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Clearly from this case and others there is a critical need for the development of safeguards on consumer data captured over the Internet, both of the opt-in (where the customer approves the data being captured) and the non-opt-in variety.
An Explicit equirement for Transparency and Ethical Use of Data
Consumers have become increasingly concerned that their data, however acquired, will eventually be sold without their knowledge, eventually leading to the potential for identity theft at the worst and continual junk e-mail and bulk mail at the least. Due to the pervasive lack of trust regarding the use of their data, consumers are increasingly calling for Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) programs that will protect their rights and data despite any pre-existing claims made by the companies who captured it through benign surveillance techniques (Pirsch, Gupta, Grau. pp. 126, 127).
Facebook, one of the emerging companies that is defining social networking, has…
Anders Albrechtslund 2007. Ethics and technology design. Ethics and Information Technology 9, no. 1 (March 1): 63. http://www.proquest.com (Accessed April 12, 2008).
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1): 36-42.
In order to implement the policy, a preliminary general meeting, as mentioned above, can be held. The issues relating to the policy will be discussed, and modifications made as necessary. A final policy will be created and provided to each employee. Employees will be provided with the opportunity to participate at any time when they choose to do so. The policy can be enforced via providing each participating personnel member with a password that expires within half an hour after logging on during work hours, for example.
Continuous training sessions can also be implemented in order to keep personnel updated on policies regarding this issue. Furthermore, training sessions will also include guidance on using the Internet, and which Web sites are safe and user friendly for generating extra income.
McNamara, Carter. Complete Guide to Ethics Management: An Ethics Toolkit for Managers. 2007. http://www.managementhelp.org/ethics/ethxgde.htm#anchor52197
Olson, Gary a. The Ethics of…
McNamara, Carter. Complete Guide to Ethics Management: An Ethics Toolkit for Managers. 2007. http://www.managementhelp.org/ethics/ethxgde.htm#anchor52197
Olson, Gary a. The Ethics of Technology. Chronicle Careers, October 2007. http://chronicle.com/jobs/news/2007/10/2007101901c/careers.html
Schwartau, Winn. Cyber ethics in the workplace. Network World, January 2002. http://www.networkworld.com/columnists/2002/0121schwartau.html
Western Digital Corporation. Workplace Integrity. 2007. http://www.wdc.com/en/company/governance/workplaceintegrity.asp?p=3
Social Networks and Computer Ethics
For the past 20 years, there have been many changes caused by the internet on many aspects of the contemporary life. The internet is growing rapidly. As of 2006, it was recorded that the number of internet users was about four million. For a long time, there have been promises made on how internet changes will positively impact people worldwide. These promises have reached many people throughout the world. Some of the promises have been fulfilled, while some have not been completely achieved. Among the main reasons for that is the decrease in people's faith in the system (Sund, 2007).
Sund (2007) stated that creating confidence and faith is a major factor for ensuring that the internet continues to grow, and for it to be used more. The increased growth of the internet has opened up doors for crime. Cyber criminals can now exploit the…
Elovici, Y., Fire, M., Herzberg, A., Shulman, H. (2013, October 7). Ethical Considerations when Employing Fake Identities in OSN for Research. Retrieved June 28, 2016, from Arxiv.Org: https://arxiv.org
Huff, C., & Martin, C. D. (1995). Computing Consequences: A Framework for Teaching Ethical Computing. Communications of the ACM, Vol 38, No. 12, 75-84. Retrieved from ACM Digital Library: http://dl.acm.org
Johnson, D. G. (1997). Shaping social behavior online takes more than new laws and modified edicts. Ethics Online, Vol 40, No. 1, 60-65. Retrieved from ACM Digital Library:
Unfortunately, many consumers may not be aware of their photographic image being used in this fashion and even if they were, existing privacy laws fail to provide any substantive protections. For example, in response to these trends, the Harvard Law eview published an essay entitled, "In the Face of Danger: Facial ecognition and Privacy Law," with a majority of the article describing how "privacy law, in its current form, is of no help to those unwillingly tagged" (2007, para. 3). These issues have become even more salient because of the proliferation of social networking sites as discussed further below.
Privacy within social networking sites
Currently, there is a wide array of social media networks available, including social sharing sites such as YouTube and Flickr and social networks such as Linkedln and Facebook (Hensel & Deis, 2010). Others such as Spokeo and Twitter have become the virtual meeting places of choice…
Bamberger, K.A. & Mulligan, D.K. (2011). Privacy on the books and on the ground. Stanford Law Review, 63(2), 247-249.
Brodkin, J. (2009, December 8). PCWorld. Retrieved from http://www.pcworld.com/article/
Buchholz, R.A. & Rosenthal, S.B. (2006). Internet privacy: Individual rights and the common good. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 67(1), 34-36.
Ethics in Technology
Business - Management
The purpose of this paper is to highlight and present the ethical issues that are involved in using modern technology. The paper highlights some of the current ethical issues faced by computer users that are due to unethical practice and lack of proper ethical policies by different businesses. The paper pinpoints the causes and gives recommendation on how the current issues can be minimized. A portion of this paper also consists of lawsuits that have recently occurred due to unethical practices adopted by businesses.
Ethics in Technology
We live in a modern era, the era of modern technology and innovation. Our lives are encircled by modern creations. These technology and advancement have surely brought comfort and ease in our life but unfortunately, the use of modern technology has also given rise to many ethical problems out of which few are a topic of discussion…
Anderman, E.M., & Burton Murdock, E. (2007). Psychology of academic cheating. (p. 1). California, USA: Elsevier Academic Press.
Morley, D., & Parker, C.S. (2009). Understanding computers: Today and tomorrow, comprehensive. (12th ed., p. 712). Boston, USA: Course Technology Cengage Learning.
Rogozea, L. (2009). Towards ethical aspects on artificial intelligence. Manuscript submitted for publication, Transylvania University of Brasov, Romania. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/1044129
This information, stored on a computer and used to correlate with other data could be considered invaluable by many researchers, but the patients have a right to keep certain information private, and to suggest anything else would be an ethical violation of the patient's privacy.
Because computer ethics is such a volatile issue, an entire branch of study has grown up around computer ethics, which proponents who believe the computer age caused these ethical issues, and others who believe these issues would have surfaced anyway. One of the proponents of computer ethics, who actually was the first to teach the concept, Walter Maner, from Old Dominion University, is a proponent of the computer creating brand new ethical issues. An expert quotes Maner, "For all of these issues, there was an essential involvement of computing technology. Except for this technology, these issues would not have arisen, or would not have arisen…
Adams, H.R., Bocher, R.F., Gordon, C.A., & Barry-Kessler, E. 2005 Privacy in the 21st Century: Issues for Public, School, and Academic Libraries. Libraries Unlimited, Westbrook, CT.
Bynum, Terryl 2008 Computer and Information Ethics, Stanford University, URL=" http://plato.stanford.edu /entries/ethics-computer/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Computer and Web Ethics
The term "computer ethics," as coined by Walter Maner in the 1970s, refers to a field of study that examines "ethical problems aggravated, transformed, or created by computer technology" (Maner, 1980). Maner suggested that persons engaged in computer-related actions should apply traditional ethical frameworks, such as Kantianism and Utilitarianism, to govern their decision-making. While Immanuel Kant's virtue ethics are rooted in respect for all people and an inherent respect for virtuous character traits -- such as kindness, honesty, patience and humility -- Utilitarianism judges the morality of an action according to "the greatest good for the greatest number" rule (Stanford Encyclopedia, 2011).
Similar to Maner's definition, Deborah Johnson, author of Computer Ethics (1985), defined computer ethics as a study of how computers "pose new versions of standard moral problems and moral dilemmas, exacerbating the old problems, and forcing us to apply ordinary moral norms to uncharted…
Bynum, T. (2006). "Flourishing Ethics," Ethics and Information Technology, 8(4), 157-173.
Gotterbarn, D. (2001). "Informatics and Professional Responsibility," Science and Engineering Ethics, 7(2), 221-30.
Johnson, D. (1985). Computer Ethics, First Edition, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; Second Edition, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1994; Third Edition Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2001.
