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Computer Science Fundamentals
Too often the mechanistic are taken for granted in computer science. The technology has been around long enough now, that many take for granted the great powers that computers and computing technology has afforded modern man and his society. The fundamental characteristics of any successful endeavor should be investigated to help identify a pattern and produce learning and gather information.
The purpose of this essay is identify and explain some of the fundamental concepts in the framework of computer architecture. The essay will discuss the Von Neumann architecture and its contribution to the science and the many ideas that this idea has spawned. The essay will then address the importance of Boolean operations and the importance that this language of symbols plays in the logical processes of the computing operation. The essay will finally examine the concepts and fundamentals behind the various types of memory and storage…
Himowitz, M. (2001). Don't mix up PC memory, disk storage. The Baltimore Sun 29 Oct 2001. Retrieved from http://articles.baltimoresun.com/2001-10-29/entertainment/0110290156_1_hard-disk-storage-computer-memory-windows-xp
Goldstine, H.H. And von Neumann, J. On the principles of large scale computing machines. In Taub, A.H., editor, John von Neumann Collected Works, The Macmillan Co., New York, Volume V, 1-32.
MIT Libraries (nd). "Boolean Operators." Viewed 28 Jan 2014. Retrieved from http://libguides.mit.edu/content.php?pid=36863&sid=271372
Riley, H. (1987). The Von Neumann Architecture of Computer Systems. California State Polytechnic University, Sep 1987. Retrieved from http://www.csupomona.edu/~hnriley/www/VonN.html
As with other information technology jobs, outsourcing of software development to other countries may temper somewhat employment growth of computer software engineers. Firms may look to cut costs by shifting operations to foreign countries with lower prevailing wages and highly educated workers. Jobs in software engineering are less prone to being off shored than are jobs in other computer specialties, however, because software engineering requires innovation and intense research and development.
As stated in the introductory paragraph, American bachelors' in Computer cience generally rely on outdated methods and curricula. However, Computer cience graduates are very good at doing problem sets thanks to college experience in tackling well-defined specified problems, and breaking them down into small tasks. Nonetheless, even in this case, employers who face a large amount of such problems are likely to turn to programmers in a low-wage country due to their need to reduce costs especially in today's…
Statistics obtained from:
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2008-09 Edition, Computer Software Engineers, on the Internet at (visited May 11, 2009).
It is reported by Nortel that it has been indicated by 86% of service providers that there is a high demand for Ethernet services today. The result is that carriers are seeking to fulfill the demand through "upgrading their metro networks to deliver cost-effective Ethernet-based services to their customers." (2009) MPLS is stated to have been invented for the express purpose of "...of solving the problem of bridging multiple disparate protocols such as Frame Reality, ATM and Ethernet." (Nortel, 2009)
MPLS is stated to have "...Over the last few years,...become a widely used packet technology in core networks and has become a common inter-networking technology. " (Nortel, 2009) However, there are key limitations of MPLS 'as it applies to the metro area and specifically issues identified are those connected with "..network complexity, scalability and performance arise when MPLS is applied to the sheer number of network elements required…
Carrier Ethernet Technologies (2010) Nortel. Online available at: http://www2.nortel.com/go/news_detail.jsp?cat_id=-10061&oid=100212592&locale=en-U.S.
Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series in IP/MPLS Carrier Ethernet Architecture. Intelligent Network Architecture for Carrier Ethernet and Broadband Solutions (2010) Cisco. Online available at: http://www.cisco.com/en/U.S./prod/collateral/switches/ps5718/ps708/product_at_a_glance0900aecd806a09f6.pdf
Higgingbotham, Stacey (2009) Who Needs Femtocelsl If We Have Wi-Fi? 2 Nov 2009. Gigaom. Online available at: http://gigaom.com/2009/11/02/who-needs-femtocells-if-we-have-wi-fi/
Long-Term Evolution (LTE) (2007) Motorola White Paper. Online available at: http://www.motorola.com/staticfiles/Business/Solutions/Industry%20Solutions/Service%20Providers/Wireless%20Operators/LTE/_Document/Static%20Files/6833_MotDoc_New.pdf
Having read Newman's Chapter 1, would you consider the security requirements across all environments to be the same?
Not all security requirements are the same in all network environments. Some systems are more vulnerable to the threat of viruses that permanently infiltrate the network's hardware, other to worms that do not permanently damage the hardware but cause programs to 'crash' through such tricks as forcing programs to infinitely reboot themselves. Certain systems, of which Microsoft and Oracle are good examples, excel at modifying or blocking with firewalls certain systemic vulnerabilities after hackers have found ways to broach these problems, and fixing the problem after the fact, but are not nearly as good at detecting holes prior to such exposure
Do you think SLAs will solve our security problem? Discuss why or why not.
Service Level Agreement, otherwise known as an SLA details the responsibilities of an Informational Technology…
Carr, Jim. (2004) "Service Level Agreements." Network Magazine. Retrieved on May 25, 2004 at http://www.networkmagazine.com/shared/article/showArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=YX1YTTMU1B4EUQSNDBCSKHQ?articleId=17601085&pgno=2
Newman, Robert C. (2003). Enterprise Security. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
At (name of university), I would like to pursue the master's topic "Security Issues for the Use of Semantic Web in E-Commerce under (names…
These activities include securing the current computing environment which includes any current tools, patches, updates and best known methods. This represents the bulk of the cost effective security capabilities and facilitates better detection. Visibility to key areas and activities is vital. Effective monitoring to identify issues, breaches and attacks is necessary. This drives immediate interdiction by response capabilities. Efficient management of efforts to contain, repair and recover as needed to return the environment to normal operations is vital. This reduces losses by rapidly addressing issues and feeds intelligence into both the prediction and prevention areas (Defense in depth strategy optimizes security, 2008).
Personnel requirements to implement a defense in depth strategy are many. This process will include experts drawn from several different areas. The teams that are vital include:
emerging threats team- this cross functional team continuously discusses emerging trends and events in order to identify imminent threats…
Defense in depth strategy optimizes security. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.intel.com/it/pdf/Defense_In_Depth_Strategy_Optimizes_Security.pdf
Hazlewood, V. (2006). Defense-in-Depth. Retrieved from http://www.sdsc.edu/~victor/DefenseInDepthWhitePaper.pdfPerrin , C. (2008). Service Management Functions: Security Management (Part 1). (2005). Retrieved from http://www.windowsecurity.com/whitepapers/Service-Management-Functions-Security-Management-Part1.html
Understanding layered security and defense in depth. Retrieved from http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/security/understanding-layered-security-and-defense-in-depth/703
These certifications are also on the rise because of their in detail technical focus. They help people to understand the technical skills that are associated with what professionals are trying to protect, and the intrinsic security capabilities of an infrastructure.
On a more long-term basis it would be a good idea for the staff of the it department to seek Global information assurance certifications. "The SANS Institute offers this suite of certifications under the GIAC (Global Information Assurance Certification) program. While GIAC certifications are intended primarily for practitioners such as system administrators, and network engineers, there are a few that would be appropriate for early-career managers.
The GIAC Information Security Officer (GISO) is an entry-level certification that includes knowledge of threats, risks and best practices. The GIAC Security Essentials Certification (GSEC) is an intermediate-level certification that demonstrates basic information security knowledge for both practitioners and managers" (Gregory, 2003).…
Information Systems Security Lifecycle Management. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.telecomsys.com/Libraries/Collateral_Documents/ISSLM_White_Paper.sflb.ashx
One can also set up policies and procedures to respond to and reduce the effects of the loss or damage to ones it environment (Capaility: Security Process, 2012).
The assess phase should decide the fitting security needs for an organization and which processes are presently in place. Security requirements can vary radically from company to company or institution to institution ased, for instance, on dimension, industry or field, regional laws, or regulations. Gathering the necessities of an organization will permit one to define a fitting security process (Capaility: Security Process, 2012).
Throughout the identify phase, an organization will look at the tools and procedures presently in place and decide what the security requirements are for their organization. During this phase, one will gather security policies that are presently implied or enforced, in addition to technology components already in use or at their disposal. They will also gather any outside requirements,…
bibliography of select resources. Retrieved from http://www.llrx.com/features/idtheftguide.htm
Stevens, G. (2012). Data security breach notification laws. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42475.pdf
The preponderance organizations know that it is significant to guard their data and resources from loss or damage due to theft, human or computer error or malicious intent. There are numerous steps that can be taken to limit the occasions for loss or damage to take place. One can also set up policies and procedures to respond to and reduce the effects of the loss or damage to ones it environment (Capability: Security Process, 2012).
