Communism Essays (Examples)

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Man's Fate by Andre Malraux and the Quiet American by Graham Greene

Words: 1366 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34930642

COMMUNISM

MAN'S FATE AND THE QUIET AMEICAN

Communism has always been a controversial subject and it becomes all the more explosive when some authors choose to focus on its positive aspects. It is true that communism has usually been portrayed as an evil force especially in the United States where communist scare led to baseless persecution and arrests of tens of hundreds of people in 1950s. McCarthyism is the term we use for communist phobia that had gripped the nation during the 50s decade. But in those days with intense anti-communism sentiment raging in the United States, there were some courageous author who could look beyond the American propaganda against communism and explained why thought communism was better than American capitalism.

One such author was Graham Greene whose book, The Quiet American, published in 1955, took the world especially America by storm since it denounced U.S.'s so-called peace initiative in…… [Read More]

REFERENCE

Andre Malraux, Man's Fate (La condition humaine), translated by Haakon M. Chevalier (New York: Vintage, 1990),

Greene, Graham. The Quiet American. London: Vintage Classics, 2001
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Economic and Political Factors That

Words: 828 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94052622

With Eastern European nations enticed by the financial aid and political support that the U.S. And Britain provided, it became easier for them to weaken the hold of Communism. Furthermore, because Communism and a socialist economy were still in its infancy, the effects of a proletarian-led society did not bring out the expected results among these Communist nations. In effect, primarily due to the strong political influence and economic power of the U.S. And Britain, they were able to push through their anti-Communist program, providing military support through the provision of soldiers and weaponry for nations divided between Communism and capitalism.

A deeper analysis of the economic state of the Soviet Union during the rise of Communism also helps to further understand how it eventually failed to create a new social order in the modern period. Post-war Eastern Europe was driven with poverty and scarcity of its basic resources; thus,…… [Read More]

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U S Intelligence in China the

Words: 4682 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99778763

"

The withdrawal was supposed to aid the Communists in controlling the areas vacated by the Japanese, who had succeeded in controlling vast portions of Manchuria.

Stalin's efforts were aimed at forcing "the GMD [Guomindang or Chinese Nationalist Party] to make economic concessions, to prevent a united China from allying with the United States, and to placate Washington on the international arena by giving in to American demands for withdrawal," but in actuality he not only laid the groundwork for the Communists' eventual victory, but also opened up a window for the possibility of a U.S.-Communist alliance that would have destabilized the Soviet Union's power; as will be seen, the United States failed to capitalize on this opportunity, but the fact remains that Stalin's withdrawal seems to have backfired.

Stalin's withdrawal was not directly aimed at ensuring a Communist victory, but rather was an attempt to destabilize the country so…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ashton, S.R. "Keeping a Foot in the Door: Britain's China Policy, 1945 -- 50." Diplomacy and Statecraft 15 (2004): 79-94.

Bjorge, Gary J. "The Third Chinese Revolutionary Civil War, 1945-49: An Analysis of Communist Strategy and Leadership." The Journal of Military History 74, no. 1 (2010):

297-9.

Boyd, James. "Japanese Cultural Diplomacy in Action: The Zenrin ky? okai in Inner Mongolia,
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Role of Lech Walensa in

Words: 2117 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55632392

" (Walsh, est, and Rai 133) Neither does the article pay sufficient attention to the motivational aspects that led Walensa to enter the Solidarity movement, and the reason for the rejection of communism.

For example, the important aspect that personally motivated Walensa was not so much any intellectual disagreement with communism - in fact he virtually ignored the student protests of 1968, which he felt was "... A problem for the intellectuals." (Walsh, est, and Rai 133) However this attitude was to change when"...on December 12, 1970, the Communist regime decreed steep increases in the prices of basic foodstuffs. The suddenness of this action in the immediate pre-Christmas season shocked Polish workers, and many went into the streets in spontaneous protest. "(Walsh, est, and Rai 133)

Not enough attention is given to the reasons that lay beneath the Soviet reaction to Walensa. This refers to the"... change in Soviet leadership…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Lech Wa?

sa November 2, 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walensa

Casmir, Fred L., ed. Communication in Eastern Europe: The Role of History, Culture, and Media in Contemporary Conflicts. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1995.

Gardner, Hall. Surviving the Millennium: American Global Strategy, the Collapse of the Soviet Empire, and the Question of Peace. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994.
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Building and Civil Society in

Words: 3283 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71560984



At the same time, as compared to Ukraine, in Poland "the hard budget constraint on state enterprises, together with sufficient standards of corporate governance" were the main governmental instruments to avoid a "large-scale asset stripping before privatization"

. This was one of the key reasons for which the economic rebound started quite early for Poland, as compared to Ukraine. The privatization process did not take the chaotic characteristics it had in Ukraine, where the state assets were often simply divided between groups of interests and individuals close to the decision factors and power leverages. The rational privatization process in Poland meant that many of these assets, still functional, could be used to resume economic growth. Further along, the fact that there was a rational privatization of these assets meant that the direct foreign investment could gradually start during the early 1990s.

