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Communist Party During the Stalin Period (1928 to 1953)
In order to examine the changes undergone by the Communist Party during the reign of Stalin, let us first look at some background on one of the most notorious mass murderers in history, Joseph Stalin, for by the end of his reign, he had become the Party. Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin was born Ioseb Jughasvili on December 21, 1879 in Gori, Georgia. As a child he was given the nickname Soso. His father was a cobbler named Vissarion Jughashvili, known as eso, and his mother Ekaterina Geladze, was born a serf. They had two other children who died young. His father had been a serf, but after obtaining his freedom, he opened his own cobbler shop. He quickly went bankrupt and was forced to work in a shoe factory.
Stalin's grew up in an abusive family. His father was frequently drunk, and…
Acton, Edward. Russia: The Tsarist and Soviet Legacy. New York: Longman, 1995.
Berezhkov, Valentin M. At Stalin's Side: His Interpreter's Memoirs from the October Revolution to the Fall of the Dictator's Empire. New York: Birch Lane Press, 1994.
Brent, Jonathan. Stalin's last crime: the plot against the Jewish doctors, 1948-1953. New York: HarperCollins, 2003.
Conquest, Robert. The Great Terror: A Reassessment. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Karl Marx and wrote the Manifesto of the Communist Party in 1847 for the Communist League of London. In this Manifesto, Marx first applied his ideas of historical materialism, which he developed in 1846 in The German Ideology.
The Manifesto of the Communist Party describes the emergence of capitalism, and the social classes that develop due to this method of production. According to Marx, capitalism emerges from the context of feudal society. "The feudal system of industry, under which industrial production was monopolized by closed guilds, now no longer sufficed for the growing wants of the new markets. The manufacturing system took its place p. 474)."
Marx goes into detail about the historical events that led to the state of modern industry. He writes, "The place of manufacture was taken by the giant, Modern Industry, the place of the industrial middle class, by industrial millionaires,... The modern bourgeoisie (p. 480)."…
Marx, Karl. Manifesto of the Communist Party. Printed in Tucker, Robert. The Marx-Engels Reader: second edition.
"the Communist Manifesto" -- 19th Century Ideas in the 21st Century World
Not only do the jobs people have alienate them as Marx described, but also culture in general is alienating in nature. We are a consumer culture. We shop; we consume media in various forms constantly; we interact with technology using it to share, communicate, socialize, and otherwise mediate our experience. Mediated experiences, common and fun as they may be, are alienating in nature. Individuals no longer need to write a letter and go outside to mail it; they write an email whenever the mood strikes. The paper does not denigrate email; it is convenient and great, but it alienates people from the physical experience of letter writing. Behaviors deemed "normal" or socially acceptable or even legal support a consumptive culture and consumption is alienating. We take the behaviors for granted and do not perceive them so readily…
Engels, Frederick, & Marx, Karl. "Manifesto of the Communist Party." Print: 1848, 1969. Web: 2010. Available from http://files.meetup.com/3233942/Manifesto.pdf . 2012 March 11.
Communist Manifesto is a calling by German philosopher Karl Marx to the working class to rise up and take power over his or her own working lives. The Communist Manifesto is both a political discourse as well as a battle cry for the Communist cause. Communists believe that democracy, and every other form of government, will naturally run its course and eventually the huge income disparity present between the upper classes and the working class will create enough societal friction that the masses will simply claim the entire state for themselves, and rule without division in the ranks of civilians.
This paper discusses the Communist Manifesto and the ideas of Karl Marx by exploring some of the unique features of Marx's political philosophy of Communism. The first is historical materialism, which is the belief that property and the control over certain functions of the state is what has traditionally determined…
However, the system is much more representative. Thus, in the ritish Parliament there are representatives from the Scottish parliament as well as from the Northern Ireland Assembly. Even so, the proposals for the reform of the electoral law and program have tried to ease the access of the population to the voting system, to increase the public awareness in relation to the political representation. This would determine a better ethnical and religious representation on the one hand, an element that would help the issues with Northern Ireland. At the same time, it would influence the way in which people express their opinions, views, and preferences, which would in time determine a change in the economic and political decisions taken at the level of the Parliament.
Changes such as the ones from Russia and ritain can affect to a certain point the American political framework. The Russian democracy cannot be considered…
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994
CIA. "The Russian Federation." The World Fact Book. 2008. 7 March 2008 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rs.html
CIA. "United Kingdom." The World Fact Book. 2008. 7 March 2008 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/uk.html
Cohen, Ariel. "Putin's Legacy and United Russia's New Ideology." The Heritage Foundation. 2006. 7 March 2008 http://www.heritage.org/Research/RussiaandEurasia/bg1940.cfm
The Communist Manifesto
The central aspect of the Manifesto of the communist party is how to effectively handle the ever increasing rift between the contending classes, the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The development of the bourgeoisie at the expense of the proletariat has highly been exacerbated by the industrialization and trade development over the years, the various revolutions in the modes of production and of exchange. The bourgeoisie has played the bigger role in the revolutions that have shaped the system to its favor, turning the physicians, the lawyers, the priest, the poet, the man of science into its paid wage laborers. Bourgeoisie has also torn away the noble family veil and has reduced family relations into mere money relations.
There is a big difference between the way the bourgeoisie view labor wage and that of the proletariat. The bourgeoisie see it as a means to increase accumulated labor, yet…
Political Ideologies on the Peasant Farmers in China
Many historians view the May Fourth Movement as the birth of Communism in the Peoples Republic of China. The demonstrations and their suppression in 1919 turned increasingly political influencing Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao, the founders of the Communist Party of China, to align themselves to leftist ideologies. According to Cultural China, this movement was a protest against the imperial power in China. It greatly influenced the Chinese working class as they took the political center stage as the main force in the movement. More than 20 provinces participated in the movement; it had a wider foundation than the 1911 revolution. The greatest impact of the movement was influencing of people's consciousness. It helped spread Marxism in China and lay foundation for ideologies that established communism in China.
The May Fourth Movement revolutionized people's minds; many Chinese were disengaged from democracy as…
Bianco, Lucien and Muriel Bell. Origins of the Chinese Revolution. Stanford: Stanford
University Press, 1971.
Chen, Theodore Hsi-en. "The New Socialist Man." Comparative Education Review February
Australia began shifting to a limited Welfare State at the end of the Second World War (1945) and has continually supported privatization and deregulation. The 1904 Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act and 1988 Industrial Relations Act (IRA) both have set a strong precedent for workers' rights and the right to create and form unions. From an ER standpoint these laws and compliance requirements are also constrictive as they are one-size-fits-all in approach.
Role of Stakeholders- the Government, Unions, Workers,
Both Australia and Germany are comparable in the depth and sophistication of systems, processes and procedures to support stakeholders. Of the two, Germany ahs been architecture far more to support and protect the unionized work. The German Trade Union Confederation, combined with the German series of laws to protect the worker has lead to protectionist approaches when it comes to allowing new businesses into Germany. MNCs looking t expand into Germany…
China is very clear on its use of labour laws, with a country-wide precedent set in 1995 with their Labour Law of China. This was the first employment law enacted by the CCP. There is also the Labour Contract Law passed in 20087 that require all employers to provide employees a written contract within a year of employment, and fines employers who do not do this. There are also labor dispatch providers and support for verbal contracts in the Labour Contract Law of 2008. In 1993 China based the Enterprise Minimum Wage Regulation and amended it in 2004 to serve as a framework for the countries' growing economy.
The Labour laws in Australia on the other hand are much more oriented towards a shared level of responsibility and arbitration. The Australian ER reform includes the ACTU/Federal ALP Government accord passed in 1983 and 1993 and the Industrial Relations Reform Act of 1993. The Workplace Amendment (Work Choices) Act of 2005 and Fair Work Act of 2009 all support the more progressing nature in ER relative to Germany.
Min enthusiastically goes to the Red Fire Farm in order to prove her willingness as a city girl to do the hard work of the proletariat. (52). While there, she meets a similarly zealous and ambitious woman, Comrade Lu, who continually shows off her knowledge of the Party and her own Party credentials. (60-65).
In contrast to deputy commander Lu, commander Yan is not only a model comrade, but a strong, selfless, and compassionate leader. A tall, handsome, "conqueror"-like woman, Yan never tried to prove her credentials as a party comrade. Min remembers, with affection, how Yan would trek alone to the well and carry back two 80 lb buckets of water on a pole, balancing it on her broad shoulders. (117). Yan's presence was so great that she did not even need to tell the other comrades to get back to work.
