved hard to manage in east-central Europe party because of special economic difficulties resulting from the breakup of the Habsberg system" (Noble 1035). In addition, he notes, "The countries of east-central…
Chamber, Mortimer, et al. The Western Experience. New York: Alfred a. Knopf. 1979.
Chodorow, Stanley. A History of the World. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers. 1986.
Craig, Albert, et al. The Heritage of World Civilizations. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 2000.
Noble, Thomas, et al. Western Civilization: The Continuing Experience. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1994.
More often than not, the plan of containment has been used to describe U.S. foreign policy. It is equally frequently traced back to the achievements of President Truman with regard to the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
In 1950, there was a shift in foreign U.S. policy after President Truman moved from passive to active containment by signing the top-secret policy plan NSC-68. It took a much more drastic approach towards the spread of Communism, which according to the new twist, claimed that Russia was en route for the domination of the world. It should be noted however that the doctrine had some major weaknesses and was repeatedly subject to contradictory interpretations. This may have led several other presidents and policy makers to toy with it at will. It could also very well explain some of the many long involvements of the U.S. In diverse wars and…
7 Michael O'Malley, "The Vietnam War and the Tragedy of Containment."
All good things must come to an end, and at no time is this fact truer than in China in 1911, when the Xinhai Revolution resulted in the fall of the Qing Dynasty. This led to a period of unrest, as the world's powers engaged in orld ar I. Even though China had participated in the war on the side of the Allies, China was betrayed during the negotiations at the Treaty of Versailles. Instead of being given autonomy over a controlled sphere of interest in the Shandong district of China, the Treaty of Versailles instead gave this territory over to Japan. China's May 4th Movement ended up being an anti-est, anti-imperialist cultural shift that grew out of student demonstrations in 1919.
The weak response of the Chinese government to reclaim the Shandong province for itself in self-defense led to accusations of corruption. hether or not the government was…
Chen, Duxiu, "Our Final Awakening." (Essay, 1916). Retrieved from, http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/ps/china/chen_duxiu_final_awakening.pdf .
Chiang, Kai-shek, "Essentials of the New Life Movement." (Speech, 1934). Retrieved from, http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/ps/cup/chiang_kaishek_new_life.pdf .
Mao, Zedong, "Reform our Study." (Speech, 1941). Selected Works of Mao, Beijing Foreign Languages Press, 1971.
conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement
Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.
Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…
George Nash, The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945 http://www.nationalreview.com/22dec97/mcginnis122297.html . National review online The Origins of Conservatism George Mc Ginnis
Volume Library #2, p. 2146
Schneider, Cadres for Conservatism
McGinnis, National Review Online
Strangely, America's role as policeman in Europe actually led to its becoming involved in military conflicts in Southeast Asia. Although the U.S. did not fight the Soviet Union directly in Korea or Vietnam, both conflicts were due to the U.S.'s policy of defeating the spread of Communism no matter where it might occur. Fears of escalation during both the Korean and Vietnam conflicts caused the U.S. To adopt a military strategy that favored limited warfare (Brodie).
The Cold ar had a tremendous impact on the growth of the United States as an industrial and world military power. America's presence throughout the world militarily and the dependence of estern Europe and Japan on the American economy for the sustenance of their own economies caused America's political and economic influence to expanded substantially. Beginning with the Berlin airlift (Reeves) where the United States provided food and other vital items to est Berliners…
Brodie, Bernard. War and Politics. New York: Macmillan Co., 1973.
Comstock, Douglas A. "NASA's Legacy of Technology Transfer and Prospects for Future Benefits." AIAA Space Conference & Exposition. Long Beach, CA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2007. 1-9.
Cox, M. "The Cold War as a system." Critique (1986): 17-82.
Lieber, Keir A. "The Rise of U.S. Nuclear Primacy." Foreign Affairs (2006): 42-67.
At this precise time, a young communist named Mao Zedong popularized the idea of land reforms and focused his attention on the issue of poverty among peasant class. He convinced his fellow communists that the only solution to all problems lied in strengthening the agricultural sector by introducing land reforms. He worked ceaselessly for the peasants but his party was driven to remote corners of North China during the Long March. This action, taken by Chiang government, was a clear indication of the paranoia and insecurity that were building in nationalist forces (Peoples: Rise). Mao continued to fight government's oppressive rule even while in exile and this lasted till 1937 at which point, Japan invaded China and the nationalist-communist conflict came to an end.
In 1920s, Malraux was present in China and observed the political dynamics of the country. The oppression and communist popularity affected his deeply and 1927 revolution…
Stoley, Richard B. Events That Shaped the Century. Time-Life Books. New York. 2000.
John Cruickshank. The Novelist as Philosopher: Studies in French Fiction, 1935-1960: Oxford University Press. London. 1962.