There was another explanation for the economic evolution in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. The World Bank. 2002. Transition - The First Ten Years Analysis and Lessons for Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union.

2. Fritz, Verena. 2008. State-Building: A Comparative Study of Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, and Russia. Central European University Press. Page 113

3. Snelbeckker, David. June 2005. Pension Reform in Eastern Europe and Eurasia: Experiences and Lessons Learned. The Services Group.

4. From Howard, Marc. 2003. Weaknesses of Civil Society in Post Communist Europe. Cambridge University Press
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Interdisciplinary Social Science Ways That

Words: 2081 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87176916



These shareholders in the military-industrial complex influence the government in various ways. These companies that produce war weapons or equipment can attach themselves to the central government and the department of defense. These individuals provide enormous amounts of money to various candidates in the congress or have a large number of lobbyists advocating for more contracts in the defense industry. Another influence from the military-industrial complex idea emerges from various political individuals who decide to work for the defense contractors when they leave office. The effect of this is a conflict of interest in the government that negatively affects the common American taxpayer. Continuous war is beneficial to the shareholders in military-industrial complex. They use their position to offer support to individuals who can serve their best interest by favoring a foreign policy that is aggressive. This enables them to influence a conflict that the government pays by engaging in…… [Read More]

Reference

Archer, J., & Jarvis, M. (1996). The Fourth Estate. New York, NY: Harper Audio.

Hunt, E.F., & Colander, D.C. (2011). Social science: An introduction to the study of society, fourteenth edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Lewis, T.T. (2002). The Bill of Rights. Pasadena, Calif: Salem Press.

Overholser, G., & Jamieson, K.H. (2005). The press. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Vietnam's Economic Transformation

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22274744

Communism to Capitalism: Vietnam's Economic Transformation

Assess the market opportunities in Vietnam for both consumer products companies and industrial-products companies. hat is the nature of the opportunity?

ith the establishment of normal trading relations (NTR) in the mid-1990s leading to decreased tariffs and quotas on United States' imports, many companies viewed Vietnam as a land of opportunity but the United States has lagged behind other countries with marketing to this country. The potential is there for profitability, but it may take at least twenty years before Vietnam's economy has matured enough to be able to be on level with Taiwan. The current population under 25 years of age is approximately 60%, but the per capita income for most of the population is very low at around $700 per year.

As the Vietnamese people adjust to living outside of Communist rule, they will adapt to the ways of a market economy.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Greenhouse, Steven. "New Calls To Lift Embargo On Cuba." New York Times 20 Feb. 1994: 4. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 8 May 2012. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip, uid&db=f5h&AN=30375796&site=ehost-live

Van Khai, Phan. "Putting Behind The Past And Looking Toward The Future." Foreign Affairs 84.5 (2005): 1. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 8 May 2012. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip, uid&db=f5h&AN=18035092&site=ehost-live

Wall, James M. "If Vietnam, Why Not Cuba?" Christian Century 111.5 (1994): 155. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 8 May 2012. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip, uid&db=f5h&AN=9403174526&site=ehost-live
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Today's Russian Mafia

Words: 3585 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12136501

communism," "vodka," may be "Vladimir Putin." But everyone who would be asked about Russia would also say "Russian mafia" who are very cruel and dangerous gangs from Russia and who wouldn't stop behind anything in achieving their dirty plans.

The term and the phenomenon of Russian mafia are pretty young if compared to well-known mafia of Sicily, Italy, Latin American cartels. The first news and rumors about Russian mafia in the United stated appeared in 1980 ies, when a massive immigration of predominantly Russian Jews started from the Soviet Union. Russian mafia had penetrated into the infrastructure of the main business centers of the U.S.A.: New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and Boston. They spread their influence over the successful immigrants from Russia, who have to pay for their "protection" or who have to allow mafia representatives participate in running businesses.

If to look on the nature of relations of Russian…… [Read More]

3. Hoffmann, D. "Fragile Foundation," The Washington Post, December 26, 1996

4. Mafia invades New York, Article BBC NEWS available on web: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1998/03/98/russian_mafia/70485.stm

5. Khonanikhin, A. Mafiocracy in Russia, Article available on web: http://konanykhin.com/press/wp1.htm
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Arthur Miller's Refusal to Testify

Words: 547 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75569730

He was labeled for a belief that he did not openly admitted subsisting to; he was labeled based on the fact that he refused to testify against an ideology.

It is not surprising, then, that the primary message of "The Crucible" resonated his thoughts and feelings about the McCarthy administration's containment policy against Communism. The arguments he presented in the play showed how Miller viewed the government's offensive action against Communism not only futile, but reflection of how American society was slowly developing into: "...for good purposes, even high purposes, the people of Salem developed a theocracy, a combination of state and religious power whose function was...to prevent any kind of disunity that might open it to destruction by...ideological enemies."

