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Violence in Web-Based and Computer Games on Adolescents
Playing video and computer games is a treasured leisure activity among many young people today, and these young players frequently prefer violent games. Studies suggest that exposure to media violence may adversely affect young people's attitudes and behavior. Further, self-concept is a key indicator of core attitudes and coping abilities, and, for adolescents, the evolution of the sense of self is a fundamental developmental activity (Buchman & Funk, 1996). The average adolescent in the United States spends over 6 hours a day in front of some sort of video screen such as a television, computer, video games, the Internet and movies, and the total actually exceeds the amount of time children spent in school today (Smoots, 2003). In fact, while watching or playing video games, children in the United States will have witnessed around 200,000 violent acts and 16,000 murders on television…
Ballard, M.E. & Lineberger, R. (1999). Video game violence and confederate gender: Effects on reward and punishment given by college males. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 541.
Buchman, D.D. & Funk, J.B. (1996). Playing violent video and computer games and adolescent self-concept. Journal of Communication, 46(2), 19-27.
Certain Toys Trigger Aggression. (December 2003). USA Today Magazine, 132(2703), 7.
Dietz, T.L. (1998). An examination of violence and gender role portrayals in video games: Implications for gender socialization and aggressive behavior. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Volume: 38(5-6), 425.
Gaming addicts such as me, who attempt to totally abstain from gaming, normally suffer from withdrawal symptoms. These symptoms vary among different individuals. However, majority of us have discovered that we possessed several common symptoms. Personally, I decided to "detox" for a 3-day duration during the weekend where the symptoms were quite serious. During these three days, however, I experienced symptoms of withdrawal.
Some of the withdrawal symptoms that I experienced include:
Unmanageable or changing emotions and mood swings
Trouble with social relations and facing responsibilities
Sleep modifications: excessive sleep or insomnia
Feeling greatly drawn to other electronic forms of entertainment
Obsessive thoughts regarding in-game allies
Dreams and fantasies regarding the game, or regarding being part of the game
estless, unsatisfying, hurting dreams
Furious and impatience outbursts
A feeling of loneliness, emptiness, and/or unhappiness
Lack of inspiration or direction
Lack of any kind of interest of life's…
Video Game Addiction.(n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2015, from http://www.video-game addiction.org/social-consequences.html
Video Games.(n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2015, from http://www.addictionrecov.org/Addictions/?AID=45
Video gaming withdrawal symptoms. (2014). Retrieved November 17, 2015, from http://cgaa.info/gaming-withdrawal-symptoms/
The Voice of Addiction. (2014). Retrieved November 17, 2015, from http://cgaa.info/the-voice of-addiction/
Quite to the point, television, film, pop music and video games share in common a proclivity to promote that which yields prosperity. Thus, there is little regard from the computer gaming industry for indications that "a meta-analytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults." (Anderson & Bushman, 353)
In spite of this, revenue for video game produces revolves on role-playing titles such as orld of arcraft, which promotes fantasy world combat, simulation games such as Grand Theft Auto, which glorifies violence and antisocial behavior, Halo, the simulated first-person shooter game, and Madden Football, which portrays in detail the often brutal sport of football.
Connecting absorption of such media with the commitment of violent crimes remains a challenge however. Famously, the two minors responsible for the massacre at the Columbine High School in 1999 were noted for playing such…
Anderson, C.A. & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive Cognition, Aggressive Affect, Physiological Arousal, and Prosocial Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature. Psychological Science, 12(5), 353-359.
Harding, a. (2009). Violent Video Games Linked to Child Aggression. CNNHealth. Online at http://www.cnn.com/2008/HEALTH/family/11/03/healthmag.violent.video.kids/index.html
The I/O structure is of great importance because of the reason that it makes the connection between the computer and the player. It consequently is the message of the designer sent to the player with the help of the computer. I/O is created out of input and output. The output of the game refers to the graphics and to the sound coming from the computer and the speakers. Designers are dedicated to having the graphics of games as good as they can because of the fact that people generally pay more attention to visual effects than to sound effects.
The input of the game refers to the player's interference in the game with the help of the contact that the player has with the keyboard, the mouse, or the joystick. Game designers had often failed from having a success with their games because of joysticks which had not been…
Bellis, Mary. Computer and Video Game History. Retrieved November 26, 2008 from About.com Website: http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blcomputer_videogames.htm
Crawford, Chris. (1997). The Art of Computer Game Design. Retrieved November 26, 2008 from Washington State University Vancouver Website: http://www.vancouver.wsu.edu/fac/peabody/game-book/Coverpage.html#TOC
Player-centric design. Retrieved November 26, 2008 from a series of Tubes Website: http://aseriesoftub.es/blog/2008/1/26/player-centric-design
Moreover, it has also to be ensured that the motherboard contains expansion slots built into the board, and not built into the expansion board which plugs into the motherboard.
Memory: The memory located inside the computer is called as the andom Access Memory (AM). This AM is place where CPU temporarily stores information, which it needs to perform a function. The quantum of memory is directly related to the extent of complicated functions it is able to perform. It is important to get a system having at least 256 MBs AM or 512 MBs or higher is preferred. For the greater part, the more memory to which the system can be upgraded to in future is better. The latest software programs are always extremely resources hungry.
Input-devices: - Input devices are employed to enter information and direct the commands to your computer. The two most typical input devices are a…
Improve Your Computer's Performance. Retrieved at http://h50055.www5.hp.com/smb/ph/resources/improve.aspxAccessed on 27 November, 2004
Purchasing a Computer Investing in Your Career. Union Technologist. No: 52 January 2001. Retrieved at http://www.chtu.org/Tech/Tech52.html#waitAccessed on 28 November 2004
Purchasing a Computer System. The Computer Specialist. Retrieved at http://www.coroneldp.com/Prchtips.htm . Accessed on 28 November 2004
Upgrading Your Computer Components. March, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.techsoup.org/howto/articlepage.cfm?ArticleId=142&topicid=1Accessed on 27 November, 2004
computers and culture, using the book "Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology," by Neil Postman, and other resources. Specifically, it will answer the questions: How have computers and computer networks changed human thinking, behavior, and lifestyle? What has been gained? What has been lost? What are the advantages of computers in communication? In education? In entertainment? In the economy? What are the disadvantages in these areas? Is computer technology creating winners and losers, or furthering social stratification? Have we become too dependent on computers? Do computers limit social skills and physical activity to a damaging degree? Why or why not? Computers have changed our national culture and our global culture, and not always for the better. When they were first developed for the mass market, computers were meant to increase productivity and cut down on paper work. Today, computers have permeated every section of our lives, and our culture.…
Berg, R. Dreyer. "Our Computational Culture: From Descartes to the Computer." ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 51.2 (1994): 123+.
Marsha Kinder, ed. Kids' Media Culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999.
Perrolle, Judith A. "Information, Technology, and Culture." The Relevance of Culture. Ed. Morris Freilich. New York: Bergin & Garvey Publishers, 1989. 98-114.
Postman, Neil. Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology. New York, Vintage Books, 1992.
Computer Games esearch
When considering the short history of computers, video and PC gaming are very recent on the timeline of technology. This is one of the reasons why there have not been many conclusive studies on the negative and/or positive effects of electronic games on children and young adults -- the most formative years. With the ever-increasing interest and involvement of children in this activity, much concern has been expressed about the impact of these games, especially ones of a more violent nature, on physical and psychological development. At the crux of the debate is the question of whether they are detrimental to a young person's health. There are specific concerns about such factors as aggression, addiction, criminal activity, obesity and reduced academic achievement.
Studies thus far show both positive and negative results from playing video and PC games. Some research finds that the playing or observing of violent…
Anderson, C.A., and K.E. Dill "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 78, 772-790.
Ask, A., Autoustinos, M., and A.H. Winefield, "To kill or not to kill: Competitive aggression in Australian adolescent males during videogame play." Children in the New Media Landscape. C. van Feilitzen and U. Carlsson (Eds.). Goteborg, Sweden: UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 2000.