The assess phase should decide the fitting security needs for an organization and which processes are presently in place. Security requirements can vary radically from company to company or institution to institution based, for instance, on dimension, industry or field, regional laws, or regulations. Gathering the necessities of an organization will permit one to define a fitting security process (Capability: Security Process, 2012).
There is a hazard, however, that implementation of these potentially helpful best practices can be expensive and unfocused if they are treated as merely technical guidance. To be most effectual, best practices should be applied inside the business circumstance, focusing on where their use would provide the most advantage to the organization. Top management, business administration, auditors, conformity officers and it managers should work together to make sure it best practices lead to gainful and well-controlled it delivery (Aligning CobiT® 4.1, TL® V3 and SO/EC 27002 for Business Benefit, 2008).
Aligning CobiT® 4.1, TL® V3 and SO/EC 27002 for Business Benefit. (2008). Retrieved
SO/EC 27002:2005 nformation technology -- Security techniques -- Code of practice for information security management. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.iso27001security.com/html/27002.html#ntroduction
TL & Security Management. (2001). Retreived from http://itil-service-management-
Service Management -- TL. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.best-management-
TL - the nformation…
ITIL - the Information Technology Infrastructure Library - is a set of best practices and guidelines that characterize an incorporated, process-based approach for managing information technology services. ITIL can be applied across almost every type of it environment (Weil, 2010). Developed in the late 1980s, the Information Technologies Infrastructure Library (ITIL) has become in effect global standard for information technology systems management. Having started life as a guide for the UK government, the fundamental structure has established itself useful for organizations in all sectors and it has been implemented by numerous companies as the foundation for consulting, education and software tool support. Today, ITIL is known and used around the world (What is ITIL, n.d.).
ITIL was developed in reaction to an acknowledgment that organizations are more and more dependent on it to attain their corporate goals. This mounting dependence has resulted in a growing need for quality it services meeting business goals and fulfilling customer necessities and expectations. Over time, the importance has shifted from developing it applications to managing it services. It applications only contribute to accomplishing corporate goals if the system is accessible to users, and in the case of faults or essential modifications, it is sustained by maintenance and operations processes (What is ITIL, n.d.).
Over the course of the it product cycle, the operations stage accounts for close to eighty percent of the total time and cost, with the remnants being invested in developing or buying the product. Therefore, effectual and efficient it services management processes are vital to the achievement of it departments. This is pertinent
Research on Alternatives to Visual-Based CAPTCHAs for Sight-Impaired Users
Created to block the Web bots used by spammers, CAPTCHA ("Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart") is a technology used to verify that a person, rather than an automated system, is entering the data. A visual-based CAPTCHA shows distorted text and then users type in what they see in order to proceed. Users encounter CAPTCHAs in a variety of different Internet activities, such as submitting online comments and forms, creating email accounts, and registering for networking sites .
Because CAPTCHAs cannot be read by machines, the screen-reading software used by blind computer users cannot read the text either , which leaves these people unable to use the Web sites. This paper reviews the literature on CAPTCHA alternatives for blind and sight-impaired users.
Proposed Alternatives to Visual-Based CAPTCHAs
In Developing Usable CAPTCHAs for…
computer science and the different scientific domains at MIT
Fortunately for myself, MIT's computer science division is closely related to many other scientific divisions in that institution. MIIT's Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department offer students the opportunity to interface between Computer Sciences and the Life sciences so exposure in this field may open me up to the disciplines of (amongst other areas) computational biology, synthetic biology, medical image analysis, bioinformatics, and computer assisted surgery.
Since an impressive amount of MIT Laboratories (associated with different scientific domains) are connected to computer science, I will focus only on those that particularly interest me:
Berwick's laboratory where applied mathematical and modeling principals are investigated in order to develop computer models for biological systems such as DNA and genotype testing. Computational mathematic models are used in order to gain a deeper insight into the complexities of interaction of genes with the cellular environment…
School of Music. Combined Major in Music and Computer Science. Univ. Of Victoria
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1991). Flow. N.Y., USA: Harper & Row.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Mei-Ha Wong, M. (1991). The situational and personal correlates of happiness: A cross-national comparison. In F. Strack, M. Argyle, & N. Schwartz (Eds.) Subjective well being: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 193-212). Oxford & New York: Pergammon Press.
Life at Friends University
As I come nearer to the completion of my work at Friends University, I would like to take the opportunity to reflect on the past, savor the present, and look forward to the future. I believe that remembering what has already taken place and the things I have learned is a key in planning a successful and worthwhile future.
I come to Friends University prepared to do my work, get my degree, and get on with my life. I never expected that a "school" could mean so much to me or could change my way of looking at myself and the world around me.
A good university should provide an education which helps prepare its students for life. A great university has not only provided an excellent educational experience for me, but has also allowed to become a part of something greater than I - a…
My personal goals are many. When I graduate from Friends in May of 2004, I know that I want to go to Wichita State University to earn a master's degree in engineering. After that, I plan to open an engineering firm and will put the things I've learned at Friends into practice as I interact with various people and also as I become successful enough to hire and supervise other people.
Finally, I want to state that I feel that the entire mood or atmosphere at Friends is so supportive and positive that it actually makes me want to do my best. I have been a member of the NAIA Basketball Academic American Team twice, which was a wonderful honor. Also, using the principles I've learned at Friends, I have learned to be economically responsible to the extent that I saved enough money to purchase my own home last year. I truly feel that none of this would have happened as easily if it weren't for the guidance and sound principles of business which were taught to me at Friends.
In closing, I suppose the highest honor I could give to Friends University is to say that when I do have children, my goal will be to send them to Friends or to another small university with the same values, because the advantages of being at a small university are so supportive and esteeming. I guess that I mean to say, finally, if I had it to do all over again, I'd do it all the same way and choose Friends University.
A criticism is that technology of video games is that they makes people more sedentary and violent -- but games such as "Dance Revolution" attempt to answer such criticism by providing nonviolent and physically active games.
Invention 2: The birth of the Internet
The challenge of getting a message quickly from point a to point B. has motivated the creation of foot messengers, the Pony Express, the U.S. Postal Service, Morse Code, the telegraph and telephone -- and the Internet. The Internet as an idea was first born in 1958 when researchers at the Bell Labs invented a modem that could convert digital signals to electrical analog signals and back, enabling computers to communicate with one another ("History of the Internet," Computing Science Chronology, 2005).
The beginnings of the revolution in communication technology between computers would later enable ordinary individuals to communicate with people they had never met far away,…
History of the Internet." Computing Science Chronology. Last Updated on 19 March 2001 and 2005. 13 January 2009. http://www.thocp.net/reference/internet/internet1.htm
Stahl, Ted. "Chronology of the History of Video Games." Computing Science Chronology.
15 Feb 2005. Last Updated on 3 November, 2006. 13 January 2009. http://www.thocp.net/software/games/games.htm
The Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering faces a complex external environment. The PESTLE analysis can help explain the external environment by analyzing the different political, economic, social, technological, legal and ecological factors that comprise the external environment (QuickMBA, 2010). By analyzing the external environment, an organization can better understand the role it plays in the community and can set better strategy to meet its objectives. Many of the factors in the external environment have a direct impact on the Faculty's mandate and its ability to carry out that mandate.
Political factors include tax policy, employment laws, trade restrictions and political stability (Ibid). For state-funded universities, political factors can affect the level of funding and even the school's mandate, which in turn will affect each of the different departments. A mandate to increase the number of computer science and engineering graduates could result in more funding, but funding…
BLS. (2009). Occupational outlook handbook, 2010-11 edition. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved April 17, 2011 from http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos305.htm
Donaldson, B. (2010). Recession revitalizes computer science and software engineering. The Auburn Plainsman. Retrieved April 17, 2011 from http://www.theplainsman.com/view/full_story/6987494/article-Recession-Revitalizes-Computer-Science-and-Software-Engineering
QuickMBA.com (2010). PEST analysis. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved April 17, 2011 from http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/pest/
When no date is given for an item being cataloged, attempts can be made to ascertain the date of publication using known information such as author and publishing house, etc. A question mark, or a question mark forming one end of a date range, denotes the lack of specific knowledge regarding this feature.