This passage aptly described the American society's condition under the paranoid and highly-offensive McCarthy administration. Like John Proctor in his play, Miller refused to say anything against an ideology that,…… [Read More]

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Kennedy Doctrine and the Cold War in

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19816699

Kennedy Doctrine and the Cold War

In his inaugural address as the President of the United States on January 1961, John F. Kennedy (popularly called "JFK") delivered a message that directly discussed the United States' official stance regarding its move to implement a foreign policy waging a "cold war" against Communist forces that have been gaining popularity in Asia, South America, and parts of the Middle East during this period. his U.S. foreign policy, popularly called the containment policy against Communism, was the pretext from which the eventual Cold War between Democratic and Communist forces escalated until the 1970s. During this period, JFK was assigned the task of continuing the American legacy of democracy and liberty by promoting a campaign of international alliance and cooperation against the Communist forces. At this point, Communist forces were gaining ground in South America, increasing the threat to both American soil and the country's…… [Read More]

These words communicate the message that the support poor nations might be receiving from the Communist forces such as Russia/Soviet Union (one of the stronger forces promoting Communism worldwide during this time), can be met and equaled by the United States, without sacrificing their liberties and human rights. JFK reiterated that human rights are given by the "hand of God," and not from the "generosity of the state," which characterized the complete control of the state/government under the Communist/Socialist society (Kennedy 1961). The doctrine ended with a reminder to United States allies to cooperate and join forces with the American government in its fight for democracy and freedom, as well as the containment of Communism worldwide. He presented a challenge to the American government's ally nations in "defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger," signaling the serious threat that Communism presented to the U.S. during JFK's term (Kennedy 1961). With its direct reference against Communism and its political and military forces in South America and neighboring countries of the United States, the doctrine had indeed solidified the country's fight against Communism -- albeit diplomatically and without the threat of weapons. It was hoped that the United States could prevent the Cold War with the U.S.S.R. from requiring military action and thankfully the war ended without either side having to fire a single shot.

Analysis of the U.S. government's containment policy during JFK's term as president was, in hindsight, shown to be geo-politically and economically-motivated. Leffler's (1984) explication of the United States' containment policy against Communist nations such as the Soviet Union was mainly a response to protecting U.S. interests in South American nations. During JFK's term, the U.S. had numerous interests in the region, which the author called the country's "strategic sphere," having established an "overseas base, air transit rights" that were beneficial to U.S. national security (Leffler 1984,-page 348). With Communism influencing nations in the South American region, the U.S. stood to lose all these strategic benefits, increasing the risk of its security from a geopolitical standpoint. A similar assessment was developed by Naji and Jawan (2011), who contended that what motivated the U.S. government to contain Communism in the Middle Eastern was not so much about the principles of democracy and freedom, but to protect its economic interests in the oil-rich region, as most of the oil companies are either owned, operated, or supported by U.S. companies (page 206-7). The imperative thing for the government was in keeping control of valuable resources and ensuring that these same resources remained out of the hands of the enemies of the American government.

Considering the effects that the containment policy contributed to international politics and the world order during JFK's time, it can be said that the policy made nations rethink about the world order and status quo as it stood
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China's Cultures and Politics Affect

Words: 2248 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6803629

The fact that communism still dominates affairs in the country can limit or discourage foreign investors. This is probably one of the main reasons for which large corporations are hesitant about investing large amounts of money in China (eatherbee & Emmers 42).

The masses no longer express interest in U.S. cultural values because it appears that the U.S. has experienced significant problems consequent to the 9/11 events. This enabled China to step forward and pose into a body that no longer had problems because of its communist background and that was ready to join other international actors in assisting society progress. The fact that China progressed significantly while the U.S.' image suffered meant that things would change significantly in Southeast Asia. Fair play is one of the main points of interest at this point, as "the concern in Southeast Asia is that the United States, rather than accommodating to a…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Brook, Daniel, (2005) "Modern Revolution: Social Change and Cultural Continuity in Czechoslovakia and China," University Press of America

Fitzgerald, Charles Patrick, (1966), "The birth of Communist China," Michigan University

Li, Mingjiang, (2009), "Soft Power: China's Emerging Strategy in International Politics," Lexington Books

Tang, Wenfang and Holzner, Burkart (2006) "Social Change in Contemporary China: C.K. Yang and the Concept of Institutional Diffusion" University of Pittsburgh Pre
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Cold War and Beyond World

Words: 1260 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71355125

Telecommunications made it easier to transfer ideas and information instantly and without the delays that hindered previous efforts at military and strategic intervention. Similarly, the barriers to international trade had largely been lifted. The seeds of the World Trade Organization had already been laid by the end of the Second World War. Finally, the United Nations and other trans-national governing bodies would become legitimized sources of power. Nations who could climb on board stood a chance and those who could not join in faced a perilous century of poverty and political disenfranchisement. America directly contributed to the imbalance of power that would ensue throughout the 20th century.