Dye, Michel. Andre Malraux and the temptation of the Orient in 'La Condition humaine'. (French writer) Journal of European Studies; 3/1/1999
ultra-nationalist ideologies were far more threatening on a worldwide scale than communism to the liberal belief in individual rights from 1920-1945," because it is unequivocally true. One of the principle means of corroborating this statement is to analyze the atrocities and events that led up to and included orld ar II, which took place during the aforementioned time frame. orld ar II was largely about the propagation offFascism, which is ultra-nationalism at its finest -- or at its worse for the millions of people who were slaughtered in the wake of this ideology prior to and during orld ar II. An examination of first hand sources from the Japanese invasion of China, Italy, and from communist Russia indicate that ultra-nationalism was far more restrictive in individual rights than communism -- for the simple fact that the latter belief circumscribed such rights while the former simply eradicated them.
Japan's invasion of…
Not certain of the names of these books, but I put the page numbers in the citations for you
The Variant Paths of Post-Communist Russia, Poland, and Hungary
The past ten years have seen great changes in the formerly Communist countries of Eastern Europe. Bound together for years under the Soviet yoke, these nations have now embarked upon their own individual paths as sovereign states. Representative of these emerging one-time Eastern Bloc nations are Russia, Poland, and Hungary. All three once shared a common form of government and a single social system. In each of these cases, Communism overlay a pre-existing civilization and set of traditions. This relatively brief interlude of Marxism, Leninism, and Stalinism was thus, a veneer, a covering over, if you will, of far older patterns of behavior and ways of thinking. It was these underlying cultural and historical characteristics that, combined with the shared history of Soviet rule, produced the countries we know today. Three distinct nations were put together into the crucible of…
Allison, Graham. "Deepening Russian democracy: progress and pitfalls in Putin's Government." Harvard International Review 24.2 (2002): 62+. Questia. 2 May 2003 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000089175
Aslund, Anders. "RUSSIA." Foreign Policy July 2001. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000689067
Dougherty, Carter. "Warsaw near goal of bid to join EU." The Washington Times 26 Jan. 2002. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000091568
While many saw this as a moral victory, Russian citizens were entering a dark time in their history, with poverty and social unrest at the order of the day. Some blame the factors leading up to the fall of Communism for this. One of these factors can be seen as the basic contrast between the people's expectations of communism, and the way in which Russian leaders implemented the new paradigm. Rather than actually establishing a classless society where everybody would live in equality and peace, leaders used force, torture and murder to implement their point-of-view. In their zeal for Communism, leaders also mismanaged the natural resources and production within the country, and extreme national poverty resulted.
The above factors led to a nationwide dissatisfaction and disenchantment with Communism: there was not much left to "share," and what little there was went to the political elite. In effect this elite reimplemented…
The second motive behind the internationalist actions was a desire for control. This is especially seen in Kennedy's reaction to Guatemala. By the mid-1960's, Guatemala had finally begun creating an independent government. hat's more, the people even wanted to have an open election. However, Kennedy caught wind of a threat by the former dictator Arevalo, who planned to re-enter the country and run in the election. Instead of trusting the people to elect the right leader, Kennedy reacted in fear and used American military and intelligence to rig the election in favor of a civilian leader (Rabe 56) and a military independent of that government.
The third motive, and one that is rarely considered, behind the assaults on Latin America was imperialism. Prior to the cold war, America kept its own boundaries safe and nothing else. It only went to war when absolutely necessary and did not concern itself with…
Cottam, Martha. Images and Intervention: U.S. Policies in Latin America. University of Pittsurgh Press, 1994.
Holden, Robert H. & Zolov, Eric. Latin America and the United States: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, 2000.
Since the 30s people have been politically inclined towards left in Hollywood. Kazan was also known for his left-wing views that eventually led him to the appearance before HUAC. However, with the inquiries of the House Un-American Affairs Committee problems for the supporters of left came up. Demand for anticommunist films required more writers with right-wing inclinations. The demand for anti-fascist films in late 30s through mid-40s could not match the demand for anticommunist films. Even though many blacklisted liberals fled to other countries to support their careers. Many people expressed different views regarding people who supported HUAC. For example Lillian Hellman's view of Elia Kazan's friendly testimony is that he simply couldn't do otherwise because he valued his own
American success story too much. Arthur Miller also mentioned in his autobiography that if he did not come out clean he would not be able to make another movie in…
Mccain, R. (1999). New Book Defends Kazan in Saga of 'Hollywood 10'. The Washington Times. Publication Date: March 17.