Maner, W. (1980). Starter Kit in Computer Ethics, Hyde Park, NY: Helvetia Press and the National Information and Resource Center for Teaching Philosophy.
Intent to perform a greater good would not affect the possibility of being exposed to a prison sentence of up to 20 years and a fine of up to $250,000, plus possible penalties under state law.
Montana compares this legislation with that of the regulation of firearms. It is not the mere possession of malicious code that is criminalized, but the use and the damage to computer systems and association economic losses that are the focal point of the law. Computer code, even MMC, is considered intellectual property and carries legal protections similar to books or sound recordings. It is also considered a form of speech and therefore is also offered protection under the Constitution's First Amendment. However, this protection is limited, just as 'free speech' is limited, especially in instances when this speech interferes with the protection of the public welfare -- as is the case with the release…
Ford, R., Bush, M., & Boulatov, a."Internet Instability and Disturbance: Goal or Menace?" Proceedings of the 2005 Workshop on New Security Paradigms. 2005: p. 3-8.
Frohmann, B. "Subjectivity and Information Ethics." Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology. 59(2) Jan 2008: p. 267-277.
Johnson, M. & Rogers, K. "The Fraud Act 2006: The E-Crime Prosecutor's Champion or the Creator of a New Inchoate Offence?" International Review of Law, Computers & Technology. 21(3) Nov 2007: p.. 295-304.
Ledin, G. "Not Teaching Viruses and Worms is Harmful." Communications of the ACM. 48(1) Jan 2005: p. 144.
Ethics in Cyberspace
Summary of the Book- the Ethics of Cyberspace by Cees Hamelink
Cees Hamelink is not new in the field of study of the principles relating to the communicating world and their association with civil liberties of mankind. Hamelink has accumulated his skills and views on all fields of communication and authored a book on the ways that most of the democratic society need to be resorted to in order to systematize the cyberspace. Hamelink, in his previous publications, attempted to evaluate the products, system and institutions of traditional industries vis-a-vis the morality of the people and liberty of mankind with a view to identifying these industries firmly and intentionally amidst as well as accountable to the civil society worldwide. He proved both of them to be essential. The book asserts of the facts that the control of the cyberspace worldwide should be guided by the public necessity…
Cerf, Vint; et; al (2003). "Who Rules the Net: Internet Governance and Jurisdiction" Cato
Edgar, Stacey L. (1997) "Morality and Machines: Perspectives on Computer Ethics, Jones and Bartlett Publications"
Featherstone, M; Burrows, R (1995) "Cyberspace, Cyberbodies, Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment" London. Sage.
Ethics in the Workplace
Ethics in Workplace
Ethics in relation to the use of Computer technology:
Ethics governing computer technology, the electronic data, personal information, and related situations have been of much debate in the information technology circles. The rules and regulations regarding this 'computer technology' seem to be very loose and flexible, and are often not given much regard. The field is in its adolescence phases and therefore not much has been concretely established relating to the ethical code of conduct relating to it. Since there is no concrete code of conduct, or set of instructions organizations and people tend to perceive ethical conduct each on their own accord. The way ethics related issues are solved differs from one person, organization to another. The difference can be based on external factors like the environment the organization is operating in, the size of the organization, the nature of industry it…
Harrington, S.J., (1996), 'The effect of codes of Ethics and Personal Denial of responsibility on Computer abuse Judgments and Intention', Management Information Systems Quaterly, Volume 20(03), pages 257-278.
Horvath, C.M., (1999), 'Macro and Micro: the emerging field of organizational ethics', The online journal of Ethics, September 17. Accessed on 25th September 2011 from http://www.depaul.edu/ethics/ethgl.html
Paradice, D.B., (1990), 'Ethical Attitudes of entry level Management Information System personnel', Information and Management, Volume 18, pages 143-151.
Pierce, M.A. And Henry, J.W., (2000), 'Judgments about computer Ethics: Do individuals, co-worker, and company judgments differ? Do company codes make a difference?', Journal of Business Ethics, December, Volume 28(04), pages 307-322
Computer Technology, The Concorde Jet Liner, And Ethics
The issues of ethic in business practices in the age of increasing computer technology and the importance of managing information has come to the forefront of organizational management issues. In a society which now creates much of its wealth, not from hardwoods products, or services, but from the use of information, the integrity of that information is imperative to the ongoing well-being of the organization. In order for company A to continue to occupy the competitive position in the marketplace, the information and knowledge which company A possesses is considered as one of its proprietary assets. Stealing, 'borrowing' or otherwise duplication information in today's information business world is no different than breaking into a bank vault, and making off with the companies payroll money, or electronically hacking into the company bank records, and transferring moneys to a personal account.
In order to…
Association of Computer Machinery. "ACM Code of Ethics and Professional." ACM: Code of Ethics. 10 October 1992. www.acm.org/constitution/code.html.19 January 2001.
British Computer Society. "Codes of Ethics Online. Codes of Ethics Online. 6 March 1998. http://csep.iit.edu/codes/coe/bcs-b.htm.19 January 2001.
Computer Society of India. "Codes of Ethics Online." Codes of Ethics Online. 24 October 1997. http://csep.iit.edu/codes/coe/India_Code.htm.19 January 2001.
Langford, Duncan. "Essay: Computer Ethics and Clothing." Computer Ethics and Clothing. 1995. www.depaul.edu/ethics/computer.html.19 January 2001.
Ethics and Computing in Computer Science
EMPOWERMENT AND RESPONSIILITY
Errors and Hazards and Their Consequences
Despite the best of care and talent, computation is subject to uncertainties, which experts call "errors (Landau, 2008)." Some of these errors are man-made and some are produced by the computer itself. The four classes of errors are blunders or bad theory, random errors, approximation or algorithm errors, and round-off errors. lunders are typographical errors or errors caused by running or using the wrong program or similar errors. Random errors are results of occurrences like fluctuations in electronics or cosmic rays running through the computer. Algorithm or approximation errors include the substitution of finite by infinite figures or variable inputs by constants. And round-off errors are inaccuracies as the finite number of digits for storing floating numbers (Landau). Peter Neumann at the SRI International identified more than 400 incidents of these errors, hazards and other…
Jacky, J. (1989). Safety-critical computing, hazards, practices, standards and regulation.
Vol. 29, # 5, "Programmed for Disaster: Software Errors that Imperil Lives."
Department of Radiation: University of Washington. Retrieved on March 22, 2014
This is what creates the continual need to share literally everything going on in their lives, as each post releases a significant dopamine rush (Charman-Anderson, 17, 18).
Dopamine is also the reason why the many forms of computer addiction are so difficult to treat. ith anonymity comes the opportunity to create multiple identities or personas online (Soule, 66, 67). This is what leads employees who have Internet addictions to create many different online identities, giving them ethical and moral leeway they would never give themselves. This aspect of personas and the forgiven unethicacy of conduct of personas is a key factor in online crimes committed by employees during company hours (Nykodym, Ariss, Kurtz, 82, 83). The personas of the addicted computer addicts are orchestrated for specific dopamine-driven production to fuel and feed habitual behaviors online
(Quinn 180). These strategies to ensure a steady supply of dopamine may not even be…
Charman-Anderson, Suw. "Seeking Addiction: The Role of Dopamine in Social Media." Computer Weekly (2009): 16-23.
Neumann, Peter G. "Are Computers Addictive?" Association for Computing Machinery.Communications of the ACM 41.3 (1998): 128-135.
Nykodym, Nick, Sonny Ariss, and Katarina Kurtz. "Computer Addiction and Cyber Crime." Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics (2008): 78-85. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 3 Dec. 2012.
Quinn, Brian. "The Medicalisation of Online Behaviour." Online Information Review 25.3 (2001): 173-80.
These kinds of compulsive behaviors are observed on a daily basis. It has been highlighted by the authors that there is an acceptable use policy implicated on the students in academic institutions and on the daily basis, without regarding the restrictions placed by these policies, students work against the policy. According to the policy, computers within the universities can only be used for academic purposes only. The policy has highlighted that computers in an academic environment should not be used for online sharing, downloading, social networking and gaming (Nykodym, Ariss, & Kurtz, 2008, p. 7). But in the campuses and academic institutions, it is seen that the students usually sit in for social networking and gaming. Thereby, from here it can be seen that either the students don't want to follow the policies or they don't want to understand the restrictions placed in the policies.