In addition to appearing on the verso, the place of publication of a book can often be found in larger type on the title page of the book itself, and sometimes on the spine as well.
School libraries often contain many books that progressively bring learners along in a specific knowledge area or skill set, making the inclusion of series statements especially useful in school libraries in assisting both students and librarians/instructors selecting the proper next text.
The publisher's name would appear in both the imprint section of the catalog record as well…
My major is in Computer Information. As a senior level student, I look forward to graduating and taking my skills to the next level -- both in the workplace and in the academic world. However, in order to obtain my goals, I require financial assistance from my university. In the hopes that my successes thus far will show that I will put this assistance to good use, allow me to tell you a bit about myself.
I came to the U.S. from Iran in 2007 with my family, but shortly thereafter my father returned to Iran for work. My sister and I stayed in the States with my mother. It was so hard for me to learn a new language and to understand the people of the U.S. However, I was committed to this task and I studied hard to learn English and go to college. College was…
Computer coding languages are no different from other languages used around the world to communicate. There are subtle differences and some similarities. At a basic level there are even some universal laws or rules of language that apply. For Python and C++, this is just as true. This paper will compare C++ to Python and show where strengths and weaknesses appear.
The key difference between C++ and Python is that the former simply acts as a general purpose language for programmers. If French is a highly-advanced Western language, Python may be viewed as its equivalent in the coding world. C++ on the other hand would be viewed as a language like Latin—the root of many of the Western languages and therefore applicable to most. C++ comes from the original C language. C++ is static, free-form, multi-paradigm and compiled. Python is also general purpose but it is much more high-level: it…
Goldwasser, M., Letscher, D. (2007). A transition guide: Python to C++. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9ad1/030685050e949d1a3d6d92bababcbe075e07.pdf
Rossum, G. (2015). Comparing Python to other languages. Retrieved from https://www.python.org/doc/essays/comparisons/
Veksler, M. (2016). What is the difference between Python an C++? Retrieved from https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-difference-between-Python-and-C++
The programming design class gives the student many tools that they will need on the job, but there is much more to the design process than having the right tools. The ability to apply those tools to the situations that will arise on the job is one of the most important skills that the designer will have. However, this is not always easy to teach in the classroom. Therefore, it is important for the design student to read as many outside sources as possible. They must understand the various philosophies and approaches to the design process. They must understand the strengths and weaknesses of those approaches and how they relate to various customer projects. The computer program design student must develop the broadest knowledge base possible in order to deliver a quality product to the customer.
Din, J. & Idris, S. (2009). Object-Oriented Design Process Model. International Journal of…
Din, J. & Idris, S. (2009). Object-Oriented Design Process Model. International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security. 9 (10): 71-79.
Guzman, J., Mitre, H. & Amescua, a. et al. (2010). Integration of strategic management, process improvement and quantitative measurement for managing the competitiveness of software engineering organizations. Software Quality Journal. DOI: 10.1007/s11219-
9094-7 Retrieved May 31, 2010 from http://www.springerlink.com/content/58k83507v1j7w653/?p=318712de7adb48cfa387cb4
In fact, it is difficult to imagine many other possible areas where increased funding and emphasis would equal the benefits of investing in computer technology in higher education. Computers on campus facilitate communications between students and faculty that provides much closer supervision and better access to professors on the part of students. Even in liberal arts studies of classical literature, computers allow instantaneous access to commentaries and many different academic perspectives from libraries and databases worldwide.
More generally, the current prospect for being hired directly out of college in one's field of study is not particularly good. In all likelihood, most new graduates from American colleges next year will not find employment in their chosen fields directly after college. However, all of them will almost certainly rely heavily on their computer literacy and competence immediately upon being hired in any professional capacity. Today, computer skills play a significant role in…
New Computer System for the 21st Century Business Office
It is impossible to imagine that any business can be run in the 21st century without an adequate computer system. And yet therein lies the rub: Determining what computer system is adequate for any business purpose is in fact a complex and difficult process in many cases. All too often what happens when a manager is faced with choosing a new computer system (usually at the point when the old one has completely crashed, losing valuable information that wasn't backed-up) is that he or she finds the brochure that's on the top of the pile and orders that computer system.
But this is not the way to proceed. Acquiring the right information system is essential in keeping a company healthy. This paper examines a real-world case of a corporation - in this case, Toys Us - adopted a new computer information…
Computing networks are certainly changing. There are a couple of different factors driving these changes, which generally include issues of security, privacy, regulatory concerns, and technological advancements. For the most part, these drivers are resulting in positive changes for computer networks.
One of the fundamental ways in which computer networks are changing is that they are incorporating Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). VPNs provide an additional computing network inside of an external network (Monga 343). As such, they are able to buttress security while adding a layer of privacy (Rao and Kavitha 4). There are a number of intruders and hackers who are invading networks without authority. One of the basic ways to meet this broadening challenge is to stifle hackers with the use of a VPN.
Another way that networks are changing is by becoming much more complex. Specifically, the architecture involved with them is taking on additional complexities that…
In some areas it will be used for more populist applications such as, in schools to introduce students to the discipline and within an environment that will give opportunity for participation of non-academics in academic discussion.
Computer has in a great deal widened the world's knowledge. As the fastest technology that has ever evolved, it has given opportunity for the children and adults, for personal, academic and commercial use. It has made communication to be easier; people get to know what is happening in the other parts of the world instantly. Information and data entering and saving has been made convenient and even easy.
Ceruzzi, Paul E. A History of Modern Computing. London: The MIT Press, (2000). The MIT Press. etrieved March 8, 2012 from http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/images/5/57/Onifade.pdf
Moreau, . The Computer Comes of Age -- the People, the Hardware, and the Software. London: The MIT Press, (1984). etrieved March…
Ceruzzi, Paul E. A History of Modern Computing. London: The MIT Press, (2000). The MIT Press. Retrieved March 8, 2012 from http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/images/5/57/Onifade.pdf
Moreau, R. The Computer Comes of Age -- the People, the Hardware, and the Software. London: The MIT Press, (1984). Retrieved March 8, 2012 from
Subtopic 6: Job management and protection; include a serious discussion of security aspects
The most commonly leveled criticism of operating systems is the inherent lack of security they have (Funell, 2010). Defining operating systems to have partitioned memory is just the start, as Microsoft learned with their Windows NT platform. Dedicated memory partitions by user account can be hacked and have been (Funell, 2010). The need for greater levels of user authentication is required, including the use of biometrics for advanced systems that have highly confidential data within them. The reliance on security-based algorithms that also seek to analyze patterns of use to anticipate security threats are increasingly in use today (Volkel, Haller, 2009). This aspect of an operating system can capture the levels of activity and the patterns they exhibit, which can provide insights into when a threat is present or not. The use of predictive security technologies, in…
Boudreau, K.. (2010). Open Platform Strategies and Innovation: Granting Access vs. Devolving Control. Management Science, 56(10), 1849-1872.
Jason Dedrick, & Kenneth L. Kraemer. (2005). The Impacts of it on Firm and Industry Structure: The Personal Computer Industry. California Management Review, 47(3), 122-142.
Furnell, S.. (2010). Usability vs. complexity - striking the balance in end-user security. Network Security, 2010(12), 13-17.
Larus, J.. (2009). Spending Moore's Dividend. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 52(5), 62.
Some nanorobots are being designed as "spray-on computers the size of a grain of sand." Edinburgh University has been working on nanorobots that can be sprayed onto patients as monitoring devices. They may be released for medical use in four years.
Quantum computers, based on principles like quantum entanglement and superposition, use the properties of particles. Quantum bits, called qubits, can process information faster than any existing computer technologies. A quantum computer can process many equations simultaneously. In a smaller space, using less energy, a quantum computer becomes more powerful than any commercial PC. In fact, Hertzog implies that quantum computers will mainly be used in fields demanding rapid data processing like the sciences or in cryptography.