Being a bully seemed to come easy to the Americans. Armed with what had become the largest and most well-endowed military in the world, the United States forged a path toward hegemony almost effortlessly. As if it were trying to be the world's…… [Read More]

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Cold War the Heightened Tension

Words: 1786 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34908440

S. administration after Truman's adopted Kennan's policy of 'containment' or its variation as a cornerstone of their foreign policy right until the eventual collapse of Communism in 1989. ("Kennan and Containment" n.d.)

eferences

Bell, P.M.H. (2001). The World since 1945 -- an International History. New York: Oxford University Press

George F. Kennan on the Web" (2005). History Politics and Future. etrieved on May 28, 2005 at http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/2496/future/kennan.html

Historian Walter Lefeber on Truman's Soviet Policy." (2000). PBS Online. etrieved on May 28, 2005 at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/truman/filmmore/it_1.html

Kennan and Containment." (n.d.) Bureau of Public Affairs: U.S. Department of State. etrieved on May 28, 2005 at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/cwr/17601.htm

Legvold, . (2005). "Cold War." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta Online. etrieved on May 28, 2005 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569374/Cold_War.html#p11

While the U.S. represented democracy, individual liberty and capitalism, the U.S.S.. was committed to the spread of the communist revolution among the 'down-trodden' masses of the world

The USS had…… [Read More]

References

Bell, P.M.H. (2001). The World since 1945 -- an International History. New York: Oxford University Press

George F. Kennan on the Web" (2005). History Politics and Future. Retrieved on May 28, 2005 at http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/2496/future/kennan.html

Historian Walter Lefeber on Truman's Soviet Policy." (2000). PBS Online. Retrieved on May 28, 2005 at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/truman/filmmore/it_1.html

Kennan and Containment." (n.d.) Bureau of Public Affairs: U.S. Department of State. Retrieved on May 28, 2005 at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/cwr/17601.htm
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Changes Brought About by World

Words: 1334 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69814484

hat we learn from this is that no mistake can be erased from history just as no reparations can completely repair damage done. Germany's inability to carry her own weight during this time of trouble only prolonged the world economy, which was badly bruised and desperately needing to be healed.

2. Democracy became the word that was whispered across the globe during the twenties and thirties. The promise of democracy proved to be easier than the act of democracy. "Democracy seemed divisive and ineffective, so one country after another adopted a more authoritarian alternative during the twenties and early thirties" (Noble 1034). However, it is impossible to squash the human sprit that longs to be free. Noble asserts, "Democracy proved hard to manage in east-central Europe party because of special economic difficulties resulting from the breakup of the Habsberg system" (Noble 1035). In addition, he notes, "The countries of east-central…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chamber, Mortimer, et al. The Western Experience. New York: Alfred a. Knopf. 1979.

Chodorow, Stanley. A History of the World. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers. 1986.

Craig, Albert, et al. The Heritage of World Civilizations. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 2000.

Noble, Thomas, et al. Western Civilization: The Continuing Experience. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1994.
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Vietnam Conflict

Words: 2292 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81975977

More often than not, the plan of containment has been used to describe U.S. foreign policy. It is equally frequently traced back to the achievements of President Truman with regard to the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

In 1950, there was a shift in foreign U.S. policy after President Truman moved from passive to active containment by signing the top-secret policy plan NSC-68. It took a much more drastic approach towards the spread of Communism, which according to the new twist, claimed that Russia was en route for the domination of the world. It should be noted however that the doctrine had some major weaknesses and was repeatedly subject to contradictory interpretations. This may have led several other presidents and policy makers to toy with it at will. It could also very well explain some of the many long involvements of the U.S. In diverse wars and…… [Read More]

.

7 Michael O'Malley, "The Vietnam War and the Tragedy of Containment."

.
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May 4th Movement vs Modern Chinese History

Words: 2312 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73592713

Movement

All good things must come to an end, and at no time is this fact truer than in China in 1911, when the Xinhai Revolution resulted in the fall of the Qing Dynasty. This led to a period of unrest, as the world's powers engaged in orld ar I. Even though China had participated in the war on the side of the Allies, China was betrayed during the negotiations at the Treaty of Versailles. Instead of being given autonomy over a controlled sphere of interest in the Shandong district of China, the Treaty of Versailles instead gave this territory over to Japan. China's May 4th Movement ended up being an anti-est, anti-imperialist cultural shift that grew out of student demonstrations in 1919.

The weak response of the Chinese government to reclaim the Shandong province for itself in self-defense led to accusations of corruption. hether or not the government was…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chen, Duxiu, "Our Final Awakening." (Essay, 1916). Retrieved from,  http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/ps/china/chen_duxiu_final_awakening.pdf .