The authors have highlighted that…
Nykodym, N., Ariss, S., & Kurtz, K. (2008). Computer Addiction and Cyber Crime. Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics .
Poulsen, K. (2011). Kingpin: how one hacker took over the billion-dollar cybercrime underground. Crown Publishing Group.
Roberts, K. (2010). Cyber Junkie: Escape the Gaming and Internet Trap. Hazelden Publishing.
Ross, A.J. (2008). How to Hug a Porcupine: Negotiating the Prickly Points of the Tween Years. McGraw-Hill Professional.
Ethics at Apple
Apple has been for some time now the leading manufacturer of innovative wireless technologies, including the iPhone, the iPad, iPods, and Macintosh computers that do more and set the table for other manufacturers to emulate "Mac" innovations. Following the death of Apple co-founder Steve Jobs -- and the emergence of Tim Cook as the new CEO -- the technology media and happy Apple consumers wait for the next launch of an innovative device that will change the way people communicate and retrieve information.
hat are the Apple values and ethics? The "Apple Values" section of the Apple Employee Handbook (circa 1993) sets the record straight on what is expected of employees. In short, Apple asserts that "…we will not compromise our ethics or integrity in the name of profit" (seanet.com). hat Apple does is "…set aggressive goals and drive ourselves hard to achieve them" and "build products"…
Gurman, Mark. (2011). Revealed: Apple's internal policies on employee social networking, speculating on rumors, leaking, blogging, and more. 9to5Mac. Retrieved May 27, 2012,
from http://9to5mac.com .
Mac Observer. (2011). Revealed: 10 big Apple Store secrets. Retrieved May 27, 2012, from http://theweek.com .
Marshall, Gary. (2011). Inside Apple: Cupertino's secrets revealed. Tech Radar. Retrieved May
DSL access speeds are just slightly higher than dial-up and as a result often do not have the performance necessary for supporting multiple WiFi users. In these installations of DSL in high density urban locations including apartment buildings, the speed degradation is noticeable and immediate when someone else is also using the WiFi signal. Conversely the speed of a cable modem-based WiFi connection is at times so fast there is no noticeable speed degradation as a result. Those that contend that using a neighbor's WiFi signal when their neighbor is connected via cable modem seek rationalization for taking excess bandwidth, and is also the argument those people use who freely share their paid-for access (Dalton, 2008). The actual WiFi Access Point or transmitter in a persons' apartment or home can vary in broadcasting strength, with the most fundamental ones only capable of producing a strong enough signal for 50 feet.…
Brain Albright (2003, March). Wireless insecurity. Frontline Solutions, 4(3), 16-19. Retrieved October 31, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 315880611).
Stephen J. Conroy, Tisha LN Emerson. (2008). Ethical Cycles and Trends: Evidence and Implications. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(4), 905-911. Retrieved November 3, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1518109871).
Richard J. Dalton Jr. (10 August). Some Wireless Internet Subscribers Give Service to Neighbors Also. Knight Ridder Tribune Business News,1. Retrieved November 4, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Dateline database. (Document ID: 382700651).
Young Yong Kim, San-qi Li. (1999). Performance evaluation of packet data services over cellular voice networks. Wireless Networks, 5(3), 211-219. Retrieved November 4, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 399174691).
Ethics and the Internet
As the computer has evolved in the modern world, so the potential for communication has also increased. The computer, and the development of the Internet, has meant that human society has become more connected than ever before and the barriers between nations and people around the globe have been broken down. While this is a positive development in many ways, the growth of the Internet has also meant that there has been an increase in a wide range of new problems. One of these is the issue of ethics. "Just as ethics evolve as human societies grow and change, so similar ethical questions are raised during the evolution of this global electronic community." (Ethics on the Web)
The more that technology for communication and open publication of information advances, the more questions are raised about issues relating to moral codes of behavior and problems about what…
Ethics. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. March 11, 2005. http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/e/ethics.htm
Ethics on the Web. 1995, Accessed March 11, 2005, http://www.echonyc.com/~ysue/ethics.html
INTERNET ETHICS: OXYMORON OR ORTHODOXY? March 12, 2005.
Description of esearch Procedure
The study reviewed here was conducted in order to test whether the ethical standards were much more loosely based on individual decision practices rather than a larger universal underlying theme. esearchers used the Vignette method which is "a scenario-based approach that is about how managers (participants in this study) respond to certain ethical dilemma situations," (Kim & Chun 2003: 378). Thus, various situations within the context of marketing were given to the sample population of Korean managers as to find correlations and similarities within how Korean business is supposed to act when acting within the limitations of ethical practices. 473 original participants were given questionnaires, with 452 totaling the final number of answered questionnaires for analysis.
Flaws in Procedural Design
Yet, within the context of this study, only managers were included. There were no participants on the two extreme sides of the spectrum. No one form…
Kim, Sang Yong & Chun, Sung Yong. (2003). A study of marketing ethics in Korea: what do Koreans care about? Journal of Management. 20(3):377-379.
The problem is that there is no protection against this issue. This is due to the newsfeed in the profile of each user. The argument of the company is that the news feed will ensure the users get to see more content from others. however, this means that there is no certainty of the next item that the user will see on the news feed. This is a serious privacy issue to the user because they cannot view their news feed at free will because of fear on the content of the feed (Milenkovski, 2011, p1). This limits the convenience of this site to the users because of the indecency that arises out of the website.
In this instance, the company should introduce appropriate measures to curb against this issue on indecency. There should be software that detects some indecent language. This will then inhibit the viewing of such information…
Butler, E, McCann, E, & Thomas, J 2011, 'Privacy Setting Awareness on Facebook and Its
Effect on User-Posted Content', Human Communication, 14, 1, pp. 39-55,
Communication & Mass Media Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 29 April 2012.
Claypoole, T., & Payton, T. (2012). Protecting your Internet identity: are you naked online?
Ethics and Promoting Your Site
Search Engine Optimization -- SEO techniques is the methodology of making a website and its content more relevant for search engines and eventually for the user community who search them through 'keywords' and 'phrases' for getting appropriate results. The entire process includes making strategies to enhance web pages so that they are able to gain a higher ranking in actual search engine results. The ideal scenario is the particular enterprise's website to get listed on the first page of search engine results when the targeted keywords and phrases are searched and for this the enterprise's website needs to be optimised for these terms. (Majchrzak, 2008)
Unethical marketing techniques used in e-business:
An ongoing debate often encountered is what is "unfair" or "unethical" in promoting website for e-business. Essentially the objective of SEO is to manipulate the search engines into ranking the particular site…
Dunford, Terry. (2008) "Advances Search Engine Optimization: A logical Approach"
American Creations of Maui.
Jenkins, Sue. (2007) "Web Design: The L. Line, The Express Line to Learning"
Ethics are often stronger than the laws of the land. Laws are cobbled together by special interests and have little to do with right and wrong, or personal ethical codes. For most people, their own personal codes of ethics will be stronger than the laws. People are much less likely to violate their own personal ethical codes than the laws.
Morals are codes of conduct put forward by a society, often within the context of a cultural or social group. Ethics are, following the Aristotelian tradition, a general guide to behavior that an individual adopts as his own guide to life (Gert, 2011). The relationship between the two is self-evident: while ethics are individual they are often strongly influenced by society's moral context.
Kohlberg (1971) outlined morals are being pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional. Pre-conventional morals are in the obedience and punishment orientation and the self-interest orientation. Like when you learn…
Anderson, K. (2009). Ethnographic research: A key to strategy. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://hbr.org/2009/03/ethnographic-research-a-key-to-strategy/ar/1
Gert, B. (2011). The definition of morality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://plato.stanford.edu /entries/morality-definition/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Ethics are at the core of human behavior and decision-making. This paper evaluates the results of the Ethics Awareness Inventory, a proprietary software designed to measure a person's ethical stance. The results of the Ethics Awareness Inventory can be applied to that person's psychology, and can help supervisors make human resources decisions related to the individual. Moreover, organizational psychologists especially benefit from ethical inventories. It is important to apply ethical awareness and psychological principles to personal, social, and organizational issues.
