Companies Essays (Examples)

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Company Critical Elements

Words: 1783 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88732858

Company Critical Elements

Business Continuity is a vibrant industry dedicated to identifying, prioritizing and safeguarding critical business functions. From small businesses such as neighborhood bakeries to business titans such as Microsoft, each entity that can name, rate and guarantee the continued functionality of its required systems can survive in crisis. As the following analysis shows, the critical processes of all modern businesses fall into common basic categories that are vital to survival.

The Bakery

A bakery has several critical functions, some common to all businesses and some unique. "Agility Recovery" generally identifies "business critical functions" as those that: "(1) are most sensitive to downtime; (2) fulfill legal or financial obligations to maintain cash flow; (3) play a key role in maintaining your business' market share and reputation; (4) safeguard an irreplaceable asset" (Agility Recovery, 2010, p. 1). Simplifying the process somewhat for small businesses, CSO defines critical areas as those…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Agility Recovery. (2010). Prepare My Business: Critical Business Functions. Retrieved from Agility Recovery Web site: http://www2.agilityrecovery.com/assets/SBA/criticalbusfuncsba.pdf

Anderson, J. (2011). Planning Strategy for Business Continuity | Small Business. Retrieved from Small Business Demand Media Web site:  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/planning-strategy-business-continuity-5157.html 

Okolita, K. (2009, December 2). How to Perform a Disaster Recovery Business Impact Analysis. Retrieved from CSO Security and Risk Web site: http://www.csoonline.com/article/509539/how-to-perform-a-disaster-recovery-business-impact-analysis?page=1

Smith, C. (2011). Business Continuity Planning Guidelines | Small Business - Chron.com. Retrieved from Small Business Demand Media Web site:  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/business-continuity-planning-guidelines-2552.html
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Company Law Once a Public Company Is

Words: 1537 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71797721

Company Law

once a public company is incorporated all duties of the promoter and potential liabilities end, including any regarding a pre-registration contract as per s 131 Corporations Act 2001. Discuss the truth of this statement

It is essential to define the term in discussion and its relation to the subject at hand. Who is this promoter? The promoter is not fixed into a definition within the Corporations Act nor within the confines of common law. However, the court recognizes the promoter as a term used in business. Therefore, the term promoter has a vast meaning that enables it to allow flexibility for persons within the scope of law on promoters. Promoters are the persons actively involved in the process of founding a company (Symon, 2006 p 19). The typical duties of the promoter include the ability to negotiate preliminary agreements and construction of the constitution for the company. They…… [Read More]

References

Australia. (2013). Australian corporations & securities legislation 2013. Volume 2. Volume 2.

North Ryde, N.S.W., CCH Australia.

Australia. (2009). Australian corporations & securities legislation 2009. North Ryde, N.S.W.,

CCH Australia.
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Company Issues and Leadership for

Words: 2455 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50854108



Short-term wins creation

In this case, the insistence is on the enhancement of credibility for change through demonstrating gains made. In the case of News Corp, those who excel in change related initiatives could be rewarded and recognized going forward.

Building on Change/Consolidation of Gains

Here, quick wins should be taken as a beginning and not as an end. Hence in a way, victory must not be declared before the whole change process is over. When it comes to News Corp, efforts could be undertaken to ensure that each success or failure is taken as an opportunity to learn.

Institutionalization of New Approaches

Lastly, change should and must be made to stick. Hence effectively, change should be made part and parcel of the organization by anchoring the same on the corporate culture. In regard to News Corp, to embed change on the culture of the organization, efforts may be undertaken…… [Read More]

References

Hiatt, J. & Creasey, T.J. (2003). Change Management: The People Side of Change. Prosci.

Mills, H., Dye, K. Mills, A.J. (2008). Understanding Organizational Change. Taylor and Francis.

Pulley, B. (2011, May 5). News Corp. Profit Drops 24% as Film Sales Fail to Measure UP to 'Avatar'. Retrieved October 20th, 2011, from Bloomberg website: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-05-04/news-corp-s-third-quarter-earnings-decline-24-on-falling-movie-revenue.html

Shapiro, A. (2010). Creating Contagious Commitment: Applying the Tipping Point to Organizational Change, (2nd Edition). Andrea Shapiro.
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Company's Compensation and Benefit Package a Number

Words: 893 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61458841

Company's Compensation And Benefit Package

A number of factors determine how a company compensates its employees. These factors may include economics, psychology and even sociology. To an economist compensation is viewed as a labor market determinant (Filer, Hammermesh, & ees, 1996). As a human resource manager for Vanguard Industries I have been entrusted with the responsibility of explaining to the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) that guided my development of the company's compensation and benefit plan. I will specify economic factors I considered while coming up with the company's compensation and benefit packages, the manner in which they do so and the relative and absolute importance of each. Before coming up with a compensation and benefit scheme, it is imperative that matters pertaining employees' skill level, age, gender and minority and majority status are factored as they affect an individual's reward preferences and their view on what they contribute to an…… [Read More]

References List

Filer, R., Hammermesh, D., & Rees, A. (1996). The Economics of Work and Pay 6th ED., New

York: Harper Collins.

Landes, W.M. (1968). The Economics of Fair Employment Laws. Journal of Political

Economy, 76: 507-52.
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Company Expanding and Restructuring Many Organizations Nowadays

Words: 1152 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98781863

Company Expanding and estructuring

Many organizations nowadays are undergoing revolutionary and unprecedented change (obbins & Judge, 2007). With this in mind, it is always advisable for the leaders in the company to change their leadership style (Mintzberg, Lampel, Quinn, & Ghoshal, 2003). This is because the old style may not be flexible with the current form of the company.