Finally, one of the most promising future developments will be in the realm of artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence implies computers that can think critically and creatively, like human beings. The potential for artificial…
Hertzog, C. (2006). The future of computer technology. Tech Tips. Retrieved April 17, 2007 at http://www.geeks.com/techtips/2006/techtips-26nov06.htm
Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
Information technology and related systems provide multiple benefits to business, government, and individual users. Databases, Internet transactions, and emails contain sensitive customers, employee and operations data that are extremely vulnerable. The following study focuses on various components of IT and related systems used for the storage of information like computers, servers, and website databases. Whilst identifying the ways the date can be compromised and exposed to abuse, the study identifies ways of protecting and enhancing their integrity.
Types of information systems that that hold data
Computers do their primary work in parts that are not visible when using them. To do this, a control center that converts data input to output must be present. All this functions are done by the central processing unit (CPU) a highly complicated set of electric circuits that intertwine to store and achieve program instructions. Most computers regardless of…
Adikesavan, T.A. (2014). Management Information Systems Best Practices and Applications in Business. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
Bradley, T. (2006). Essential Computer Security: Everyone's Guide to Email, Internet, and Wireless Security: Everyone's Guide to Email, Internet, and Wireless Security. New York: Syngress
Khosrowpour M. (2006). Emerging Trends and Challenges in Information Technology Management: 2006 Information Resources Management Association International Conference, Washington, DC, USA, May 21-24, 2006 Volume 1. Washington: Idea Group Inc. (IGI)
Kim, D. & Solomon, M. (2010). Fundamentals of Information Systems Security. New York: Jones & Bartlett Learning
Computer clustering involves the use of multiple computers, typically personal computers (PCs) or UNIX workstations, multiple storage devices, and redundant interconnections, to form what appears to users as a single integrated system (Cluster computing). Clustering has been available since the 1980s when it was used in Digital Equipment Corp's VMS systems. Today, virtually all leading hardware and software companies including Microsoft, Sun Microsystems, Hewlett Packard and IM offer clustering technology. This paper describes why and how clustering is commonly used for parallel processing, batch processing, load balancing and high availability.
Despite some challenges such as achieving transparency, mitigating network latency and the split-brain problem, clustering has proven to be a huge success for bringing scale and availability to computing applications. Hungry for even more efficient resource use, IT departments are now turning their eye on the next evolution of clustering called grid computing.
Parallel processing is the processing of program…
Beowulf clusters compared to Base One's batch job servers Retrieved May 2, 2004 from Web site: http://www.boic.com/beowulf.htm
Burleson, D. Requirements for parallel clusters. Retrieved May 1, 2004 from Web site: http://www.fast-track.cc/teas_ft_rac07.htm
Cluster computing. Retrieved May 1, 2004 from Web site: http://search390.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,sid10_gci762034,00.html
D'Souza, Marco (2001, April 13). Meeting high-availability through clustering. ZDNet. Retrieved May 2, 2004 from Web site: http://www.zdnetindia.com/biztech/services/whitepapers/stories/19538.html
In setting this plan for implementation and maintenance the ultimate goal for the district within the next five years is the creation of a student-to-computer ratio of 1-1 in grades 3-12 and 3-1 for grades K-2 in accordance with developmental studies for the utilization of technology in lesson and course plans for each respective grade. Computers will be updated on an annual basis, with replacement being taken into consideration every four years. In order to maintain cost-effectiveness, leasing programs and low-cost computer programs will allow students and teachers the capacity to access more applications and content which is relevant to consumers but nearly unaffordable in many educational systems. Low-cost computer programs such as the One Laptop per Child Foundation have been developed in order to aggressively place computers in the hands of hundreds of millions of children around the world, the United States included, in order to aid students in…
Aliasgari, M. Mojdehavar, N. And Riahinia, F. (2010). Computer-assisted instruction and student attitudes toward learning mathematics. Education, Business, and Society, 3.1: pp. 6. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Ames, M. And Warschauer, M. (2010). Can one laptop per child save the world's poor?
Journal of International Affairs, 64.1: pp. 33-55. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Carman, E., Lewis, C., Murphy, K. And Richards, J. (2005). Strengthening educational technology in schools and in pre-service teacher education: a practitioner-faculty collaborative process. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13.1: pp. 125-140. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
" But these close connections cannot be developed over the phone alone. It is important that a person stays in close personal contact with friends and family by visiting them often.
Science and technology have not only affected our daily lives, they have significantly altered our social systems as well. We are not investing in our societies and communities as our forefathers used to. For example, if we have a disabled person living in the neighborhood, we would be all too happy to have social services take care of him, instead of visiting him and checking on him personally. But there are studies that would argue against this claim. There are some new researches that came to the conclusion that with increased use of Internet and technologies, social contacts increased and social circle expanded for most people. "Because interpersonal communication dominates Internet use, using the Internet could have positive social…
1) Emma Young. Close friends make longer life more likely
16 June 2005 NewScientist.com news service http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn7528
2) Kraut, Kiesler. The Social Impact of Internet use. Science Briefs. 2003. http://homenet.hcii.cs.cmu.edu/progress/kraut03-SocialImpactOfInternetUse.pdf.
3) Bill Ritchie. (2006) Satisfaction Guaranteed. Multnoma.
The information collected through these observations would then be documented and organized in ways that support the understanding of the underlying phenomena (Wolff, 2012).
Throughout history, scientific revolution has always centered on investigations that are conducted and developed through various observations. This process of investigation or observation has also included the review of existing scientific beliefs or practices. According to Francis Bacon, scientific revolution begins from existing evidence and gradually proceeds from specific observations to provisional generalizations or theories. The process is then cautiously repeated to establish some general truths that can be the basis of people's beliefs.
The scientific investigations that form the nature of scientific revolution are also based on observations that are directed by theory. ather than the mere collection and tabulation of data, scientific observations are in the form of hypotheses, which are also known as experiments. This is largely because experiments help in approving or…
Wolff, R.P. (2012). Philosophy of science. In About philosophy. Pearson Education, Inc.
Computer and Web Ethics
The term "computer ethics," as coined by Walter Maner in the 1970s, refers to a field of study that examines "ethical problems aggravated, transformed, or created by computer technology" (Maner, 1980). Maner suggested that persons engaged in computer-related actions should apply traditional ethical frameworks, such as Kantianism and Utilitarianism, to govern their decision-making. While Immanuel Kant's virtue ethics are rooted in respect for all people and an inherent respect for virtuous character traits -- such as kindness, honesty, patience and humility -- Utilitarianism judges the morality of an action according to "the greatest good for the greatest number" rule (Stanford Encyclopedia, 2011).
Similar to Maner's definition, Deborah Johnson, author of Computer Ethics (1985), defined computer ethics as a study of how computers "pose new versions of standard moral problems and moral dilemmas, exacerbating the old problems, and forcing us to apply ordinary moral norms to uncharted…
Bynum, T. (2006). "Flourishing Ethics," Ethics and Information Technology, 8(4), 157-173.
Gotterbarn, D. (2001). "Informatics and Professional Responsibility," Science and Engineering Ethics, 7(2), 221-30.
Johnson, D. (1985). Computer Ethics, First Edition, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; Second Edition, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1994; Third Edition Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2001.
Maner, W. (1980). Starter Kit in Computer Ethics, Hyde Park, NY: Helvetia Press and the National Information and Resource Center for Teaching Philosophy.
The instructor does sit with the student when he or she is training with the devices the FAA approves for the educational computer training. Sometimes a separate computer is used during this process, but the teacher is able to monitor and control the student's flight as well as plan out every detail for him or her at that particular time (United States Gernal Accounting Office, 1999).
For those that are educators, they too have noticed trends with computer-based training. The convenience of learning on the Web has stretched all the possible barriers that occur locally and globally. When it comes to distance learning, the Internet is used to deliver material to the learner, such as Word documents or PowerPoints. However, in other online environments, this is provided through hypertext, which allows the learner more opportunities to explore the information provided as well as to have much interactivity (Khalifa & Lam,…
Bowman, W.R., Crawford, A.M., & Mehay, S. (2009). An assessment of the effectiveness of computer-based training for newly commissioned surface warfare division officers. Naval Postgraduate School, 119.
Information Design, Inc. (2004). Issues in web-based training. 5.
Khalifa, M., & Lam, R. (2002). Web-based learning: Effects on learning process and outcome. IEEE Transactions on Education, 7.