The Ethics Awareness Inventory is proprietary software designed to profit off of the need to evaluate and analyze every single human decision. Available for a select group of people, the Ethics Awareness Inventory "is a program that can evaluate one's ethical style," in the same way a quiz can evaluate what food, country, or sexual position is most appropriate (Collack, 2007). As with most quizzes, the Ethics Awareness…
Collak, V. (2007). Ethics awareness inventory. Retrieved online: http://collak.net/index.php?view=article&id=50&tmpl=component&print=1&page&Itemid=60&option=com_content
"Ethical Leadership," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_58.htm
ETHICS & INFOMATION TECHNOLOGY
Ethics & Technology
The first aspect of this article that struck the author is how human beings began as hunter-gatherers of food, materials for shelter, and defense -- and now human beings are hunter gatherers of information. Just as hunting and gathering affected the kind of society humans were millions of years ago, hunting and gathering information in the 21st century affects the kinds of societies present in the west and in other cultures that are technologically advanced as well as technologically integrated to a substantial degree. While the materials that we hunt may have changed, the urge and commitment to hunting and gathering remains strong in the human species.
The article is a general meditation on ethics during the information age, now, and what the implications for ethics are with the advent of technologies that change our daily lives. In this way, the topic of…
Introna, L.D. (2002) The (im)possibility of ethics in the information age. Information and Organization, 12, 71 -- 84.
Mason, R.O. Four Ethical Issues of the Information Age. Available from http://www.ida.liu.se/~TIMM32/docs/4etical.pdf . 2012 May 29.
This was vey difficult to accomplish given the vaious legal systems globally yet Apple was able to define thei own MP fomat, which helped to futhe diffeentiate thei poducts elative to mainsteam MP3 music files and systems (Knapp, 2009). This technology diection helped to also establish pecedence of digital ights owneship as well. Apple had been successful in monetizing the inheent collaboative aspects of the Intenet by ceating an entie platfom capable of gowing to suppot all foms of digital content. This has esulted in the eventual inclusion of video capability in all iPods, the launch of the iPad, and the aggessive launch and development schedules fo the iPhone. All of these devices ae inheently designed to captue, stoe, shae, and publish digital video. The eventual inclusion of digital video content that is licensed and confoms to the same legal constucts as iTunes music means the taditional television, movies and…
references for online music services. Applied Economics, 42(30), 3885.
Knapp, S.. (2009). Ooyala - Accelerating the evolution of online video - an Interview with Sean Knapp of online video publishing. Journal of Digital Asset Management, 5(5), 264-273.
Deana Sobel. (2007). A Bite out of Apple? iTunes, Interoperability, and France's Dadvsi Law. Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 22(1), 267-291.
If the question put to the competitive intelligence team were, "how can we make a product that consumers want to buy?," and if this question were at the forefront of every action, there would be no need for unethical behavior. For an issue like product design, we would not need to try to copy another company's interface, but would instead study why that interface was popular with consumers, and attempt to emulate and accentuate those same features. The same principle applies in many other areas of competitive intelligence research; having a shred objective with inherent values is a great ethical motivator.
Though most software defects and up amounting to mere inconveniences with end users, there are definitely circumstances where even minor defects can be compounded into truly life-or-death problems. In many medical applications, for instance, or in certain transportation software -- train and track organization and air traffic control…
Ethics in Software and Copyright Infringements in the Balkans
The first point one has to look at is the situation in these countries and their position in terms of development as also the size of the potential market. There are a total of eight countries and most of them have been in political turmoil till about ten years ago. These countries are all breakaway portions of other bigger countries, or the soviet empire. The software market is small but there are already participants in it from United States which means that there is a lot of future potential development. On the side of the governments there are definite efforts to legalize the situation of software, though full achievement will take quite sometime. At the same time, there are a lot of conflicts within the big names in the industry -- Microsoft and Linux -- and this is leading to advantages…
A country-by-country looks at the Balkans. (1999) The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved from www.csmonitor.com/durable/1999/03/16/p12s2.shtml Accessed on 2 August, 2005
58 items found for Balkans. Retrieved from http://search.ebay.com/Balkans Accessed on 1 August, 2005
Jovanovski, Mirche. (2003) Government Chooses Microsoft, Irritating the Open Source Software Proponents. Retrieved from http://www.realitymacedonia.org.mk/web/news_page.asp?nid=2767 Accessed on 1 August, 2005
Mellon supports expanding subsidiaries with Altitude Software. (2005) Retrieved from http://www.strategiy.com/inews.asp?id=20050711092211 Accessed on 1 August, 2005
Ethics of Marketing esearch in the Internet Era
Increasingly, management is being taken to be a critical production factor alongside the other factors of production. It therefore follows that the success of a business enterprise is largely hinged on the ability of management to make superior decisions. However, for managers to make effective decisions, they not only need a supportive decision making environment but also a set of tools to enhance their ability to correctly analyze and interpret information so as to advance the agenda of the business in an increasingly competitive marketplace. Marketing research is one such tool.
Marketing esearch as a Management Tool
The relevance of marketing research as a decision making tool for management cannot be overstated. According to Blankenship, Breen and Dutka (1998), marketing research can be taken to be "the systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data and findings relevant to a specific situation…
Blankenship, A.B., Breen, G.E. & Dutka, A.F. (1998). State of the Art Marketing Research. McGraw-Hill Professional.
Boone, L.E. & Kurtz, D.L. (2011). Contemporary Marketing. Cengage Learning.
Evans, A.N., & Rooney, B.J. (2010). Methods in Psychological Research. SAGE
Haugtvedt, C.P., Machleit, K.A. & Yalch, R. (2005). Online Consumer Psychology: Understanding and Influencing Consumer Behavior in the Virtual World. Routledge Keillor, B.D. (2007). Marketing in the 21st Century: Interactive and Multi-Channel Marketing. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Ethics and IT
Ethics and Information Technology
Doing Ethics Analysis
This case concerns trade secret misappropriation and theft of intellectual property, as well as issues of surveillance and cybercrime. Sergey Aleynikov attempted to steal computer code from Goldman Sachs in order to build competing technology for his new employer. Goldman Sachs prosecuted Aleynikov and won a conviction. The case discusses applicable case laws, including the difficulty of enforcing non-compete and non-disclosure agreements.
Sergey Aleynikov was employed by Goldman Sachs, and as part of his employment, had signed a confidentiality agreement. Aleynikov found new employment with Teza Technologies, where he was hired to build a high-speed trading platform to compete with Goldman Sachs. On his last day of employment for Goldman Sachs, Sergey Aleynikov downloaded proprietary high-speed trading computer code for use in his new employment at Teza Technologies. Aleynikov attempted to cover up evidence of his theft by erasing and…
Australian Computer Society Code of Ethics. University of Western Australia website. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from http://undergraduate.csse.uwa.edu.au/units/CITS3200/ethics/acs-ethics.htm
Mastin, L. (2011). Basics of Philosophy. Retrieved April 28., 2011 from http://www.philosophybasics.com/branch_contractarianism.html
Sevenoaks School Philosophy Department. (2011). Ethics. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from http://www.sevenoaksphilosophy.org/ethics/egoism.html
Simpson, C. (2003). Doing Ethics: A universal technique in an accessibility contest. Retrieved April 29, 2011 from http://dl.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/159/141
Still, MIT countered "Our mission statement talks about principled, innovative leaders and we take the principled part seriously." (AP ire, 2005)
Part II. The impact of technology on work-related stress
ork should be growing less stressful -- given the ubiquity telecommuting, and the increased swiftness and interconnectedness of technical innovation that connects the individual to the workplace via the Internet. (Olson, 2003) However, the easier it becomes to get 'connected' to work, quite often the more the stress of the workforce bleeds into the quality life of one's home and the higher the expectations demanded of conscientious employees.