In a sense, Min looked at Yan…
Red Azalea. Bt Bound, 2006. Print.
China and Foreign Policy
With reference to any ONE country you have studied, how far does interdependence shape its foreign policy and in what ways
A Brief History of Chinese Foreign Affairs
Current Foreign Policy
Foreign elations and Interdependency
China is an emerging force in the world, and it seems only to be natural, as the Chinese civilization is one of the ancient civilizations of the world. In fact theorists seem to question the reasons for its downfall, as it is the largest and has historically been the cultural and educational center for the world.
As far as its foreign policy is concerned, the Chinese government deals with it in a unique way, where the foreign affairs are the business of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which falls under the ambit of a department called the "Foreign Affairs Leading Small Group of the Communist Party of China."…
Barboza, D. 2011. Entrepreneur's Rival in China: The State. New York Times .
Chen, J. 1979. China and the West . Hutchinson.
China. n.d. [Online] Available at: (26 January 2012)
China's Foreign Affairs and International Relations. 2012. . [Online] Available at: (26 January 2012)
When Lenin's Bolshevik Revolution occurred, Russia was primarily an agricultural country with many of its people being little more than poor agricultural workers. There was little sign of an impending industrial revolution.
When Lenin came into power and held the position of head of government, he began to implement some of his socialist ideologies. In 1918, the Russian Constituent Assembly was dissolved and enabled the Bolsheviks to consolidate their political power. Prior to this consolidation, in 1917 the Cheka was formed. Created to defend the Russian Revolution, the Cheka began to clamp down on voices opposed to the Bolshevik party, taking control of newspaper content and ensuring no defamatory articles were written about the Cheka. As was always his intention, Lenin sought to introduce the world to his revolutionary ideas and in 1923 he looked to the Third World as the focus of his revolution. He praised China's socialist values…
As the planet's natural resources continue to be harvested at an alarming rate and climate change becomes a reality, countries are collaborating on a global scale to find ways to solve environmental problems. When natural disasters strike, as they did in Haiti in 2010, many first world countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom work together in organizing redevelopment, health care and emergency measures to enable the country to rebuild. However, in less urgent situations, collaborations can be fraught with tension and can often lose sight of their original goal. For example, in the United States and neighboring Mexico, environmental issues can take a while to be resolved as each step has to pass through governing bodies and relevant associations beforehand. However, through dialog and a continued development of the international relationship, Mexico and the United States are able to come up with working resolutions.
Incorporated into the 1983 La Paz agreement and the 1992 Rio Declaration is a principle that each nation has a responsibility to make certain that its activities do not cause environmental harm to the other country. Still in early days, the key to getting the principle to work is by governments actively campaigning for citizens to work together with their country in reducing environmental damage. Other agreements that have been signed in recent years include a 1996 air quality management agreement. Again, this was between the United States and Mexico. Due to the rapid industrial growth and expansion of Mexico and the Southwest of the United States, the agreement was put into place to reduce the amount of air pollution that is caused by this growth. Although each nation has its own statutes in place that monitor and police air quality, they do not take into consideration the shared air pollution of near border cities such as El Paso and Juarez. With the inception of this agreement, both nations can work together to reduce the pollution in these shared air basins.
It's important to remember that Wal-Mart is a private enterprise and has a responsibilities to investors, shareholders and stakeholders to deliver a profit. All businesses in the end must generate profitable cash flows to survive. The ethicacy of their strategies to avert unionization must be balanced against the fact they are the U.S.' fifth largest employer, have a supply chain that makes it possible for the majority of families with incomes at $40K or less to make ends meet with their low prices, and consistently launch new products exceptionally well (Maher, Zimmerman, 2009). This last point drives revenue and jobs into the consumer packaged goods sector. Wal-Mart has been unethical in how they have attempted to alleviate unionization in core markets in the U.S. Yet the long-term implications of this strategy on a global level will not scale, as the case study shows. The case shows that the real professionals…
Kristi Ellis. (2007, February). WAL-MART, UNIONS COME TOGETHER FOR HEALTH CARE. WWD, 193(30), 26.
Mei Fong. (2006, August 10). Wal-Mart Meets With Officials From China Union. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. A.2.
Graves, Lawrence. (1988, April). Wal-Mart, Unions Continue to Be at Loggerheads. St. Louis Business Journal,(1) 8(28), 10A.
Kris Maher, & Ann Zimmerman. (2009, April 17). U.S. News: Union Intensifies Efforts to Organize Workers at Wal-Mart. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. A.4.
There were 87,000 protest incidents in China in 2005 -- up from 11,000 a decade before. The scope of the huge and widening social and income inequity could eventually cause revolution it is so bad. Even Premier Wen Jiabao has met with construction workers and farmers to obtain their inputs. He has quoted Abraham Lincoln's "government of the people, by the people and for the people" in making promises of equity to all -- a promise he will probably not be able to fully keep.
The power of the communist party will eventually erode, as it did in the Soviet Union. ut remember that China is eons behind in its social and political development. And the Chinese are renowned experts in the art of brutal social repression. Economics and resulting social unrest will drag the Chinese Communists down eventually -- but don't look for it anytime soon.
Guthrie, D. (2003, June 22). The quiet revolution: The emergence of capitalism (Harvard International Review). Retrieved September 8, 2009, from accessmylibrary.com: http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-23886109_ITM
The founding of the Chinese Communist Party was preceded by an influential intellectual movement called the New Culture Movement. Usually dated between 1915 and 1919, the New Culture Movement was headed by Chen Duxiu of Beijing University, as well as Cai Yuanpei, Li Dazhao, Lu Xun, and Hu Shi (Ebrey; "New Culture Movement"). The New Culture Movement provided the theoretical, scholastic, and ideological underpinnings of the subsequent political movements that would come to define 20th century Chinese culture. riters like Lu Xun captured the prevailing social unrest in his unconventional novel A Madman's Diary. A Madman's Diary uses a grotesque metaphor to capture the self-destructive, primitive, outmoded, and senseless oppression of the Chinese model of feudalism. ritten during the warlord period, A Madman's Diary exposes the futility of social conformity to the Confucian value system while suggesting that the only way to evoke change is to appear as…
Ebrey, Patricia B. The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1996. p. 270-271. Retrieved online
Lu Xun. A Madman's Diary.
"New Culture Movement." Cultural China. Retrieved online
America's engagement with China, with historic ice-breaking between the two countries carried out by Henry Kissinger, has been complicated. I would suggest that it were the U.S. domestic preoccupations and compulsions that did not allow me to take any bold stance on the issue of Dalai Lama. I disagree with notion that U.S. betrayed the cause of human rights while not choosing to visit Dalai Lama.
It must not be forgotten that unlike ussia, China's geography allows her to exert much more influence than the former. In the words of Kaplan (2010), China is both a land and a sea power. Thus, my foreign policy towards China has been reflective of this potential next power of the world. The U.S. has benefited from the Chinese market significantly in the wake of financial crisis. The author failed to acknowledge the huge compulsions that China faces in meeting its energy and other…
Barber, BR 1992 "Jihad vs. McWorld," the Atlantic Monthly 269, no. 3 (March 1992): 53 -- 65.
Cohen, MA, 2011, 'Think Again: The Two State Solution', Foreign Policy, Viewed on 18 June 2013, [ http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/09/14/think_again_the_two_state_solution ]
Gettleman, J 2010, 'Africa's Forever Wars,' Foreign Policy, 22 Feb 2010.
Gilboy, GJ and Read, BL 2008, 'Political and Social Reform in China,' Washington Quarterly, summer 2008, pg 143-164.
Eugenia Ginzburg and Stalinist Russia
This paper looks at the book Journey Into the Whirlwind by Eugenia Ginzburg and examines how her story impacts the study of the Stalinist Terror.
Eugenia Ginzburg: Portrait of a Prisoner
Eugenia Ginzburg experienced the heart of the Stalinist Terror as few have who lived to tell about it. A staunch communist supporter, Ginzburg found herself wrongfully accused of being an enemy of the people and subsequently thrown into jail. She spent the next eighteen years as a part of the Stalinist prison camps, suffering the hardships and tortures that those camps heaped upon the prisoners unfortunate enough to be imprisoned in them. Yet, through it all, Ginzburg never gave up on her communist convictions, and remained loyal to her party, only saying that Stalin was an enemy of the people, not the communist party. Because of her unique perspective of having been a part…
The withdrawal was supposed to aid the Communists in controlling the areas vacated by the Japanese, who had succeeded in controlling vast portions of Manchuria.