Bowman, R.P. And J.C. Rotter. "Computer games: Friend or foe?" Elementary School Guidance and Counselling, 1983, 18, 25 -- 34
Calvert, S.L., and S. Tan, (1994). "Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1994, 15, 125-139.
This is what creates the continual need to share literally everything going on in their lives, as each post releases a significant dopamine rush (Charman-Anderson, 17, 18).
Dopamine is also the reason why the many forms of computer addiction are so difficult to treat. ith anonymity comes the opportunity to create multiple identities or personas online (Soule, 66, 67). This is what leads employees who have Internet addictions to create many different online identities, giving them ethical and moral leeway they would never give themselves. This aspect of personas and the forgiven unethicacy of conduct of personas is a key factor in online crimes committed by employees during company hours (Nykodym, Ariss, Kurtz, 82, 83). The personas of the addicted computer addicts are orchestrated for specific dopamine-driven production to fuel and feed habitual behaviors online
(Quinn 180). These strategies to ensure a steady supply of dopamine may not even be…
Charman-Anderson, Suw. "Seeking Addiction: The Role of Dopamine in Social Media." Computer Weekly (2009): 16-23.
Neumann, Peter G. "Are Computers Addictive?" Association for Computing Machinery.Communications of the ACM 41.3 (1998): 128-135.
Nykodym, Nick, Sonny Ariss, and Katarina Kurtz. "Computer Addiction and Cyber Crime." Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics (2008): 78-85. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 3 Dec. 2012.
Quinn, Brian. "The Medicalisation of Online Behaviour." Online Information Review 25.3 (2001): 173-80.
Computer History Museum: A virtual visit
Description of the event
The Computer History Museum has both an online and a 'real world' incarnation. It is a physical warehouse of different types of computers, a virtual catalogue of computer history throughout the ages, and also provides information about specific topics pertinent to computer history, such as the history of video games. The Museum contains artifacts such as the first calculators, 'punch cards' and online computers as well as information about their place in computer history. It makes a convincing case about the ubiquity of computers in everyday life from an early age, even though the contrast between the primitive nature of early computers and computers today is striking.
There is also a stark contrast between the functionality of early computers and computers today. The computers we use on a daily basis are multifunctional. People demand that their smartphones do everything from…
"The Web." Computer History Museum. [5 Dec 2012]
To some users of personal computers, who state, never trust a computer that you cannot lift; the IBM has been viewed, more often than not, as an enemy, and according to Byte, the computer magazine, this was because of the fact that the IBM company rose to fame mainly on the basis of its mainframe computers, that were large and forbidding, and overwhelmingly bulky. This was probably why, when the rest of the world was eyeing the emerging opportunities in the minicomputer market, the IBM never paid any attention, and even though IBM did succeed in capturing a large chunk of that market, it did not happen until Digital had captured the minicomputer market and had grown into a large corporation.
In the past few years, IBM has agreed to change the ways in which it conducts its business, and adapt to the changing times when the prices of computers…
Ellett, John. "About / Best Practices Center, Results Oriented Integrated Marketing the Dell
Way" Retrieved at http://www.nfusion.com/about/best_practices/Results-Oriented_Integrated_Marketing.html . accessed 27 July, 2005
Konrad, Rachel. (10 August, 2001) "From Bits to Boom, IBM PC turns 20" Retrieved at http://ecoustics-cnet.com.com/Mixed+record+as+PC+turns+20/2009-1040_3-271422.html . accessed 27 July, 2005.
Outsourcing Law, Deal structure, Case Study." Retrieved at http://www.outsourcing-law.com/DealStructures/IBM.Lenovo.2005.01.06.htm. accessed 27 July, 2005
Because of the standardization and flexibility of the mouse, software developers have considerable leeway in their engineering. Alternates to the mouse such as the light pen and tablet do not provide users with as robust and diverse usages as the mouse.
Mice, moreover, are inexpensive. Although users can opt for high-end mice, most standard mice and even optical and cordless mice are affordable for the average consumer. Early mice, contained in clumsy rectangular boxes, did not have the ergonomic or visual appeal of modern mice, which are easy and accessible for all users. Accessibility is another reason why the mouse has revolutionized computing. Disabled computer users who cannot access QWERTY keyboards can perform many functions using voice recognition software and basic mouse clicks.
Advancements in mouse technology have also enabled users to save considerable time and energy for their computing needs. For example, the right-click button often brings up menu…
Some nanorobots are being designed as "spray-on computers the size of a grain of sand." Edinburgh University has been working on nanorobots that can be sprayed onto patients as monitoring devices. They may be released for medical use in four years.
Quantum computers, based on principles like quantum entanglement and superposition, use the properties of particles. Quantum bits, called qubits, can process information faster than any existing computer technologies. A quantum computer can process many equations simultaneously. In a smaller space, using less energy, a quantum computer becomes more powerful than any commercial PC. In fact, Hertzog implies that quantum computers will mainly be used in fields demanding rapid data processing like the sciences or in cryptography.
Finally, one of the most promising future developments will be in the realm of artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence implies computers that can think critically and creatively, like human beings. The potential for artificial…
Hertzog, C. (2006). The future of computer technology. Tech Tips. Retrieved April 17, 2007 at http://www.geeks.com/techtips/2006/techtips-26nov06.htm
Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
Information technology and related systems provide multiple benefits to business, government, and individual users. Databases, Internet transactions, and emails contain sensitive customers, employee and operations data that are extremely vulnerable. The following study focuses on various components of IT and related systems used for the storage of information like computers, servers, and website databases. Whilst identifying the ways the date can be compromised and exposed to abuse, the study identifies ways of protecting and enhancing their integrity.
Types of information systems that that hold data
Computers do their primary work in parts that are not visible when using them. To do this, a control center that converts data input to output must be present. All this functions are done by the central processing unit (CPU) a highly complicated set of electric circuits that intertwine to store and achieve program instructions. Most computers regardless of…
Adikesavan, T.A. (2014). Management Information Systems Best Practices and Applications in Business. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
Bradley, T. (2006). Essential Computer Security: Everyone's Guide to Email, Internet, and Wireless Security: Everyone's Guide to Email, Internet, and Wireless Security. New York: Syngress
Khosrowpour M. (2006). Emerging Trends and Challenges in Information Technology Management: 2006 Information Resources Management Association International Conference, Washington, DC, USA, May 21-24, 2006 Volume 1. Washington: Idea Group Inc. (IGI)
Kim, D. & Solomon, M. (2010). Fundamentals of Information Systems Security. New York: Jones & Bartlett Learning
What were the ethical issues presented in the simulation?
The two scenarios had different ethical issues that presented themselves. The first scenario was about a contaminant that was found in a supplement that the company was using, and the second was about selling a defective product to buyers in another country. In the first ethical dilemma, the levels of contamination were lower than the FDA recommendation, but higher than the company standards. The task was to decide whether the company should recall the slightly tainted supplement or not. For the second dilemma, the issue was that the FDA had raised its standard and the marketing department was trying to get the inspector to sign off on selling the product in other countries where the standards were not as strict.
What decision-making steps did you take to ethically address these issues?
The steps were to follow the lenses and…
DeGeorge, R.T. (2005). Business ethics. Retrieved from https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/content/eBookLibrary2/content/eReader.aspx
University of Phoenix. (2002-2007). Ethics Game [Computer Software]. Retrieved from University of Phoenix, Simulation, MGT216 website.