Cite a specific example (from work, industry, media etc.) where technology played/will play a role in an organizations behavior
For example, the connective nature of work enabled by the Internet, specifically with high-speed connections such as broadband, and when complimented with wireless phones, video conferencing, and other technologies, have enabled some workers…
AP Wire. (9 Mar 2005) "Harvard rejects those who saw Admissions." The New York Times. Retrieved 10 Mar 2005 at http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/business/AP-Business-School-Hacker.html
Olson, Elizabeth. (24 Aug 2003) Executive Life; at Home (of Course) With a Telecommuter." The New York Times. Retrieved 10 Mar 2005 at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F60F1FF83F5D0C778EDDA10894DB404482
Marketing obacco Dilemma
After returning from Ohio on a road trip, some friends informed us that on the way back home while gassing up, they were asked by kids on two different occasions to buy them some cigarettes. Our friends told the kids no on each occasion. What does this isolated observation have to do with the tobacco industry? he tobacco industry has continued to market their products to children throughout the nation, and they have even gone after kids in other nations. "Since the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) in 1998, tobacco advertising and promotion has significantly increased in the retail environment." (New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services) he description of the kids, obviously minors, asking an adult to buy them cigarettes is illegal. What the tobacco industry has continued to do in regard to marketing cigarettes to kids is immoral, unethical and illegal. his paper…
The tobacco industry has been forced to look abroad to sell the majority of their cigarettes and third world countries may be perfect targets. "By the year 2000, 80% of the world's population will live in less-developed countries. These countries already consume more tobacco than the developed countries." (Chapman & Leng, 2004) The United States tobacco giants have gone as far as litigate through international courts to forcefully open up third world nations' markets to tobacco products. In 2000, the Tobacco giants together sued Thailand in General Agreement and Tariffs and Trade court to reduce their tobacco tariffs. The U.S. Tobacco companies were working feverishly to maintain their profitability but they are clearly going about it through an unethical marketing effort.
We all know that how a product is marketed can make a huge difference in sales. "Brazil also has probably the highest level of tobacco advertising per capita in the world. When advertising stopped for a year, cigarette sales fell 4.8% in nine months." (Chapman & Leng, 2004) The American Cancer Society continues to be critical of U.S. tobacco companies' marketing strategies. Everyone hears about the United States' trade surplus. But not many people ever hear that the United States has become the largest exporter of tobacco products in the world. Our tobacco companies have been chastised because they not only sell a product they know is harmful; they boost the very properties that make the product bad when selling abroad. In other words, they sell cigarettes with tar levels that are higher than the products sold in the United States. The worst part of this is that their marketing strategy is directed at women and children in countries that never had high levels of smokers.
There have to be alternatives to this approach of selling high tar laced cigarettes in third world nations to women and children. It just sounds wrong because it is wrong.
The housing market was already strong, but the elimination of practical reasons for validating lender information opened several doors very wide, each with an unpleasant surprise hidden behind it. First, because realtors earn their commissions based on sales and on the relative value of property, they have little incentive to disqualify bad risks of eventual mortgage default. Second, banks became equally unconcerned with the veracity and accuracy of the financial information provided by prospective home buyers and it was no longer in anybody's interest to curb increasing home values. Third, the reliance on credit on the part of so many Americans fueled a housing and property development boom in many areas. Multiple Ethical Violations Provide the Ignition for Economic Disaster:
Lack of concern for verifying lender qualifications became so rampant in the first part of the 21st century that lenders offered "no-doc" loans that required no formal documentation of income…
Daft, R. (2005) Management 7th Edition. Mason: Thomson South Western
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005)
Psychology and Life 18th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Halbert, T., Ingulli, E. (2000) Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Ethics of Society, Technology, And the Environment
Ethics of Society, Technology and Environment
Being the member of the human society in 21st century is like to be the witness of the breathtaking technological revolution. Society, technology and environment are the three vertices of a same triangle and hence connected to each other. As a result they tend to have inter-related influences and affects. With the advancements and immense developments in the fields of science and technology, the life particularly in 21st century has taken an almost new turn. The glance on the ancient or earlier times would prove that, the life then, was completely different.
By ethics we mean, those specific standards which determine the functioning of the system for which they are defined. Ethics of society, technology and environment are thus those set generalized standards for the safety and preservation of the environment and nature along with the technological…
Kaku, Michio. Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny and Our Daily Lives by the Year 2100. New York: Doubleday, 2011. Print.
Keogh, Martin, ed. Hope Beneath Our Feet. North Atlantic Books, 2010. Print.
"What Can You Do? -- Environmental Protection Agency. EPA online,
7 July. 2011. Web. 11 July. 2011.
Policies are becoming commonplace as a result. The paradox of e-mail and Internet monitoring within corporations is on the one hand anchored by the many legal precedents of corporations being held liable for their employee's illegal activity (Wakefield, 2004) yet too much constraints on this and other forms of communication directly impact their performance and morale. Intermediating these two extremes is the role of education to provide the necessary insights into why specific safeguards are critical for ensuring the corporation does not inadvertently expose itself to legal risks by being too loose with policies yet concentrating enough on privacy and ethicacy issues of employees so as not to hinder their productivity and ownership of their jobs. Balancing the rights of any corporation to monitor e-mail traffic needs to be balanced against the rights of individuals to privacy.
obin L. Wakefield (2004). Computer Monitoring and Surveillance. The CPA Journal, 74(7), 52-55.…
Robin L. Wakefield (2004). Computer Monitoring and Surveillance. The CPA Journal, 74(7), 52-55. Retrieved February 27, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 663573171).
For example, if the mother has a computer at home and uses it regularly the hygienist can suggest some Web sites that contain information about the oral health effects of tobacco use. The mother might want to learn more about oral health in general, which would encourage her to monitor Jason's habits and scrutinize his behavior to the point where she might notice if he had been smoking. If Jason's oral health deteriorated over time, the hygienist might need to make more overt statements to the mother such as, "Jason assured me that he is not using tobacco, but I am concerned about the lesions in his mouth." The hygienist also needs to confide in the presiding dentist.
3. Which of the ethical principles apply to this situation? Explain your response from both the dental hygienist's perspective and the patient's perspective.
The dental hygienist is experiencing an ethical dilemma. On…
Arguably the deficiencies in processes and technologies throughout the distribution channel enable the unethical sharing of digital property by consumers in the first place. it's as if the incompetence of these channel partners' platforms, either from a website standpoint with the support of DM technologies or the reliance on faulty, often poorly designed DM systems, technologies and techniques create much opportunity to take digital and intellectual property and repurpose it illegally across P2P sites that seek to make all music egalitarian (Lysonski, Durvasula, 2008). it's as if the mid-tier of the distribution channel is leaving the door open wide enough from an intellectual property standpoint to allow for individuals to selectively choose which songs, digital products of all sort, and what platforms they want to repurpose them on (Levin, Dato-on, Manolis, 2007).
When the music distributors, both in the form of traditional forms including music stores selling CDs and non-traditional…
Altschuller, S., & Benbunan-fich, R.(2009). Is music downloading the new prohibition? What students reveal through an ethical dilemma. Ethics and Information Technology, 11(1), 49-56.
Banerjee, a., Faloutsos, M., & Bhuyan, L. (2008). The P2P war: Someone is monitoring your activities. Computer Networks, 52(6), 1272.
Norman E. Bowie. (2005). Digital Rights and Wrongs: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Business and Society Review, 110(1), 77-96.
Ross Dannenberg. (2006). Copyright Protection for Digitally Delivered Music: A Global Affair. Intellectual Property & Technology Law Journal, 18(2), 12-16.
hat types of information does one need to gather to successfully design and implement a training solution?
The first question to consider when evaluating the training needs of various employees and designing a training solution would include -- what experience do the prospective users have with the types of applications and knowledge required to embark upon the proposed training course and successfully complete it? If the experience with the applications is minimal, it might be necessary to have instructors to facilitate the introduction into the new application, or to expand the training solution to include more remedial skills work.