Stalin's efforts were aimed at forcing "the GMD [Guomindang or Chinese Nationalist Party] to make economic concessions, to prevent a united China from allying with the United States, and to placate Washington on the international arena by giving in to American demands for withdrawal," but in actuality he not only laid the groundwork for the Communists' eventual victory, but also opened up a window for the possibility of a U.S.-Communist alliance that would have destabilized the Soviet Union's power; as will be seen, the United States failed to capitalize on this opportunity, but the fact remains that Stalin's withdrawal seems to have backfired.
Stalin's withdrawal was not directly aimed at ensuring a Communist victory, but rather was an attempt to destabilize the country so…
Ashton, S.R. "Keeping a Foot in the Door: Britain's China Policy, 1945 -- 50." Diplomacy and Statecraft 15 (2004): 79-94.
Bjorge, Gary J. "The Third Chinese Revolutionary Civil War, 1945-49: An Analysis of Communist Strategy and Leadership." The Journal of Military History 74, no. 1 (2010):
Boyd, James. "Japanese Cultural Diplomacy in Action: The Zenrin ky? okai in Inner Mongolia,
Hungary is located in Central Europe, northwest of Romania (CIA 2012, EEA 2012). It measures 93,000 square kilometers. It is bordered by Romania, Croatia, Austria, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine. Its capital is udapest (CIA, EEA).
Hungary has a Republican form of government (FCO 2012). Its Constitution was adopted on April 18 last year and took effect in January this year. Its four branches of government are the executive, legislative, judicial and a Constitutional court. The President is the head of state. The Prime Minister is the head of government. A cabinet is also part of the executive branch. The legislative branch consists of a National Assembly of 386 members with a four-year term. The judicial branch is a Curia or a Supreme Court. The President since August 6, 2010 is Pal Schmitt and the Prime Minister since May 29, 2010 is Viktor Orban. Hungary has 19…
BEEA. Hungary. Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs: U.S. Department of State,
2012. Retrieved on March 24, 2012 from http://www.sate.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/36566.htm
CIA. Hungary. The World Fact Book: Central Intelligence Agency, 2012. Retrieved on March 24, 2012 from http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/hu.html
EOE. Hungary. The Encyclopedia of Earth: Central Intelligence Agency, 2012. Retrieved
The Variant Paths of Post-Communist Russia, Poland, and Hungary
The past ten years have seen great changes in the formerly Communist countries of Eastern Europe. Bound together for years under the Soviet yoke, these nations have now embarked upon their own individual paths as sovereign states. Representative of these emerging one-time Eastern Bloc nations are Russia, Poland, and Hungary. All three once shared a common form of government and a single social system. In each of these cases, Communism overlay a pre-existing civilization and set of traditions. This relatively brief interlude of Marxism, Leninism, and Stalinism was thus, a veneer, a covering over, if you will, of far older patterns of behavior and ways of thinking. It was these underlying cultural and historical characteristics that, combined with the shared history of Soviet rule, produced the countries we know today. Three distinct nations were put together into the crucible of…
Allison, Graham. "Deepening Russian democracy: progress and pitfalls in Putin's Government." Harvard International Review 24.2 (2002): 62+. Questia. 2 May 2003 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000089175
Aslund, Anders. "RUSSIA." Foreign Policy July 2001. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000689067
Dougherty, Carter. "Warsaw near goal of bid to join EU." The Washington Times 26 Jan. 2002. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000091568
After the statement of the Truman Doctrine in 1947, both Greece and Turkey were provided with aid to counter the Soviet threat.
When the war ended, circumstances in Greece were unfavorable to the maintenance of civil peace:
EAM was in control of nearly all Greece. Its leaders numbered many excellent liberals, the most eminent being Professor Svolos, a Socialist; but the Communists were clearly dominant. The returning Greek army was under the control of rabid, uncompromising monarchist officers... Had the issue of Greek sovereignty been left to these two Greek forces, there is no doubt of the outcome. The ineffectiveness of the returned Greek monarchist army was shown when, at the end of 1944, civil war broke out in Greece. ELAS surrounded the monarchist army and immobilized it from the outset.
However, they were not left to their own devices, and instead they were influenced by outside forces from ritain…
Anderson, Paul, "Why Did the Spanish Civil War Start in July 1936?" History Review 48(2004), 36-40.
Bolloten, Burnett. The Spanish Revolution: The Left and the Struggle for Power during the Civil War. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.
Kousoulas, Dimitrios G. The Price of Freedom: Greece in World Affairs, 1939?1953. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1953.
Smith, Howard K. The State of Europe. New York: Knopf, 1949.
Since the 30s people have been politically inclined towards left in Hollywood. Kazan was also known for his left-wing views that eventually led him to the appearance before HUAC. However, with the inquiries of the House Un-American Affairs Committee problems for the supporters of left came up. Demand for anticommunist films required more writers with right-wing inclinations. The demand for anti-fascist films in late 30s through mid-40s could not match the demand for anticommunist films. Even though many blacklisted liberals fled to other countries to support their careers. Many people expressed different views regarding people who supported HUAC. For example Lillian Hellman's view of Elia Kazan's friendly testimony is that he simply couldn't do otherwise because he valued his own
American success story too much. Arthur Miller also mentioned in his autobiography that if he did not come out clean he would not be able to make another movie in…
Mccain, R. (1999). New Book Defends Kazan in Saga of 'Hollywood 10'. The Washington Times. Publication Date: March 17.
As Japan became a modern state under this period, a status system was formed, which designated specific sectors of the society into various classes and functions. he status system was composed of the samurai, the commoners (peasant farmers, merchants, and artisans), and the daimyo, the land-holding class. During the Meiji period, the samurai class had the highest position and the most favorable privilege among the classes. However, as the country moved toward modernization in the 20th century, this status system was dissolved and a new social order emerged. he commoners and daimyo became more successful than the samurai because of the former's economic wealth and capabilities, as compared to the samurai who have only status but still depend on the daimyo for money.
Modern Japan no longer subsisted to this kind of social stratification. No classes in society were created, be it in terms of religion, race, business affiliation, or…
The Liberal Democratic Party was an example of a political entity which has cultivated a corporatist nature to its politics. The LDP being the oldest and strongest political party in Japan, it dominated and controlled the Diet for many years since the emergence of 20th century. As the 20th century prepared for the coming of the 21st century, LDP had been the focus of political scandals, wherein its strong connections with businesses and corporations revealed that Japanese politics was controlled not by the LDP, but its sponsor businesses instead. In 1998-2001, it was found that LDP had been involved in the long history of corruption and bribery from businesses and corporations in exchange for a promise in deregulation in specific sectors of the business/economic society (e.g., banking and financing and manufacturing).
The social structure of Japan at present was not as hierarchical and stratified as it was during the Meiji Restoration period. As Japan became a modern state under this period, a status system was formed, which designated specific sectors of the society into various classes and functions. The status system was composed of the samurai, the commoners (peasant farmers, merchants, and artisans), and the daimyo, the land-holding class. During the Meiji period, the samurai class had the highest position and the most favorable privilege among the classes. However, as the country moved toward modernization in the 20th century, this status system was dissolved and a new social order emerged. The commoners and daimyo became more successful than the samurai because of the former's economic wealth and capabilities, as compared to the samurai who have only status but still depend on the daimyo for money.
Modern Japan no longer subsisted to this kind of social stratification. No classes in society were created, be it in terms of religion, race, business affiliation, or political affiliation. Perhaps the most evident form of class stratification was geographical in nature: there is the "burakumin" or "hamlet people," which was stratified as such because they lived in segregated villages in the country. The burakumin was the equivalent of America's ghettos, wherein most of the minority members of the society live. Not only are the burakumin segregated geographically, they are also marginalized in the sense that burakumin people are assigned jobs and activities that are considered "unclean" by the Japanese, that is, menial working such as cleaning, slaughtering animals, and disposing of the dead. This stratification in Japanese society has little influence in politics, mainly because they are not active participants and involved in Japanese politics. The burakumin, in effect, are not represented in Japanese politics.