Computer-mediated communication has "revolutionized social interaction," (Georgakopoulou, 2011, p. 93). On some days, I communicate with others more with digital devices than in person, such as days I am home studying. Instead of using the phone or talking in person, I will use messenger apps or email. Social media is also an important type of computer-mediated communication. It matters because of the ways technology transforms the nature of communication. The term "mediation" refers mainly to the means by which a message is transmitted (Thurlow, Lengel & Tomic, 2004, p. 18). When we are in person or even on the phone, our brains can pick up a slew of cues, such as tone of voice, pauses in the person's speech, pace of speaking, and other forms of non-verbal communication. We detect tone and emotion in body language, eyes, and timbre of voice. These cues are all absent in computer-mediated communication, with…
Sometimes everyone draws nine bones. Usually, in Dominican rules, if one player is blocked, he cannot play, has to pass, and does not draw from the bone yard; so those 27 bones are completely out of the game. In the variants of different cultures, sometimes the blocked player must draw one bone every time he passes, and in others must continue to draw bones until he has a play. ut that is the game's objective: block the other team's moves, while getting your bones onto the board. It sounds easy, but there is a complicated tango of mathematics and shrew guesswork involved. Dominoes is a game that permits, even necessitates, "card" counting, and it is this dance of four intelligences, drawing on their own wisdom and experience of the game, that makes for the competitive aspect.
Here is the most important thing to know about Dominican dominoes: Never, ever, place…
1. Dominoes. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web 23 March 2010
2. Board Games. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web 23 March 2010
" Shin (2006) Shin also states that the CMC literature "illustrates shifts of focus to different layers of context." Early on, research relating to CMC in language learning and teaching looked at the linguistic content of CMC text to examine how language learners could improve certain communication functions and learn linguistic figures through CMC activities (lake, 2000; Chun, 1994; Kern, 1995; Ortega, 1997; Pellettieri, 2000; Smith 2000, Sotlillo, 2000; Toyoda & Harrison, 2002, Tudini, 2003; Warschauer, 1996) Recent studies of "tellecollaborative projects have examined how language learners jointly construct the contexts of their CMC activities, as part of their focus on tensions among intercultural communication partners. (elz, 2003, 2003; Kramsch & Thorn, 2002; O'Dowd, 2003; Ware 2000, War & Kramsch, 2005) IN the study of Shin (2006) which was "informed by Ware's (2005) examination of a tellecollaborative communication project between American college students and German students" Shin (2006) looks into…
Introduction to Computational Linguistics (2006) Computer-Assisted Language Learning http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/ballc/ling361/ling361_call.html .
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Bakhtin, M.M. (1981). Excerpts from discourse in the novel. In M. Holquist (Ed.), The dialogic imagination: Four essays by M.M. Bakhtin. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Bateson, G. (2000). Steps to an ecology of mind: Collected essays in anthropology, psychiatry, evolution, and epistemology. Chicago, IL: University Of Chicago Press.
Specifications include an Intel Core i5-2300 Processor1 2.8GHz with Turbo Boost2 2.0 Technology running at 3.1GHz. The system will be configured with Microsoft Windows 7 Home operating system to support the multimedia requirements as defined. The memory configuration will be expandable to 16GB, and initially configured with 6GB of DD3 Dual-Channel 1333 MHz Memory. The initial configuration will support a 1.5TB SATA hard drive with the ATA disk controller down on the motherboard to save on costs. The motherboard has Intel HD Graphics 20008 chipsets integrated in, and there are 4 additional PCI slots available if and when the need arises for a more powerful graphics controller and processes. Also included in the baseline configuration is a16X DVD+/-/W Super Multi-Drive optical drive and Microsoft Office 2010. The motherboard is configured so that one PCI-E x16 and three PCI-E x1 slots available for future expansion. The system will have ten USB…
Brown, Bob. (1991, August). Intel Pushes into Market with New LAN Products. Network World, 8(33), 2
Intel Chipsets Lay Salt Creek, Weybridge Foundations. (2007, June). CRN,(CRNtech 6), 8.
Glenn R. Luecke, Ying Li, & Martin Cuma. (2007). Using benchmarking to determine efficient usage of nodes in a cluster. Benchmarking, 14(6), 728-749.
Luk, C., Newton, R., Hasenplaugh, W., Hampton, M., & Lowney, G.. (2011). A Synergetic Approach to Throughput Computing on x86-Based Multicore Desktops. IEEE Software, 28(1), 39-50.
Pervasive Video Games as Art
The form and function of art has evolved and changed quite a bit over the years, decades and millennia. Paintings and sculpture have been artistic mainstays for much to most of the world of the civilized human race. However, with the technological revolution that has roared up over the last fifty years or so, new forms of art have bubbled to the proverbial surface. Digital technology has enhanced prior forms of art e such as photography. Beyond that, completely brand new forms have art have been created and the latter is what this report is assessing in the form of pervasive video games. The depth and breadth of this art and the effects it has on its users and fans when done will are worthy of massive study and analysis both in this report and elsewhere.
Chapter I - Introduction
Video games, at this point…
Blizzard. "World of Warcraft." World of Warcraft. http://us.battle.net/wow/en / (accessed
May 29, 2014).
Bogost, Ian. Persuasive games: the expressive power of videogames. Cambridge, MA:
MIT Press, 2007.
Video Games on Children
Owing to the advent of digital media over the past few decades, technology has taken over many dimensions of the world and given the media a 360 degree turn by entirely switching the way it previously worked. The computer era not only changes the way transactions were done, documents were prepared, statistical tools were used and made the world global but it also changed the way sports and games were played. It converted the physical playground into a virtual one to quite a great extent and now, computer video games have become an increasingly important phenomenon of today for the entertainment of kids who now believe in virtual playgrounds (Anderson, Gentile, & Katherine E, 2007).
Every new change brings its pros and cons with it, and he computer era was a boom towards the video game industry which is still a significant use of computers…
Franciss, M., & Subramanian, A. This Is Not Just a Game Anymore. Mumbai: Diligent Media Corporations Ltd. 2012.
Anderson, C.A., Gentile, D.A. & Katherine E. Violent Video Game Effects on Children and Adolescents: Theory, Research, and Public Policy. Oxford University Press. 2007.
Associated Press. Monitoring video game violence - Expert's advice to. Ontario: The Guelph Mercury. 2006.
Billings Gazette, The (MT). Studies show children get hooked on addictive. The Billings Gazette 2011.
This term seems to have been coined in the 1990s when researchers were attempting to describe a constellation of behaviors observed in persons using the Internet to such an extent that it began to cause other aspects of their lives to become dysfunctional. The DSM-IV disorder most similar to the pattern of behaviors observed with overuse of video games is pathological gambling. Presumably, the more colloquial term addiction was derived from the similarities to gambling addiction. For this report, this pattern of heavy video game playing is referred to as "video game overuse." (Khan, 2007) Kahn additionally relates that: "Symptoms of time usage and social dysfunction/disruption appear in patterns similar to that of other addictive disorders. It is not clear whether withdrawal symptoms are associated with video game overuse; some excessive users do not exhibit "cravings" for the games if they are unavailable, while other users insist they cannot reduce…
Hauge, Marny R. And Gentile, Douglas a. (2003) Video game addiction among adolescents: associations with academic performance and aggression - Presented at Society for research in child development conference, April 2 -- 3 Tampa Florida.
Special Report: Video Game Addiction (2005) New Orleans WDSU.com. 24 Feb 2005. Online available at http://www.wdsu.com/news/4160216/detail.html .