Next, a training designer would have to ask what level of computer or Internet skills do the users have -- are these skills similar to those required by the new application or are they profoundly different? If profoundly different, the training procedure and even the initial assessment procedure itself may…
"Front End Analysis." (2003) George Mason University Resources for IT. Retrieved 25 Feb 2005 at http://classweb.gmu.edu/ndabbagh/Resources/Resources2/FrontEnd.htm
Creating reporting agencies that know how to deal with such information in a proactive manner is necessary, rather than relying upon the media to publicize the negative information.
The lack of protective legislation is another problem. However, there is often great difficulty in generating legislative and popular support for protections to be accorded to whistle-blowers. Historically, many whistleblowers are like Daniel Ellsberg, who revealed the true nature of the war in Vietnam to the American public -- they have embarrassed organizations or companies with powerful interests in Congress. Other whistleblowers seem to have mixed motives for doing so, like whistle-blowing executives who testify against a corporation solely to protect their own skins in light of a coming financial debacle or ethical scandal.
Q3: What impact has it had on the standard of living and worker productivity?
In some ways, it has vastly improved the lives of workers -- workers can…
However, while there are investors willing to invest on the profitability of gambling on the Internet, there are still many investors that are reluctant to pursue an investment on online gambling because of the financial insecurity of these sites. These gambling sites are also known and are purportedly practicing "illegal transactions," since online gambling in the U.S. is prohibited. The lack of confidence in investing on online gambling and insecurity of the financial channels and transactions of these sites stem from the fact that "[t]here is also a question mark over whether U.S. banks and financial services businesses which process online gambling transactions are in breach of law" (egum, 2005:13).
However, the question of the legality of these online gambling sites are being put into scrutiny. U.S. legislation has decided to deregulate online gambling through the 1961 Wire Act, with an updated version through the proposed bill Unlawful Internet Gambling…
Armitt, C. (2005). "One in three UK Internet users visited gambling sites in April." New Media Age.
Begum, H. (2005). "Wall Street banks shun online gaming floats." Lawyer, Vol. 19, Issue 35.
Chesler, C. (2006). "Taking a Gamble." Investment Dealer's Digest, Vol. 72, Issue 23.
Dudley, D. (2004). "Portals increase pressure to stop underage gambling." New Media Age.
Despite the fact that full body scanners may be the most technologically advanced equipment we could realistically put in an airport, they still have their shortcomings. Full body scanners can't see inside your body. Generally, the machines also can't find items stashed in a body cavity. This means that a determined terrorist could potentially store bomb materials or weapons inside their body, specifically in their anus. Since such a low dose of electromagnetic energy is beamed inside the people who enter the scanners, the images are only skin deep. So just how drug traffickers smuggle drugs inside their bodies, terrorists could do the same but with far more dangerous materials. As America witnessed with the failed shoe bomber, it does not take a great deal of free space to hide materials that could overthrow or take a plane down. For instance, C4 explosive, which is military grade, can be…
Advanced Imaging Technology (AIT). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.tsa.gov/approach/tech/ait/index.shtm
Brain, M. (2012). How Airport Full-Body Scanners Work -- and the huge national debate around the TSA right now. Retrieved from http://blogs.howstuffworks.com/2010/11/17/how-airport-full-body-scanners-work-
Eaton, K. (2009). Full-Body Scanners at Airports: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.
The sheer number and variety of sites where such ostensibly private information is made public can make it impossible for someone to truly get privacy.
What is remarkable is how well Dr. Moor did at predicting the ethical issues that would continue to be part of the Computer evolution. Even if computers are simply exacerbating existing ethical dilemmas, the fact that they are capable of doing so means that they are going to continue to present ethical problems. For example, when Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, slavery was already in existence and used through the American South. That Industrial evolution invention did not create the ethical issue of slavery. However, with the improved ability to process cotton, cotton suddenly became an incredibly profitable crop. The need for cheap labor jumped dramatically, which certainly increased the demand for slave labor. What that example makes clear is that even seemingly helpful…
Moor, J. (1985). What is computer ethics? Metaphilosophy, 16(4), 266-275.
The author identifies different type of ethical issues, which include:
Privacy & confidentiality,
Students can break the law by going against the laws on ethical issues. Thus, it is the responsibility of teachers to inform students about the importance of computer ethics. Teachers should be aware of their ethical responsibilities and play role models to assist students to learn by examples.
Part 2 - eflective Diary - the Internet and Ethical Values
Ethical values in the internet and information technology have become important issues within a business environment, and the rapid development cyber crimes have necessitated the needs to spread the ethical values within the it environment. More importantly, the cyberspace has become very importance in the cotemporary it environment because cyberspace assists people and organizations globally to communicate and transact business without limit. Thus, internet has become a necessary tool of doing business,…
Akcay, B. (2008). The Relationship Between technology and Ethics from Society to Schools.
Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE. 9(4), 120-127.
Baum, J.J. (2005). CyberEthics: The New Frontier. TechTrends, 49 (6), 54-55.
Frohmann, B. (2008). Subjectivity and Information Ethics. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(2):267 -- 277.
Labor and Ethics
The concept of ethics in both business and labor is one rife with contradiction. Especially today, where the public has come also to expect a degree of dishonesty, corruption and exploitation at the hands of corporate abusers, the notion of ethical practice may seem almost quaint. But as the text by Collins (2011), entitled Business Ethics, demonstrates quite effectively, ethical practice is exactly what is called for if we are to bring about order, stability and accountability in our economy. The discussion here addresses a number of issues, both relating to these institutional ethical practices and, subsequently, to the implications of ethics in the discussion on labor orientation.
Chapter 1, entitled "hy Do Good People Behave Unethically?," offers a number of discussion points that help us to understand the impact the organizational or institutional ethics can have on individual decision-making. The chapter…
Collins, D. (2011). Business Ethics. John Wiley & Sons.
ethics of discarded computers. Discussed is John Stuart Mill's philosophy.
Response scenario: I have just worn out my fourth computer. I love a high speed computer, but I feel guilty when I buy a new one. A new computer is my top priority for a purchase, and I begin saving for a new one almost as soon as I have purchased one. I know that many people are just like me. There must be junkyards full of computers. hy is there such a waste with hardware and software in the computer industry. Should I try to get by with less? Two sources are used. APA.
Computer trash is certainly becoming a problem for societies everywhere. Some people try to make use of them by creating art, but that is a miniscule use of the millions of old computers one can see set out for the garbage men or…
Bergstrom, Bill. "Junked Computers Are Toxic Nightmare."
AP Online. May 7, 2000. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=AP_Online&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.ap.org&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=BILL+BERGSTROM%2C+AP+Business+Writer&title=Junked+Computers+Are+Toxic+Nightmare++&date=05%2D07%2D2000&query=discarded+computer+&maxdoc=60&idx=3.(accessed07-22-2002).
Fackler, Martin. "Chinese villages poisoned by American high-tech trash." AP Worldstream. March 01, 2002. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=AP_Worldstream&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.ap.org~S~&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=MARTIN+FACKLER%2C+Associated+Press+Writer&title=Chinese+villages+poisoned+by+American+high%2Dtech+trash++&date=03%2D01%2D2002&query=discarded+computer+&maxdoc=60&idx=5 accessed 07-22-2002).
First coming to theaters in 1984, The Terminator was a movie that captured audiences and enveloped them in a world of unknown- robots, intelligence, destruction and the future. The cyborg assassin in the movie fostered society's greatest fear- technology that developed so rapidly that people would not be able to control it. ut to what end could this scientific fantasy movie become a reality? Could the laptops that people use everyday suddenly be able to think, act and even cause the destruction similar to that in the blockbuster movie? As technology develops at a rapid pace in modern day society, it solicits the all important question, can computers think?