Chiang, Kai-shek, "Essentials of the New Life Movement." (Speech, 1934). Retrieved from,  http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/ps/cup/chiang_kaishek_new_life.pdf .

Mao, Zedong, "Reform our Study." (Speech, 1941). Selected Works of Mao, Beijing Foreign Languages Press, 1971.
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Political Science History

Words: 6252 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80408978

conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement

Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.

Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

George Nash, The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945 http://www.nationalreview.com/22dec97/mcginnis122297.html. National review online The Origins of Conservatism George Mc Ginnis

Volume Library #2, p. 2146

Schneider, Cadres for Conservatism

McGinnis, National Review Online
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Seeds of the Cold War

Words: 1368 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70341826

Strangely, America's role as policeman in Europe actually led to its becoming involved in military conflicts in Southeast Asia. Although the U.S. did not fight the Soviet Union directly in Korea or Vietnam, both conflicts were due to the U.S.'s policy of defeating the spread of Communism no matter where it might occur. Fears of escalation during both the Korean and Vietnam conflicts caused the U.S. To adopt a military strategy that favored limited warfare (Brodie).

The Cold ar had a tremendous impact on the growth of the United States as an industrial and world military power. America's presence throughout the world militarily and the dependence of estern Europe and Japan on the American economy for the sustenance of their own economies caused America's political and economic influence to expanded substantially. Beginning with the Berlin airlift (Reeves) where the United States provided food and other vital items to est Berliners…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brodie, Bernard. War and Politics. New York: Macmillan Co., 1973.

Comstock, Douglas A. "NASA's Legacy of Technology Transfer and Prospects for Future Benefits." AIAA Space Conference & Exposition. Long Beach, CA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2007. 1-9.

Cox, M. "The Cold War as a system." Critique (1986): 17-82.

Lieber, Keir A. "The Rise of U.S. Nuclear Primacy." Foreign Affairs (2006): 42-67.
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Man's Fate Historical Criticism Man's

Words: 1465 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59439782

At this precise time, a young communist named Mao Zedong popularized the idea of land reforms and focused his attention on the issue of poverty among peasant class. He convinced his fellow communists that the only solution to all problems lied in strengthening the agricultural sector by introducing land reforms. He worked ceaselessly for the peasants but his party was driven to remote corners of North China during the Long March. This action, taken by Chiang government, was a clear indication of the paranoia and insecurity that were building in nationalist forces (Peoples: Rise). Mao continued to fight government's oppressive rule even while in exile and this lasted till 1937 at which point, Japan invaded China and the nationalist-communist conflict came to an end.

In 1920s, Malraux was present in China and observed the political dynamics of the country. The oppression and communist popularity affected his deeply and 1927 revolution…… [Read More]

Stoley, Richard B. Events That Shaped the Century. Time-Life Books. New York. 2000.

John Cruickshank. The Novelist as Philosopher: Studies in French Fiction, 1935-1960: Oxford University Press. London. 1962.

Dye, Michel. Andre Malraux and the temptation of the Orient in 'La Condition humaine'. (French writer) Journal of European Studies; 3/1/1999
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Ultra-Nationalist Ideologies Were Far More Threatening on

Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76399079

ultra-nationalist ideologies were far more threatening on a worldwide scale than communism to the liberal belief in individual rights from 1920-1945," because it is unequivocally true. One of the principle means of corroborating this statement is to analyze the atrocities and events that led up to and included orld ar II, which took place during the aforementioned time frame. orld ar II was largely about the propagation offFascism, which is ultra-nationalism at its finest -- or at its worse for the millions of people who were slaughtered in the wake of this ideology prior to and during orld ar II. An examination of first hand sources from the Japanese invasion of China, Italy, and from communist Russia indicate that ultra-nationalism was far more restrictive in individual rights than communism -- for the simple fact that the latter belief circumscribed such rights while the former simply eradicated them.

Japan's invasion of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Not certain of the names of these books, but I put the page numbers in the citations for you
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Marxism and National Socialism Lenin's Version of

Words: 2747 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69213759

Marxism and National Socialism

Lenin's version of socialism, which became the model for the Soviet Union, China, Cuba and other underdeveloped nations that underwent revolutions in the 20th Century, was highly centralized, hierarchical and authoritarian. It emphasized rapid industrialization and economic development under the direction of the Communist Party, although in all these semi-feudal societies this was carried out without the benefits of any type of liberal or democratic traditions. Lenin was a tyrant and mass murderer, whose authoritarian (or totalitarian) system became the model for other tyrants like Stalin, Hitler and Mao. Contrary to the original hopes of Karl Marx and even Lenin, no socialist revolution occurred in Germany, France or any estern nation, all of which remained dominated by governments hostile to the Soviet Union and Communism in general. Although Hitler led a National Socialist 'revolution' in Germany in 1933, this ideology was hostile to Marxism, Communism, democratic…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Bailey, John Paul. China in the Twentieth Century, 2nd Edition. Blackwell Publishers, 2001.