According to Yuki (2006), leadership refers to the process of influencing other peoples in order to understand and agree about what the requirement to be done as well as how to do it. In addition, it involves the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts for the purpose of accomplishing shared objectives. Leadership as a process influences the followers either positively or negatively depending on the leader (Yuki, 2006). Leadership involves influencing others (obbins & Judge, 2007). A leader must have the ability to influence his or her subordinates, peers or…… [Read More]

References

Mintzberg, H, Lampel J, Quinn, J, Ghoshal (2003). The Strategy Process: Concepts, contexts, cases. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Robbins, S.P., & Judge, T. (2007). Organzational behavior, (14th ed). Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.

Yuki, G (2006), Leadership in Organizations (7th ed) Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall
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Company Mission Vision Stakeholders Strategic Management Starts

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9715286

Company Mission, Vision, Stakeholders Strategic management starts vision mission. It consists analysis, decisions, actions organization undertakes order create sustain competitive advantages. For project, pick a company ( Harley Davidson), preferably, modules, work understand strategy .

Ducati -- passion leading from bankruptcy to success

Ducati is a name that most motorcycling enthusiasts are likely to associate with passion and brute force. The Italian bike manufacturer is known for making motorcycles designed for a particular type of people and the motorcycles it produces induce intense feelings in individuals riding them. Regardless if they are moving or if they stand still, Ducatis always manage to make heads turn and have succeeded in remaining an important player in a global market involving companies that are much larger than the Italian enterprise. This is also shown by the fact that Ducati has experienced a series of victories in the MotoGP and the Superbike orld Champions…… [Read More]

Works cited:

McIerney, Claire Regina, and Day, Ronald E., "Rethinking Knowledge Management: From Knowledge Artifacts to Knowledge Processes," (Springer, 01.01.2007)

Wit, Bob, and Meyer, Ron, "Strategy: Process, Content, Context, An International Perspective," (Cengage Learning EMEA, 2010)
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Company Treasurer Option Strategies Developed Due Future

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28422807

Company treasurer option strategies developed due future foreign currency transactions occur contract Italian high-tech firm finalized. The treasurer construct a memo hedging strategies including a bull spread, a butterfly spread, and a ratio spread.

Memo: Options spreads

The treasurer

egarding the recently-negotiated contract with Company X, one of the most important issues to consider is how to mitigate our risk as a company. Given that Company X is based in Italy, the economic instability of the European Community (particularly its Southern European countries) and the Euro is of paramount concern. A bull spread would likely be unsuitable given that it is "used by option traders who believe that the price of the underlying security will remain stable in the near-term but will eventually rise in the long-term" (Bull spread, 2013, The Options Guide). Neither of these are likely scenarios to be characteristic of the firm given that it is located…… [Read More]

References

Bull spread. (2013). The Options Guide. Retrieved:

 http://www.theoptionsguide.com/bull-spreads.aspx 

Butterfly spread. (2013). The Options Guide. Retrieved:

 http://www.theoptionsguide.com/butterfly-spread.aspx
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Company X Code of Ethics

Words: 2430 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60239667

Company X has faith in its employees to utilize their own ethical judgment in conjunction with the rules and standards set forth by the company in order to assure that actions within the company are performed at an optimal level across the board.

Implementation and Communication

In order to assure that a code of ethics is implemented to the best of its ability into a company, gradual implementation must be used along with clear communication as to each step of the process in order to assure that the code of ethics is fully understood and used within the company by its employees.

In order to begin implementation, a checklist regarding steps needed to begin code adherence could prove helpful in providing a smooth transition into code use. In the early stages of implementation, it is crucial that as many people as possible -- employees included -- are involved in both…… [Read More]

References

Emerson, T., McKinney, J. And Neubert, M. (2010). "The effects of ethical codes on ethical perceptions of actions toward stakeholders." Journal of Business Ethics. 97:1. p. 505-516. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.

Gaumnitz, B. And Lere, J. (2007). "Codes of ethics with impact." The CPA Journal. 15:1.

p. 106. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.

Godkin, L. And Valentine, S. (2009). "Ethics, social responsibility, and ethical reasoning in an education-based center: when doing good results in good employees." Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics. 7:3. p. 1-18. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
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Company Finance Domino's UK &

Words: 2621 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87577437

ith Domino's UK, the company has in its annual report and in its press releases outlined its future expansion plans. There are figures readily available with respect to trends in its same store growth and with respect to its dividend policy. All of these factors should, in theory at least, be included in the current share price. The first step in valuing the company will be to ensure that this is the case.

Given that the price of the company today is expected to be the fair value of the company's future earnings, an acquiring firm would need to consider in its valuation the worth of Domino's as part of its operations. Thus, a bid would need to be done on the belief that its acquisition of Domino's would make Domino's more valuable than it already is. This is the concept of synergy, defined as "the specific increases in performance…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Damodaran, a. (2005). The value of synergy. Stern School of Business working paper. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=841486

Domino's Pizza Annual Report and Accounts 2009. In possession of the author.

Domino's press release. (2009). Domino's launches 'store on wheels' to deliver pizza at top UK events. Domino's UK & IRL plc. Retrieved April 29, 2010 from  http://www.dominos.uk.com/media_centre/pdf/Mobile%20unit%20090609.pdf 

Domino's UK & Ireland Investor Relations. (2010). Financial Performance. Domino's UK & Ireland Investor Relations. Retrieved April 29, 2010 from  http://ww7.investorrelations.co.uk/dominos/financial/index.jsp
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Company Q's Attitude Toward Social

Words: 1279 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80285613

They will also be demonstrating a clear understanding of the broad role that they play in the wider society which will build trust with the community at large. In order to ensure that employees do not partake in fraud activities with the food that would be donated to the food bank, Company Q. should pay their staff fairly, providing a good work environment and encourage open communication channels so as to ensure the company's overall well being and prosperity. By doing this, the company will win the staff's trust and also increase their innovativeness and efficiency (Werther & Chandler, 2006).