Foremost, an understanding to the term and concept of thinking must be established as a foundational framework to move forward with the dilemma of computers being able to think. There are two different components to the concept of thinking:…
Barnett, Emma. (2009, June 23). A robot displaying human emotion has been unveiled. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/5612292/A-robot-displaying-human-emotion-has-been-unveiled.html
Skirry, Justin. (2008, September 13). Rene descartes (1596 -- 1650): overview. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu /descarte/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
In the same year, the founders started a new company for computer development called the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation. By 1949, this company launched the BINAC or Binary Automatic computer. This computer made use of magnetic tape for the storage of data. Then this company was bought by emington and Corporation and the name was changed to Univac Division of emington and. This company was the organization to bring out UNIVAC which is one of the originals of the type of computers that are used today. (Inventors of the Modern Computer: The ENIAC I Computer - J Presper Eckert and John Mauchly)
1951 - UNIVAC begins to take over the business industries market:
Presper Eckert and John Mauchly set up their company and found their first client in the United States Census Bureau. The population of United States was growing very fast due to the baby boom that was taking place…
Bellis, Mary. "Inventors of the Modern Computer: The Atanasoff-Berry Computer the First
Electronic Computer - John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry." Retrieved at http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa050898.htm . Accessed 6 October, 2005
Bellis, Mary. "Inventors of the Modern Computer: The ENIAC I Computer - J Presper Eckert and John Mauchly" Retrieved at http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa060298.htm . Accessed 6 October, 2005
Bellis, Mary. "Inventors of the Modern Computer: The Harvard MARK I Computer - Howard
company's corporate social responsibility is to rectify the fraud and return the money to the customers. Moreover, the company needs to report the culprit to the authorities. If the culprit is my spouse's sibling, I would have a personal ethical responsibility to alert my spouse prior to taking action, but I would not allow any personal pleas for leniency to impede justice. Potential challenges might be the relationship with my spouse, but that is a personal challenge that has little to do with how to proceed with Dell. The concept of corporate social responsibility has more to do with broader issues, such as Dell's commitment to the environment or its policies about LGBTQ employees (Thorpe, 2013). However, this case does demonstrate more fundamental ethical tenets.
How I act in this scenario depends on whether or not the course is meaningful to me. Given I am performing at only 60%,…
Moseley, A. (2016). Egoism. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online:
Thorpe, D. (2013). Why CSR? Forbes. Retrieved online: http://www.forbes.com/sites/devinthorpe/2013/05/18/why-csr-the-benefits-of-corporate-social-responsibility-will-move-you-to-act/#2b6cb3fd5e1c
Technology / Privacy / orkplace
There is a rapidly increasing use of technological monitoring in the workplace, and while technology in general has been highly beneficial to companies, the use of some technologies has raised privacy and ethical concerns among employees. This paper reviews the available literature when it comes to workplace monitoring of employees and the ethical implications of that monitoring.
Is Privacy in the orkplace a Dying Notion?
The right to privacy is a nice idea, and in some instances and circumstances in the United States an individual can reasonably expect to have his or her privacy respected. ebsites, for example, notify users frequently that their privacy is important and it is being protected. However, when it comes to the workplace, in an age of increased reliance on electronic technology, management has been able to "…monitor virtually all workplace communications" that employees have access to.
Findlaw asserts that…
Davidson College. (2002). Descriptions of Ethical Theories and Principles. Retrieved March 8, 2015, from http://www.bio.davidson.edu .
Esikot, I.F. (2012). Globalization vs. Relativism: The Imperative of a Universal Ethics.
Journal of Politics and Law, 5(4), 129-134.
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2010). Consequentialism. Retrieved March 8, 2015,
Conflict of Interest
Should I, as principal investigator of a new drug that potentially could help those who suffer from Parkinson's disease, enroll my father, who has Parkinson's disease, in the study?
My Answer to the Question
First of all, the study entails a brand new drug that has not been researched previously. I am to study the "efficacy and safety" of a drug, we can assume is powerful, whether it is really the answer to Parkinson's or not. I would not enroll my father in this test for several reasons.
If it turns out the drug has harmful side effects I would not want to have subjected my father to that negative impact. Of course that may sound hypocritical because I would then be willing to subject other person's fathers to the potential negative impacts of this experimental drug. But other participants' families will no doubt sign off on…
Academy Health. (2004). Ethical Guidelines for Managing Conflicts of Interest in Health
Services Research. Retrieved March 17, 2015, from http://www.academyhealth.org .
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2015). Parkinson's Disease: Hope
Through Research. Retrieved March 17, 2015, from http://www.ninds.nih.gov .
Kinshuk, Liu, ., & Graf, S. (2009). Coping with mismatched courses: Students' behaviour and performance in courses mismatched to their learning styles. Educational echnology Research and Development, 57(6), 739-752. Retrieved from ERIC database.
Kinshuk and Graf first establish the fact that students are often required to learn material that is not adaptive to their preferred learning style. he work then goes on to analyze how an interactive adaptive online/computer aided system could aide these students in allowing individual learning through designs that were more adaptive to learning style preference (i.e. had multiple ways of learning the same material) the work indicates that non-adaptive computer aided designs, i.e. that simply teach with one learning style are not as effective as those which offer students in mismatched courses several ways to learn material.
Sahin, a., Cermik, H., & Dogan, B. (2010). Is it "Writing on Water" or "Strike it Rich?" he experiences…
This work analyses interactive complex group learning tasks through the implementation of computer learning models. The research indicates that the computer model must be structured in a specific way to best aide the student in finding answers to complex learning tasks. The model that was most effective involved task specific step processes organized in a linear way and computer aided scripting (through chat) to help the learner answer enduring questions about the subject and the computer program, with a pre-task orientation to the system by a computer learning aide live in the computer lab, where each student worked independently on his or her own computer.
Wang, S., & Heffernan, N. (2010). Ethical issues in computer-assisted language learning: Perceptions of teachers and learners. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(5), 796-813. Retrieved from ERIC database.
Wang and Heffernan discuss the issue of ethics as it is associated with Computer- Assisted Language Learning (CALL) as it has transitioned from stand alone formats to internet driven interactive learning. The researchers state that there has been a near complete lack of attention paid to online privacy and security in the classroom which could potentially create a demonstrative difficulty for computer aided learners and instructors as well as for the use of internet-based learning systems in general. The researchers seek to let their work serve as a starting point for a serious discussion about these issues, specific to the classroom and the industry of internet-based computer learning in general.
Ethics in Patents in Amazon One Click
Patents are meant to protect the intellectual property of the people who apply for them. They are given when the process is a unique idea, or it offers an improvement to an existing idea that does not infringe on the original patent and is itself unique. The question is not whether patents themselves are ethical, but whether a business requesting a patent for a process, in its entirety, is ethical. People with different philosophical outlooks would see this case very differently. On the one had rule utilitarian's would see the patent rules and judge based on that criteria whereas a natural rights theorist would have a completely different outlook. This paper looks at the patent application for Amazon's revolutionary "one-click" payment processing through the lens of both a rule utilitarian and a natural rights theorist and determine how a person with that…
ethics of Tomahawk missile use. The writer explains what tomahawk missiles are and how they work. The writer than discusses the cost of those missiles and the ethics of using them in attacks against enemies. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
As tensions mount between the United States and the Middle East, it appears that there will be a war. Using force to make nations comply is something that has been going on since the beginning of time. Sometimes it is done to bully a nation into giving up its rightful land, while at other times it is done for the protection of groups of people as well as the standard of freedom for mankind around the world. egardless of the reason wars and attacks are experienced there have been increasingly advanced weapons involved in those movements. Technology in recent years has allowed the advancement of many…
Tomahawk® Cruise Missile (Accessed 1-30-2003)
How Cruise Missiles Work (Accessed 1-30-2003)
http://ads.specificpop.com/pop_code;gid=17,pid=90,bid=602 by Marshall Brain
Ethics of Employee Location Monitoring
In the contemporary workplace, workers are usually aware that their computer activity, email, and phone conversations may be -- and probably are -- being monitored by their employer. Efforts to limit the consumption of offensive or pornographic material, use of company resources for non-work purposes, and desire to track employee behavior in order to improve efficiency leads managers to install keystroke logs, FID location tags, cell phone software, and "back door" computer tracking programs. Employees complain that they do not feel trusted by employers who use these strategies, and managers may not have clear guidelines for how to use the information they glean from covert employee monitoring. However, some of these techniques can be used to improve workplace safety and ensure, for example, that employees take regular breaks from work in order to reduce eye strain and the health dangers of sedentary work. Below, I…
Hartman, L.P. (2000). Technology and Ethics: Privacy in the Workplace. Business and Society Review 106:1, 1-27.
