It is reported by Nortel that it has been indicated by 86% of service providers that there is a high demand for Ethernet services today. The result is that carriers are seeking to fulfill the demand through "upgrading their metro networks to deliver cost-effective Ethernet-based services to their customers." (2009) MPLS is stated to have been invented for the express purpose of "...of solving the problem of bridging multiple disparate protocols such as Frame Reality, ATM and Ethernet." (Nortel, 2009)
MPLS is stated to have "...Over the last few years,...become a widely used packet technology in core networks and has become a common inter-networking technology. " (Nortel, 2009) However, there are key limitations of MPLS 'as it applies to the metro area and specifically issues identified are those connected with "..network complexity, scalability and performance arise when MPLS is applied to the sheer number of network elements required in a metro scenario. With new Ethernet technologies such as Nortel's PBT, Ethernet can be more intelligent and predictable for the metro area networks currently envisioned." (Nortel, 2009)
It is reported that in a Nortel study for a North American service provider interested in delivering Ethernet business services to a medium-sized city that Nortel compared three other vendor's MPLS solutions to its PBT solution and states findings that PBT "...delivered 43 to 82% CAPEX savings as compared to the other solutions in the metro. " (Nortel, 2009) Nortel is stated to have additionally found as follows: (1) Performance monitoring was a challenge with MPLS; (2) Additionally, costly new challenges arose such as: control plane complexity, more CAPEX and OPEX costs, and an MPLS learning curve for carrier operations personnel; (3) With MPLS, a variety of protocols (for traffic engineering and resiliency) must be supported, and must be ubiquitous throughout the metro network, adding to the control plane burden; and (4) The service provider's network operators must learn and understand these protocols, adding to the operations burden. (Nortel, 2009)
The network scales services were stated to have been "more resilient" with PBT and to have furthermore made offering of "more efficient traffic engineering and performed better as it was based on standard interfaces such as ITU Y.1731 and IEEE 802.1ag. These standards represent a major milestone for Ethernet technology because now, for the first time, standardized mechanisms exist to enable critical fault management as well as important performance monitoring and statistics gathering to occur in the network. These tools allow operators to pin-point where and why faults have occurred in the network so they...
PBT is disrupting the industry. MPLS was the only option until this technology was introduced." (Nortel, 2009)
Carrier Ethernet Technologies (2010) Nortel. Online available at: http://www2.nortel.com/go/news_detail.jsp?cat_id=-10061&oid=100212592&locale=en-U.S.
Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series in IP/MPLS Carrier Ethernet Architecture. Intelligent Network Architecture for Carrier Ethernet and Broadband Solutions (2010) Cisco. Online available at: http://www.cisco.com/en/U.S./prod/collateral/switches/ps5718/ps708/product_at_a_glance0900aecd806a09f6.pdf
Higgingbotham, Stacey (2009) Who Needs Femtocelsl If We Have Wi-Fi? 2 Nov 2009. Gigaom. Online available at: http://gigaom.com/2009/11/02/who-needs-femtocells-if-we-have-wi-fi/
Long-Term Evolution (LTE) (2007) Motorola White Paper. Online available at: http://www.motorola.com/staticfiles/Business/Solutions/Industry%20Solutions/Service%20Providers/Wireless%20Operators/LTE/_Document/Static%20Files/6833_MotDoc_New.pdf
Long-Term Evolution (LTE) Motorola White Paper. Online available at: http://www.motorola.com/staticfiles/Business/Solutions/Industry%20Solutions/Service%20Providers/Wireless%20Operators/LTE/_Document/Static%20Files/6833_MotDoc_New.pdf
Measuring Delay, Jitter and Packet Loss with Cisco IOS SAA and RTTMON. Document ID: 24121. Cisco Online available at: http://www.cisco.com/application/pdf/paws/24121/saa.pdf
Measuring Delay, Jitter and Packet Loss with Cisco IOS SAA and RTTMON (2008) Cisco. Online available at: http://www.cisco.com/application/pdf/paws/24121/saa.pdf
Heining, Andrew (2009) Verizon and AT&T's Femtocells Boost Coverage but not without a Catch. 2009 Jan 28. The Christian Science Monitor. Online available at: http://www.csmonitor.com/Innovation/Horizons/2009/0128/verizon-and-atts-femtocells-boost-coverage-but-not-without-a-catch
Yao, Kanhere, and Hassar (2008) An Empirical Study of Bandwidth Predictability in Mobile Computing. International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking archive
Proceedings of the third ACM international workshop on Wireless network testbeds, experimental evaluation and characterization San Francisco, California, USA. SESSION: Metro-area testbed and characterization. 2008.
Ethical Concerns of the Research This research would adhere to the ethical aspect of studies in order to come up with quality information. One of the main ethical aspects of this research would entail integrity. This involves keeping promises and agreement during the administration of questionnaires and execution of interviews. This relates to the maintenance of confidentiality of the information by the population sample with reference to the agreement terms. The
Subtopic 6: Job management and protection; include a serious discussion of security aspects The most commonly leveled criticism of operating systems is the inherent lack of security they have (Funell, 2010). Defining operating systems to have partitioned memory is just the start, as Microsoft learned with their Windows NT platform. Dedicated memory partitions by user account can be hacked and have been (Funell, 2010). The need for greater levels of user
Computer clustering involves the use of multiple computers, typically personal computers (PCs) or UNIX workstations, multiple storage devices, and redundant interconnections, to form what appears to users as a single integrated system (Cluster computing). Clustering has been available since the 1980s when it was used in Digital Equipment Corp's VMS systems. Today, virtually all leading hardware and software companies including Microsoft, Sun Microsystems, Hewlett Packard and IBM offer clustering technology.
Computer and Web Ethics The term "computer ethics," as coined by Walter Maner in the 1970s, refers to a field of study that examines "ethical problems aggravated, transformed, or created by computer technology" (Maner, 1980). Maner suggested that persons engaged in computer-related actions should apply traditional ethical frameworks, such as Kantianism and Utilitarianism, to govern their decision-making. While Immanuel Kant's virtue ethics are rooted in respect for all people and an
Instead, it is seen as an essential tool that can help a variety of organizations to be able to increase their revenues and productivity. (Singh, 2009, pp. 1 -- 10) At the same time, the use of social software has meant that many corporations have been reaching out to employees. This is because they are seeing how this can help to: improve collaboration and communication. One of the biggest problems
His study includes the following; The U.S. government through the executive to provide appropriate leadership to steer the country in the domain of cyber security. The state to conduct immediate risk assessment aimed at neutralizing all the vulnerabilities. The creation of an effective national security strategy as well as the creation of an elaborate national military strategy. Molander (1996) uses a qualitative research approach and methodology .The method used is constructive. The constructive