Kulik, C.-L. C., & Kulik, J.A. (1991). Effectiveness of computer-based: An updated analysis. Computers in human behavior, 20.
The release of fossil fuels has been driving industrial and civic expansion for the past century and a half, and there is therefore a compelling reason to deny such causes: "some corporations whose revenues might be adversely affected by controls on carbon dioxide emissions have also alleged major uncertainties in the science (Oreskes). Just as in the debate over the heliocentric solar system, issues of political and/or economic motive are raised to cloud the science at issue.
hat truly separates the global warming debate from the issues that Galileo dealt with, however, is that there really is hard science at the base of both camps with vastly different interpretations. This has made the contention all the more fierce, and personal accusations only seem more rampant now than during Galileo's trial due to the increased difficulty of a scientific attack. One example of this is Gore's insistence on using Revelle's name…
Coleman, John. "The Amazing Story behind the Global Warming Scam." http://www.kusi.com/weather/colemanscorner/38574742.html
"Gore's Grave New World." http://www.americanthinker.com/printpage/?url=http://www.americanthinker.com/2006/06/gores_grave_new_world.html
Henderson, Mark. "Why Global Warming is Not Natural." http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article516179.ece
Oreskes, Naomis. "Beyond the Ivory Tower: The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change." http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/306/5702/1686.pdf
Many of the results of scientific advancement have become part of the fabric of our humanity. But many of the advancements have also done grave damage to our planet, our traditions, and our social interactions.
In the end, whether scientific progress appears to be a good or an evil depends on what kind of world we want for ourselves, and what sort of control we want to maintain over that world. As long as our objectives are clear to ourselves, as long as the pace and direction of our endeavors remain within our control, and as long as we maintain a sense of awe and mystery in at least some aspect of our lives, science and technology will, as Bishop argues, lead us to a full unfolding of our potential as a species. But if we proceed with murky goals, if we allow the pace and direction of our endeavors…
Bishop, J. Michael. "Enemies of Promise." The Presence of Others: Voices and Images that Call for Response. Eds. Andrea Lunsford and John Ruszciewitz. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2008. Print.
Chorost, Michael. "My Bionic Quest for Bolero." The Presence of Others: Voices and Images that Call for Response. Eds. Andrea Lunsford and John Ruszciewitz. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2008. Print.
Grady, Denise. "Struggling Back from War's Once-Deadly Wounds." The Presence of Others: Voices and Images that Call for Response. Eds. Andrea Lunsford and John Ruszciewitz. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2008. Print.
Shelley, Mary. "Excerpt from Frankenstein." The Presence of Others: Voices and Images that Call for Response. Eds. Andrea Lunsford and John Ruszciewitz. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2008. Print.
Technologies like array tomography also show how the human brain may be best understood as a computer that operates on both electricity and on chemicals. One section of the brain, the cerebral cortex, contains more than 125 trillion synapses. Boyle's (2010) source material from the Stanford School of Medicine notes that the number of synapses in the brain is "roughly equal to the number of stars in 1,500 Milky Way galaxies," (Goldman 2010).
Array tomography as a visualization instrument also reveals advancements in digital imaging as well as nanotechnology. The mouse brain used in initial array tomography experiments was sliced at only 70 nanometers thick (Goldman 2010). Measured at the level of the nanometer,, the layers of the brain that can be cut and then imaged with array tomography are small enough that scientists are able to understand more about how the brain works. Without technologies like array tomography, the…
Boyle, R. (2010). Video: 3-D Image Shows Brain's Circuitry in Highest Resolution Ever. Popular Science. Retrieved online: http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2010-11/video-3-d-brain-image-highlights-neuronal-circuits-highest-resolution-ever
Goldman, B. (2010). New imaging method developed at Stanford reveals stunning details of brain connections. Stanford School of Medicine. Retrieved online: http://med.stanford.edu/ism/2010/november/neuron-imaging.html
Computer assisted learning (CAL), once a novel concept, is a staple in numerous classrooms across the country, from the primary education to the university level. Computer assisted learning offers both students and teachers a daunting and near-limitless education supplement. However, this paper will examine examples where computer assisted learning is more or less effective and why. It will be revealed that computer assisted learning programs that are most effective are the ones which place precedence on interactivity. A particularly successful program, the Interaction Multimedia Computer Assisted Instruction Theory, will be examined carefully in regards to the strategy and concepts used in order to make such a learning program as successful as possible.
Educators and pedagogues have known for years the wealth of benefits that computer assisted learning can offer the student. Certain educational software programs equal a dissemination of difficult concepts and/or an illumination of intricate ideas. For example,…
Azer, S. (2008). Navigating problem-based learning. Marrickville: Elsevier.
Banerjee, A., Duflo, E., & Linden, L. (2004). Computer-assisted learning project with pratham in india.Poverty Action Lab, Retrieved from http://www.povertyactionlab.org/evaluation/computer-assisted-learning-project-pratham-india
Greenhalgh, T. (2001). Computer assisted learning in undergraduate medical education. British Medical Journal, 322(7277), 40-44.
Iskander, M. (2008). Innovative techniques in instruction technology, e-learning. Brooklyn:
Instead, it is seen as an essential tool that can help a variety of organizations to be able to increase their revenues and productivity. (Singh, 2009, pp. 1 -- 10)
At the same time, the use of social software has meant that many corporations have been reaching out to employees. This is because they are seeing how this can help to: improve collaboration and communication. One of the biggest problems that a number of different organizations around the world have faced; is that coordinating their various departments can be challenging. The reason why, is due to the fact that globalization has meant that a number of companies must establish numerous offices around the world. In the past this was problematic, because many organizations had trouble communicating with other offices around the globe from: issues such as differences in the time zones. This made it more challenging to communicate and monitor…
Cook, N. (2008). Enterprise 2.0. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing.
Cross, R. (2004). Breaking the Mold. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Kennedy, M. (2009). Trust in Social Networking. Social Networking Communities and E-Dating Services (pp. 225 -- 238). Hershey, NY: Information Science Reference.
Kerno, S. (2008). Limitations of Communities and Practice. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 15 (1), 69 -- 78.
Such things, however, do not appear impossible given the state of science today.
There is one area of concern that science cannot totally resolve, unless it builds a time machine and can go into the future. That is, what are the total ramifications that result from science's wonders? Albert Einstein did not consider nuclear bombs when coming up with the equation of E=mc2
He considered himself a pacifist, yet encouraged the building of the bomb for fear that the Germans would create it first. He was looking toward the future. As he wrote to physicist Niels Bohr in December 1944, "When the war is over, then there will be in all countries a pursuit of secret war preparations with technological means, which will lead inevitably to preventative wars and to destruction even more terrible than the present destruction of life" (Clark, 2007, pg. 698). Then, close to death he stated:…
Clark, R. Einstein: The Life and Times. New York: Perennial, 2007
Colborn, T., Dumanoski, D. And Myers, JP. Our Stolen Future. New York:Abacus, 1996.
Gallopin, G.C., Funtowicz, S, O'Connor, M., and Ravetz, J. (2001) Science for the 21st century: from social contract to the scientific core. Int. Journal Social Science 168:
Hughes, M. (November 27, 2007). "CU Doctor Works on Breast Cancer Vaccine."
For the SunLife agents to be successful the accumulated experience and knowledge in the company need to be captured, and applied to the sales cycles and ongoing customer relationships. This is another major gap that is in the approach the company is taking with the implementation of Maestro today as well. SunLife is not taking into account the deep expertise and knowledge within the company to streamline and make more efficient the selling process, and as a result the resistance to change on the part of agents just increases over time. They fail to see the value of making any significant shift in how they view new technologies to help them sell more effectively or continually be trusted advisors over time.
SunLife has an exceptionally strong grasp of technologies and their contributions to each aspect of the insurance sales, account management and risk management aspects of the insurance industry. Several…
Bull, C.. (2010). Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system, intermediation and disintermediation: The case of INSG. International Journal of Information Management, 30(1), 94.
Ernst, H., Hoyer, W., Krafft, M., & Krieger, K.. (2011). Customer relationship management and company performance -- the mediating role of new product performance. Academy of Marketing Science. Journal, 39(2), 290-306.