) and towards the more practical needs for Aryan survival.
c. hy did a growing number of Germans support Hitler and the Nazi Party in the years leading up to his appointment as chancellor?
There are many arguments to this question, but one that surfaces more often than others focuses on economics and self-preservation. The German people were humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles -- their military and economic system had been stripped away, their debt unbearable, and their economy was being controlled by other countries. The ideas of National Socialism were attractive to many: unification of the German Volk, reestablishing the German lands as a country dedicated to certain ideals, focusing on ethnic and linguistic similarities, the overthrow of Versailles, the idea of German self-determination, lebensraum (room for Germans to live, grow and prosper), and an improvement over the crippling inflation and economic woes of the eimar Government, seen…
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Primary Source
Documents, History 100.
Hitler, a. Mein Kampf. Primary Source Documents, History 100.
Marx, Karl and F. Engels. The Communist Manifesto. Primary Source
This includes previously mentioned measures such as increased governmental spending, directing funds towards education and health sectors etc.
Referring to Liberalism, we should first of all point out that liberalism does not necessarily limit its perceptions only to economic equality, as is the case with Socialism, but it extends its beliefs to the sector of civil and individual equality. This means that liberalism has always found itself as a promoter of human rights, as a sustainer of political freedom and the right to self - determination.
Going forth from these social and political perceptions, the social equality that liberalism promotes naturally leads to a policy of tolerance at a societal level. Liberal governances are generally know to be tolerant in terms of rights for social or religious minorities.
On the other hand, in terms of economic policies, liberalism promotes equality rather through the laissez-faire philosophy, through the capacity of the…
y 1993, Leon could no longer find employment and the family, which had been very successful and respected in the community were reduced to extreme poverty. Sergei, in his teens spent most of the time doing odd jobs at factories such as a coal-boy, in order to help his family. He was not able to finish school. At the same time, he saw the St. Petersburg he loved grow to complete economic recession as the industries that sustained the Soviet Union were shutdown in the wake of its collapse. He also looked on as American companies such as Ford Motor Company, McDonald's, and many other American companies. Sergei still remembers the old city as Leningrad, and calls St. Petersburg by its Soviet name when he is with his friends.
Sergei finally was able to find steady employment in 1999, after the death of his father. The Russian economy had stabilized…
C. Freeland, Sale of the Century: Russia's Wild Ride from Communism to Capitalism (2000)
D. Lieven, Empire: The Russian Empire and Its Rivals (2001)
O. Figes, Natasha's Dance: A Cultural History of Russia (2002)
TERESHCHENKO. Manners and Customs of the Russian People. 7 vols. St. Petersburg, 1848. 8vo. 3
Engels went as far to claim that the only way marriage could ever be established as an institution that was inclusive of equality was to destroy all capitalist elements in society. The following is his statement:
Full freedom of marriage can therefore only be generally established when the abolition of capitalist production and of the property relations created by it has removed all the accompanying economic considerations which still exert such a powerful influence on the choice of a marriage partner. For then there is no other motive left except mutual inclination."
Thus is the claim of Engels but in reality the human nature would be inclined to classify itself in other ways that economical and it is most likely that another system of class distinction would arise in the place of the economical concessions that were the deciding factor as to marriages during that time period.
In another work…
Boyer, George R. The Historical Background of the Communist Manifesto "152 Journal of Economic Perspectives"
Aveling, Edward and Eleanor Marx (1886) "The Woman Question" Westminster Review 1886 Transcribed by Sally Ryan 2000 [Online] available at http://www.marxists.org/archive/eleanor-marx/works/womanq.htm
Engels, Frederich (1884) "The Origin of Family, Private Property and the State" Marx/Engels Selected Works, Volume Three" Transcribed by Brian Basgen [Online] Marx/Engels Internet Archive (Marxists.org) 1993, 1999, 2000 available at http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1884/origin-family/index.htm
Marx, K. & Engels F. (1848) "The Manifesto of the Communist Party "Marx/Engels Selected Works, Volume One, Progress Publishers, Moscow, USSR, 1969, pp. 98-137 Translated by Samuel Moore and F. Engels 1888, verified by Andy Blunden 2004 [Online] available at http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist-manifesto/ index' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
But as for the modern version of ARTEK, the writer claims "...the camp has little in common with the ideology that reigned at ARTEK in Soviet times... [and] is similar to boy and girl scout camps in the est."
Indeed, Bransten writes that during the 80th anniversary of ARTEK (August 18, 2005), show business stars like soccer player Andrei Shevchenko and pop music star Ruslana along with movie star (of Ukrainian origin) Milla Jovovich arrived for the celebration. Also attending: Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko, Polish President Aleksander Kwasniewski, Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili, and Lithuanian President Valdas Adamkus.
Tim Jackson, a British electronics professional and technical programmer visited ARTEK Pioneer Camp in August 1965, when the camp was still under the control of course of the Communist Soviet Union authorities. On his eb site Jackson write poignantly about his stay at ARTEK. He remembers boarding a bus in Simferopol and saying…
Berman, Nathan. (1943). The Place of the Child in Present-Day Russia. Social Forces, 21.4,
Bransten, Jeremy. (2005). Ukraine: Artek Celebrates Its 80th Anniversary. Radio Free Europe /
Radio Liberty. Retrieved Feb. 7, 2008, from www.rferl.org.featurearticleprint/2005/08/605cba43-6c5b-42dd-9b86-2f0cb9a9376f.html.
Historical Boy's Uniforms. (2001). Individual Pioneer Summer Camps: Artek. Retrieved Feb. 8, 2008 at http://histclo.com/youth/youth/org/pio/nat/rus/act/camp/ic/ipc-artek.htm .
In this sense, "During the 1950s and 1960s, especially after the falling-out between hina and the former Soviet Union, the hinese government actively relocated Han hinese to frontier provinces such as Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, and Heilongjiang, in order to consolidate the border in light of possible military threat from the Soviets"
. Therefore, the decision to intervene in the ethnic composition of the region was not only a choice related to the national identity of the country but also to geostrategic aspects.
After the end of the old War, the region remained of importance for hina form the perspective of the national identity as well as crucial natural resources, which include oil reserves. From this perspective, massive investments have been conducted in the region, stating the official reason to be the reduction of the disparities between the regions of hina. In this sense, "Rich in natural gas, oil, and warm…
Compare and contrast Mao's ideal of China to the variety sought by Deng Xiaoping. hat advantages and disadvantages did the Maoist system have? hat advantages did the Dengist system have?
Chairman Mao and Deng Xiaoping were two of the most influential leaders of modern Chinese history. Both men believed that they were acting in the best interest of their citizens but had vastly different ways of pursuing this goal. Each man was a member of the Chinese Communist party and built and government system based on Marxist teachings. However the two men had different ideas about what it meant to have a Communist regime and the types of policies which would best suit the needs of the people.
Chairman Mao led China during the period of Communist revolution. He completely revitalized the political, economic, cultural, and sociological system of the country. Mao's policies were concerned with the social…
"China: From Mao to Deng." (1997). International Socialist Review. 1.
Voice, however, is usually political and confrontational.
In communist societies, it is impossible to get all people to conform to an ideal without using some type of force. People view freedom as the ability to do what they want with their time and control their resources. If the state forces you to work only for its benefit and the benefit of the community, individual freedom will always be limited. This problem was seen in the Soviet Union, North Korea, and China, which were repressive nations that used force to support its theories.
It is important to consider that "exit" is not always physical. It can be mental or emotional, as well. If communist theories were in motion, citizens would not have the ability to exit the system if they decided they did not like it. Physically, it is likely that they would lack the resources to move to another country.…
Hirschman, Albert. 1970. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Marx and Engels. (1969). Marx/Engels Selected Works, Volume One, Progress Publishers, Moscow, USSR, pp. 98-137.
Putnam, Robert D.,editor. 2002, Democracies in Flux: The Evolution of Social Capital in Contemporary Society, Oxford University Press Inc., New York, NY.
It makes sense that the advanced and more inclusive study of a history of a group of disenfranchised individuals, such as women and/or men and women of color, would occur simultaneously with the rise in providing them a voice within their modern place in society. The fact that these individuals have not been traditionally explored within the realm of class, society, and politics does not mean that they are not a part of our History. Rather, it is a reflection of the historical underpinnings of our societies as traditionally relegating women and people of color to a realm of silence in a lesser role of the other or the inferior class. On a positive note, the fact that researchers and scholars are devoting time, effort, and resources into re-examining our histories reveals that we are moving toward a more inclusive world.