Company Q. has to change its attitude towards its social responsibility as it will benefit its investors. As a business, Company Q. has a responsibility to manage its assets effectively so as to provide its investors with a fair and competitive return, to disclose relevant information and to respect the…… [Read More]

References

Arthus-Bertrand, Y. (n.d.) Organic and Fair Capitalism-It is Possible. Retrieved August 24,

2010, from http://www.goodplanet.info/eng/Economy/Corporate-responsibility/Corporate-Social-Responsibility/(theme)/284

Hardcastle, J. (2006). Two Views of Social Responsibility. Retrieved August 24, 2010, from http://www.streetdirectory.com/travel_guide/17784/corporate_matters/two_views_of_social_responsibility.html

Kotler, P. & Lee, N. (2005). Corporate social responsibility: doing the most good for your company and your cause. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
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Company XX Fitness Located in Atlanta GA

Words: 546 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99117299

company XX FITNESS LOCATED IN ATLANTA GA *What company's mission? *What vision? Does ? *What values operating principles? *Are company's mission/vision/values published? *How discussed daily

The company I will be dealing with is XX Fitness, located in Atlanta, Georgia. The company's mission is to provide affordable fitness services. The company's vision is to continuously increase its outreach and increase the number of individuals on which the services that the company provides make an impact.

There are several values that the company shares. First, it aims to provide affordable services. The belief that the company has is that fitness should be a given right that people should be able to enjoy, no matter what their social condition or their place in the world. In the management's perception, allowing lower prices would mean that a larger targeted group of potential consumers can be reached. It would also mean that the company's revenues…… [Read More]

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Company Law Brief Synopsis of the Situation

Words: 1733 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72959712

Company Law

Brief synopsis of the situation

Jane is the Marketing Manager of Prints Pty Limited. She has recently made some purchases on company account including leasing a new car, a photocopier, a reconditioned printing press and photo copy paper supply. While all the other purchases were made by Jane on her own discretion, the printing press was co-signed by John, part owner of Prints Pty limited.

John tells Jane that while he would reluctantly accept the purchase of photocopier and paper, Jane will have to pay for her own car. Upon hearing this, Jane resigns immediately leaving Mark with the decision to look into the purchase of the printing press. The company wants to cancel this purchase as John had no authority to purchase anything on company account. Mark is now wondering if he is liable for any of these purchases.

Company policies:

The company constitution clearly indicates that…… [Read More]

Reference

Kaufman, Steve. (1992) See you out of court. Nation's Business
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Company Strategy Whole Foods on the Surface

Words: 823 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33275950

Company Strategy: Whole Foods

On the surface, Whole Foods has a unique, almost counterintuitive philosophy. ather than stressing value and volume in terms of food sales, it instead offers more expensive organic and specialty goods. However, its niche marketing strategy has proven to be extremely lucrative. Whole Foods is an interesting case study as a company in the manner in which it has simultaneously capitalized upon popular trends in food without trying to be 'all things to all people.' In 2013, the company had same-store sales growth of 7.5%. It has rapidly expanded: "the company's growth strategy is to seek new locations for its stores in highly populated, often urban, areas. Each store averages around 38,000 square feet, and about 30% of the company's stores were acquired, meaning that they were other health-food stores that were bought out and re-branded as Whole Foods" (Frankel 2013).

Whole Foods' vision and mission…… [Read More]

References

Brown, Joshua. (2013). What Whole Foods learned from the recession. The Reformed Broker.

Retrieved: http://www.thereformedbroker.com/2012/08/12/what-whole-foods-learned-from-the-recession/

Dennis, Brady. (2013). Whole Foods executive explains strategy behind labeling genetically modified foods. St. Louis Dispatch. Retrieved:

 http://www.stltoday.com/business/local/whole-foods-executive-explains-strategy-behind-labeling-genetically-modified-foods/article_7d2c6059-5159-5d63-b716-04ccf1b7b85a.html
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Company Analysis and Recommendation for

Words: 912 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24620340



Additionally, not only that it operates in the same direction, it also operates in such a manner that supports the Group in reaching their overall objectives. Sammon VG is in itself a testimony of the great levels of diversification in terms of all products and services offered, as well as working locations.

4. McKinsey 7-S Model

Shared value -- a combination of high skills, commitment to customer satisfaction and the usage of the latest technologies to support the development of social infrastructure

Strategy -- the simple strategy of ensuring customer satisfaction through the offering of high quality products and services; this quality is ensured by the staff members and intense focus is being placed on strong H strategies

Structure -- Sammon VG is one of the two territorial components of the Sammon Group: Sammon Contracting and Sammon Woodcraft operates in Ireland, United Kingdom, Europea and Africa, whereas Sammon VG operates…… [Read More]

References

Clark, M., 2009, Global Economic Crisis Hits Dubai, VOA News, http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2009-03/2009-03-05-voa28.cfm?CFID=289481300&CFTOKEN=72224326&jsessionid=003094f68e372b561d4c5f87a36642541467 last accessed on September 24, 2009

Long, D.E., Reich, B., 1980, the Government and Politics of the Middle East and North Africa, Westview Press

2009, McKinsey 7-S Model, Value-Based Management Net,  http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_7S.html  last accessed on September 24, 2009

2009, Website of Sammon Group,  http://www.sammongroup.ie  last accessed on September 24, 2009
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Company at Risk in the

Words: 2229 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70872664

This is the point that customers would go different locations and they received poor service. The lack of accountability is what contributed to the communication breakdown.

How could the crisis be avoided?

The way that this crisis could have been avoided, is by implementing a policy of improving employee training and communication. The way that this could have been conducted, was to teach everyone on the store level how to deal with irate customers and stay within company policies. This would have prevented these situations from spiraling out control, by satisfying their needs and admitting to possible mistakes that were made. Once this occurred, it would have meant that the image of the company would have improved.

Prepare to manage, recognize, contain, resolve and profit from the crisis

The best way to deal with these kinds of issues is that Wal Mart must completely revaluate these situations. The way that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Consumer Complaints. (2011). Consumer Affairs. Retrieved from: http://www.consumeraffairs.com/homeowners/walmart_lawn.html

Augustine, N. (2000). Harvard Business Review on Crisis Management. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Bianco, A. (2007). Wal Mart. New York, NY: Doubleday Press.