Khan, Mohamed K. (2007) Emotional and Behavioral Effects, Including Addictive Potential, of Video Games. Report of the Council on Science and Public Health. CSAPH Report 12-a-07
Computer Games Addiction (2005) National Institute on Media and the Family. Online available at http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_gameaddiction.shtml
For instance, an outcast child has a high possibility of gaining his/her social stand only because he/she is devoted to playing video games (Marino n.p.). In addition, as the evolution of the high-tech devices continues, the involvement of the children in playing video games gives them the high opportunity and assistance necessary in releasing their frustrations and stress in a safer manner and in a controlled environment hence a chance to manage any hostile characters rather than encouraging them. For instance, a child who do not play video games frequently, can significantly benefit from releasing stress by spending approximately 15 to 20 minutes in playing video games (Marino n.p.). Moreover, the change in technology by it self is a good thing for the children generally as there is a continual development of video games that bring new challenging tasks/characters that enhance more thinking and creativity (Robers, "positive effects of video…
Marino, Jonathan. Positive effects of video games, article base. 28 March 2009. Web. 19 April
Robers, James. The positive effects of video games on children. Associatedcontent.com. 8
January 2010. Web. 19 April 2010.
digital games is quite relaxing, as no adequate research has been carried out yet, so nearly anything goes. Writing, in general, about gaming and games is also very much similar. Sadly, and with startling cumulative consequences, games are under-theorized. Although there is the work of authors such as Ehrmann, Huizinga, and Caillois, game theory, philosophical ideas such as the work of Wittgenstein, and libraries teeming with research on board games, one can not get far into the field of computer games using only the above resources. As well, if there is, or will be, a proper computer game research field, it can also be said to be at risk of colonization and intrusion from existing scholarly tribes (Eskelinen 2001). Computer games have to be secured against the colonizing effect of textual and narrative analysis. In the case of semiotics, the idea of "text" generalizes to everything in material existence; however,…
Adams, Ernest. 1999. "Three Problems for Interactive Storytelters.." Gamasutra.
Engberg, Maria. n.d. Markku Eskelinen. Accessed July 14, 2015. http://www.elmcip.net/person/markku-eskelinen.
Eskelinen, Markku. 2001. "The Gaming Situation." The international journal of computer game research.
Eskelinen, Markku. 2001. "Towards Computer Game Studies, Part 1: Narratology and Ludology." Helsinki.
This leads to problems when the active area encroaches on the border of the array. Programmers have used several strategies to address these problems. The simplest strategy is simply to assume that every cell outside the array is dead. This is easy to program, but leads to inaccurate results when the active area crosses the boundary. A more sophisticated trick is to consider the left and right edges of the field to be stitched together and the top and bottom edges also. The result is that active areas that move across a field edge reappear at the opposite edge. Inaccuracy can still result if the pattern grows too large, but at least there are no pathological edge effects. Techniques of dynamic storage allocation may also be used, creating ever-larger arrays to hold growing patterns. Alternatively, the programmer may abandon the notion of representing the Life field with a two-dimensional array,…
Bosch, R. (n.d). Constraint Programming and Hybrid Formulations for Three Life Designs. Retrieved July 5, 2005, from mat.gsia.cmu.edu Web site: http://mat.gsia.cmu.edu/LIFE/cpaior.ps
Gardner, M. (2002). Mathematical Games. Retrieved July 5, 2005, from ddi.cs.uni-potsdam.de Web site: http://ddi.cs.uni-potsdam.de/HyFISCH/Produzieren/lis_projekt/proj_gamelife/ConwayScientificAmerican.htm
Koblitz, D. (1997). Artificial Life. Retrieved July 5, 2005, from Alife
Web site: http://www.sra.uni-hannover.de/forschung/koblitz/alife-1.htm
Video Games -- Artistic Medium
Our media-rich environment, in which digital technologies are proliferating faster than our cultural, legal, or educational institutions can keep up with them ... addresses our culture's contradictory imperatives for immediacy and hypermediacy" (Bolton, et al., 1999).
Should video games, which are interactive and bring a sense of immediacy to the participant, be considered an art form? Is it pushing the envelope too far to assert that video players are not only having fun and engaging in friendly competition, they are participating in an art form? This paper delves into that subject and points to the available scholarly literature that supports the idea that video games constitute an artistic medium.
The Literature on Video Games as an Artistic Medium
In the scholarly publication Library Technology Reports (LTR, 2006) the writer notes that increasingly "all types of libraries" are adding the phrase "gaming and libraries" to their…
Bolton, J.D., and Grusin, R. (1999). Remediation: Understanding New Media / Introduction:
The Double Logic of Remediation. Retrieved June 8, 2016, from https://monoskop.org .
Hall, S. (2008). Video Games as Collaborative Art. Phi Kappa Phi Forum, 88(1), 19-19.
Hecker, C. (2001). Why Games Will Be the Preeminent Art Form of the 21st Century.
Speed (NFS), the popular racing game that has arrived, I think, at its eighth version already (without mentioning sidetracks such as Need for Speed Underground). The game is highly successful and it incorporates what we may refer to as "role-playing," although not in the meaning generally associated with another category of videogames.
First of all, Need For Speed is not about driving, but about racing, something we all must enjoy doing once in a while, because it is on the edge and, perhaps, also because it is illegal. It is still illegal in the game, with cops chasing you when you pass the legal limit, however, as the greatest advantage of any videogame, even if you are caught, nothing happens to you in real life.
So, as a first observation, NFS was created as a predictable reaction to the outside restrictive environment (we will see later on whether there are…
There is plenty of anecdotal evidence to support this theory -- several prominent school shootings have been ostensibly linked to video game playing -- but real scientific evidence is also emerging that suggests a more subtle but similar effect. In one study, college-age participants who had spent time playing olfenstein 3D, a first person shooter computer game, "punished" their opponents by subjecting them to loud noises of high intensity more frequently and for longer periods of time than participants that had played a non-violent computer game. In the words of Dr. Craig Anderson, one of the psychologists and researchers who conducted the study, "violent video games provide a forum for learning and practicing aggressive solutions to conflict situations."
Basically, time spent playing violent video games is time spent learning life skills that could be detrimental and counter-productive in real world situations, and could even replace more socially valuable skills sets…
American Psychological Association. "Violence in the Media - Psychologists Help Protect Children from Harmful Effects." Accessed 13 July 2009. http://www.psychologymatters.org/mediaviolence.html
Gunter, Barrie. The Effects of Video Games on Children. Wiltshire: Sheffield Academic Press Ltd., 1998.
Jenkins, henry. "Congressional Testimony on Media Violence." Accessed 13 July 2009. http://web.mit.edu/comm-forum/papers/jenkins_ct.html
Kirsh, Steven J. Children, Adolescents, and Media Violence. London: Sage Publications, 2006.
computers for the organization. All three are high-end ultra-slim laptops for the sales force. These are compared according to a number of key variables -- weight, size, performance, memory, communications, power, software, operating system and price. The three models are the MacBook Air, the Toshiba Portege R830 and the Samsung Series 9. A recommendation is made at the end of the paper.
This essay will compare three different computer models for the organization to meet its needs. It is assumed that the computer chosen will have a high need for portability and performance, so the focus is going to be on three high-end lightweight laptops. They are the MacBook Air, the Toshiba Portege R830 and the Samsung Series 9. They will be evaluated on a number of different metrics and considerations.
eight and Size
Each of the three computers has a 13.3" widescreen display. The material that is used is…
Samsung Series 9: http://www.samsung.com/us/computer/laptops/NP900X3A-A03US-specs
Toshiba Portege R830: http://us.toshiba.com/computers/laptops/portege/R830/R830-S8332
Apple MacBook Air: http://www.apple.com/macbookair/
New Computer System for the 21st Century Business Office
It is impossible to imagine that any business can be run in the 21st century without an adequate computer system. And yet therein lies the rub: Determining what computer system is adequate for any business purpose is in fact a complex and difficult process in many cases. All too often what happens when a manager is faced with choosing a new computer system (usually at the point when the old one has completely crashed, losing valuable information that wasn't backed-up) is that he or she finds the brochure that's on the top of the pile and orders that computer system.
But this is not the way to proceed. Acquiring the right information system is essential in keeping a company healthy. This paper examines a real-world case of a corporation - in this case, Toys Us - adopted a new computer information…
The video game industry forms a significant part of the leading companies worldwide currently. The huge diffusion of the internet and associated information technologies over the recent years has raised the need of increased security. Advancement in technology consequently leads to the advancement of video games as well as associated security risks. Some of the common threats and vulnerabilities involving this industry include: misuse by human, hacking, fraud, virus attacks, among others. Such factors can facilitate adversities such as information loss and alteration, and unauthorized access. This paper identifies and assesses potential threats, malicious attacks, and vulnerabilities expected by the organization. It also gives the control procedures to mitigate the mentioned risks and vulnerabilities.