Appiah, Kwame Anthony. In My Father's Eyes.…
Appiah, Kwame Anthony. In My Father's Eyes. New York: Oxford University Press,
Foner, Eric. The New American History. Temple University Press.
Marx, Karl. Capital, the Communist Manifesto and Other Writings. Ed. Max Eastman.
Marx Historical Context
Classical sociological and economic theories like those of Karl Marx emerged in Western Europe when it was experiencing the Enlightenment, the emergence of scientific method, a growing sense of individual autonomy over one's life conditions, the emergence of private property, urban growth, and a total shattering of the social balance of relations among peoples that had been in place for centuries if not millennia. Christianity and other traditional religions were being undermined by the new developments in science and technology, while urban, industrial capitalism was breaking up the old feudal-agrarian order in Europe and the Americas. All the founders of modern sociology had to deal with this radically new society, and attempted to describe its historical origins, the new social and economic problems of industrial capitalism, and how governments and societies should deal with them. Karl Marx received his PhD in economics in Germany during the dawn…
Appelrouth, S. And L.D. Edles (2010). Sociological Theory in the Classical Era: Text and Readings, 2nd Edition. SAGE Publications.
Greene, J.C. "Biological and Social Theory in the Nineteenth Century: August Comte and Herbert Spencer" in John Offer (ed). Herbert Spencer: Critical Assessments of Leading Sociologists, Volume 2. Routledge, 2000, pp. 203-26.
Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels. The Manifesto of the Communist Party. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1969.
Gender in Post-Communist Society
Consider the differences between gendered behavior in the Czech Republic and the U.S.A.… which socio-historical factors affect the Czechs' present-day gender identity and gender issues?
Men are respected as the stronger sex and this determines the way they relate women. A Czech has a striking mixture of firm attachment to the labor market and strong family values, considerable independence and personal efficiency. The women are homemakers and breadwinners. They are also able to command attention. Another interesting part of the Czech gender roles is that love outweighs work. For example, more women devote their time to care for their children at home unlike before and make considerable efforts in finding husbands (Delphy & Leonard, 175).
I noticed that Czech women are nicely dressed in order for them to find husbands while the men act chivalrously in order for them to find wives. Many women abandon their…
Nanette Funk and Magda Mueller, "Feminism East and West," Gender Politics and Post-Communism. Reflections from Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union,(1993) New York and London, Routledge, pp. 318-330.
Berger, John. "Ways of Seeing. London": BBC Penguin Books. pp. 129-154. 1977
Beauvoir, Simone de, "The Psychoanalytical Point-of-View," pp. 49-61. (2010). In the second sex New. York: Vintage Books
Delphy, Ch. And Leonard, D. "The Variety of Work Done by Wives," in (eds.) Jackson, S. And Scott, S. G Gender: A Sociological Reader. New York: Routledge. pp. 170-179.2002
Economists can demonstrate how, in the aggregate, consumers and industry benefit from free trade. In the process of creative destruction, however, some industries and workers are displaced by the changes wrought by free trade.
The measurement of benefit in the case of Volkswagen continues to reverberate today, after over 25 years. When VW entered the Chinese market, it did so over the objections of its local labour unions and politicians. Part of the objection came because the State of Lower Saxony controlled 20% of the shares, and the government was concerned about the loss of jobs in its domestic sector. The managers of VW saw it differently: by creating a successful and growing subsidiary in China, the reasoning went, the company could increase its generated cash and derive strategic benefits from finding a lower-cost supplier of parts.
There were, however, forces to overcome:
Unions threatened to strike in Germany unless…
Chase, S. (1947). A Generation of Industrial Peace: Thirty Years of Labor Relations at Standard Oil Company. New York: Standard Oil Company.
Chunli, L. a. (2003). The Chinese Automobile Industry and the Strategic Alliances of China, Japan, the U.S.'s Firms. Cambridge: MIT International Motor Vehicle Program.
Dubois, C.P.-D. (2007). Thrombin-initiated platelet activation in vivo is vWF independent during thrombus formation in a laser injury model. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 953-960.
Economist. (2007). 2008 World Almanac. London: Economist.
Stern Hu himself cannot actually exert much control from the Chinese prison where he is being held on charges of espionage. The Australian firm he worked for however, Rio Tinto, has been very vocal -- especially through Hu's former boss John Dougall -- in its attempts to get the federal government and Prime Minister Rudd in particular to act quickly to free Hu. This would require heavy Australian pressure on the Chinese government, adding tension to one of Australia's biggest trading relationships (a relationship which, ironically, Hu helped to create and solidify).
The Mass media in both countries has not been helpful here but instead has exacerbated the issue, making it largely one of nationality. Especially in China, where the government and culture is still largely under the control of the Communist Party, this creates a great deal additional emotion surrounding the issue, requiring foreign policy ministers on both sides…
history of China's importance to the U.S., from Nixon's visit to China in 1972 to the present, which contributed to the implementation of Obama's 'U.S. Pivot to Asia Strategy'?
The Cold War represented one of the most important periods in the history of the world. It did not only changed the way in which the political world was configured following the end of the Second World War, but, at the same time, it marked a change in the perspective of the way in which relations among states and international actors are perceived. From this point-of-view, the end of this period marked the beginning of an era in which the political coordinates for international relations were uncertain and lacked a particular direction. The demise of the Soviet Union left the United States as the overall winner in the bipolar struggle. However, the entire state system was thrown into a state of…
BBC. Hu rejects China political reform. 15 September, 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3657906.stm
Bijian, Zheng. China's "Peaceful Rise" to Great-Power Status. "Foreign Affairs," September/October, 2005.
Calvocoressi, Peter. World politics since 1945. New York: Longman, 1987.
Daniels, Robert V., ed. A Documentary History of Communism. New York: Random House, 1960.
20. China must consult Japan whenever foreign capital is needed in improving the infrastructure of Fukien Province.
21. China must give Japanese the right to preach in China.
On May Fourth, some 3,000 students from Peking University and other schools gathered together in front of Tiananmen, the Gate of Heavenly Peace that fronts the Forbidden City complex in the center of eijing, and held a demonstration. They were furious at the news that had just come from the Paris Peace Conference. They shouted out such slogans as "Struggle for the sovereignty externally, get rid of the national traitors at home," "Do away with the 'Twenty-One Demands'," "Don't sign the Versailles Treaty." They demanded punishment of such figures as Cao Rulin, Zhang Zongxiang, and Lu Zongyu, who held important posts as diplomats. Despite the fact that China had sent nearly 100,000 soldiers to the Western front to assist the Allies, the…
Answer.com. "Twenty-one Demands." 14 May 2005. .
Buoye, Thomas and Bruce Denton. China: Adapting the Past Confronting the Future. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, 2002.
Chou, Tse-tsung. The May Fourth Movement: Intellectual Revolution in Modern China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1960.
Elleman, Bruce. Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795-1989. New York: Routledge, 2001.
East Asian Civilizations
(1) Unequal Treaties
(2) sino-japanese war 3
(3) MARCH 1ST MOVEMENT
(1) CHINA IN DECLINE
(1) CHINA's CIVIL WAR 7
(1) UNEQUAL TREATIES
The growing demand for Chinese tea, silk and ceramics by ritish had created severe trade imbalance for ritain. The ritish were also losing their silver reserves in exchange for Chinese goods. In late 1930's government of Great ritain found "opium" as a solution for resolving trade imbalance. Opium, which is more addictive than tea, was being supplied to China by ritish merchants. As demand for opium increased in China, ritain's imports increased and in this way silver bullion was flowing out of the China into ritain.
However Chinese government (Qing government) took serious steps to stop the trade of opium. Lin Zexu, which was appointed as an Imperial Commissioner for the Destruction of Opium, started an anti-opium campaign. During the campaign, opium stores were…
CIIC. "Formation of the Chinese Civilization." 2001. China Internet Information Center. .
Devine, Richard. "Japanese Rule in Korea After the March First Uprising." Monumenta Nipponic 52.4 (1997).
Dyke, Van and Paul Arthur. Tha Canton trade: Life and Enterprise on the China Coast 1700-1845. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1998.