Marquard, W. (2007). Wal Smart. Chicago, Il: Marble Leadership.
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Company Problem Introduction Have Been

Words: 1152 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91585963

Almost all the main media groups now have an online edition of their communication content at no cost to Internet clients, making it complicated for companies to evidently be acquainted with some of their clients.

Tactical Information Management

To attain organizational objectives, corporations supervise their memo substance, covering and distribution. Deficient in a comprehensible perceptive of the target addressees causes information blueprint, covering and distribution complicated.

The previous modes of corporate interaction were one-tracked in character. Corporations had been typically the givers of information and their addressees had been the receivers. For the most part, corporations restricted and controlled means of communication. This gave corporations the prospect to arrange their memo in compliance with corporation's objectives. There was also prospect to create coherent memos across manifold media channels. Conversely, because of the disintegration, difficulty, time restriction and interaction of computer contact, businesses might be powerless to cautiously enclose their memo…… [Read More]

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Company Structure a Pivotal Decision

Words: 2068 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7728970

The partners are directly responsible financially for the obligations of the business. Therefore, in case of loss or debts, the owners suffer the risks and losses since they have liability for the business. In terms of complexity and flexibility, the partnerships remain appropriate for the partners. The issue of raising finance is shared between the partners; however, they cannot get loans for the business independently. Therefore, they are not suitable for the two partners who wish to set their business.

The third venture is a corporation, which is a separate entity from the persons that establish the business. Therefore, in financial terms, they are easy to raise capital as members contribute, and can borrow finance independently. Like the limited liability partnership, they are legally bound and hence the liability is limited. They eliminate the issue of personal liability. The tax returns are similar to those of partnerships and are taxed…… [Read More]

Reference

Graubner, M. (2006). Task, firm size, and organizational structure in management consulting an empirical analysis from a contingency perspective. Wiesbaden, Deutscher UniversitSts-Verlag.  http://site.ebrary.com/id/10231907 .

Spadaccini, M. (2007). Business structures. Irvine, CA, Entrepreneur Press.

Douglas, a. (2009). Partnership working. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, by Routledge.  http://site.ebrary.com/id/10258056 .

Grandori, a. (2006). Corporate governance and firm organization microfoundations and structural forms. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
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Company Economic Forecast

Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22640088

Company Economic Forecast: Panera Bread

Explain the business you are in. Explain your business and the different industries that would impact your operation.

One new eatery that is still in the process of expanding nation-wide as a franchise of note is that of Panera Bread. As an emerging business, it is an excellent business investment prospect, far from 'bottoming out' as older, more established coffee cup centered franchises such as Starbucks. Unlike Starbucks, Panera is also known for the quality of its sandwiches and pastries as well as for its coffees and other hot beverages. It is especially popular as a lunch and breakfast establishment for eating in or carrying out, rather than for after hours lingering. Its main clientele is often slightly older than Starbucks, that of office workers -- hence its proclamation, upon its website that one ought to impress the boss with an order from Panera. (Official…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Panera Bread. (2005) Official Website. Retrieved 1 Feb 2005 at http://www.panerabread.com/default.aspx
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Company Selection Techniques Through Nearly a Century

Words: 524 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53824921

Company Selection Techniques

Through nearly a century of academic research and clinical study, the field of industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology has attempted to quantify and classify the measures of relative worth which differentiate qualified prospective employees from those unsuitable for recruitment. In that time, a multitude of screening devices and testing techniques have been devised by I-O researchers, including psychological assessments, intelligence evaluation tests, and pre-employment interviews. While the field has invariably expanded to address other concerns, it has been consistently noted that "perhaps the greatest technological achievement in industrial and organizational (I -- O) psychology over the past 100 years is the development of decision aids (e.g., paper-and-pencil tests, structured interviews, mechanical combination of predictors) that substantially reduce error in the prediction of employee performance" (Highhouse, 2008).

The pursuit of perfection within the science of hiring employees began in 1913 when Hugo Munsterberg, a psychologist of German birth…… [Read More]

References

Highhouse, S. (2008). Stubborn reliance on intuition and subjectivity in employee selection. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1, 333-342. Retrieved from  http://blogg.hrsverige.nu/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Stubborn1.pdf 

Schultz, D.P., & Schultz, S.E. (2010). Psychology and work today: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology. (10th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.
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Company Financial Analysis the First

Words: 2072 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15827391



Investors, however, are likely to see through these changes. he company's turnaround is striking, but many of the changes are listed in the annual report, the depreciation change in particular. he listing of that change on the statements was undoubtedly mandated by law, but the other changes were buried a little bit more. However, the investment community can reasonably determine that increasing payables is a sign of the company remaining in a precarious position, as is the deferral of pension obligations.

3. he company's future prospects are reasonable. hey have a strong customer base and for the most part the restructuring effort was successful. he acquisition of new capital may have served a useful short-term purpose on the balance sheet, but it also allows Harnischfeger greater financial flexibility. he company's immediate future is no longer in doubt.

However, the picture the company paints of its future is not entirely accurate.…… [Read More]

The deterioration of operating cash flow is the other major red flag. The firm's dramatic profit turnaround and claims of operating improvements are not supported by improvements in operating cash flow. 1984 was much worse than 1983 and was even worse than 1982 in terms of cash flow from operations. This indicates that the firm's businesses are still facing tough times. Cash flow from operations would have been negative had the company not begun to stretch its payables in 1984. The company has indicated a long-term trend towards the margins being squeezed, in particular in the construction business. The good news with respect to construction is that the company has the deal with Kobe Steel, which may allow it to exit the construction business altogether by selling its operations to Kobe at a later date.