Chabal, Patrick. Amilcar Cabral: Revolutionary Leadership and People's War. Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Hitchens, Christopher. Hitch-22: A Memoir. Twelve Publishers, 2010.

Kershaw, Ian. Hitler: A Biography. NY: Norton, 2008.
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Political Development

Words: 1896 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61644876

Futures

The Variant Paths of Post-Communist Russia, Poland, and Hungary

The past ten years have seen great changes in the formerly Communist countries of Eastern Europe. Bound together for years under the Soviet yoke, these nations have now embarked upon their own individual paths as sovereign states. Representative of these emerging one-time Eastern Bloc nations are Russia, Poland, and Hungary. All three once shared a common form of government and a single social system. In each of these cases, Communism overlay a pre-existing civilization and set of traditions. This relatively brief interlude of Marxism, Leninism, and Stalinism was thus, a veneer, a covering over, if you will, of far older patterns of behavior and ways of thinking. It was these underlying cultural and historical characteristics that, combined with the shared history of Soviet rule, produced the countries we know today. Three distinct nations were put together into the crucible of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000774203

Allison, Graham. "Deepening Russian democracy: progress and pitfalls in Putin's Government." Harvard International Review 24.2 (2002): 62+. Questia. 2 May 2003 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000089175

Aslund, Anders. "RUSSIA." Foreign Policy July 2001. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000689067

Dougherty, Carter. "Warsaw near goal of bid to join EU." The Washington Times 26 Jan. 2002. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000091568
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Media Is Undeniable it Has

Words: 330 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16000959

While many saw this as a moral victory, Russian citizens were entering a dark time in their history, with poverty and social unrest at the order of the day. Some blame the factors leading up to the fall of Communism for this. One of these factors can be seen as the basic contrast between the people's expectations of communism, and the way in which Russian leaders implemented the new paradigm. Rather than actually establishing a classless society where everybody would live in equality and peace, leaders used force, torture and murder to implement their point-of-view. In their zeal for Communism, leaders also mismanaged the natural resources and production within the country, and extreme national poverty resulted.

The above factors led to a nationwide dissatisfaction and disenchantment with Communism: there was not much left to "share," and what little there was went to the political elite. In effect this elite reimplemented…… [Read More]

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Killing Zone Critical Discussion of

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78080799



The second motive behind the internationalist actions was a desire for control. This is especially seen in Kennedy's reaction to Guatemala. By the mid-1960's, Guatemala had finally begun creating an independent government. hat's more, the people even wanted to have an open election. However, Kennedy caught wind of a threat by the former dictator Arevalo, who planned to re-enter the country and run in the election. Instead of trusting the people to elect the right leader, Kennedy reacted in fear and used American military and intelligence to rig the election in favor of a civilian leader (Rabe 56) and a military independent of that government.

The third motive, and one that is rarely considered, behind the assaults on Latin America was imperialism. Prior to the cold war, America kept its own boundaries safe and nothing else. It only went to war when absolutely necessary and did not concern itself with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cottam, Martha. Images and Intervention: U.S. Policies in Latin America. University of Pittsurgh Press, 1994.

Holden, Robert H. & Zolov, Eric. Latin America and the United States: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, 2000.
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Elia Kazan Compliance vs Defiance

Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99048015

Since the 30s people have been politically inclined towards left in Hollywood. Kazan was also known for his left-wing views that eventually led him to the appearance before HUAC. However, with the inquiries of the House Un-American Affairs Committee problems for the supporters of left came up. Demand for anticommunist films required more writers with right-wing inclinations. The demand for anti-fascist films in late 30s through mid-40s could not match the demand for anticommunist films. Even though many blacklisted liberals fled to other countries to support their careers. Many people expressed different views regarding people who supported HUAC. For example Lillian Hellman's view of Elia Kazan's friendly testimony is that he simply couldn't do otherwise because he valued his own

American success story too much. Arthur Miller also mentioned in his autobiography that if he did not come out clean he would not be able to make another movie in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Mccain, R. (1999). New Book Defends Kazan in Saga of 'Hollywood 10'. The Washington Times. Publication Date: March 17.
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Military Strategy in Korean and Vietnam Wars

Words: 1555 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11150054

Military Strategy in Korean and Vietnam Wars

There have been numerous wars in the history of the United States. Some of the critical wars in the history of the United States include the Korean and Vietnam Wars. Prior to venturing into the Vietnam War, United States had participated in the Korean War. The case of Korean War proves to be a success because of the implementation of accurate and extensive strategies. Ten years after the success in the Korean War, the United States faced a similar situation, but could not recognize the same success as in the case of the previous war. One of the essential factors in the failure in relation to the Vietnam War was lack of appropriate military strategies. This research paper focuses on the illustration of reasons behind the success and failure with reference to Korean and Vietnam Wars respectively.