Kaupins, G., & Minch, R. (2005). "Legal and Ethical Implications of Employee Location Monitoring," HICSS, vol. 5, pp.133a, Proceedings of the 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
Ethical Issues in the Information Systems Within the Business Environment
In the contemporary business environment, information systems have revolutionized the strategy firms employ in doing businesses. Apart from increasing the customer market base, businesses have been able to carry out international businesses without leaving their physical locations. Moreover, advanced information systems have assisted increasing number of businesses to be more competitive both locally and internationally. Despite the benefits derived from the use of information systems, the firm still faces ethical issues in the businesses environment. A violation of privacy of customers, employee, and suppliers have been one of the ethical issues with the use of information systems. Fur example, an online business can assist firms to collect private information of their customers, which include the credit card information and other personal information. Many firms go to the extent of storing the credit card information of their customers thus violation privacy…
MacCormick expresses a similar argument, although in different terms. According to MacCormick, the law has no natural existence, no set form and no fixed ontology. In fact, according to this line of reasoning, "the law has no natural role because the law is not a brute fact."
Instead, the law is what MacCormick calls a "thought object," similar to the concept of Love presented in the other article. According to MacCormick's thought object, the law only exists because humans believe in it. In other words, the law does not pre-exist our observation but is instead is constituted in that original decision to designate a specific law. As MacCormick states, "Law is constituted as an object of observation by the very act of observation itself."
Since the law exist because of an observation, or a decision that a law is needed, MacCormick essentially agrees with the concept of Love in…
Bankowski, Z. (1996): Law, Love and Computers.
MacCormick, D.N. (1989): The Ethics of Legalism.
Copyright Infringement & the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998
This paper looks into the issues of copyright infringement and circumvention of technology with reference to Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998. The author of this paper has carefully studied the law in question and has focused on various issues connected with this legislation. DMCA is a highly controversial law that has been staunchly opposed and actively supported by different section of the public and it has managed to attract great deal of media attention because of various lawsuits that emerged in this connection. The paper looks into some important Court cases for impartial and objective study of the law.
DIGITAL MILLENNIUM COPYIGHT ACT
INTODUCTION TO DMCA
There has been a long-standing debate on the issue of freedom of speech in the United States. While the Constitution of the country explicitly grants American citizens the right to share information…
Chris Taylor/San Francisco, Throwing The E-Book At Him A programmer is prosecuted for enabling users to break the security in reader software., Time, 08-20-2001, pp. 62+
Voss, David, DIGITAL SECURITY: Music Industry Strikes Sour Note for Academics., Science, 05-04-2001.
Neil Ferguson, 'Censorship in Action, Why I don't publish my HDCP results', Aug 15, 2001 http://www.macfergus.com/neils/dmca/cia.html
Lev Grossman, Business/The Future of Copyright: Digital Divisiveness., Time, 08-28-2000, pp. 40.
Abortion: Ethical and Political Issues of RU 486
Abortion is a totally unacceptable, cruel and unethical practice and should be considered illegal except under some special cases and medical circumstances that indicate a danger to the mother. Our judicial system must consider the ethical and moral aspects of abortion as an intrinsic part of the problem when approaching this social issue. Even from the practical prospective the abortion pill RU486 has not been a breakthrough and instead of making abortion a private and safe method it has only increased the physical discomfort and the psychological ordeal for the woman.
Abortion is the one of the most debated social issues of this century. The controversy as to the right that man has over the life of a baby in the fetus and in controlling its entry into the world is a much-debated topic. Abortion is nothing but putting an end to…
Designed by 'RU486.com', "Abortion Procedures," Accessed on March 10th, 2003
BBC News, "Roe v Wade: Key U.S. abortion ruling" January 16, 2003 Accessed on March 12th, 2003
Ethics of Sustainable Design
How much water do I use in a day? How much electricity do I use daily? hat other resources do I count on and consume each day, like gasoline, food, paper products, ink, and other materials? This paper is a fine way for me to begin to catalogue those materials. This introduction is presented because looking back on a 24-hour period of time and the amount of energy I use just to go about my daily activities, I am using too much electricity, too much gasoline; and this review of my intake of resources also includes what I eat, drink, and otherwise use to get through a typical day.
A 24-Hour Inventory of my Consumption
In terms of electrical usage, as a writer and editor, and I use my computer, my printer, my wireless digital router every day of the year to some degree. Typically when…
Jefferson, Millie. 2012. 15 Ways to Reduce Your Carbon Footprint. Weekend America / Public
Radio. Retrieved September 7, 2012, from http://sustainability.publicradio.org .
Info.com. 2010. How much water does an average person use each day? Retrieved September
7, 2012, from http://topics.info.com.
The Nike ethical dilemma
The Nike Company is undoubtedly ne of the most established companies with a strong brand across the globe. It has a big name a wide coverage across the globe hence by 2007 it was estimated to have employed 30,000 people across the globe and had $16 billion in terms of revenues. They have most of their factories located in the Asian countries like Malaysia, Pakistan, India, Indonesia, China, Taiwan, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Though it was predominantly a shoe manufacturer and seller, Nike diversified their dealings into other merchandise like the wears in tennis, badminton, baseball, golf, cricket among other sports (Nike Inc. 2010).
Nike has had several accusations over the decades of having their products being made in "sweatshop." This means they have employees who are underage working in deplorable conditions with meagre pay that can only be referred to as below subsistence. It…
Nike Inc. (2010). Annual report pursuant to section 13 and 15(d) Filed on 7/20/2010. Retrieved October 28, 2014 from http://investors.nikeinc.com/files/doc_financials/AnnualReports/2010/docs/NIKE_2010_10-K.pdf
TED Case Studies, (2014). NIKE: Nike Shoes and Child Labor in Pakistan. Retrieved October 28, 2014 from http://www1.american.edu/ted/nike.htm
Stage 1 or Understanding the Problem
The UP recommends using business use cases for locating purposes which have two qualities:(1) easy to understand and (2) easy for the client to use. The UP does not clarify how these "use cases" should be analyzed to determine what is in the NIMSAD purview. To identify sections of the business that need to be examined, ETHICS uses a stakeholder method that demonstrates all parties interacting with the system. ETHICS harbors a more "macro-view" in comprehending project priorities.
Step 2: Diagnostic Evaluations
The UP does not attempt to challenge any requirements which devolve from the client. There is no way to accurately analyze whether total autonomy of the system would provide any productive cost-benefit analysis for the overall organization. ETHICS advises that analysis should be conducted on the current situation to prevent the analyst from developing "tunnel vision" and focusing on the first solution…
Avison, D. & Fitzgerald, G. (2006). Information Systems Development Methodologies, Techniques & Tools, 4th Edition,
Ahamd, SandJochen, K (2008). Welcome to the IBM Rational Unified Process and Certification.Available at http://www.ibmpressbooks.com/articles/article.asp?p=1155863&seqNum=2 [Accessed on 24/10/2010]
Boehm B, (1996). Anchoring the Software Process. IEEE Computer Society Press: USA. Vol 13 (4).
Personal and Business Ethics
elationship of Personal and Business Ethics
Ethics is an umbrella term with a vast number of definitions, at a high level ethics can be described as a set of rules, moral values, or principles that one follows. Two of the major subsets of ethics are personal ethics and business ethics. Personal ethics are each person's own individual set of rules and moral values that they choose to follow in their life. For example one person's ethics may be that they choose to not steal or lie. Business ethics similarly are a set of rules or principles that an employee at a company must follow. For example an employee's work ethic might be to use their work computer for only business purposes. In the following personal and business ethics will be compared; it will be shown that sometimes these two types of ethics overlap, but are in…
Dolgoff, R., Loewenberg, F., & Harrington, D. (2009). Ethical Decisions. New York: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Vallario, C. (2007, May 1). Is your ethics program working? Financial Executive. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from http://accounting.smartpros.com/x57555.xml