The company is also highly dependent on foreign sales. There is value in the diversification, but at this point their supposed operating turnaround is dependant on the highly volatile Turkish economy and the newly-opening Chinese economy. Neither of which provide the long-term stability the company needs and the operating results may fluctuated dramatically as a result of changes in the economies of those two nations. Moreover, the firm's ability to compete in these and other foreign markets is dependent on the relative strength of the U.S. dollar. The firm does not appear to have an answer for this, in terms of either an operating hedge or a financial hedge.

As a result, there is still considerable concern for the future of the company. Its financial position may have improved as a result of the debenture and equity issues but overall there remains considerable cause for concern, in particular with respect to operating performance. The specter that the firm's managers have made accounting policy changes to place the firm in a better light and to ensure that they meet their bonus targets cannot be ignored. It demonstrates that instead of being honest with respect to the pace of the turnaround, management is content to mislead the shareholders, possible to their own benefit. This raises concern with respect to governance at Harnischfeger. Thus, I would not recommend the purchase of the company's stock at present. Minor signs of encouragement are trumped by larger negative issues.
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Company Analysis of Yahoo I

Words: 2043 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46482416



Yahoo is definitely facing difficult challenges in the near future. Consumption is probably going down, but that is not something that will only affect Yahoo! The competition will also be seriously shaken. Another aspect that the firm's managers should consider is the more personalized approach proposed by Google. The G-mail service will be tailored to fit the desires of each and every user. The needs of each person, as manifested in the search conducted with Google's search engine, shall be reflected in the way the email account of that particular person is handled.

For instance, should someone be interested in marketing techniques, Google will put on the email box web site of that individual a few links related to that subject. Critics say that this is an unforgivable intrusion in people's privacy, since these data may be used to make up psychological profiles of each and every person using Google,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Something to YAHOO! About: An Internet Winner

Ellen M. Heffes.

Financial Executive. Morristown:

May 2004.Vol.20, Iss. 3; pg. 32
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Company and Product Analysis Calyx

Words: 1340 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57514993

The market is not yet a mature one and people still have to get used to the idea of ordering the gift flowers from a catalogue rather than buying them themselves at the flower shop. One opportunity for the company is to capture more gift business and divert consumers' options from traditional florists.

On the other hand, the second opportunity, closely tied to the flower market, but with ramifications into other areas, refers to events such as weddings and funerals, less exploited until now, as well as corporate events and parties, practically any activity involving a decorating opportunity and where fresh flowers are needed. There are several advantages and disadvantages worth investigating when considering an expansion on the decorative market.

First of all, C&C needs to acknowledge that moving into the decorative business involves (1) a completely new set of competitors and (2) the need to be able to adapt…… [Read More]

Although it is difficult to estimate the cost of getting a new customer, we can evaluate the activities directed towards this goal. We have the costs of printing and delivering catalogues to potential consumers, to each we need to add the 5-10% yield from prior customer mailings and the 1-2% yield from the rented mailing lists. To this, we need to add other advertising means, among them TV advertising including the 800 number to call, as well as the printing costs for the mini-catalogues to be introduced in the newspapers (9 cents each) and the cost of getting published in the newspaper ($34 seasonal bouquet). On the other hand, it is difficult to evaluate the number of consumers attracted through each exact method of advertising.

Active customers purchased between 2 and 10 times a year. If we use an average 5 times a year, this would mean than average active consumers purchased a set of fresh flowers from C&C once every two months. Estimating an average price of $50, this means that each new consumer brought a profit of around $25 a month.

The catalogue operation is the most important advertising method used by the company, yet the yields it brings about are quite insignificant. Fr example, these account to yields of 5 to 10% on the prior customer mailings and only 1 or 2% on the rented mailing lists. Nevertheless, if we look at the number of people these catalogues were mailed to, 7,855,000 individuals on the rented mailing lists and 100,000 on the prior consumer list in fiscal year 1991, and applying these percentages, we obtain consistent values: 78,550 new consumers from the rented mailing lists and an additional 60,000 from prior customers.
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Company Case Strategy Based on

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 469712

Innovation occurs when the company is focused on developing applications that are: superior and less expensive than the ones that they are currently selling. This is troubling, because the current lines of products that are being offered, means that they are losing ground to alternative ones that are being produced. As a result, Husky needs to focus on developing products that are: competitively priced and have better quality. This will allow the company to adapt to changes that are taking place in the markets. ("Husky Injection Molding Systems," n.d.)

Cost cutting is when the company needs to focus on reducing, the overall expenses that it is paying to manufacture different products. Given the fact that the company is currently doing business in Japan and Korea, means that they could build a plant in the region that will produce the new alternative products. As managers could select locations that have: lower…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Husky Injection Molding Systems. (n.d.).
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Company Infrastructure in a Foreign

Words: 770 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20733550

The value of the pound in relation to the euro could be an argument against doing business with Spain.

Concerns about the economic stability of Spain and the viability of doing business in Spain in the near future are even more pressing concerns: recently, the European Community has had to undertake extraordinary measures to save the troubled economy of Greece from defaulting on its debt obligations. Spain's economy is also fragile. Given the role of the Spanish government in the energy industry, and the long-standing partnership that would exist between SSE and any agreement resulting in an expansion effort into Spain, it is essential to have a clear-headed view of the nation's likely economic future and stability when negotiating an agreement (Sullivan 1999).

Said Nobel-Prize winner of economics Paul Krugman: "for a number of years Spain could pay its way within the eurozone by selling assets, mainly real estate, as…… [Read More]

References

About Us. (2010). Scottish and Southern Energy. Retrieved March 16, 2010 at http://www.scottish-southern.co.uk/SSEInternet/index.aspx?rightColHeader=4&id=272&TierSlicer1_TSMenuTargetID=56&TierSlicer1_TSMenuTargetType=4&TierSlicer1_TSMenuID=6

British Labour MEP relaunches euro debate. (2009, 13 January). Eurobusiness.