Liu, Li and Xingcan Chen. The Archaeology of China: From the Late Paleolithic to the Early Bronze Age. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
In many ways, Russia is still recovering from it, trying to deal with the fact that only a few decades ago, it inflicted on itself one of the worst holocausts in human memory" (Hochschild, 1993). Therefore, the purges were used on the one hand to discourage the people and the elites in particular from establishing a dissident opposition or a negative pole of power that could have countered the Soviet regime.
Also, another possible justification of the way in which the Soviet regime acted in that period was the complete elimination of the possible negative influences from the old regimes or more precisely of the opposing forces in Russia. More precisely, "the decade of the 1930s saw the renewal of the Soviet leading stratum. During the period the.regime progressively unburdened itself of its legacy of class prejudice and rose to its full totalitarian posture" (Unger, 1969, 2). The regime of…
Beichman, Arnold. "Pulitzer-Winning Lies." The Daily Standard. 2003. http://www.theweeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/002/791vwuaz.asp
Bernard, Henri. Le communisme et l'aveuglement occidental (Soumagne, Belgium: editions Andre Grisard, 1982)
Boris Bajanov, Avec Staline dans le Kremlin. Paris: Les editions de France, 1930, pp. 2 -- 3.
Connor, Walter D. "The Manufacture of Deviance: The Case of the Soviet Purge, 1936-1938." American Sociological Review, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1972, pp. 403-413.
Japanese political history from the Meiji Restoration to Following the ousting of the Tokugawa shogun, the emperor embarked on his role as the "enlightened ruler" of Japan. From this point, known as the "Meiji Restoration," Japan began a transformation from an agriculturally based, feudalistic society to a nation that, by the 1912 death of the emperor, had a centralized government, developed infrastructure, well-educated general population, fast growing industrial sector, as well as a very powerful military.
Of course, one of the most striking developments of the period was Japan's "shaking off" of foreign influence in its trade and legal affairs, leading it to a full and independent standing in the world community. Arguably this transformation was only possible due to the nation's ability to transform itself from a fragmented nation, ruled by class distinction and feudalistic division, to a unified state -- represented by one national army and economic authority…
Theen, Rolf. Wilson, Frank. "Comparative Politics: An Introduction to Seven Countries." Fourth edition, Prentice Hall. 2000
7 per cent. In general, GDP growth has ranged 6-7 per annum for the last 4 years. Such growth is likely to continue" (Presidency of Mongolia, 2007).
At the same time however, there are still several aspects of the issue which are not fully developed, such as the corruption issue which is a traditional aspect for a former communist state. Nonetheless, there are tendencies which point out the fact that the country is heading in the right direction.
Concerning China, the matter is more delicate. The fact is that there is little consideration for the way in which the political evolution of the country is concern; therefore, the economic situation can develop according to the general lines of the party. Indeed, China entered the road of modernization in terms of the new technologies, as it is one of the most advanced technology-based economies in the world. yet the manufacturing facilities…
Echeverria, Bolivar. "Modernity and capitalism." Revista Theomai. N.d. http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/redalyc/pdf/124/12401105.pdf
Hu, Weixing. "China's security agenda after the cold war." The Pacific Review, Volume 8, Issue 1, 1995, pages 117-135.
Presidency of Mongolia. Consolidating economic growth. 2007. http://www.president.mn/show_module.php?index=intvw&intvwid=32
Teo, C. 2006. "Ho Jintao's consolidation of power." Opinion Asia. http://www.opinionasia.org/HuJintaoConsolidationOfPower
In my judgment, the statutory provisions on which these prosecutions are based, abridge freedom of speech, press and assembly in violation of the 1st Amendment" ("Black, J, Concurring in Part").
Hence, the Yates decision was a precursor of the things to come. In 1964, the Court declared in the New York Times v. Sullivan that public officials could not recover civil damages for libel unless they prove the libel was committed intentionally or with malice and held that making seditious libel a crime conflicted with the central meaning of the First Amendment ("Fighting ords"). In New York Times v. United States (1971) the Court prevented the federal government from exercising "prior restraint" to stop a newspaper from printing information about the Vietnam ar that it wanted to withhold from the public. In Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969) it ruled that advocacy of violence or revolution may be prohibited only if it…
Adoption and Common Law Background." Find Law for Professionals: Freedom of Expression -- Speech and Press. 2008. April 17, 2008. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data/constitution/amendment01/06.html#1
Black, J, Concurring in Part: Supreme Court of the United States -- Yates v United States." Cornell University Law School. 1957. April 17, 2008. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0354_0298_ZX.html
Fighting words." Indiana University Newsroom. November 17, 2004. April 17, 2008. http://newsinfo.iu.edu/news/page/normal/1725.html
Opinion of the Court: Supreme Court of the United States -- Yates v United States." Cornell University Law School. 1957. April 17, 2008. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0354_0298_ZO.html
Kabul is a cosmopolitan center and demonstrates a willingness to modernize but outside Kabul old traditions remain strong and there is little interest in these rural areas for any change.
III. Social Factors
The rural nature of Afghan society cannot be over-emphasized. The population of the country is estimated at 24 million but it is highly fragmented into a variety of ethnic groups that are further broken down into tribal groups. This tribal fragmentation has been encouraged by the countries bordering Afghanistan that have, in order to promote their own political agendas, disturbed any efforts by the Afghan central government from uniting these tribes. hat has developed is a system of ethnically-based rivalries supported by localized Islamic religious sects.
Tribal traditions inside Afghanistan tend to be more powerful than either Islamic theology or political philosophy and these traditions can be harsh toward women (Rohde). Gender roles under tribal traditions are…
Bickers, Robert. The Scramble for China: Foreign Devils in the Qing Empire, 1832-1914. New York: Penguin Global, 2011.
Cleary, Thomas. The Essential Confucius: The Heart of Confucius' Teachings in Authentic I Ching Order. New York: Book Sales, 2000.
Countries and Their Cultures. Afghanistan. 2011. 4 May 2011 .
Ellis, Deborah. Women of the Afghan War. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2000.
Josip Broz (Marshal) Tito
Originally named Josip Broz, Josip Broz Tito was a revolutionary and statesman who was born on May 7, 1892 in Austria-Hungary in what is currently Croatia and died almost 88 years later to the day on May 4, 1980 in Yugoslavia, or what is currently Slovenia (Josip Broz Tito, 2015). During the period from 1939 to 1980, Tito was alternately the secretary-general and then president the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. From 1941 to 1945, he was the supreme commander of Yugoslav partisans and then the Yugoslav People's Army from 1945 to 1953 (Josip Broz Tito, 2015). He assumed the title marshal during the period 1943 to 1980, then premier from 1945 to 1953 and then president of Yugoslavia from 1953 to 1980 (Josip Broz Tito, 2015). Tito was the chief architect of the "second Yugoslavia," a socialist federation that lasted from World War II until…
Granville, J. (1998, Spring). Tito and the Nagy affair in 1956. East European Quarterly, 32(1),
23-31 [journal article].
Josip Broz Tito. (2015). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/
The Price-Sensitive Affluents, Wal-Mart has learned (Wal-Mart Annual eports) is more interested in finding an exceptionally good deal and not necessarily concerned about the shopping experience. This is particularly true as one of the strongest factors influencing the execution of their strategy, the emerging global recession during this timeframe, takes hold. Again as with the Price Value Shopper and the paradoxical purchasing patterns of the Brand Aspirational segment show, the cost savings, accuracy, and quality of products delivered with the Wal-Mart supply chain are much more important in the long run relative to store accoutrements and improvements. Admittedly nearly two dozen superstores are very dated in their decor and layout and do need to be re-vamped (Frazier, 38). Yet as this analysis of the customer segments shows based on Wal-Marts' filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission over time (Wal-Mart Annual eports), the far greater contributing factor to growing same-store…
Richard Appelbaum, Nelson Lichtenstein. "A New World of Retail Supremacy: Supply Chains and Workers' Chains in the Age of Wal-Mart. " International Labor and Working Class History 70.1 (2006): 106-125.
Tom Belden. . "Big-Box Retailers Target, Wal-Mart Strike Early, Deftly in Toy Price War. " Knight Ridder Tribune Business News 10 December 2003 1.
Dave Blanchard. "RFID is off and running at Wal-Mart. " Logistics Today 1
Cherie Blanchard, Clare L. Comm, Dennis F.X. Mathaisel. "Adding value to service providers: benchmarking Wal-Mart. " Benchmarking 15.2 (2008): 166-177.