Keller, 1999. The Pitfalls of Meta-Systems and Business Rules. Generali Office Service and Consulting.
Levasseur, R.. (2011). People Skills: Optimizing Team Development and Performance. Interfaces, 41(2), 204-208.
He even goes so far as to claim that if global warming does occur, it will be a positive thing. Higher temperatures would be positive for agriculture and forests. He believes that higher temperatures will actually cause sea levels to drop, and wraps up his interview with the cheery optimism that everyone appreciates warmer weather.
igley isn't quite as upbeat. He points out that because uncertainty is a built in component of the climate models, it is just as likely that the scientists have erred on the side of caution as it is that they have erred on the side of excess. This means that the effects of global warming could be much worse than what the models predict. His overall concern:
I]t's not so much just the temperature changes, but it's the changes in all other aspects of the environment: amounts of precipitation, the ability for vegetation to maintain…
Bailey, Ronald. "Why Meaning?" Reason (Apr. 2004): 10-12.
First Test of Predictions of Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity." Space Daily (15 July 2005): NA. General OneFile. Gale. 27 Nov. 2007 http://find.galegroup.com .
New Observations Confirm Recent Warming of the Tropical Atmosphere." Space Daily (15 Aug. 2005): NA. General OneFile. Gale. 27 Nov. 2007.
Second, a major benefit for many computer programmers is the option of working on a variety of very interesting and challenging projects. Often the projects require months off planning, programming and continual work to get the applications to performing at their highest possible performance levels. Third, many companies now sponsor in-house training and development seminars, with a few even having local universities come in and teach the latest techniques on programming. This is a major time-saver for programmers as it gets them more knowledge to do their jobs, and also make them more valuable in their careers for the long-term. Fourth, programming is a profession that lends itself well to individual achievement and accomplishment. For those programmers who are exceptionally good at their work, they become well-known in their fields and often get promoted. Companies also provide many conveniences to programmers to alleviate time drains on them. Google for example…
Gul Agha (2008). COMPUTING in PERVASIVE CYBERSPACE. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 51(1), 68-70. Retrieved May 14, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1407575171).
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1): 36-42. http://www.proquest.com (Accessed May 16, 2008).
Ryan Blitstein (2 June 2007). Engineers wanted! Will pay very well: WEB 2.0 DEVELOPERS in GREAT DEMAND. Knight Ridder Tribune Business News,1. Retrieved May 16, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Dateline database. (Document ID: 1281144381).
Roxanne E. Christ, Jeanne S. Berges, Shannon C. Trevino. 2007. Social Networking Sites: To Monitor or Not to Monitor Users and Their Content? Intellectual Property & Technology Law Journal 19, no. 7 (July 1): 13-17.
Automative Industry and Computers
How computers (over the years) have affected and changed automotive industry and auto sales.
How computers (over the years) have affected and changed automotive industry and auto sales.
History of Automotive Industry
Time Line of Developing Technologies
Emergence of Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS)
The ole of Computers in Sale and Marketing
How computers (over the years) have affected and changed automotive industry and auto sales.
Current essay is a discussion of the role and impact of computer on manufacturing and sales of autos. To better understand how and why the automotive industry is where it is today, a brief historical background of the automotive industry is offered. The development of the automobile can be tracked back to 1769 when Nicolas Joseph Cugnot of France built the first vehicle, (Olsen 2002). Cugnot is recognized by the British Automobile Club and the Automobile Club de…
Banham, R.(2002). The Ford century, Ford motor company and the innovations that shaped the world. New York: Artisan.
Erjavec, J. (2005) automotive technology, a systems approach (4th Ed.). New York, NY: Thomas Delmar Learning.
Kalpakjian, S. (1995). Manufacturing engineering and technology. Reading, MA:
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc.
Core affect (CA) on the other hand refers to a neurophysiological state which is accessible consciously as very simple and yet nonreflective feeling which forms an integral part of hedonistic as well as arousing values. The hedonistic values are responsible for the feeling of pleasure and displeasure while the arousal feelings are activated by sleep. In the study of affect, it became clear that its core characteristics are many. Some of the characteristics are valence which is the extent, to which an individual feels bad. Arousal, which is the sleep-activated value denoting to the extent to which one feels energized. Affects exists in each and every person without the need of any form of stimulus. Affects is a primitive aspect of every being and is noted to be university as well as ubiquitous. Affect is the center of all human laden events and called in various names as pointed out…
Zhang, P (2011a).Organizational & Business Context
Zhang, P (2011b).Interactive Technologies
Zhang, P (2011c).Physical Engineering
Zhang, P (2011d).Cognitive Psychology & Cognitive Engineering
[...] transaction customers, which represent 30% of U.S. sales, are small and medium size enterprises (about 20%) and home office customers and consumers" (Kraemer, Dedrick and Yamashiro, 2000)
The built-to-order production strategy was implemented to the great success of Dell Computer Corporation as it aided it differentiate itself from competing PC manufacturers. It ensured customers of the highest levels of interest in satisfying their needs and it as such gained their trust. But is also has some limitations in the meaning that it requires more time, implies more costs and forces the organization to "have available specific components as they are needed to fill an incoming order" (Kraemer, Dedrick and Yamashiro, 2000). Then, as it implies a high level of customization, it prevents the company from producing large masses of similar products, which could reduce costs and offer Dell a comparative advantage - process otherwise know as economies…
David, F., 1989, Strategic Management, Columbus: Merrill Publishing Company
Kraemer, K.L., Dedrick, J., Yamashiro, S., 2000, Refining and Extending the Business Model With Information Technology: Dell Computer Corporation, Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations (CRITO), Graduate School of Management and Department of Information and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, California, USA
2008, Official Website of Dell Computer Corporation, http://www.dell.com , lastaccessed on April 11, 2008
Explosive impacts of computer and information technology on business and individuals have generated a need to design and develop new computer and software system to incorporate a rapid growing range of computer applications. Software engineers apply the software engineering principles and techniques to design, evaluate, test and implement software systems to enable computer to perform different applications. Software engineers use systematic and quantified approach to design, evaluate, implement software and provide maintenance for software. In other word, software engineering systems use sound engineering principles to design economical and reliable software for business and individual uses. Typically, software engineering principles are used for the development of software application, which include network distribution, and operating system.
Pimentel, et al. (2009) argue the growing integration of application development into web development has made software engineers to apply the principles of document engineering to assist in enhancing the software specifications. Document engineering is an…
Blei, D.M. & Lafferty, J.D. (2006). Dynamic topic models. Proceedings of the ICML. ICML'06: 113 -- 120.
Clements, P. Bachmann, F. Bass, L. et al. (2009). Documenting Software Architecture.(Second Edition). Software Engineering Institute.
Forward, A. (2002).Software Documentation -- Building and Maintaining Artefacts of Communication. Thesis submitted In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science. University of Ottawa.
Frank, F. (1999). An Associative Documentation Model. University of Berne, Institute of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics (IAM).
Machine Translation, And the Future
Computers are being used in many areas to speed and automate tasks that are tedious or strenuous on human beings. Computers aid us in making our daily lives better in many ways. Computers are being used for a variety of tasks. As the world moves toward a global economy, communication has become a major issue of the agendas of almost any industrialized nation. Machine translation is the growing wave of the future; these machines can translate passages into another language almost instantaneously.
There are some that fear the professional translators will become obsolete in the near future. However, an exploration of the current state of the art and future trends indicated that these fears are unfounded and that the field of Professional translation will enjoy man years of stability and prosperity, reaping the benefits of an expanding global economy.
Austermuhl, F. (2002) The Dysfunctional Family - Remarks on Communication (or a Lack Thereof) within the Translation Community. Presentation. International Feder.Cen.Tr.I. Conference. October 12, 2002. sala Michelangelo,. http://22.214.171.124/abstracts.htm Accessed February, 2003.
Brace, C., Vasconcellos, M. And Miller, L. (1995). MT Users and Usage: Europe and Americas. Paper presented at the Fifth Machine Translation Summit in Luxembourg. July 1995.
Champollion, Y.(2001). Machine translation (MT), and the future of the translation industry. Translation Journal. January 2001 5 (1).
Demos, K. And Fraunfelder, M.(2003) Machine Translation's Past and Future. 2003 Wired.com. Issue 8.05, May, 2000.