Retrieved March 16, 2010 at http://www.eubusiness.com/news-eu/1231866126.22

Krugman, Paul. (2010). 10 questions. Spain Economy Watch. Retrieved March 16, 2010 at  http://spaineconomy.blogspot.com/2010/01/ten-new-year-questions-for-paul-krugman.html
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Company Description in Business Since

Words: 1989 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3750940

Lastly, Avon should encourage its representatives to adopt social media and provide instruction on best practices for social media marketing. This will not only help the company to attract the youth market, but even older demographics are active in the social media realm. In addition, social media is almost free, and provides great exposure to the brand for the price.

Integrated Marketing Program

Avon's marketing program at present is only moderately integrated. The company leaves much of the marketing to its representatives in order to facilitate its pursuit of a cost leadership strategy. However, some company-wide initiatives would help to grow the brand and advances in technology -- primarily through the use of the company website as a conduit to guide new business to its representatives -- would support the ANE product and the Avon brand immensely. That Avon two of three out of the recommended channels have little cost…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Avon.com website, various pages. (2010). Retrieved June 9, 2010 from http://www.avon.com/

Bernoff, J. & Li, C. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review Vol. 49 (3) 36-42.

Camerius, J. & Clinton, J. (1993). AVON Products, INC.: Developing a Global Perspective. Direct Selling Education Foundation. Retrieved June 9, 2010 from http://www.dsef.org/press/pdfs/avon_products.pdf

Klepacki, L. (2005) Avon: building the world's premier company for women. John Wiley and Sons.
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Company Plan Part I How

Words: 852 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66071238

We are also building relationships with suppliers at this stage, and those relationships need to proceed as smoothly as possible.

We will create economies of scale here in Kava. Doing so means stimulating local economies, which is ultimately in our best interest. For instance, a local transportation company will not only truck in raw materials for our company but for other companies on the island and possibly off the island too. Local service industries will grow as we bring in more people from around the globe. Thus as we grow in Kava, so too will unassociated companies that might indirectly benefit from our growth. The more we help community small business development in Kava, the more likely we are to succeed here in the long run.

Human Resources

Working with the government of Kava, we can have access to the country's great wealth of human resources. Recruiting students from high…… [Read More]

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Company Product Security

Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64680585

Company Data Security

Company data/information security

The issue of information security is one controversial aspect that has led to thousands of legal battles between individuals and their respective companies each year. In the case study at hand, there is need to proceed with caution in order to ensure that the legal private limits of the former employee are not overstepped. As a Infosec specialist, I will first involve the immediate manager under whom Mr. Yourprop was working and make him aware that a search on the desk or work area of the employee is not illegal as this was a private firm as long as there were grounds for such a search and that the search was not accusative but rather a formality. I will obtain written permission from the management of the company to do the search and will ensure the former employee is notified of the search (Workplace…… [Read More]

References

Mukasey M.B., (2008). Electronic Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide for Responders. 2nd Ed. National Institute of Justice. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/219941.pdf

Workplace Fairness, (2015). Workplace Searches. http://www.workplacefairness.org/searches
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Company Called Ypf The Company Is Noted

Words: 4473 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44056090

company called YPF. The company is noted to suffer from several problems associated with culture change and the need to remain competitive. We therefore begin this work by presenting a problem statement as well as a presentation of the specific problems that affects the operations of the company. We then proceed to the presentation of the alternatives solution for each of the problems that are facing the company. A conclusion is then presented on how to best tackle the issues of organizational change (change management strategies). An implementation of the solution to the problems is then presented in a detailed and systematic manner.

YPF S.A is a company which has undergone a series of changes to its leadership, organizational processes, business processes as well as organizational policies since its inception. In this paper, we present an in-depth analysis of the organization. The company is noted to suffer from several problems…… [Read More]

References

Armstrong, M. (2009) A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. London: Kogan Page. e-Journal of Organizational Learning and Leadership

Bass, M., & Avolio, B. (1992). Developing transformational leadership: 1992 and beyond.Journal of European Industrial Training, 14, 21-37.

Barney, J. (1986). Organizational culture. Academy of Management Review, 11(3), 656-665.

Benabou, Roland & Tirole, Jean, 2003. "Incentives and Prosocial Behavior," IDEI Working Papers 389, Institut d'Economie Industrielle (IDEI)
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Company Ethics Program Effective Program The

Words: 1275 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98206501

company ethics program effective program . The Federal Sentencing Guidelines Organizations encourages firm set ethics programs. eview Website, located http://www.

Ethics Program

The following pages focus on presenting the challenges that JEMC must address in order to improve its codes of ethics and conduct. The Company Presentation section provides the description of JEMC and the presentation of the codes of conduct of important companies in the industry. The Ethical Challenges section analyzes the ethical problems that the company's activity must address. The Federal Sentencing Guidelines for Organizations discusses the guidelines developed by the government in the case of companies that do not follow rules and regulations. The Challenges of the Codes of Conduct section analyzes some of the most important problems determined by developing these codes of conduct. The elevance of Codes of Conduct section provides some recommendations on how the relevance of these codes of conducted can be improved.…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Nair, M. (2011). New Code of Conduct to Set Boundaries. Retrieved August 31, 2011 from http://gulfnews.com/mobile/business/media-marketing/new-code-of-conduct-to-set-boundaries-1.981527.

2. ICC Commission on Marketing and Advertising (2012). International Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved August 31, 2012 from  http://www.iccwbo.org/advocacy-codes-and-rules/areas-of-work/marketing-and-advertising/ .