The Threats and Vulnerabilities
There are a number of dominant security threats involving technology and information that affect the organization. Such threats poise a serious disruption to the business continuity planning (BCP) cycle of…
Syed, R and Morh, S. (2011). IT Security Issues within the Video Game Industry. The International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology. Vol. 3, No. 5.
Ebbinghaus defined memory as "the faculty of the mind to bring back past experiences into consciousness" (Haberlandt 1998). These games were interesting in that the techniques that they offered one to use really did help bring back the past experience of seeing objects. These games show that the brain needs to make logical sense of elements if one is going to store them in their memory for any period of time. It was amazing that in the first test I really paid attention to all of the elements, but the minute the screen was gone, there were only four or so that came straight to my mind. The other ones I really had to think about. I always thought I had a pretty good memory, but it seems that in order to maintain a list of things, there needs to be some kind of way of keeping the things one…
Exploratorium. "Playing games with memory." Exploratorium. Accessed on March 24,
Haberlandt, Karl. Human memory: exploration and application. Allyn & Bacon.
Apple Computer is one of the great corporate success stories of the past decade. On the back of a successive string of hit products, the company has experience rapid growth over the past several years. In its last fiscal year, ended 9/25/2010, Apple earned $14 billion on revenues of $65.2 billion (Apple Inc. Fiscal 2010 Form 10-K). These figures increased 70% and 52% respectively in fiscal 2010. Apple has a stellar balance sheet and its stock price is now at a lofty $315 per share (MSN Moneycentral, 2010).
Apple's primary business is in consumer electronics. The company's core businesses are in personal computers, mp3 players, smartphones and electronic media. Apple's leading products include the Mac line of computers, the iPod, the iPhone and the iPad tablet computer. The company's media properties include the iTunes music store and the iPhone App Store. Apple operates a number of proprietary retail outlets and…
Apple Inc. Fiscal 2010 Form 10-K. Retrieved November 28, 2010 from https://www.apple.com/investor/
BBC. (2010). Apple iPad tablet gathers crowds for UK launch. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved November 28, 2010 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10176138
Burrows, P; Grover, R. & Green, H. (2006). Steve Job's magic kingdom. Business Week. Retrieved November 28, 2010 from http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_06/b3970001.htm
Delahunty, J. (2009). iPod market share at 73.8%, 225 million iPods sold, more games for Touch than PSP and NDS: Apple. AfterDawn.com. Retrieved November 28, 2010 from http://www.afterdawn.com/news/article.cfm/2009/09/09/ipod_market_share_at_73_8_percent_225_million_ipods_sold_more_games_for_touch_than_psp_nds_apple
history of computers, while relatively brief in terms of years spanned, is incredibly complex and eventful. The technological advances have come at a blinding pace, from the original mainframes that weighed tons (literally!) to the tiny notebooks that weigh less than a gallon of milk today, just a halfcentury later. Five main generations have delineated the advancement of computers: the mainframe, minicomputers, personal computers, supercomputers, and finally the notebook computer.
The first of these categories is the mainframe, which originated in the 1950s. The UNIVAC, the first mainframe that was reproduced, ran off of vacuum tubes, cost over a million dollars, and was quite physically imposing. During these years mainframes filled entire rooms and were only within the price range of huge corporations or the government. In those days, the only computers were mainframes there was no other category of computers to compare. These central processing systems performed mainly huge…
-- all information was accessed from online encyclopedia www.wikipedia.com
mainframes minicomputers microcomputers laptops supercomputers the history of computing hardware 1960-present
brand of computer and printer is the best buy for college students?
Buying a computer is a personal choice based on your needs. That decision generally determines what brand you will buy. It is not driven by a particular brand.
Sooner or later, every college student asks themselves the question, "what kind of a computer should I buy?" It's a natural question in this day and age. These days almost every student has a computer and right now, computers are less expensive than they used to be. But since this is still a major purchase, you have to take several factors into consideration before purchasing.
Buying a computer is not about what brand to buy but rather about what computer meets your personal needs. There are many good brands and many types of computers and printers available. What you really need to do is to make an informed decision based…
Apple (the computer company) with relation to China. The paper will need to focus on the company's product development and supplier relations within the Chinese market.
"Apple Inc. (NASDAQ: AAPL; formerly Apple Computer, Inc.) is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. The company's best-known hardware products are the Macintosh line of computers, the iPod, the iPhone and the iPad. Its software includes the OS X and iOS operating system; the iTunes media browser; and the iLife and iork creativity and production suites. Apple is the world's third-largest mobile phone maker after Samsung and Nokia. Established on April 1, 1976 in Cupertino, California, and incorporated January 3, 1977… Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States in 2008, and in the world from 2008 to 2012" (ikipedia: Apple Inc.)
The following essay describes Apple's relationship with China…
Wikipedia. Apple Inc.
Rathee, J. (2012) Could Apple's China Love Affair Be Over? http://wallstcheatsheet.com/stocks/could-apples-china-love-affair-be-over.html/
Internet on Life
hy the Internet is the Most Useful Invention of our Generation
The Internet is the most useful invention of our generation. The accumulated effects of the Internet include significant contributions in the areas of education, the creation of jobs and furthering of professions, and an exponential increase in the amount and variety of entertainment for leisure time. It is the intent of this paper to evaluate the pros and cons or advantages and disadvantages of the Internet in the areas of education, professional and leisure activities.
Advantages of the Internet in Education
There are a myriad of contributions the Internet has made to education, in addition to the many innovations occurring today in the context of individualized instruction. The development of e-learning management systems for example, which can unify an entire semesters' worth of work together into a sequential, well-defined series of steps, has shown significant potential…
Bassamboo, Achal, Sunil Kumar, and Ramandeep S. Randhawa. "Dynamics of New Product Introduction in Closed Rental Systems." Operations research 57.6 (2009): 1347,1359,1532-1534.
Bernoff, Josh, and Charlene Li. "Harnessing the Power of the Oh-so-Social Web." MIT Sloan Management Review 49.3 (2008): 36-42.
Dyer, Jeffrey H., and Kentaro Nobeoka. "Creating and Managing a High-Performance Knowledge-Sharing Network: The Toyota Case." Strategic Management Journal 21.3 (2000): 345-67.
Henry, Paul. "E-Learning Technology, Content and Services." Education & Training 43.4 (2001): 249-55.
The sheer number and variety of sites where such ostensibly private information is made public can make it impossible for someone to truly get privacy.
What is remarkable is how well Dr. Moor did at predicting the ethical issues that would continue to be part of the Computer evolution. Even if computers are simply exacerbating existing ethical dilemmas, the fact that they are capable of doing so means that they are going to continue to present ethical problems. For example, when Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, slavery was already in existence and used through the American South. That Industrial evolution invention did not create the ethical issue of slavery. However, with the improved ability to process cotton, cotton suddenly became an incredibly profitable crop. The need for cheap labor jumped dramatically, which certainly increased the demand for slave labor. What that example makes clear is that even seemingly helpful…
Moor, J. (1985). What is computer ethics? Metaphilosophy, 16(4), 266-275.
(but they are these days more and more used around the globe)
The common characteristic of all input devices is that they encode or convert information of various types into data that can enter a further processing phase performed by the computer system. Output devices decode the data into information that can be easily understood by people, which are ultimately the users of a computer. This way, the computer system may be viewed as no more than a data processing system.
As far as electromechanical engineering technology is concerned, it enables engineers to design automated systems. Students need to learn to use computers, math, and advanced science in order to design such systems. Learning how to install and test robotics equipment is also important, and is performed by using computers.