The art and science of protection has evolved and transformed over the past decades where new levels of its requirements are in high demand. This structural shift in the needs for protection have also created the environment where stark contrasts between approaches and industry becomes rather evident. These noticeable differences need to be addressed in order to successfully and truly understand how this process can be maximized for effectiveness, efficiency and economics.
The purpose of this essay is to highlight and describe the different requirements, limits of authority, limits of force, material assets, ethics and best practices of three differing and distinct realms of protection. The essay will first examine physical protection be highlighting aspects of its use in the U.S. Federal Government. The essay will then explain information protection highlighted how the U.S. Military uses this type of protection and how it is reflected in their practices.…
Chen, D., & Zhao, H. (2012, March). Data security and privacy protection issues in cloud computing. In Computer Science and Electronics Engineering (ICCSEE), 2012 International Conference on (Vol. 1, pp. 647-651). IEEE.
Gordon, P. (2013). What to Expect when Force Protection Conditions Change. U.S. NAVY.Mil, Navy Public Release, 21 Feb 2013. Retrieved from http://www.navy.mil/submit/display.asp?story_id=72213
Hertig, C. (2001). The Evolving Role of Protection Officers. Security Solutions, 1 Nov, 2001. Retrieved from http://securitysolutions.com/mag/security_evolving_role_protection/
Markon, J. (2014). Can the Federal Protective Service meet new demands for heightened security? The Washington Post, 30 Oct 2014. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/federal-eye/wp/2014/10/30/can-the-federal - protective-service-meet-new-demands-for-heightened-security/
Access to all the tools necessary to succeed academically allows for access to someone 24/7 who can assist in specific needs. There is an online library that has a huge collection available for electronic delivery (immediate) or access to other databases and materials delivered through email or mail; no residency requirement, no commute, and the ability to build unique and individualzed ways of synthesizing the learning experience between classes (Experience the Trident University Advantage, 2011).
This view of aggressively encouraging and utilitzing net centric principles is now no longer a "wish" or nice to; it is clear adirectieve based on research and efficacy, that netcenter operations be made pervasive at the Naval War College, the Naval Academy, and Naval Postgraduate School, just as example. This program paradigm is so perfect for the military, that the top Naval educational peronnel see it as a way to actualize more personnel in a…
Experience the Trident University Advantage. (2011, January). Retrieved January 2011, from Tufts University: http://www.tuiu.edu/why-tui/the-tui-advantage/
Griffiths, P. (2006). The Netcentric Curriculum. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference on Intellectual Capital & Knowledge Management. Santiago, Chile: Pontifica Universidad.
National Research Council. (2000). Nework Centric Naval Douces: A Tramsotopm streguoooooooooo. Washington, DC: Naval Studies Board.
O'Regan, G. (2008). A Brief History of Computing. New York: Springer.
In the same year, the founders started a new company for computer development called the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation. By 1949, this company launched the BINAC or Binary Automatic computer. This computer made use of magnetic tape for the storage of data. Then this company was bought by emington and Corporation and the name was changed to Univac Division of emington and. This company was the organization to bring out UNIVAC which is one of the originals of the type of computers that are used today. (Inventors of the Modern Computer: The ENIAC I Computer - J Presper Eckert and John Mauchly)
1951 - UNIVAC begins to take over the business industries market:
Presper Eckert and John Mauchly set up their company and found their first client in the United States Census Bureau. The population of United States was growing very fast due to the baby boom that was taking place…
Bellis, Mary. "Inventors of the Modern Computer: The Atanasoff-Berry Computer the First
Electronic Computer - John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry." Retrieved at http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa050898.htm . Accessed 6 October, 2005
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Bellis, Mary. "Inventors of the Modern Computer: The Harvard MARK I Computer - Howard
graphics design. Several years ago, I fell in love with the world of computers and was highly fascinated by the potent power that it possessed. I realized however that I was missing a certain satisfaction in my work with the computers. Naturally, I have always adored the concept of art and design. The idea of doing my design using the computer was therefore exhilarating. It came to my attention that I had been missing a particular experience. Holding a piece of paper, and seeing the transformation that comes out of its original and basic size and shape, moving objects around, holding them up and overall acquiring a totally new vantage point as far as the work of design is concerned. I therefore began again to use my hands in executing my designs and employing the computer more often as tool to realizing my basic objective of perfect design work. What…
Michael Friendly (2008). Milestones in the history of thematic cartography, statistical graphics, and data visualization.
R.Stuart, F (2001) Practical Algorithms for 3D Computer Graphics. Massachusetts:A.K Peters Press
Knowledge of e-crime from the perspective of crime science is insufficient in devolution of the problem, which cuts across various sections of social interaction through computers. There is a limitation in the forensic and social / legal exploration of information technology aspects and that is the possible cause of the limitations of the jurisdictions of the computer crime legislation, creating the insufficiency in the fulfillment of its purpose (Tonry 2009 p. 20-350).
The legislation approaches the infringement of the social precepts of technology without any consideration of social remedies. The use of police in regulation of operations is limiting because they may not have the capacity for gauging the extent of computer damage. It is logical considering the sensitivity of pro-social individuals, and their possibility of taking up their responsibilities. Social norms revolve around consideration of others and create a sense of mindfulness and consideration of activities (Humphreys 2007 p.…
'a Comparative Study of Cyberattacks' 2012, Communications of the ACM, 55, 3, pp. 66-73, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 August 2012.
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computer used by the employee has either been compromised physically with a password cracking software (EC-Council,2010;Beaver & McClure,2010) or it has bee compromised remotely with the help of a keylogging software.A keylogger is noted by APWG (2006) as a special crimeware code that is designed with the sole intention of collecting information from the end-user terminal. The stolen information includes every strike of the keyboard which it captures.The most sensitive of the captured information are the user's credentials. Keylogger may also be used to refer to the hardware used for this purpose. The employee's password could also have been shoulder-surfed by his immediate neighbor at the workplace. This could be his coworker who manages to peek and see over his shoulder as he types in sensitive authentication information (password)
Strategy to address the issue as well as the necessary steps for resolving the issue
The strategy for addressing this threat…
Anti-Phising Working Group (2006). Phishing Activity Trends Report
Bem, D and Huebner, E (2007).Computer Forensic Analysis in a Virtual Environment. International Journal of Digital Evidence .Fall 2007, Volume 6 (2)
computers in space science. Specifically, it will look at the roles computers have in current space technology and how they have effected the lives of everyone in the world. Without computer technology, space science would be confined to the ground, and man's imagination. efore large-scale computing was developed, the technologies necessary to design, build, and maintain a space program simply did not exist. Computers have made it possible to explore the moon, stars, and beyond.
Computers in Space Science
Computers play an integral role in the science of space, and without them most of modern space exploration would not be possible. As the NASA report, "Computers at NASA" states, "Since the 1950's, the computer has been the main tool that has enabled scientists and engineers to visualize the next frontier and then make it a reality" (NASA). NASA employs literally thousands of computers throughout the world to monitor, design, and…
Author not Available. "Computers at NASA." NASA. 1994. 29 Oct. 2003. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/news/factsheets/computers.pdf
Barber, Jennifer Lauren. "Close Encounters on Your Desktop." Bright Magazine. 2001. 29 Oct. 2003. http://journalism.medill.northwestern.edu/journalism/magazine/bright/brightlite/peer4.html.
Dubinski, John. "Cosmology." Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics. 26 June 1997. 29 Oct. 2003. http://www.cita.utoronto.ca/webpages/CITA/annrep96/node20.html
Editors. "Hubble's Computers and Automation." HubbleSite. 2003. 29 Oct. 2003. http://hubble.stsci.edu/sci.d.tech/nuts_.and._bolts/spacecraft_systems/#comp
Similar to the suggestions offered by Gahala (2001), rody (1995) identified several traits to be considered when developing a comprehensive professional development program. Among those traits include the reputation of the trainer, the rewards available to the participants, both tangible and intangible, and the support of the administration. Traditional staff development models have required everyone to participate at the same time and in the same location creating problems such as scheduling, travel, space, and funding. intrim (2002) notes that web-delivered staff development allows teachers to log on and participate at the time of day that is best for them and at the pace they are the most comfortable with.
urke (1994) concluded that the use of effective distance education programs for K-12 staff development should be increased to supplement face-to-face in-services due to the positive evaluations of K-12 educators who participated in the electronic distance education in-service programs. However, other…
Bintrim, L. (2002). Redesigning professional development. Educational Leadership, 59
Blumenfeld, P.C., Marx, R.W., Soloway, E. & Krajcik, J. (1996). Learning With Peers:
From Small Group Cooperation to Collaborative Communities. Educational Researcher, 25(8), 37- 40.