3. Statement of Ethics (2012). American Marketing Association. Retrieved august 31, 2012 from http://www.marketingpower.com/AboutAMA/Pages/Statement%20of%20Ethics.aspx.
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Company Code of Ethics for Boeing In

Words: 1380 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81332744

company code of ethics for Boeing. In this document I will explore Boeing's code and attempt to reveal important items relevant to understanding how a functional code of ethics may be applied to a large organization. I will first describe a general background of the company to help provide context in this evaluation. Next, I will give an overview of the code of conduct and highlight important details that are worthy of discussion. This paper will also include how this code of ethics can be applied to the differing levels of responsibility and accountability within the company itself. I will also examine a recent specific case study of ethical violations within Boeing to help test the validity and quality of this company's attitude towards ethics. This specific case will help understand important factors on the stability and feasibility of their ethical codes and programs.

Background

Boeing's company website describes the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boeing Corporate Website. Ethics. Viewed 31 Aug 2012. Retrieved from http://www.boeing.com/companyoffices/aboutus/ethics/hotline.html#howto

Reeder, J. & Hickey, D. (2005). Boeing strengthens, enhances ethics program. National Defense. February 2005. Retrieved from  http://www2.gtlaw.com/pub/articles/2005/reederj05a.pdf 

Richman, D. (2005, Mar 7). Analysis: Boeing conduct code worked properly, expert says. Seatllepi.com. Retrieved from http://www.seattlepi.com/business/article/Analysis- Boeing-conduct-code-worked-properly-1168027.php
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Company Familiar This Place Employment a Car

Words: 1788 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63759226

company familiar. This place employment, a car wash, a yard service company, . We a simple hotdog stand, run a mobile truck sells hotdogs Soldiers inprocessing center/bldg. This company sells hotdogs a bun, condiments, chips, soda.

Describe the company's supply chain

In order to differentiate itself from other similar companies, Hot Diggity Dogs has focused on the quality of its products. As a consequence, the company's management concluded that it is not enough to have a supplier deliver the hot dogs, chips, buns and soda, but that it would need to control the production process for the most important elements on its menu, namely the hotdogs, the chips and the buns.

As a consequence, Hot Diggity Dogs has expanded its supply chain to include raw materials (meat, potatoes) and the supplier manufacturing. The idea is to be involved in these processes in the quality assurance phases: personnel from Hot Diggity…… [Read More]

Reference Page

1. Hoffman, George. 2006. Supply Chain Management in a Quick Service Restaurant Environment. Michigan University

2. Patton, Patrick. 2013. Business Process Automation -- What About the Internal Processes? Interactive Intelligence.

3. Yost Denny. 2009. Improving Internal Processes Your Company's Competitive Advantage. On the Internet at  http://enterprisesystemsmedia.com/article/improving-internal-processes-your-companys-competitive-advantage . Last retrieved on October 31, 2013
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Company Is Known for Many Different Products

Words: 1439 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65108049

company is known for many different products and services, according to the annual report almost all its income derives from online advertising, so that shall be considered to be the company's business. The online advertising business is highly competitive, with firms like Yahoo, Microsoft, Apple and Facebook all being important players.

Macro View

The online advertising industry operates, more or less, like an oligopoly. There are a handful of major companies that dominate the industry. Essentially, online advertising works much like conventional advertising. The companies in the industry must deliver an audience to buyers, who purchase advertising space. Google does this through its own family of websites, of which several are among the most-used sites on the web, and through partnership with third-party websites that use Google as their advertising partner.

The industry is growing, although the pace of growth is beginning to slow. Over the past twenty years, the…… [Read More]

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Company Work I Would Like to Fill

Words: 1123 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35150450

Company Work

I would like to fill the position of Executive Organizational Design in ABC Company. The following details provide complete understanding of the job along with required job specifications.

Job Description -- Executive Organizational Design

Executive Organizational Design is primarily responsible for coordinating and assisting in various OD processes and projects and ensure timely follow-up and completion of tasks.

Qualifications/Competencies Education: Advanced degree in H

Expertise: elated experience in H

Other skills include advance MS Office, time Management and excellent communication

Organizational elationships: Executive OD directly reports to Manager OD and collaborates with all departments for successful execution of projects.

Major esponsibilities

Developing a High Performance Culture:

Coordinate to ensure that organizational structure, headcount and reporting lines are accurately represented in the system. Coordinate to ensure that all organizational members have access to culture survey. Assist the line managers in scheduling Action-Planning workshops and keep a strict follow-up on…… [Read More]

References

Dobson, S.B. (2008). Goal Setting: How to Create an Action Plan and Achieve Your Goals. New York: American Management Association.

Edworthy, A. (2002). Managing Stress. Philadelphia: Open University Press Buckingham.

Feldman, R.S. (1996). Applications of Nonverbal Behavioral Theories and Research. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Madonik, B.G. (2001). I Hear What You Say, But What Are You Telling Me? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
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Company's Ethical Code

Words: 2251 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90455400

Code of Ethics

Introduction and Company Background

Guiding Principles

Purpose of the Code

Core Values

Training and Education

Covered Employees

Implementation and Communication

Enforcement and eporting

Mission Statement

Code of Ethics: The XYZ Company

Introduction and Company Background

Having a code of ethics is a big part of doing business. It is not something every company has, but those that do have these codes provide them because they want to be ethical and strong. Ethical codes help make requirements clear for every employee, and can avoid discrepancies in conduct (Clark, 2012). Avoiding or lessening the possibility for misunderstandings and discrepancies is an excellent way to protect both the company's bottom line and its reputation. Employees who fail to act in an ethical manner can cause serious harm to the companies for which they work (Clark, 2012). Keeping that in mind, one must ensure that an ethical code is direct and…… [Read More]

References

Clark, C.M. (2012). Individual moralities and institutional ethics: Implications for the Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists. Psychotherapy and Politics International, 10(3): 187-204.

Davidson, B.I. & Stevens, D.E. (2013). Can a code of ethics improve manager behavior and investor confidence? An experimental study. The Accounting Review, 88(1): 51-74.