Even apparently simple devices, such as candy machines, involve various technologies. For instance, the little rollers (a mechanical device) pull…
1. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1997 Edition - Articles on Computers and Computer Technology
The first of these was co-designed with Sony, and established the modern layout for laptop computers that has remained popular ever since.
In 1994, Apple revamped its Macintosh line with the introduction of the Power Macintosh, which was based on the PowerPC line of processors developed by IM, Motorola and Apple. Apple's operating system software was adjusted so that most software written for the older processors could run in emulation on the PowerPC series.
After an internal power struggle with new CEO John Sculley in the 1980s, Jobs resigned from Apple and went on to found NeXT Inc., which Apple ultimately bought. This move brought Jobs back to Apple's management. On July 9, 1997, Gil Amelio stepped down as CEO of Apple after overseeing a 12-year record low stock price and crippling financial losses. Jobs stepped in as the interim CEO and began the critical restructuring of the company's product…
Apple Computer, Inc. Five-Year Financial History. Cupertino, California: 2005.
Apple Computer, Inc. Q2 2005 Unaudited Summary Data. Cupertino, California: 2005.
Apple Computer Inc." Quote.com. July 13, 2005. July 18, 2005 http://finance.lycos.com/qc/research/marketguide.aspx?pg=cafl&symbols=NASDAQ:AAPL .
Apple Computer, Inc. United States Securities and Exchange Commission: Form 10-K. Cupertino, California: November 30, 2004.
Steve Jobs was removed from the Lisa project in 1982 by Apple before its debut in 1983. The computer also flopped badly, being too far ahead of its time and too expensive (priced at $10,000).
Jobs joined the Macintosh team in 1982 and proceded to make the product surpass Lisa by incorporating an advanced GUI in the computer. The Mac was launched in early 1984 and was succesful initially. By the end of the year, however, it started to lose out to overwhelming competition from IBM and Microsoft. (Sanford; "History of Apple Computers," ikipedia)
Jobs Loses his Job
By 1982, Steve Jobs had begun to realize that Apple was faced with increasing competition from heavyweight competitors such as IBM and Microsoft and needed outside help. He wooed John Sculley from Pepsi-Cola, who joined Apple as President and CEO in April 1983. The two, however, soon fell out and after an…
Apple Computers: A brief history." BBC News. February 10, 2000. October 1, 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/business/2000/microsoft/636824.stm
Bellis, Mary. "Inventors of Modern Computer." About.com. n.d. October 1, 2005. http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa121598.htm
History of Apple Computers" From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2005. October 1, 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Apple_Computer
Sanford, Glen. Company History. apple-history.com. 1976-2005. October 1, 2005. http://www.apple-history.com/
com). Although basic trackball mice are still commercially available, they have been largely overshadowed by newer versions of the computer mouse based on optical and laser technologies. All computer mice allow the user to control the position of a cursor on the screen (or alternatively, a player position in a game) as the trackball, optical or laser sensors detect user movements and translate those into digital input. The mouse devices installed on the latest versions of laptop computers work differently from trackball and optical mice that are external to the computer but the underlying input principles are the same for laptop track pads and click buttons as they are for external mice. External mice may be wireless as well as wired, allowing users increased ergonomic flexibility.
Like most computer-related inventions, the mouse has had a positive effect on social change. Making computers more accessible to a greater number of people,…
Computer Mouse." CNN.com Retrieved Sept 24, 2008 at http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2004/explorers/interactive/profiles/computer.mouse/content.html
Jimmythejock "History of the Computer Mouse." Blog retrieved Sept 24, 2008 at http://hubpages.com/hub/History_of_the_Computer_Mouse
Oldmouse.com. Retrieved Sept 24, 2008 at http://www.oldmouse.com/
Pang, a. Soojung-Kim. The making of the mouse. American Heritage: Invention and Technology. Retrieved Sept 24, 2008 at http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/it/2002/3/2002_3_48.shtml
"The rumor claiming that the commercial almost never aired is true," said Clow (www.ciadvertising.com).The Apple board "demanded that it not be aired," Clow goes on, but Apple CEO Steve Jobs insisted that it be played, and so it was. Clow says that this commercial wasn't just a parody of Nineteen Eighty-Four; "one could almost interpret this commercial as a bleak commentary on society," he writes. It shocked the "PC world into paying a little more attention to their competitors in their field," Clow asserts.
In conclusion, TV Guide called the Apple commercial "the greatest commercial of all time," according to CNN. And while Orwell's book isn't the greatest by any means, it has created an endless number of allusions and references, including the phrase "Big Brother," who, unfortunately, is with us today far more than most of us probably realize.
Clow, Lee. "Lee Clow: His Masterpiece." Chiat/Day Advertising.…
Clow, Lee. "Lee Clow: His Masterpiece." Chiat/Day Advertising. Retrieved Nov. 28, 2007, at http://www.ciadvertising.org/SA/fall_02/adv382/qwkag/assign2/master.htm .
Leopold, Todd. "Why 2006 isn't like '1984'." Cable News Network / CNN.com. Retrieved Nov. 28, 2007, at http://www.cnn.com/2006/SHOWBIZ/0202/eye.ent.commercials.
Orwell, George. Nineteen Eighty-Four. New York: Plume / Penguin Group, 2003.
Computer games have lamentably been kept to such niche, and exist under a false essence as being immature and a waste of time. While, beyond any doubt, there are in fact whimsical/childish computer games out there, that doesn't imply that there aren't mature, engaging and worthwhile video games out there; just because there are childish films and TV programs out there it does not detract from the more quality shows. y and large, narrative and games share a couple of characteristics; however games are a little different niche due to their interactivity and simulation. Additionally, the improvement of game has demonstrated that stories are only a part of the game. They do not form the key element of game, they help the need to keep games interesting and entertaining[footnoteRef:2],[footnoteRef:3]. Narrative too is kind of representative because it lacks the interactivity and the limitations inherent in using stories and the experience…
"Next Level." Next Level. http://gamedev.dmlive.co.nz/page/12/.
Aarseth, Espen J. Cybertext: perspectives on ergodic literature. JHU Press, 1997.
Aarseth, Espen. "A narrative theory of games." In Proceedings of the international conference on the foundations of digital Games. ACM, 2012.
Barker, Sammy. "Review: Beyond: Two Souls (PlayStation 3)." Push Square. October 8, 2013.
"To start off with the consumer's needs for a significant change is often the most direct way of defining new knowledge and new technology, and of organizing purposeful and systematic work on fundamental discovery" (Drucker, p. 506).
Innovation is what social gaming is all about. Platforms are changing and devices are not only becoming less expensive, but more and more powerful with larger amounts of memory, quicker processors, and yet the decision is easier in deciding what games people want, "If you know what your friends are playing, the Facebook distribution model scales a lot better" (Chang, p. 21). This type of product is the epitome of what Drucker called an "innovation design" -- yet both innovation and entrepreneurship continue to change. Strategically, Drucker's maxims apply, though: 1) Be the "fastest with the mostest," first to market never hurts; 2) Hit them "where they aint" -- take from the winners,…
Boyd, D. And Ellison, N. (2007). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Jounral of Computer Mediated Communications. 13 (1): Retrieved from: http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol13/issue1/boyd.ellison.html
Chang, V., Mendelson, H. (2010). Social Games. Stanford Graduate School of Business Case EC-39. Retrieved from: https://gsbapps.stanford.edu / cases/detail1.asp?Document_ID=3367
Drucker, P. (2001). Management. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Tancer, B. (October 24, 2007). MySpace or Facebook: Competing Addictions.
Violence in Video Games
Unlike movies, video games are not regulated by the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), which is ironic because there are a wealth of studies indicating children do not distinguish between fantasy and reality in a gaming environment (Ferguson, 2011). Simply put, the more time children, adolescents and teenagers spend playing a video game the more they see their reality as the gaming environment (Boyle, McLeod, ojas, 2008) (Hartmann, Vorderer, 2010). To argue that games are not as powerful of an influence on children is ridiculous, yet ironically the FCC regulates who can see a movie by its content alone and has refused to take action on games (Soh, Tan, 2008). In June, 2011 the Supreme Court struck down a California law that fined retailers $1,000 for each occurrence or infraction of selling or renting violent games to anyone under the age of 18 (Lemmens, Valkenburg, Peter, 2011).…
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1): 36-42.