It is necessary to control the workers and make them dependent on the government. The policy also makes it possible for the government to direct all its resources on a single project -- typically the major "goal" of a regime such as war.
Complete government control on weapons, although not an exclusive characteristic of totalitarian governments precludes the chances of successful uprisings.
Case Studies: Specific Examples of Totalitarian egimes
The Soviet Communist regime under Joseph Stalin, the fascist regime under Mussolini in Italy and Nazi regime led by Adolf Hitler are typical examples of totalitarian regimes.
Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin: As observed earlier, it is debatable whether Karl Marx had clearly envisaged the formation of totalitarian governments by the application of his Communist theory. However, the first country to adopt Communism, i.e., the Soviet Union soon degenerated into the worst type of totalitarian government imaginable under Joseph Stalin who…
Arendt, Hannah. (1966). The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=23477515
Blum, G.P. (1998). The Rise of Fascism in Europe (R. M. Miller, Ed.). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Characteristics of Totalitarianism." (n.d.) From: Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy, by Carl Friedrick and Zbigniew Brzezinski. Retrieved on November 5, 2004 at http://plato.newarka.edu/~labbey/ap_total_charac.html
Kreis, Steven. (2004) "The Age of Totalitarianism: Stalin and Hitler." Lectures on Twentieth Century Europe: The History Guide. Retrieved on November 5, 2004 at http://www.historyguide.org/europe/lecture10.html
On the other hand, hittaker Chambers was "a contributing editor of Time (...) from 1925 to April 1938, (he) had been a Communist, a writer of radical literature, an editor of the Communist Daily orker. He had also been what was then vaguely known as a Communist courier."
The major starting point of the case was Chambers' disappointment with the communist doctrine and the dual attitude Stalin had when signing the 1939 pact with the Nazi leadership. Therefore, according to Time Magazine, he "abandoned the party in revulsion and despair, and became a determined enemy of Communism." Consequently, outraged by the dramatic turn that the soviet politics had taken, he began expressing his views on the collaborators of the soviet regime in the U.S. It is in this way that Chambers contacted Berle, who, after the discussion he had with the former communist partisan, wrote in his notes from September…
Abrahamsen, David. Nixon vs. Nixon: An Emotional Tragedy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1976
Adolf Berle's Notes on his Meeting with Whittaker Chambers. Responses, reflections, and occasional papers. Avaliable on Internet, http://www.johnearlhaynes.org/page100.html#_ftnref3 . Accessed 15 October 2006
Crowell, William P. Remembrances of Venona. Available from Internet, http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/text/coldwar/venona-crowell.html. Accessed 15 October 2006
Excerpts from Grand Jury Hearings Relating to the Alger Hiss Case December, 1948. Available from Internet, http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/hiss/hissgrandjury.html. Accessed 15 October 2006.
McCarthy and the Cold War
One aspect of history is that a country's so-called "friend" one day, can be an enemy the next and visa versa. The United States and Soviet Union during World War II joined ranks against the real threat of Nazi Germany. However, it did not take long after the end of the war for ussia and the United States to once again bully each other. Even before the final surrender of Germany in 1945, the two super powers rapidly found themselves in a new military and diplomatic rivalry. Meanwhile, in the United States, the economy was taking time to build and unemployment was growing. Thoughts of the Depression loomed in people's minds. The friction with the ussians, which would receive the name of Cold War, did not help. Yet it did create a scapegoat for fears and feelings of paranoia. As the tensions between the U.S.…
Barson, M. Red Scared (2001). San Francisco: Chronicle.
Bennett, D. (1988). Party of Fear. New York: Random House.
Halberstam, D. (1993). The Fifties. New York: Villard.
Lewis, P. The Fifties (1978) New York:. J.B. Lippincott, 1978.
Targets were set by the government on the manufacturing and agricultural sector. Their approach however is heavily labor intensive, with little use of technology, the cost of production increased and wastages abound because human intervention was quite prevalent in the production process. The economy's rise is somewhat slow given the use of little technology as Mao relied too much on manual labor to drive industries and the agricultural sector.
In Mao's term there were debates between members of the Communist Party. The conflicting parties include a group considered as technically sound in administrative and scientific skills and a group who has the ability to mobilize society along ideological lines. Mao is torn between which group should lead the party. The power struggle between these two groups eventually took its toll in government policies.
It was within this context that Mao's Cultural evolution went into full swing. The Cultural evolution was…
MacFarquhar, R. (2006) Mao's Last Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Sodaro, M. (2001) Comparative Politics: A Global Introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Tieves, F. (1997) "Establishment and Consolidation of the New Regime" in the Politics of China, 2nd edition, edited by Rhoderick MacFarquhar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hagopian, M. (1995) Ideals and Ideologies of Modern Politics. London: Longman.
The organization emphasized strong ties among third world countries and neutrality in relations with the U.S. And the Soviet Union. ("Josip Broz Tito," n.d.) Domestically, Tito introduced a system of decentralized economy, which encouraged workers' self-management. He tackled the strong nationalistic fissures in the country by creating a system of "symmetrical federalism" that ensured 'equality' among the six Yugoslav republics and the two autonomous provinces.
In the end, it is difficult to speculate how different the world would have been if the man called Tito had never lived. It is true that his country of disparate nationalities, which Tito had held together with sheer will and the force of his personality for 35 years, unraveled quickly after his death. But to hold him responsible for the break-up of his beloved country and the tragic events which occurred during the ethnic strife in the Balkans would be doing injustice to the…
Josip Broz Tito." (n.d.) CNN.com: Interactive. Retrieved on April 8, 2007 at http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/tito/
MacLean, F. (1957). The Heretic: The Life and Times of Josip Broz-Tito (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers.
Markham, R.H. (1947). Tito's Imperial Communism. Chapel Hill, NC: Univ. Of North Carolina Press.
Rezun, M. (1995). Europe and War in the Balkans: Toward a New Yugoslav Identity. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Bloody Aftermath of evolution: Did it Have to Happen?
evolutions have a tendency to gain a terrible momentum. The level of both organization an anger that is required to overturn an established government (especially one that is either of long standing or autocratic nature or both) can continue to build in intensity and force even after the previous government has fallen, thus making the revolution a success. The result of such revolutionary force tends to run in at least two directions and often both at once. The revolution may turn inward, destroying (and usually executing) its original leaders. And it may turn outward, destroying the nation that it sought to rescue. The most revolutionary governments are likely to do both.
This paper analyzes the purges of the Khmer ouge that followed its revolutionary takeover of the government of Cambodia, assessing whether such purges were necessary to maintain the…
Kiernan, B. (2004). How Pol Pot Came to Power: Colonialism, Nationalism, and Communism in Cambodia, 1930 -- 1975 (2nd Ed.) New Haven: Yale University Press.
The fall of the Khmer Rouge, http://www.edwebproject.org/sideshow/khmeryears/fall.html
Khmer Rouge, http://www.enotes.com/genocide-encyclopedia/khmer-rouge
Rinaldo, R. (1997). Revisiting the Killing Fields: The Khmer Rouge and Globalization. http://www.mekong.net/cambodia/revisit.htm
They did not like the reforms or the way Gorbachev was running the country allowing all the freedoms -- glasnost and perestroika. They presented him with documents signing away his powers as General Secretary. Gorbachev exploded and ordered them to leave. They did, but Gorbachev knew he was in a grave situation, cut off from the world, not telephones, and guarded.
However, the "old guard" had made one huge mistake. They had failed to take into account or arrest the second most powerful man in the country, a man by the name of oris Yeltsin. He had just been elected as the first President of Russia, and he and Gorbachev were bitter rivals to control the entire USSR. However, not today. y Yeltsin's choice, he joined with Gorbachev in spirit and ideology, rushed to the Russian parliament and declared the supposed coup the act of mad men and threw…
Au, K.-N. (2006, May 9). The causes and consequences of the collapse of the Soviet Union. Retrieved November 19, 2009, from Rutgers University: http://newarkwww.rutgers.edu/guides/glo-sov.html coldwar.org. (n.d.). The cold war museum: Fall of the Soviet Union. Retrieved November 19, 2009, from coldwar.org: http://www.coldwar.org/articles/90s/fall_of_the_soviet_union.asp
Gorbachev, M. (1991, December 25). Gorbachev speech dissolving the Soviet Union. Retrieved November 19, 2009, from publicpurpose.com: http://www.publicpurpose.com/lib-gorb911225.htm
Graham, J. (n.d.). The collapse of the Soviet Union. Retrieved November 19, 2009, from historyorb.com: http://www.historyorb.com/russia/intro.shtml
Langley, A. (2007). The collapse of the Soviet Union: The end of an empire. Mankato, MN: Compass Point Books.