Political Ideologies on the Peasant Farmers in China
Many historians view the May Fourth Movement as the birth of Communism in the Peoples Republic of China. The demonstrations and their suppression in 1919 turned increasingly political influencing Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao, the founders of the Communist Party of China, to align themselves to leftist ideologies. According to Cultural China, this movement was a protest against the imperial power in China. It greatly influenced the Chinese working class as they took the political center stage as the main force in the movement. More than 20 provinces participated in the movement; it had a wider foundation than the 1911 revolution. The greatest impact of the movement was influencing of people's consciousness. It helped spread Marxism in China and lay foundation for ideologies that established communism in China.
The May Fourth Movement revolutionized people's minds; many Chinese were disengaged from democracy as…
Bianco, Lucien and Muriel Bell. Origins of the Chinese Revolution. Stanford: Stanford
University Press, 1971.
Chen, Theodore Hsi-en. "The New Socialist Man." Comparative Education Review February
After the statement of the Truman Doctrine in 1947, both Greece and Turkey were provided with aid to counter the Soviet threat.
When the war ended, circumstances in Greece were unfavorable to the maintenance of civil peace:
EAM was in control of nearly all Greece. Its leaders numbered many excellent liberals, the most eminent being Professor Svolos, a Socialist; but the Communists were clearly dominant. The returning Greek army was under the control of rabid, uncompromising monarchist officers... Had the issue of Greek sovereignty been left to these two Greek forces, there is no doubt of the outcome. The ineffectiveness of the returned Greek monarchist army was shown when, at the end of 1944, civil war broke out in Greece. ELAS surrounded the monarchist army and immobilized it from the outset.
However, they were not left to their own devices, and instead they were influenced by outside forces from ritain…
Anderson, Paul, "Why Did the Spanish Civil War Start in July 1936?" History Review 48(2004), 36-40.
Bolloten, Burnett. The Spanish Revolution: The Left and the Struggle for Power during the Civil War. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.
Kousoulas, Dimitrios G. The Price of Freedom: Greece in World Affairs, 1939?1953. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1953.
Smith, Howard K. The State of Europe. New York: Knopf, 1949.
Economic fear caused by two vastly different ideologies, communism and capitalism, was a major factor promoting America's distrust of Russia and the subsequent Cold War. The spread of communism was viewed as a threat to American businesses who already felt vulnerable because of the Great Depression in the 1930s. Things came to a head after Stalin publicly emphasized capitalist ill-will and hostility by claiming that capitalism harbored elements of general crisis and armed conflict. As a result, Truman became irate and adopted a tougher line instead of continued compromise, prompting the United States not to recognize Rumania and ulgaria, to insist on internalization of waterways such as the Kiel Canal, the Rhine-Danube and the lack Sea Straits, to try to control Japan and the Pacific, and to attempt to create a strong central government in China and Korea.
The Americans were also threatened by what it perceived to…
'The Cold War." Available: http://mars.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/wc2/lectures/coldwar.html (Accessed 24 Apr. 2005).
"The Cold War: Causes." Available: http://thc.worldarcstudio.com/classroom_20040211_JB/gcse/cold_war.htm (Accessed 24 Apr. 2005).
"The Cold War." Available: http://mars.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/wc2/lectures/coldwar.html (Accessed 24 Apr. 2005).
"The Cold War: Causes." Available: http://thc.worldarcstudio.com/classroom_20040211_JB/gcse/cold_war.htm (Accessed 24 Apr. 2005).
He became a virtual dictator which saw his government making peace with Germany, distributed land and nationalized industry.in 1918 there was a devastating civil war against the anti-Bolshevik white forces.in 1920 the anti-Bolsheviks were defeated which saw the formation of the Union of oviet ocialist Republics (UR) in 1922 (A&E Television Networks, LLC, 2014).
During the Civil war between 1917 and 1921 the Bolsheviks adopted the war communism that led to the breaking up of landed estates as well as forcible seizure of agricultural surpluses.in the cities there were intense food shortages as well as a break down of monetary system. City dwellers fled to the countryside to tend to the land which Bolshevik break up of the lands estates had transferred of peasants. Early 1921 there was a lot of public discontent with the state of economy resulting to numerous strikes and protests. The Kronstadt rebellion was…
Stalin had suffered a major stroke on March 1st 1953 but there was delayed treatment due to his actions over the previous decades. he slowly died in the course of the few days that followed apparently in agony and ended up dying of brain haemorrhage.it still remains unclear whether Stalin would have been saved if medical help would have arrived shortly after he suffered from the stroke.
A&E Television Networks, LLC.(2014). Russian Revolution.Retrieved May 9,2014 from http://www.history.com/topics/russian-revolution
4. Explain each of Samuel Huntington's 8 cultural paradigms. What does this model for culture and civilization around the world have to do with terrorism? What are the implications for law enforcement if terrorism has deeper roots -- namely, rooted in a clash of civilizations? Also, what are the implications for American foreign policy in terms of our efforts to thwart terrorism?