Hartley, R., Grayston, R., & Ryle, A. (2010). Developing a modern code of ethics for engineering practice. The 5th Civil Engineering Conference in the Asian Region and Australasian Structural Engineering Conference 2010. Sydney, N.S.W.: Engineers Australia, 2010: 1276-1281.
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Company Has Its Own Standards

Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24300660

The company owns one of the world's most recognizable luxury car brands. ithout catering to the mass market, BM holds a 2% market share in the U.S. (all Street Journal, 2009), which constitutes a much higher market share in the luxury segment. This competitive advantage is necessary because the luxury car segment has long relied on track records of excellence -- the long history and enormous strength of the BM brand supports its luxury positioning (Franzen, 2007). The company is successful without having to move into the "cost leadership" segments of the market.

3. Bridgestone is highly oriented to vertical integration. The company produces its own rubber, in order to match the specifications for its tires. Bridgestone therefore keeps its production and product development functions in-house. This allows the company to have a high degree of uniformity in its products.

The company performs inbound logistics and operations, primarily. It is…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

No author. (2009). Market data center: Auto sales. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 15, 2009 from  http://online.wsj.com/mdc/public/page/2_3022-autosales.html 

Franzen, G. (2007). BMW: the most admired car brand in the world. Cool Brands. Retrieved November 15, 2009 from http://85.17.192.207/coolbrands/dmdocuments/ecbmw.pdf
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Company or Organization Preferably the

Words: 5736 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77120086

The exponential growth of the Internet has also served as the catalyst for the growth of highly collaborative, interactive forums and platforms on which Delphi-like brainstorming can be accomplished (Decker, Wagner, Scholz, 2005). Conversely many of the external relationships companies have and that are essential to understanding how the strategic planning process will impact an organization lend themselves to quantification. An example of this level of quantification of external factors is the use of frameworks for evaluating the performance of supply chains over time, a process area that can be highly quantified through the use of maturity models and measurements of performance over time (Gilmour, 1999). Both of these extremes, qualitative data analysis through the use of techniques including writing of scenarios, brainstorming and the Delphi technique to the extremely quantitative, both require organizations to have a fairly high level of interprocess maturity and development to be able to manage…… [Read More]

References

Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.

Reinhold Decker, Ralf Wagner, Soren W. Scholz. (2005). An internet-based approach to environmental scanning in marketing planning. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 23(2/3), 189-199.

Qi Fei, David L. Olson. (2007). Web services composition strategy in enterprise systems. Human Systems Management, 26(1), 53.

B. Johansson, F. Sudzina. (2008). ERP systems and open source: an initial review and some implications for SMEs. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 21(6), 649-658.
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Company Public One of the Most Common

Words: 1557 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90616633

Company Public

One of the most common ways that thousands of corporations will raise additional capital to fund continued expansion is: through the public markets. This is because the various bonds, stocks and private securities offerings (private placements / limited partnerships) are helping to provide them with the added liquidity to achieve these objectives. As an increasing number of companies are turning to this option through what is known as an initial public offering (IPO). This is when a company will issue stocks, bonds or other type of securities when they are first going public. In most cases, these are new businesses that are seeing significant amounts of growth and are turning to the public markets to increase their working capital. ("Initial Public Offering," 2010) This is an important step for the organization that is being examined, as the IPO will help to increase its liquidity and provide the necessary…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Initial Public Offering. (2010). Investwords. Retrieved from:  http://www.investorwords.com/2475/Initial_Public_Offering.html 

IPO Timeline. (n.d.). E Investment Bank. Retrieved from: http://www.einvestmentbank.com/invest_banking/doc/ipo_timeline.html

Steps for Taking a Company Public. (2010). E How. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/way_5814166_steps-taking-company-public.html

Ghosh, A. (2008). The IPO Process. Pricing and Performance. (pp. 23 -- 30). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
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Company Apple Is a Personal Electronics Manufacturer

Words: 2825 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73704813

Company

Apple is a personal electronics manufacturer and marketers. The company competes in personal computers, mp3 players, tablet computers, software and smartphones (Apple.com, 2011). Apple has improved revenues and profits rapidly of late (Apple, 2011). Apple is financially strong with a great balance sheet (MSN Moneycentral, 2011) and strong brand loyalty (ithers, 2008). The company's stock is currently trading at very high multiples because of its multi-year track record of hit product launches, its lack of slowdown during the recession and the company's continued ability to resonate with consumers. Apple's entrant into smartphones is the iPhone. Apple holds 25% share of the market, good for third place behind Android and Blackberry (Blodget, 2011). Apple just introduced its latest model smartphone, the iPhone 4.

Product Description

The iPhone 4 is the latest incarnation of Apple's iPhone line of smartphones. The smartphone market is divided by operating system, rather than device manufacturer.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Apple. (2011). Apple reports first quarter results. Apple. Retrieved April 26, 2011 from  http://www.apple.com /pr/library/2011/01/18results.html

Apple.com. (2011). Retrieved April 6, 2011 from
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Company's Investment Success Especially in Relation to

Words: 2129 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11566243

company's investment success especially in relation to other companies. The paper aims at establishing how a company's competitiveness can be calculated in relation to others in the same industry and the factors that hinder the calculations or hinder a true picture of the same

Compare industry average and a main competitor

For convenient comparison of industry average, majority of companies place Industry average values next to a company's financial measures for convenient comparison. To get a clear picture, a company can obtain industry average from its competitor by carefully examining (its competitors) stock screen results. (Gray, 2004)

However it is notable that various industries have their peculiarities with some operating under very heavy debts which would companies in other industries. For instance, software companies enjoy high profit margins that other companies envy and that all software companies must attain to stay in the game.

For that case, to see whether…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gray, A. (2004) Introduction to Marketing, 7th Edition, New York, Prentice Hall

Riahi, A. (2003) The Capital Structure Paradigm: Evolution of Debt? Equity Choices; New York, Praeger

Riahi, A. (1999) Capital Structure: Determination, Evaluation and Accounting

Titman, S (1988) Journal of Finance, Volume 43, Issue: 1, Publisher: American Finance Association; Blackwell publishing