Military Strategy in Korea War

One…… [Read More]

References

Mehta, Harish C. 2012. "Fighting, Negotiating, and Laughing: The Use of Humour in the Vietnam War." Historian 74, no. 4: 743-788.

Schell, Jonathan. 2013. "The Real Vietnam War." Nation 296, no. 5: 20-24.

Hee Kyung, Suh. 2012. "War and Justice: Just Cause of the Korean War." Korea Journal 52,

no. 2: 5-29.
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To Change China

Words: 1344 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21809740

Political Ideologies on the Peasant Farmers in China

Many historians view the May Fourth Movement as the birth of Communism in the Peoples Republic of China. The demonstrations and their suppression in 1919 turned increasingly political influencing Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao, the founders of the Communist Party of China, to align themselves to leftist ideologies. According to Cultural China, this movement was a protest against the imperial power in China. It greatly influenced the Chinese working class as they took the political center stage as the main force in the movement. More than 20 provinces participated in the movement; it had a wider foundation than the 1911 revolution. The greatest impact of the movement was influencing of people's consciousness. It helped spread Marxism in China and lay foundation for ideologies that established communism in China.

The May Fourth Movement revolutionized people's minds; many Chinese were disengaged from democracy as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bianco, Lucien and Muriel Bell. Origins of the Chinese Revolution. Stanford: Stanford

University Press, 1971.

Chen, Theodore Hsi-en. "The New Socialist Man." Comparative Education Review February

1969: 88-95.
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European in Both the Spanish

Words: 1999 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23852597

After the statement of the Truman Doctrine in 1947, both Greece and Turkey were provided with aid to counter the Soviet threat.

When the war ended, circumstances in Greece were unfavorable to the maintenance of civil peace:

EAM was in control of nearly all Greece. Its leaders numbered many excellent liberals, the most eminent being Professor Svolos, a Socialist; but the Communists were clearly dominant. The returning Greek army was under the control of rabid, uncompromising monarchist officers... Had the issue of Greek sovereignty been left to these two Greek forces, there is no doubt of the outcome. The ineffectiveness of the returned Greek monarchist army was shown when, at the end of 1944, civil war broke out in Greece. ELAS surrounded the monarchist army and immobilized it from the outset.

However, they were not left to their own devices, and instead they were influenced by outside forces from ritain…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anderson, Paul, "Why Did the Spanish Civil War Start in July 1936?" History Review 48(2004), 36-40.

Bolloten, Burnett. The Spanish Revolution: The Left and the Struggle for Power during the Civil War. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.

Kousoulas, Dimitrios G. The Price of Freedom: Greece in World Affairs, 1939?1953. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1953.

Smith, Howard K. The State of Europe. New York: Knopf, 1949.
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Cold War Economic Fear Caused by Two

Words: 348 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39033200

Cold War

Economic fear caused by two vastly different ideologies, communism and capitalism, was a major factor promoting America's distrust of Russia and the subsequent Cold War. The spread of communism was viewed as a threat to American businesses who already felt vulnerable because of the Great Depression in the 1930s. Things came to a head after Stalin publicly emphasized capitalist ill-will and hostility by claiming that capitalism harbored elements of general crisis and armed conflict. As a result, Truman became irate and adopted a tougher line instead of continued compromise, prompting the United States not to recognize Rumania and ulgaria, to insist on internalization of waterways such as the Kiel Canal, the Rhine-Danube and the lack Sea Straits, to try to control Japan and the Pacific, and to attempt to create a strong central government in China and Korea.

The Americans were also threatened by what it perceived to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

'The Cold War." Available: http://mars.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/wc2/lectures/coldwar.html (Accessed 24 Apr. 2005).

"The Cold War: Causes." Available: http://thc.worldarcstudio.com/classroom_20040211_JB/gcse/cold_war.htm (Accessed 24 Apr. 2005).

"The Cold War." Available: http://mars.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/wc2/lectures/coldwar.html (Accessed 24 Apr. 2005).

"The Cold War: Causes." Available: http://thc.worldarcstudio.com/classroom_20040211_JB/gcse/cold_war.htm (Accessed 24 Apr. 2005).
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Bolshevik Revolution in Russia

Words: 1042 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94655375

He became a virtual dictator which saw his government making peace with Germany, distributed land and nationalized industry.in 1918 there was a devastating civil war against the anti-Bolshevik white forces.in 1920 the anti-Bolsheviks were defeated which saw the formation of the Union of oviet ocialist Republics (UR) in 1922 (A&E Television Networks, LLC, 2014).

war communism

During the Civil war between 1917 and 1921 the Bolsheviks adopted the war communism that led to the breaking up of landed estates as well as forcible seizure of agricultural surpluses.in the cities there were intense food shortages as well as a break down of monetary system. City dwellers fled to the countryside to tend to the land which Bolshevik break up of the lands estates had transferred of peasants. Early 1921 there was a lot of public discontent with the state of economy resulting to numerous strikes and protests. The Kronstadt rebellion was…… [Read More]

Stalin had suffered a major stroke on March 1st 1953 but there was delayed treatment due to his actions over the previous decades. he slowly died in the course of the few days that followed apparently in agony and ended up dying of brain haemorrhage.it still remains unclear whether Stalin would have been saved if medical help would have arrived shortly after he suffered from the stroke.