Boyle, M., McLeod, D., & Rojas, H.. (2008). The Role of Ego Enhancement and Perceived Message Exposure in Third-Person Judgments Concerning Violent Video Games. The American Behavioral Scientist, 52(2), 165.
Beth Snyder Bulik (2008, May). Despite recession, video-game industry shows massive growth. Advertising Age, 79(20), 6.
Cliff Cheetham (2008, April). Marketing strategies in the gaming community.
Video Games and Violence
The level of integration of video games into the culture of the youth in the United States could not be clearer. One estimate stated that ninety-seven percent of twelve to seventeen-year-olds played a video game in 2008 (ESA, 2009). These figures suggest that virtually everyone in that specific demographic play video games. The economic result of the demand for video gaming has resulted in over an eleven billion dollar industry (2008) which is continually expanding (ProCon, N.d.). However, many of these games contain graphic violence and sexual content that deemed in appropriate for this demographic.
It is argued that this violence in the digital world can cause a host of negative implications in real life as well. hen children are exposed to violence then this can work to desensitize them to the use of violence and violence can even be perceived as an acceptable way to…
Anderson, C., Sakamoto, A., Gentile, D., Ihori, N., Shibuya, A., Yukawa, S., . . . Kobayashi, K. (2008). Longitudinal Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggression in Japan and the United States. Pediatrics, 1067-1072.
ESA. (2009, May). Essential Facts about the Computer and Video Game Industry. Retrieved from Entertainment Software Association: http://videogames.procon.org/ sourcefiles/essential-facts-about-the-computer-and-video-game-industry.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Violence in Video Games
The cultivation of violence in video games: causal or correlational?
Studies on media effects have always included the influential role that television and new media technologies such as the computer and Internet (ICTs). With the proliferation of both mass media, there is greater penetration of its content to children and the adolescent youth, who are frequent TV watchers and ICT users. Among the concerns of parents and scholars about the proliferation of this mass media is its unintended effects -- the cultivation of violence and development of violent behavior of the child through TV and ICT content. Focus is especially given to the youth who actively engage in video gaming, either through the TV, computer, or Internet. Parents and mass media research claim that video games harness an individual's violent behavior, resulting to aggressiveness and development of hostile attitude towards other people.
In this paper, the…
Brody, M. (2001). "Playing with death." Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, (16)11.
Gaziano, C. (2001). "Towards a broader conceptual framework for research on social stratification, childrearing patterns, and media effects." Mass Communication & Society, (4)2.
Lynne Eagle, L., S. Bulmer, and A. de Bruin. (2003). "Marketing communications implications of children's new electronic media use: a survey of parental opinions and perceptions." Journal of Marketing Communications, (9)3.
Wagner, C. (2004). "Aggression and violent media." Futurist, (38)4.
Violence in video games and the role of culture.
The video game industry is a multi-billion dollar industry representing about $9.9 billion dollars in retail sales in the U.S. alone in 2004 (Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2010). In this paper, video games refer to electronically controlled games played on any platform including console units, computers, internet, hand-held devices or various technology toys. In recent years, video games have redefined leisure activities among children as studies conducted in U.S. estimated that 99% of boys and 94% of girls play video games (Whitaker and Bushman, 2009), with children age 2-7 years spending an average of 3-5 hours a week playing games, while 8th and 9th grade students spend an average of 9 hours per week (Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2010). According to Whitaker and Bushman (2009), violence in video games is also commonplace with violent content available in over 85% of video games.
Anderson, C.A., & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Human aggression. Annu Rev Psychol, 53, 27-51.
Bushman, B.J., & Anderson, C.A. (2002). Violent Video Games and Hostile Expectations: A Test of the General Aggression Model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(12), 1679-1686.
Dill, K.E., & Dill, J.C. (1998). Video game violence: A review of the empirical literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 3(4), 407-428.
Funk, J.B., Buchman, D.D., & Germann, J.N. (2000). Preference for Violent Electronic Games, Self-Concept, and Gender Differences in Young Children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70(2), 233-241.
The United States Army, however, eventually introduces its recruits to a real battlefield, whereas the America's Army video game does not. Participants in the "SeeMePlayMe" multiplayer online tournament of America's Army do not use real machine guns when they shoot at enemy troops and do not lose any limbs when they are shot in turn. hen people play America's Army, the shoot and kill enemy troops in a virtual world. They don't have to contend with any psychological trauma or long-term effects such as post-traumatic shock disorder, which army veterans often do experience. Finally, playing the America's Army video game does not expose players to any hazardous chemicals, whereas the Untied States Army does expose its troops to a number of toxic substances.
America's Army players can play when they want for however long, and don't have to follow anyone's orders except perhaps their parents'. In fact, one of the…
What is America's Army." Retrieved October 6, 2005 at http://www.thearmygame.com
Technology has emerged and pervaded the lives of many people as it becomes more advanced and more a part of society. A good and prominent example of this is video games. Even with the leisure and perceived positive effects of video games, their effect on the brain is a cause for concern among many in the scientific and academic communities. While many of the effects could absolutely be good, there are other effects that could be bad with age and stage of brain development being important factors to keep in mind.
One factor that clearly aggravates the situation of people playing video games and it might or does affect the brain is the fact that the younger people who still have the development of their brains in motion. As such, verifying whether or not there are effects on cognition and that development of the brain structure is an important item…
High Tech Computer Corporation, known almost universally by the acronym HTC, is a Taiwan-based designer and manufacturer of smartphone devices. The company generally creates a base design, gives it a "codename," such as Hermes, and then offers the devices to be sold rebranded by other companies, such as i-mate, or networks, such as T-Mobile or Orange. In 2006 HTC started offering devices in some markets under their own HTC brand (Benou, 2007). The company has long used its own Dopod house brand to sell devices directly in Asia. HTC anticipates continued growth in the smartphone sector (Colombo, 2010). The convenience and excitement delivered by the plethora of mobile digital applications available such as location-based services, multimedia entertainment, social networking services, and e-books continue to push smartphones to the fore of mobile phone purchase choices and increase penetration of smartphones in the mobile phone market (Butler, 2009). One of the…
Barry, F., 2005. The politics of high-tech growth: Developmental network states in the global economy.. The Economic and Social Review, 36(2), pp. 179-183.
Benou, G.G.K.C. & M.J., 2007. Impact of visibility and investment advisor credibility on the valuation effects of high-tech cross-border acquisitions.. Financial Management, 80(17), pp. 69-89.
Butler, D., 2009. Hard time for high tech.. Nature, 222(100), p. 413.
Colombo, M.G. & G.L., 2010. Funding gaps? access to bank loans by high-tech start-ups.. Small Business Economics, 12(5), pp. 455-67.
First, a thorough secondary literature review and an assessment of available dissertations and theses on the subject, the goal will be to determine the cause-and-effect of prolonger video game use on the psychological stability of children. These are to be clear not children who play for a few hours each day, they are the ones who are playing for up to eight to ten hours a day. Second, the research from the dissertations, thesis and published journals discovered during the first step will be summarized into a table of results. The intent of this effort is to define the cause-and-effect factors that lead parents to allow their children to be some detached and consumed in these games. Third, an action plan will be defined for how to raise public awareness and assist parents in setting better constraints and parameters for the use of video games in the future.
He also recommends investing in a oth IA, rather than a traditional 401K, because the oth accounts are safer and usually pay back higher dividends. He says, "Generally 401k and 403b accounts underperform IA accounts because they offer less options and flexibility for investments and impose higher fees" (Green 101). He talks about how the stock market is not such a good investment anymore since it fell in 2008, and he offers ways to make the stock market more effective. These are all good ways to get finances back on track once you have saved some money, and they make you feel more effective in managing your own financial future.