At this precise time, a young communist named Mao Zedong popularized the idea of land reforms and focused his attention on the issue of poverty among peasant class. He convinced his fellow communists that the only solution to all problems lied in strengthening the agricultural sector by introducing land reforms. He worked ceaselessly for the peasants but his party was driven to remote corners of North China during the Long March. This action, taken by Chiang government, was a clear indication of the paranoia and insecurity that were building in nationalist forces (Peoples: Rise). Mao continued to fight government's oppressive rule even while in exile and this lasted till 1937 at which point, Japan invaded China and the nationalist-communist conflict came to an end.
In 1920s, Malraux was present in China and observed the political dynamics of the country. The oppression and communist popularity affected his deeply and 1927 revolution…
Stoley, Richard B. Events That Shaped the Century. Time-Life Books. New York. 2000.
John Cruickshank. The Novelist as Philosopher: Studies in French Fiction, 1935-1960: Oxford University Press. London. 1962.
Dye, Michel. Andre Malraux and the temptation of the Orient in 'La Condition humaine'. (French writer) Journal of European Studies; 3/1/1999
Polish Companies Reacted to Ethical Issues and Changes in usiness Standards Since the Fall of Communism in 1989?
Poland's Economy Pre-Communism's Fall
Poland's Natural Resources
Minerals and Fuels
The Polish Economy Under Communism
The Centrally-Planned Economy
Establishing the Planning Formula
Retrenchment and Adjustment in the 1960s
Reliance on Technology in the 1970s
Reform Failure in the 1980s
Poland's Economy After the Fall of Communism
Poland After the Fall of Communism
Fall of Communism
Marketization and Stabilization
Required Short-Term Changes
Section 2.3.2. The Shock Strategy
Section 2.3.3. Initial Results
Section 2.3.4. Long-Term Requirements
Section 2.4. Macroeconomic Indicators for 1990-91
Section 2.4.1. Price Increases
Section 2.4.2. Impact on Productivity and Wages
Section 2.4.3. Statistical Distortions
Section 2.4.4. Agricultural Imbalances
Section 2.4.5. Causes of Decline
Section 2.5.The Polish Post-Communism Privatization Process
Section 2.6. Structure of Poland's Economy: Post-Communism
Section 2.6.1. Fuels and Energy
Bowie E. (1999) Business Ethics a Kantian Perspective Oxford: Blackwell
Ciszewska B. (1998) Unethical behaviour Warszawa: Rzeczpospolita
Cryssides G.D.; Kaler J.H. (1999) Introduction to the ethics of business. Warszawa: PWN
Davies W.F. (1997) Current issues in business ethics London: Routledge
During his first few months in Paris, Marx became a communist and put forth his views in a plethora of writings known as the Economic and philosophical Manuscripts, that remained unpublished until the 1930s. It was also in Paris that Marx developed his life long association with Friedrich Engels. (Karl Marx, 1818-1883)
At the end of 1844 Marx was debarred from Paris and with Engels migrated to Brussels. In the initiation of 1848, Marx moved back to Paris when a revolution first emerged and onto Germany where he instituted again in Cologne, the Neue heinishce Zeitung. In later periods Marx settled in London, and was optimistic about the imminence of a new revolutionary emergence in Europe. He re-entered the Communist League and wrote two prolonged pamphlets on the 1848 revolution in France and its repercussions, the Class Struggles in France and the 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. He had a…
Adams, John. Ideology. Retrieved at http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/westn/Ideology.html. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Biography: Mao Zedong. Retrieved at http://il.essortment.com/maozedongbiogr_rkok.htm. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Bunton, Hedley P. Forty Years of China: Chapter 11 - the thoughts and acts of Mao Tse-tung. 1988. Retrieved at http://www.acay.com.au/~bunton/china40y/chap11.html. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Karl Marx, 1818-1883. Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History. Retrieved at http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/marx.html . Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Rice Sprout Song
In a foreword given by David ang, he explains the important background for this story, written as an anti-communist story set in the 1950s, just after the Land Reform Movement has taken place in rural China. The Land Reform was meant to liberate local peasant by redistributing land, "giving" each farmer his or her own plot to own. However, what was meant as a way for farmers to produce more in an area that had always been prolific, another threat of famine is on the horizon but no one, not even Communist Party members, are allowed to speak about the "deepening misery" the peasants must face.
hat was interesting to me as I read through the story, is that on the surface the novel should be about celebration. There is, after all, a wedding and the impending New Years celebrations which is taken just as seriously, if…
Change, Eileen. The Rice Sprout Song. 3rd. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1998. 1-182. Print.
After World War I, the German nation and its people were devastated. The public was led to believe that Germany was going to win the war, and it looked forward to a much- improved socio-economic climate. Instead, the war was lost and the country was facing a very dreary future. As a result, the government established the Weimar epublic under the leadership of Friedrich Ebert, a past leader of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and a supporter of the war efforts. Some historians believe it was fate that Weimar Germany did not succeed. From the beginning the challenges were too great, the situation too grim and the individuals involved too unprepared. As a result, Weimar Germany had a short and bumpy ride that combined the best with the worst: Culturally, it remains one of Germany's most creative periods of time in art, literature and thought. Politically and economically,…
Delmar, Sefton. Weimar Germany. New York: American Heritage, 1972.
Gay, Peter. Weimar Culture. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.
Kracauer, Siegfried. From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film. Princeton: Princeton Press, 1947.
Library of Congress. Library of Congress. "Country Studies, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cshome.htm . Updated 6 February 2004. Visited 11 March 2004.
Perceptions of Che Guevera
PERCEPTIONS OF CHE GUEVARA
Che Guevara was born as Ernesto Guevara de la Serna in 1928 to a middle-class family (Castaneda 1998, 3). He was Argentinean by birth but was later awarded with an honorary Cuban citizenship in recognition of his contribution towards the armed struggle in the Cuban revolution. Studying to become a doctor, Guevara became influenced by Marxist ideals and teachings upon a motorbike trip across South America at the age of twenty-four where he observed the exploitation and deprivation of the poor people under capitalism (Castaneda 1998, 50). He became a champion of the class struggle against capitalism on an international level. He joined Fidel Castro in 1955 in overthrowing the Cuban government of atista. Subsequently, he became an important figure in Cuban diplomacy and a vocal critic of the United States and the Soviet Union. Later on he helped revolutionary groups…
Anderson, Jon, L. 2010. Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. Grove Press
Castaneda, Jorge, G. 2008. Companero: The Life and Death of Che Guevara. Bloomsbury Publishing
Harris, Richard, L. 2010. Che Guevara: A Biography. ABC-CLIO
Salmon, Gary, P. 1990. The Defeat of Che Guevara: Military Response to Guerrilla Challenge in Bolivia. Greenwood Publishing Group
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
One contextual tool that has been widely manipulated in international events by both sides is language translations and mistranslations. Due to the language barrier between the Chinese and American people, the audience on each side can only hear the other party's voice through media's translations, which by no means, may be immune to contextual framing.
Given the sensitive time, sensitive location and sensitive nature of this collision, both parties would have adopted all kinds of contextual framing techniques to occupy the moral high ground, and accuse the other side of wrongdoing. Since the foreign policy report in China is strictly controlled by the Communist Party, the news event portrayed by the Chinese media would be more homogenous and one-sided.
H2a: By adopting similar contextual framing techniques, both mainstream newspapers tend to depict their own side as morally superior, whereas the other party as the wrongdoer. As to the degree of…
China-Us Relations. (2001). International Journal on World Peace, 18(1), 99.
Eckholm, E. (April 27, 2001). Beijing Journal; A Pilot Is Lost, and a Communist Titan Is Found. New York Times, A2.
Harland, B. (2001), The Hainan Incident. New Zealand International Review, 26(4), 27.
Paez, D., Pennebaker, J.W. & Rime, B. (eds.). (1997). Collective memory of political events: Social psychological perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.