First, the post-Cold War reorganization of nations causes conflicts between and among the resulting civilizations left after national fracturing. Second, the continued promotion by the West of quasi-Western values and political philosophy on the rest of the world antagonizes non-Western civilizations. Third, the deterioration of economic, military, and political power of the West facilitates increased resistance of other nations, such as in the Far and Middle Eastern societies (i.e. China and Islamic countries) to follow the international order established by the West in previous eras and to combine…
Lenin 13) if the workers do not succeed power to the wise, for the sake of social reformation and change then the revolution is lost from its start. Is this not a lesson you have learned from your most recent involvement in the failed eimar revolution?
As I have said previously, the current situation was struck down by providence, rather than any lack of effort or skill on the part of the revolutionaries. Our intentions were thwarted by numbers, rather than intellect and desire, which would further argue my position, that the revolution must be not only supported but driven and populated by the workers, who are the most likely to be aware of the aftereffects of war, as they are the traditional masses who have been the most effected by those in the past.
At the close of these comments Lenin rose to leave, unnerved by the…
Lenin, V.I. Left Wing Communism: An Infantile Disorder. New York: International Publishers Co., Inc., 1989.
Luxemburg, Rosa. The Russian Revolution, and Leninism or Marxism?. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1961.
Lynd, Staughton. "Feminism for Men." The Journal of Men's Studies 7.2 (1999): 165.
Truman: I am not a fan of compromise on this issue, Harry. But we have to prepare that we may need it. Stalin was instrumental in winning this war, and he's powerful enough that we cannot simply dictate our terms to him. I know the risk that compromise brings, and that there will be people who will suffer more under him than if they were free nations, or under our control, but we cannot cure every ill in this world.
Byrnes: Mr. President, with all due respect, and you know that in my role I fully understand the implications of compromise, but in this situation I think that Communism is just as big an evil as fascism. Even if Stalin allows these countries to remain independent, his idea of a buffer zone is a Communist buffer zone. He'll put his own people in place. The populations in those countries will…
8 billion. The Occupation authorities also helped the Japanese government overcome postwar economic chaos, especially rampant inflation, by balancing the government budget, raising taxes and imposing price and wage freezes, and resuming limited foreign trade" (Kesselman et al., 203). The U.S. aid not only helped to rebuild the country, but also ensured that Japan was stable enough so that renegade seedlings of Communism or comparable institutions didn't suddenly flourish. The United States should sue this wise historical strategy that it deftly employed to help the economies of poorer nations in the Middle East. hen people are living in poverty, this makes them ripe breeding grounds for terrorism to build and people to be brainwashed by doctrines which vilify the est. Furthermore the United States should invest money in developing educational programs in the Middle East, so that the citizens there can actually envision a real future for themselves, without having…
Bryne, P.J. The Chinese Revolution: The Triumph of Communism. Minneapolis: Compass Point
Kesselman, M., Krieger, J. And Joseph, W. Introduction to Comparative Politics. Boston:
Wadsworth Learnign, 2013.
It is key to understanding the author's view of love and even her own status as a woman and as a thinker. Of course, the book can simply be read as a love story of infidelity and sexual liberty gone wrong in the face of an ever-changing political society in a state of national and European chaos. But the Mandarins de Beauvoir referred to were also the elite, the intellectual elites of Chinese society who held themselves above from the common peasants.
Thus, by calling her fellow Left Bank intellectuals 'Mandarins' De Beauvoir symbolically calls upon her fellow intellectuals to become part and parcel of the political fray, rather than wasting their energies with entangling personal alliances that can be just as dissipating as the betrayals of Vichy and the subsequent alliances that sapped the French nation of its own vital energies. She calls upon the intellectual Mandarins of French…
The country of Poland has been one with a history of complex politics and a difficult time retaining independence from foreign invaders. During the 19th century, Poland was controlled by a series of other nations, earning this era of Polish history the moniker of "The Age of Partitions." hile the rest of the continent was expanding economically through the industrial revolution and from literature and scientific exploration during the Scientific Revolution, Poland was a perpetual battleground, constantly in flux between authoritarian governments and an attempt to regain autonomy. In a short 100 years, Poland had been occupied by the Russia, Prussia, and Austrian governments. Despite all this political upheaval and a constant fluctuation of power, the Polish people were able to keep a unified national identity.
Fighting against three very strong nations was an impossible task for the Polish nationals. However, that did not stop the people from…
Davies, Norman. God's Playground: a History of Poland. New York: Columbia UP, 1982. Print.
Sanford, George. Poland: The Conquest of History. OPA. 1999. Print.