A big portion of the last part of the book is devoted to the stock market and how to make it work for you. This is probably the most confusing part of the book. It is written as simply as…
Green, Charles. The Money Game: Play to Win, Put the Odds in Your Favor. 2009.
Auditory Computer Files Assist College Level ESL Learners
The objective of this study is to examine whether auditory computer files assist college level ESL learners.
Linda Dwyer writes that text-to-speech readers are not generally available "outside of the disability community and may be prohibitively expensive when obtainable." (Dwyer, nd, p.1) In addition, Dwyer reports that ESL instructors are often not aware of the research or the resources that are available. Dwyer states that reading pens that are able to read line-by-line and other assistive devices that can copy and article and then paste it to the computer for text-to-speech support are useful to students who are ESL students. According to Dwyer, "ESL instructors in higher educational settings have worked primarily with high achieving international students. As such, these instructors have occupied a niche treated as short-term remedial support rather than an academic sub-field within the academy. Many positions in both…
Casidy (1996) in: Kurzweil Educational Systems (2005) Scientifically-Based Research Validating Kurzweil 3000: An Annotated Review of Research Supporting the Use of Kurzweil 3000 in English Language Learner Classrooms. Oct 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.vocalinks.com/site/vocalinks/assets/pdf/K3000_ELL_Research.pdf
Chisholm and Beckett (2003) in: Kurzweil Educational Systems (2005) Scientifically-Based Research VAliding Kurzweil 3000: An Annotated Review of Research Supporting the Use of Kurzweil 3000 in English Language Learner Classrooms. Oct 2005. Retrieved from:
Digital Disease Detection, commonly referred to as digital epidemiology provided strategies and methods for allowing digital-technology users to monitor infectious disease and conduct surveillance. These strategies help in the understanding of concerns and attitudes regarding infectious diseases. The process begins with the basics, such as the availability of internet access, online sharing platforms and other digital devices. These sources offer huge amounts of data. It is important to note that while these sources collect data, they do not, do so, with public health objectives in focus (Denecke, 2017).
The past few decades have seen tremendous changes in the world. There have been many and varied threats; from bioterrorism, influenza pandemics and the emergence of infectious diseases. There is also the issue of unforeseen population mobility which is among the reasons that triggered the development of public health surveillance systems. Such systems are invaluable tools in the detection and response…
I don't shy away from hard work and effort. I have already taken several computer science courses that enriched and stimulated me, offering me the basic knowledge that will prepare me for further education in the field. Therefore, I apply to Montclair State already aware of the particular set of challenges computers pose.
As a college applicant, I am also aware that university entry is highly competitive, every bit as competitive as football. With my unique background and special set of talents, however, I am confident that I make an ideal candidate for admissions. Not only have I excelled at computer science classes, but I also do well in general math and science as well as the humanities. Moreover, I am focused and determined to succeed in my chosen field, while at the same time open and interested in learning new things.
Collaboration and cooperation are two other reasons why…
video games have on short-term memory. esearchers normally study action games, but quest/puzzle games were also included in this study, to allow for direct comparison of different game types along with a control group. In this research, we looked at three different types of short-term memory, the visual-spatial dimension, verbal and numerical. We examined some correlations between improved memory and video game usage. However, not all of the null hypotheses were confirmed in this study, meaning that there is room for future study. In particular, it has been established that quest/puzzle games are correlated with higher visual-spatial and verbal short-term memory, but it has not been determined if differences between baseline abilities amount the study participants might have influenced this result. This, therefore, would be one avenue for future study that has been opened up. This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge with respect to the influence that…
Amladi, S., Andrist, S., Ducommun, M. & Leabo, L. (no date). Using action video games to train working memory in students with working memory deficits. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~sandrist/pdf/MBE_FinalPaper.pdf
Anand, V. (2007). A study of time management: The correlation between video game usage and academic performance markers. Cyber Psychology and Behavior. Vol. 10 (4) 552-559.
Anderson, C. & Bushman, B. (2001). Effect of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, psychological arousal and prosocial behavior. Psychological Science. Vol. 12 (5) 353-359.
Applebaum, L, Cain, M., Darling, E. & Mitroff, S. (2013). Action video game playing is associated with improved visual sensitivity, but not alternations in visual sensory memory. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://people.duke.edu/~mitroff/papers/13_AppelbaumCainDarlingMitroff_APP.pdf
I am purchasing a computer because I need something to do my work on at home and also it would be nice to be able to access the Internet on something other than my phone. Having a personal computer makes the experience of browsing the Internet more enjoyable and having an actual keyboard will help me to do the typing I need to do much more easily. The category of computer I am looking at is a laptop, because I want this computer to be easily portable so that I can move it from room to room or even take it with me on the go if I want to work in another environment. The manufacturer I am looking at is Dell because this brand has a very good reputation among computer users. After comparing brands and looking at what users have had to say, I am settled on purchasing…
Machine Translation, And the Future
Computers are being used in many areas to speed and automate tasks that are tedious or strenuous on human beings. Computers aid us in making our daily lives better in many ways. Computers are being used for a variety of tasks. As the world moves toward a global economy, communication has become a major issue of the agendas of almost any industrialized nation. Machine translation is the growing wave of the future; these machines can translate passages into another language almost instantaneously.
There are some that fear the professional translators will become obsolete in the near future. However, an exploration of the current state of the art and future trends indicated that these fears are unfounded and that the field of Professional translation will enjoy man years of stability and prosperity, reaping the benefits of an expanding global economy.
Austermuhl, F. (2002) The Dysfunctional Family - Remarks on Communication (or a Lack Thereof) within the Translation Community. Presentation. International Feder.Cen.Tr.I. Conference. October 12, 2002. sala Michelangelo,. http://126.96.36.199/abstracts.htm Accessed February, 2003.
Brace, C., Vasconcellos, M. And Miller, L. (1995). MT Users and Usage: Europe and Americas. Paper presented at the Fifth Machine Translation Summit in Luxembourg. July 1995.
Champollion, Y.(2001). Machine translation (MT), and the future of the translation industry. Translation Journal. January 2001 5 (1).
Demos, K. And Fraunfelder, M.(2003) Machine Translation's Past and Future. 2003 Wired.com. Issue 8.05, May, 2000.
(Marketing Pros: B2B vs. B2C Marketing) At present in excess of 700 B2B markets are either carrying their business or in the pipeline. Even though B2Bs are positively anticipated to clock sales of $5 trillion by 2004, the latest slowdown in the online business-to-consumer market has put some doubts into a sector which on other fronts is a promising sector. (Harbour, 2001)
In the thinking pattern of individuals performing the selling, a difference exists between selling Business-to-Business and Business-to-Business customers. However, it could be stated that no difference exists between selling to Business-to-Business and Business-to-Business customers as the rules for selling are identical for the two categories. Moreover, the reality that business-to-business customers purchase the identical products at reduced prices compared to business-to-consumer customers, there is truly a single point of difference. Business-to-Business buyers are on the hunt for a choice to fill a vacant space or their customer's requirement;…
"Ebusiness" Retrieved from http://answers.google.com/answers/threadview?id=508439 Accessed on 22 April, 2004
"Electronic Commerce Security: An introduction for everyone" Retrieved from http://2000.worldfantasy.org/ecomm_sec.html Accessed on 22 April, 2004
Harbour, Pamela Jones. (May 7-8, 2001) "B2B Basics and Antitrust Issues" Federal Trade Commission Workshop on Emerging Issues for Competition Policy in the E-Commerce Environment. Retrieved from http://www.ftc.gov/opp/ecommerce/comments/harbour.htm Accessed on 22 April, 2004
"Marketing Pros: B2B vs. B2C Marketing" Retrieved from ttp://www.marketingprofs.com/ea/qst_question.asp?qstid=1141 Accessed on 22 April, 2004