Books, J., Cayer, C., Dixon, J., Wood, J. (2001). Action Research Question: What Factors Affect Teachers' Integration of Technology in Elementary Classrooms?
Kinshuk, Liu, ., & Graf, S. (2009). Coping with mismatched courses: Students' behaviour and performance in courses mismatched to their learning styles. Educational echnology Research and Development, 57(6), 739-752. Retrieved from ERIC database.
Kinshuk and Graf first establish the fact that students are often required to learn material that is not adaptive to their preferred learning style. he work then goes on to analyze how an interactive adaptive online/computer aided system could aide these students in allowing individual learning through designs that were more adaptive to learning style preference (i.e. had multiple ways of learning the same material) the work indicates that non-adaptive computer aided designs, i.e. that simply teach with one learning style are not as effective as those which offer students in mismatched courses several ways to learn material.
Sahin, a., Cermik, H., & Dogan, B. (2010). Is it "Writing on Water" or "Strike it Rich?" he experiences…
This work analyses interactive complex group learning tasks through the implementation of computer learning models. The research indicates that the computer model must be structured in a specific way to best aide the student in finding answers to complex learning tasks. The model that was most effective involved task specific step processes organized in a linear way and computer aided scripting (through chat) to help the learner answer enduring questions about the subject and the computer program, with a pre-task orientation to the system by a computer learning aide live in the computer lab, where each student worked independently on his or her own computer.
Wang, S., & Heffernan, N. (2010). Ethical issues in computer-assisted language learning: Perceptions of teachers and learners. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(5), 796-813. Retrieved from ERIC database.
Wang and Heffernan discuss the issue of ethics as it is associated with Computer- Assisted Language Learning (CALL) as it has transitioned from stand alone formats to internet driven interactive learning. The researchers state that there has been a near complete lack of attention paid to online privacy and security in the classroom which could potentially create a demonstrative difficulty for computer aided learners and instructors as well as for the use of internet-based learning systems in general. The researchers seek to let their work serve as a starting point for a serious discussion about these issues, specific to the classroom and the industry of internet-based computer learning in general.
This occurred in 330 BC, and Zoroaster's date would then be 588 BC, and this date we may take to refer to the initial success of his prophetic mission which consisted in the conversion of King Visht-spa when Zoroaster was forty years old. Since he is traditionally said to have lived seventy-seven years, we will not be far wrong in dating him at 628-551 BC. It seems also to be generally agreed that the Prophet's sphere of operation in which his message was proclaimed was ancient Chorasmia -- an area comprising, perhaps, what is now Persian Khorasan, estern Afghanistan, and the Turkmen Republic of the U.S.S.R. (Zaehner, R.C., 1961, 33)."
Ayala's science takes the mitochondrial Eve back even before what we know about Zoroastrianism, but we really have no accurate date of the monotheistic tradition as it arises out of Zoroastrianism, because there are no written artifacts that support its…
Blackwell, Richard J. 1999. Science, Religion and Authority: Lessons from the Galileo Affair. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=29306390.Internet . Accessed 3 November 2008.
Dembski, William and Charles Colson. 2004. The Design Revolution: Answering the Toughest Questions about Intelligent Design. Intervarsity Press, Downers Grove, Il.
Dembski, William and McDowell, Sean. 2008. Understanding Intelligent Design: Everything You Need to Know in Plain Langauge. Harvest House Publishers. Eugene, Oregon. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103534752
science is the supreme form of all knowledge. Is this view reasonable, or does it involve a misunderstanding of science or of knowledge?
The Greeks trumpeted a sound mind and sound body, but even within the sound mind component, there is a clear breakdown: the hard sciences and the cultural sciences. The International Baccalaureate Organization, in its curriculum choice and assessment criteria, establishes firmly that both traditional sciences and cultural sciences constitute knowledge, and a focus solely on and not the other is fraught with misunderstanding.
The IBO uses six criteria to assess progress, and those six domains illustrate clearly that different components make up "knowledge" and the knower cannot only know sciences and expect to have gained "knowledge."
The first domain is building and enforcing students' sense of identity and cultural awareness. One of the greatest challenges today, in times of fierce nationalism bordering on xenophobia, is to truly…
Likewise, a similar study by Desai et al. (2000) that compared traditional lecture format training with CBT found that, "The CBT subjects' overall end-of-training and one-month-after-training performance was significantly better than [the traditional lecture method] subjects' performance" (p. 239).
By sharp contrast, the analysis of the effectiveness of CBT by Bowman et al. (2009) found that the effectiveness of this alternative can be adversely affected by a number of Navy-specific factors, including the pace of operations in some settings, an enormously diverse population that often requires more individualized instruction, and that self-paced formats can actually serve to increase student failure rates. Nevertheless, Dye (2004) emphasizes that the Navy has taken steps to integrate lessons learned and best practices into newly developed CBT curricular offerings, and notes that improvements in the support technologies continue to provide better ways of individualizing computer-based training opportunities in the future. In fact, one of the…
Bowman, W.R., Crawford, a.M. & Mehay, S. (2009, August 24). An assessment of the effectiveness of computer-based training for newly commissioned surface warfare division officers. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School.
Computer-based training. (2009, March). Navy Inspector General report to the Secretary of the Navy. NAVINSGEN computer-based training study.
Desai, M.S., Richards, T. & Eddy, J.P. (2000). A field experiment: Instructor-based training vs.
computer-based training. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 27(4), 239.
STEM does not refer to an abstract and vast area of study, but to the passions and interests of my ten-year-old son, who is so interested in STEM subjects that he finds the pace of learning aimed at most students his age to be tedious and uninteresting. The last thing I want, as a parent, is for him to lose the passion and interest he has in these topics. Instead, I want him in an environment that will nurture that passion, encourage him to satisfy his curiosity, and share his passion with other students.
STEM education is important to my child because he has a passion for innovation. From a very young age he took an interest in creating things. His hobbies have included Legos, building circuits, and computer programming. While traditional math and science courses provide the foundation that students need for success, they fail to offer students the…
Computer technology is continuously improving many aspects in today's world of business. It plays a very important role in the storage and retrieval of information. Among the course of studies from which a student can choose from, a major in Computer Information is important providing further improvements in the role of computer to billions and billions of information.
What can I learn from a Computer Information Major?
A Computer Information Major specializes in developing solutions that concerns information. This includes strategies that can enhance the storage, access, and protection, of diverse types of information. From the Computer Information course, one can have the expertise in finding answers to different information-related problems. The responsibility of handling information issues, whether it concerns storage or access, can be managed by one who majored in Compuer Information
The Future of One Who Majored in Computer Information
Information is the most important element that a…
Science and Technology sounds promising as more and more unprecedented advances in computing, artificial intelligences robotics, genetics, biotechnology and neurosciences are unraveling. The commonly held belief is that technology goes on to make our lives better. Keeping this in mind, many people also believe that it has a positive impact on our aspects of our society. Because of the advents in technologies, there are present significant improvements in the standard of education, transport, and medical care as well. Similar impacts are also noticed in the security and safety arena as well. Even though the computer and science technology has had a positive impact on safety and technology, it has a negative impact as well.
How computers have affected the discipline
Information security is a very crucial operational technique. Before computers were invented, the main mode of security was through manual means. Everything had to be taken care of using the…
Byrne, J., & Marx, G. (2011). Technological innovations in crime prevention and policing. A review of the research on implementation and impact. Journal Of Police Studies, 20(3), 17 -- 40.
European Union,. (2012). Health effects of security scanners for passenger screening (based on X-ray technology) (1st ed.). Brussels: European Union. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/emerging/docs/scenihr_o_036.pdf
Goodman, M. (2012). How technology makes us vulnerable. CNN. Retrieved 5 July 2014, from http://edition.cnn.com/2012/07/29/opinion/goodman-ted-crime/