Refrences

A&E Television Networks, LLC.(2014). Russian Revolution.Retrieved May 9,2014 from  http://www.history.com/topics/russian-revolution
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Criminal Justice - Counterterrorism International

Words: 1481 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77410329

4. Explain each of Samuel Huntington's 8 cultural paradigms. What does this model for culture and civilization around the world have to do with terrorism? What are the implications for law enforcement if terrorism has deeper roots -- namely, rooted in a clash of civilizations? Also, what are the implications for American foreign policy in terms of our efforts to thwart terrorism?

First, the post-Cold War reorganization of nations causes conflicts between and among the resulting civilizations left after national fracturing. Second, the continued promotion by the West of quasi-Western values and political philosophy on the rest of the world antagonizes non-Western civilizations. Third, the deterioration of economic, military, and political power of the West facilitates increased resistance of other nations, such as in the Far and Middle Eastern societies (i.e. China and Islamic countries) to follow the international order established by the West in previous eras and to combine…… [Read More]

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Marxism in Early January of

Words: 1568 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36503936

"

Lenin 13) if the workers do not succeed power to the wise, for the sake of social reformation and change then the revolution is lost from its start. Is this not a lesson you have learned from your most recent involvement in the failed eimar revolution?

Luxemburg:

As I have said previously, the current situation was struck down by providence, rather than any lack of effort or skill on the part of the revolutionaries. Our intentions were thwarted by numbers, rather than intellect and desire, which would further argue my position, that the revolution must be not only supported but driven and populated by the workers, who are the most likely to be aware of the aftereffects of war, as they are the traditional masses who have been the most effected by those in the past.

At the close of these comments Lenin rose to leave, unnerved by the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lenin, V.I. Left Wing Communism: An Infantile Disorder. New York: International Publishers Co., Inc., 1989.

Luxemburg, Rosa. The Russian Revolution, and Leninism or Marxism?. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1961.

Lynd, Staughton. "Feminism for Men." The Journal of Men's Studies 7.2 (1999): 165.
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Conferences After WWII Enter Stage

Words: 1960 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9275416



Truman: I am not a fan of compromise on this issue, Harry. But we have to prepare that we may need it. Stalin was instrumental in winning this war, and he's powerful enough that we cannot simply dictate our terms to him. I know the risk that compromise brings, and that there will be people who will suffer more under him than if they were free nations, or under our control, but we cannot cure every ill in this world.

Byrnes: Mr. President, with all due respect, and you know that in my role I fully understand the implications of compromise, but in this situation I think that Communism is just as big an evil as fascism. Even if Stalin allows these countries to remain independent, his idea of a buffer zone is a Communist buffer zone. He'll put his own people in place. The populations in those countries will…… [Read More]

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U S Foreign Policy and the

Words: 956 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42976300

8 billion. The Occupation authorities also helped the Japanese government overcome postwar economic chaos, especially rampant inflation, by balancing the government budget, raising taxes and imposing price and wage freezes, and resuming limited foreign trade" (Kesselman et al., 203). The U.S. aid not only helped to rebuild the country, but also ensured that Japan was stable enough so that renegade seedlings of Communism or comparable institutions didn't suddenly flourish. The United States should sue this wise historical strategy that it deftly employed to help the economies of poorer nations in the Middle East. hen people are living in poverty, this makes them ripe breeding grounds for terrorism to build and people to be brainwashed by doctrines which vilify the est. Furthermore the United States should invest money in developing educational programs in the Middle East, so that the citizens there can actually envision a real future for themselves, without having…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bryne, P.J. The Chinese Revolution: The Triumph of Communism. Minneapolis: Compass Point

Books, 2007.

Kesselman, M., Krieger, J. And Joseph, W. Introduction to Comparative Politics. Boston:

Wadsworth Learnign, 2013.
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World War II Book Review

Words: 1603 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34700032

It is key to understanding the author's view of love and even her own status as a woman and as a thinker. Of course, the book can simply be read as a love story of infidelity and sexual liberty gone wrong in the face of an ever-changing political society in a state of national and European chaos. But the Mandarins de Beauvoir referred to were also the elite, the intellectual elites of Chinese society who held themselves above from the common peasants.

Thus, by calling her fellow Left Bank intellectuals 'Mandarins' De Beauvoir symbolically calls upon her fellow intellectuals to become part and parcel of the political fray, rather than wasting their energies with entangling personal alliances that can be just as dissipating as the betrayals of Vichy and the subsequent alliances that sapped the French nation of its own vital energies. She calls upon the intellectual Mandarins of French…… [Read More]